A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y and Z Special characters and Numerics

This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


See Special Administrative Region.

S/390 storage
Storage arrays and logical volumes (LVOLs) that are connected to S/390 servers. S/390 storage sometimes also includes zSeries storage. See also zSeries storage.

S3 state
A power state where everything in the system is put into a low-power state except for memory.

See Service-for-User-to-Proxy.

See Service-for-User-to-Self.


  1. See Security Association.
  2. See system administrator.
  3. See sensitivity analysis.

See storage accounting area.

SAA communications interface
A programming interface that allows program-to-program communication using the SNA APPC protocols.

See SOAP with attachments API for Java.

See service as a product.

SAA resource recovery interface
A programming interface that provides a consistent application programming interface for applications that make changes to protected system resources.

See software as a service.

SaaS Extension
Software code, database extensions, scripts, or files that are created to customize the base functionality of an IBM Commerce on Cloud service.

SaaS Extensions Support Provider
The individual or organization that is responsible for managing and supporting the SaaS extensions in live IBM Commerce on Cloud environments. A SaaS Extension Support Provider can also be responsible for creating SaaS extensions to customize service applications, or working with developers to create the extensions.

See set asynchronous balanced mode.

See set asynchronous balanced mode extended.

See State Adaptive Choreography Language.

See Society of Automotive Engineers.


  1. See System Authorization Facility.
  2. See store and forward.

safe condition
Any condition having a severity of 0 or 1. Such conditions are ignored if a condition handler is not handling the situation.

safety factor
The time added to a shipping estimate to account for unforeseen circumstances. For example, one day might be added to a delivery date to account for the possibility of encountering bad weather.

safety stock
The minimum inventory level of an item that should always be available at the associated storeroom location.

See SWIFTAlliance Gateway.

SAG MQ connection
An entity within an SAG that encapsulates a WebSphere MQ connection.

See system adapter identification number.

See secure attention key.

See select application license charge.

sale impact
A measure of the effect of a sale or promotion on the demand of a product.

See revenue.

Sales and Distribution (S and D)
An IBM business unit or organization that is responsible for sales and delivery of offerings and services through a specific set of channels to customers within a geographic region.

sales catalog
A section of the master catalog that contains a flexible structure for customer display purposes. Users can have only one master catalog per store, but can have as many sales catalogs as they want. See also master catalog.

sales manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages order processing, ensuring that orders are properly fulfilled, payment is received, and orders are shipped. The sales manager can search for customer orders, view details, manage order information, and create and edit returns. See also operations manager.

SalesOne Solution Finder
A tool used by sales employees to search, sort, and filter the GTS services portfolio based on a client's priorities.

sales organization
An organization that is responsible for sales and distribution of products and services.

sales receipt
A document that contains information about a sales order.

Sales Support Database (SSDB)

sales volume
The number of units of products sold in consumer or business-to-business transactions.


  1. To apply a string of data, either a random string or predefined string, to a password hash to improve security.
  2. Randomly generated data that is inserted into a password or passphrase hash, making those passwords uncommon (and more difficult to hack).

In zFS, a program that examines a zFS aggregate to determine if there are any inconsistencies in the structure of the aggregate.


  1. See standard allowable minutes.
  2. See sequential access method.

Pertaining to communication between entities in the same SNA domain. See also cross-domain.

same origin policy
A policy that ensures that HTML documents or scripts originating from one domain will not be allowed to change a document from another domain. This prevents malicious content from one domain or site from loading into another domain's HTMLs in order to steal data or issue unwelcome transactions.

same-store comparison
A measure of sales growth across stores excluding the impact of newly opened stores.

See Security Assertion Markup Language.

SAML 2.0
See Security Assertion Markup Language.


  1. The data that the product collects for the server.
  2. A group of prospective respondents.

sample code
An example of programming code installed with the software that helps developers understand how the application works.

sampled event
An event that happens when a situation becomes true. Situations sample data at regular intervals. When the situation is true, it opens an event, which is closed automatically when the situation returns to false.

sample line
In RLU, a record that represents data and gives a user's report prototype a more realistic appearance but for which the user does not create data description specifications (DDS).

sample record
The details of a prospective respondent, such as an ID, password, email address, and so on.

sample statistics program (DFHOSTAT)
Batch program supplied with CICS which provides information that is useful in calculating the storage requirements of a CICS Transaction Server system, for example, the sizes of the dynamic storage areas.

sample table
A database table that stores sample records.

sampling program
A reliability program that requires a selected sample of aircraft, including the oldest and youngest aircraft in the fleet, to have maintenance tasks take place at a different threshold and frequency interval than the rest of the fleet.

See service assignment matrix record.


  1. See storage area network.
  2. See system area network.

Describing disks that are physically attached to all nodes in the cluster using Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) connections or using Fibre Channel switches.

See Social Networking and Discovery.


  1. A personal workspace that is used as a staging area for the processing of solution assets.
  2. An area on a file system where a developer can modify and test items in isolation, before returning them to the source control component and sharing them with other developers. A sandbox is a reflection of all or part of a repository workspace on disk.
  3. A personal workspace used to store data values as a separate layer of only new values which can be merged back into the base data when adjustments are complete.

S and D
See Sales and Distribution.

SAN File System console
A web user interface used to remotely monitor and control the SAN File System with any standard web browser. See also administrative server.

sanitary sewer overflow (SSO)
Untreated or partially treated sewage overflows from a sanitary sewer collection system.

In web application security, to clean user input from harmful or hazardous characters, before using it.

sans serif
Type that is characterized by the absence of serifs. See also serif.


  1. See Service Advertising Protocol.
  2. See service access point.

SAP Business Warehouse (SAP BW)
A part of the overall SAP NetWeaver platform that can transform and consolidate business information from various source systems.

See SAP Business Warehouse.

SAP selector
An external identifier for a service access point.


  1. See suspicious activity report.
  2. See store archive.

SAR file format
In WebSphere Commerce, SAR (store archive) is a platform-independent file format that aggregates many files into one. See also store archive.


  1. See Secure Association Service.
  2. See serial-attached SCSI.

SAS connectivity module
A switch that resides in the SPU chassis and manages the connections between the SPUs and their corresponding disk enclosures.

SAS expander
A component that facilitates switchable communication paths between multiple SAS devices.

In CDE, a box on a separator or split bar that is used to increase or decrease the size of a window.

See Simple Authentication and Security Layer.

See Serial Advanced Technology Attachment.

A DB2 database server that is a member of a group of similar DB2 database servers. Each satellite in the group runs the same application and has a similar configuration to support the application. See also DB2 control server.

satellite control server
A DB2 database system that contains the satellite control database, SATCTLDB.

satellite phone
A portable telephone that operates on a satellite network instead of a cell network or traditional wired network. Satellite phones are typically used as world phones because they are not limited to the range of a cell (they have worldwide coverage). See also mobile device, mobile phone.

See shared access transport facility.


  1. The amounts of color and gray in a hue that affect its vividness; that is, a hue with high saturation contains more color and less gray than a hue with low saturation.
  2. The level at which a system no longer operates at its full capacity. See also consumption.


  1. To make a local copy of a file that is attached to a document.
  2. To copy specific objects, libraries, or data by transferring them from main storage or auxiliary storage to media such as optical disc, tape, diskette, or a save file. See also restore, save as.

save area
An area of main storage in which the contents of registers are saved.

save as
To create a new object from an existing object and leave the existing object as it was. See also save.

save conflict
A save conflict occurs when two or more Notes users edit the same document in a Notes database on a server at the same time. The document saved first becomes the main document; subsequent users are prompted to save their changes as responses titled '[Replication or Save Conflict].'

saved search
A set of search criteria that is saved for subsequent use.

saved selection

  1. In Extensions, a set of data configured during an export operation or refresh operation. A user can choose a saved selection and update just the data without reconfiguring the report or export criteria.
  2. In Analyst, a set of data used to save a specific D-cube orientation, including a selection of rows, columns, and pages for later use. The selected items, sort order, and slice of the D-cube are all saved in a named selection.
  3. In Contributor, a dynamic group of items from a dimension or e.List.

saved user ID
The user ID that is acquired when running a setuid program. The saved user ID is the same as the owner of the file that ran. If the file that ran was not setuid, the saved user ID is set to the effective user ID of the parent.

save file

  1. A file allocated in auxiliary storage that can be used to store saved data on disk (without requiring diskettes or tapes), to do I/O operations from a high-level language program, or to receive objects sent through the network. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *FILE.
  2. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an online file allocated on direct access storage for use as interim or short-term storage before off-loading to removable media or permanently deleting.

A named entity that represents the state of data and schemas at a particular point in time within a unit of work.

savepoint level
A distinct scope that is used for reference and for interaction between savepoint-related statements.

save/restore media
The diskette or the tape that the user uses to save and restore the files, folders, or libraries.

save service
A service that validates data. The system invokes the save service after the data from the shared business object is merged and before the changes are saved.

save storage
An operation that copies (sector by sector) all permanent data from configured disk units to tape.

save system authority
A special authority that allows the user to save and restore all objects on the system and free storage of all objects on the system.

save-while-active operation
An operation that the user runs to save objects while application programs that change the objects are running. See also dedicated save operation.

A tape that is generated by the SAVSYS command, on which system data is recorded and saved.

SAW data
See session awareness data.

See Simple API for XML.

See sequential buffering.

See set buffer address.

See single-board computer.

See Single-Byte Command Code Sets Connection.

See single-byte character set.

SBCS data
Data that is associated with a single-byte character set.

A specialized processing board that combines the blade server with the IBM Netezza Database Accelerator card.

A logical storage area that contains one or more chunks that store only BLOB and CLOB data.

See session control.


  1. See Service Component Architecture.
  2. See shared communications area.
  3. See system control area.

See Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

SCA component
A building block of the Service Component Architecture, used to build SCA modules such as mediation modules.

SCA export binding
A concrete definition that specifies the physical mechanism used by a service requester to access an SCA module; for example, using SOAP/HTTP.

SCA export interface
An abstract definition that describes how service requesters access an SCA module.

See framework.

SCA import binding
A concrete definition that specifies the physical mechanism used by an SCA module to access an external service; for example, using SOAP/HTTP.

SCA import interface
An abstract definition that describes how an SCA module accesses a service.

The ability of a system to expand as resources, such as processors, memory, or storage, are added.


  1. Pertaining to the capability of a system to adapt readily to a greater or lesser intensity of use, volume, or demand. For example, a scalable system can efficiently adapt to work with larger or smaller networks performing tasks of varying complexity.
  2. Pertaining to a system's ability to increase its capacity to distribute information or data as demand heightens.

scalable distribution infrastructure (SDI)
A solution that ensures fast and reliable software distribution to large numbers of target computers in a variety of topologies. It enables central management of software distribution, and relies on core services such as Tivoli common agent services, the dynamic content delivery, and device manager service to perform the actual software distribution and federated job management operations.

scalable node
A physical platform that has at least one SMP Expansion Module. Additional attributes are assigned to a physical platform when it is a scalable node. These additional attributes record the number of SMP Expansion Modules, SMP Expansion Ports, and RXE Expansion ports on the physical chassis.

scalable object
An IBM Director managed object that is used with Scalable Systems Manager. Scalable objects include scalable nodes, scalable systems, scalable partitions, and remote I/O enclosures that are attached to scalable nodes.

Scalable Parallel 2 (SP2)
IBM's parallel UNIX system: effectively parallel AIX systems on a high-speed network.

scalable partition
An IBM Director managed object that defines the scalable nodes that can run a single image of the operating system. A scalable partition has a single, continuous memory space and access to all associated adapters. A scalable partition is the logical equivalent of a physical platform. Scalable partitions are associated with scalable systems and comprise only the scalable nodes from their associated scalable systems.

scalable system
An IBM Director managed object that consists of scalable nodes and the scalable partitions that are composed of the scalable nodes in the scalable system. When a scalable system contains two or more scalable nodes, the servers that they represent must be interconnected through their SMP Expansion Modules to make a multinode configuration, for example, a 16-way xSeries 455 server made from four scalable nodes.


  1. Pertaining to a single data item.
  2. An arithmetic object, an enumerated object, or a pointer to an object.
  3. A quantity characterized by a single value. See also array, vector.
  4. A type of program object that contains either string or numeric data. It provides the byte string it is mapped to with representation and operational characteristics. See also pointer.

scalar expression
An expression without a set function.

scalar fullselect
A fullselect that returns a single value: one row of data that consists of exactly one column. See also fullselect.

scalar function
An SQL function that optionally accepts arguments and that returns a single scalar value each time that it is invoked. A scalar function can be referenced in an SQL statement wherever an expression is valid. See also function, routine.

scalar instruction
An instruction, such as a load, store, arithmetic, or logical instruction, that operates on a scalar. See also vector instruction.

scalar type

  1. In ADA programming, a type in which values are ordered. However, neither an object nor a value of a scalar type have components.
  2. A type that defines a variable containing a single value at run time.


  1. To increase platform (or system) capacity by adding more application or service instances
  2. To enlarge an image or marker.
  3. The number and progression of ticks along a vertical or horizontal axis.
  4. In the GDDM function, the number and progression of ticks along a vertical or horizontal axis.
  5. The magnitude of a stored number. Storing numbers with precision and scale allows a wide range of numbers to be stored in the same amount of space, but large numbers are not stored as exact integers.
  6. The number of digits in the fractional part of a number.
  7. The increments of measure used by the nroff and troff commands. All supported scales are converted for the typesetter into a scale called machine units (u).

scale factor

  1. A number that indicates the position of the decimal point in a real number.
  2. A number used as a multiplier in scaling.

scale line
In Query, a line at the top of a report that shows column positions.

Scale Out Backup and Restore (SOBAR)
A specialized mechanism for data protection against disaster only for GPFS file systems that are managed by Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM).

Scale out File Service (SoFS)
A highly-scalable, grid-based network-attached storage (NAS) solution. It is based on the General Parallel File System (GPFS).


  1. In GL, the action of uniformly stretching a primitive along an axis.
  2. In programming, the process of indicating the number of digit positions in object code to be occupied by the fractional portion of a fixed-point or floating-point constant.
  3. A process by which an image is reduced or enlarged in size to fit a given area on the display.
  4. In computer graphics, the process of enlarging or reducing all or part of a display image by multiplying the coordinates of the image by a constant value.

scaling factor

  1. The throughput of a workload on a multiprocessor divided by the throughput of that workload on a comparable uniprocessor (not on a single-processor SMP system).
  2. The conversion factor from output engineering units to user-specified units.

scaling ratio

  1. In FOCA, the ratio of horizontal to vertical scaling of the graphic characters.
  2. In architecture, the ratio of an image-object-area size to its image-presentation-space size.

SCA module
A module with interfaces that conforms to the Service Component Architecture (SCA).


  1. The process of AppScan exploring and testing an application and providing the results.
  2. To systematically search a computer or a network for information about hardware, software, or configuration. See also network scan, software scan.
  3. A data collection job that monitors storage usage and file statistics on the resources in an environment.
  4. To examine sequentially, part by part.

scan allowance
A discount offered to the retailer from the manufacturer for a specific product that is sold during a promotion period.

scan attack
An attack in which a host on the network is trying to determine which ports are open on the target host. The host doing the scan may later be the same host that does a more virulent attack.

scan code
Raw input from the keyboard.

scan configuration
A collection of AppScan settings that define the user's application/service, environment, and chosen scan methods.

scan configuration file
A configuration that contains information for scanning commands.

scan conversion
The process of generating pixel information into the frame buffer from an application program.

scan exclusion list
A list of assets, network groups, and CIDR ranges that are ignored by scans.

Scan Expert
An optional function that explores application and network behavior, and recommends configuration changes to optimize scanning.

Scan Expert analysis module
A single check done by Scan Expert during its analysis.

Scan Expert evaluation
Scan Expert's evaluation of the user's configuration.

scan group
A group of agents that share the same configuration parameters, for example the same schedule for discovering distributed software assets.

scan line
A single row of picture elements that are typically arranged horizontally and are scanned sequentially.


  1. An automated security program that searches for software vulnerabilities within web applications.
  2. The software used to gather hardware information and software information from systems and devices.
  3. A device that examines text, graphics, or bar code patterns and generates electrical signals corresponding to the pattern. It sends the signals to a computing device for processing.
  4. For the 3725 communication controller, a processor dedicated to controlling a small number of telecommunication lines. It provides the connection between the line interface coupler hardware and the central control unit.

scanner data
See point-of-sale data.

scanner interface trace
A record of the activity within the communication scanner processor (CSP) for a specified data link between an IBM Communication Controller (including Communications Controller for Linux) and a resource.

scan pattern
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the bit pattern that makes up the individual characters in each character cell (24 rows of 18-bit positions; not all bit positions are used).

scan profile
The configuration information that specifies how and when the assets on a network are scanned for vulnerabilities.

scan rule
A pattern or regular expression that is searched during a scan.

scan schedule
The time and frequency for scans to be run automatically.

scan sharing
The ability of multiple scans to share the same buffer pool content.

scan template
A scan configuration that can be loaded to use for a scan.

scan throttling
The process of slowing down a scan to ensure that its pages in the buffer pool are not purged and remain available for sharing with other scans.

See Security Content Automation Protocol.

SCAP check
A specific configuration check within a Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) checklist. Checks are written in XCCDF and are required to include SCAP enumerations and mappings per the SCAP template.

SCAP checklist
A configuration checklist that is written in a machine readable language (XCCDF). Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) checklists have been submitted to and accepted by the NIST National Checklist Program. They also conform to a SCAP template to ensure compatibility with SCAP products and services.

SCAP content
A repository that consists of security checklist data represented in automated XML formats, vulnerability and product name related enumerations, and mappings between the enumerations.

SCAP enumeration
A list of all known security related software flaws (CVEs), known software configuration issues (CCEs), and standard vendor and product names (CPEs).

SCAP mapping
The interrelationship of enumerations that provides standards-based impact measurements for software flaws and configuration issues.

SCA request
A service request that conforms to the Service Component Architecture (SCA). An SCA module routes the request to a service provider, after having done any additional processing specified by the module.

SCA run time
The server functions that provide support for the Service Component Architecture.

For input and output operations, to read data from a device and locate it in noncontiguous memory addresses. See also gather.

scattered read
A method of reading contiguous data pages from disk to discontiguous portions of memory. See also block-based I/O.

scatter plot
A variation of a line chart in which only the marked points, and not their joining lines, are drawn.


  1. See session control block.
  2. See string control byte.

See Signal Computing bus.

See Standards Council of Canada.

See signaling connection control part.

See source code control system.

SCCS delta
A set of changes made to a source code control system (SCCS) file. Creating a new delta saves only the changes made.

SCCS identification (SID)

  1. The name assigned to a delta.
  2. The number assigned to each version of a program.


  1. See staging configuration directory.
  2. See system contents directory.


  1. A sequence of events that tests business data models for expected or possible outcomes. The models identify exceptional business conditions.
  2. A set of actions representing a business process within the context of a collaboration. Scenarios can be used to partition collaboration logic. For example, if a collaboration handles one type of business object with various possible verbs, the user might develop Create, Update, and Delete scenarios.
  3. An alternative plan or what-if analysis of a possible situation and outcome.
  4. A set of constraints and rules applied to product, store, price, and cost data that is optimized to achieve a particular business objective in terms of profit, revenue, and volume. See also promotion.
  5. A specific sequence of actions that illustrates behaviors. A scenario may be used to illustrate an interaction or the execution of one or more use-case instances. See also use case.
  6. A list of user-defined conditions that can be used to analyze bids.
  7. A formal description of a hypothetical situation in terms of data and parameters.
  8. A real or fictitious use case that can be used to validate the behavior of rules with test suites or simulations. Each scenario contains all the necessary information required for rules to execute properly.

scenario lock
A lock that prevents a scenario that is being edited or solved by one user in a multi-user environment, from being modified by other users. Scenario locks can be released by users who have been granted the rights to do so.

scenario planning data
An isolated set of planning data for a what-if analysis, which is derived from the plan of record.

scenario provider
An object that defines how scenarios are loaded for test suites and simulations.

See security classification guide.


  1. A content repository object that triggers job execution.
  2. A list of the times at which a transit vehicle is expected to arrive at and depart from stops on a route.
  3. The time-based constraints for when events will be matched against a rule or SLC and when they will not. Schedules are also used to tell when to run an automated report.
  4. The work orders on a given route assigned to one or more specific crews.
  5. A database record that describes client operations or administrative commands to be processed. See also administrative command schedule, client schedule.
  6. See job stream.
  7. To request that a task set be started at a particular interval or on occurrence of a specified program interrupt. See also discovery.
  8. A planned process that determines how frequently a situation runs with user-defined start times, stop times, and parameters.

schedule constraint
A limit to set controls on the start and finish dates on project tasks. Available constraints are as soon as possible and finish-no-later-than.

scheduled job

  1. A batch job that is submitted with a value other than *CURRENT for the schedule date and schedule time parameters.
  2. A batch job that becomes eligible to run at a specified date and time.

scheduled metric
A fact that is measured at regular intervals.

scheduled time
The time when a job or job stream is scheduled to run. See also actual start time, earliest start time, latest start time, planned start time.

scheduled work order
A work order that is assigned to a schedule.

schedule hierarchy
A system for organizing, defining, and maintaining retention schedules. Schedule hierarchies have three elements: record classes, master schedules, and local schedules.

schedule performance index (SPI)
An earned value metric that describes the ratio of work performed to work scheduled. A number less than 1 indicates that the project is behind schedule.


  1. A computer program that performs functions such as scheduling, initiation, and termination of jobs.
  2. A Java virtual machine (JVM) service that manages all jobs that are scheduled in the product. The scheduler service administers import and export jobs in the background.
  3. A multithread, multiprocess background server designed to handle the scheduling and launching of jobs, based on a simple timing scheme. See also broadcast job.
  4. A service that provides time-dependent services.

scheduler element
The part of the job control table (JCT) entry that represents one or more dynamic support programs (DSPs) needed for processing of jobs by JES3.

scheduler message block (SMB)
An IMS control block that represents a transaction.

scheduler work area (SWA)
An element of the CICS address space. The SWA is made up of subpools 236 and 237 which contain information about the job and the step itself. Almost anything that appears in the job stream for the step creates some kind of control block in this area.

schedule state
A segment of a business schedule. Examples of schedule states are critical, peak, prime, standard, low impact, off hours, and no service.

schedule variance (SV)
An earned value metric used to describe the difference between the scheduled completion and the actual completion of an activity.

scheduling environment
A list of resource names along with their required states. If an MVS image satisfies all of the requirements in the scheduling environment associated with a given unit of work, then that unit of work can be assigned to that MVS image. If any of the requirements are not satisfied, then that unit of work cannot be assigned to that MVS image.

scheduling intent
An application program attribute that is defined in the program specification block (PSB) and that specifies how the program should be scheduled if multiple programs are contending for scheduling. See also exclusive intent, read access, read-only access, update intent.

scheduling mode
The type of scheduling operation for the server and client node that supports two scheduling modes: client-polling and server-prompted.

scheduling parameter
Information that describes the prioritization characteristics of a thread.

scheduling policy

  1. Information that describes the algorithm that will be used to prioritize threads that are running within the current process or operating system.
  2. An element in the resource policy file that defines the default operating system thread priority and scheduling policy to be used for DB2 engine dispatchable units (EDUs) and can also contain EDU-specific thread priorities. See also engine dispatchable unit, resource policy file.

scheduling priority
A transaction attribute that is used in calculating which transaction is selected for scheduling. See also limit priority, normal priority.

scheduling rule
Business rules that schedule shipping, inventory distribution, and node preferences.


  1. The fields and rules in a repository that comprise a profile.
  2. A group of object classes defined for and applicable to a single namespace.
  3. A complete description of all the entity types, link types, and their associated property types that are available for items within a system.
  4. In Enterprise Service Tools, a logical grouping for user-defined functions, distinct types, triggers, and stored procedures. When an object of one of these types is created, it is assigned to one schema, which is determined by the name of the object. For example, in the service flow project tools, when the developer imports screens, the imported objects are assigned to the .mxsd schema, which is a language for describing XML files that contain schema.
  5. See SQL schema.
  6. In testing, an object source that provides information about services to be tested, and can provide information to infrastructure components and to physical architecture values. Example schemas are WSDL, XSD, DTD, Java DTO, File, and COBOL Copybook. Specialized schemas could be added to a project to synchronize with an asociated external source. Examples of such schemas are TIBCO BW Private Process and Active Enterprise, SAP BAPIs, and webMethods IS schemas.
  7. A specification for the structure and semantics of some related data. The schema is used to validate or otherwise understand a group of data.
  8. A collection of database objects such as tables, views, indexes, or triggers that define a database. A schema provides a logical classification of database objects. See also collection.
  9. See XML schema.

schema document definition
A description or layout of an XML document based on an XML schema.

schema file
An SQL file that is used to determine the structure of a database.

schema repository
A repository that stores schemas and versions of schemas for user databases.

Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung (SNV)
The national standards-setting organization in Switzerland.

See Structured Call Interface.

science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
A curriculum based on the idea of educating students in four specific disciplines — science, technology, engineering and mathematics — in an interdisciplinary and applied approach.

See System for Cross-domain Identity Management.


  1. See source control management.
  2. See storage-class memory.
  3. See shipment container marking.
  4. See software configuration management.


  1. A reference to the applicability of a policy, at the system, user, or machine level.
  2. The effective range of the enablement of a condition, the establishment of a user-generated routine to handle a condition, or both. Scope can be both statically and dynamically defined. See also namespace scope.
  3. The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.
  4. The extent to which the semantic effects of language statements reach. The scope may be to the job or to the activation group.
  5. The range of context in a map for which a variable name, identifier, or declaration is valid or can be used.
  6. The component of a policy expression that describes the class of resources that is subject to the decision of a policy. In the OGSA Policy Service, scope is the policy discipline and policy role.
  7. A named part of the CICSPlex SM environment that qualifies the context of a CICSPlex SM request. The scope can be the CICSplex itself, a CICS system, a CICS system group, or any set of CICS resources that are defined as a logical scope in a CICSPlex SM resource description. See also context.
  8. In web services, a property that identifies the lifetime of the object serving the invocation request.
  9. The full extent of the aspects of a project.
  10. The drawing elements, construction, finishing, 3D values, and attributes that can be stored, plotted, manipulated, and deleted. The scope is typically what appears on the screen and can be limited by set, layers, object functions, and functions that control elements, construction, and finishing.
  11. A specification of the boundary within which system resources can be used.
  12. In the C language, the range within a program in which a declaration is known.
  13. A part of a source program in which an object is defined and recognized.
  14. The people, organizations, and sources of information that might be relevant to a matter. Initially, the scope must be broad enough to ensure that all of the relevant information is preserved. As the discovery process evolves, more precise information allows the attorneys to narrow the scope and to eliminate irrelevant information. See also cull.
  15. The level to which a commitment control definition applies.
  16. In identity management, the set of entities that a policy or an access control item (ACI) can affect.
  17. Information that is used to describe whether the scheduling policy indicates that threads compete directly with other threads within the process or within the system.

scope map
A color-coded dimension map that shows the association of dimensions and levels with each data source and measure in the model.

scope of control
See network management domain.

scope of reference
The portion of a routine or application program where an identifier can be accessed. Three possible scopes exist: local (applies only in a single statement block), modular (applies throughout a single module), and global (applies throughout the entire program). See also global variable, local variable.

scope of work (SOW)
A document or other mechanism that describes the agreed terms and deliverables, such as the aircraft or equipment and work activities that are due on specific dates, for a customer's service request.

scope operation
An operation that has contained data, such as data within .ZIP, .TAR, or .PST files, is hierarchical, and can have many different relationships and connections. Depending on how that data is viewed, it can give a different perception than what is represented.

scope operator
In C++, an operator that defines the scope for the argument on the right: if the left argument is blank, the scope is global; if the left argument is a class name or namespace name, then the scope is within that class or namespace respectively.

scope profile
A profile that defines the users, groups, and profiles that are within the authority of a user.

scope terminator
A variable at the end of a statement.


  1. The restriction of a database object view to a specified subset. Further operations, such as update or retrieve, will affect only the cells in the specified subset. For example, scoping allows users to retrieve or update only the sales data values for the first quarter in the east region, if that is the only data they wish to receive.
  2. A mechanism for controlling multiple sign-ons of the same user ID to one or more CICS regions.

See Solution for Compliance in a Regulated Environment.


  1. The result of a computational analysis. See also match comparison, scoring.
  2. In data mining, to apply a data mining model to new data, such as to perform predictions or segmentations.
  3. In DB2 Text Search and DB2 Net Search Extender, an absolute value of 0 - 1 of type DOUBLE that indicates how well a document meets the search criteria relative to the other found documents. The value indicates the number of matches in the document relative to the size of the document.
  4. In the matching process, the result of a match comparison. See also match comparison, matching.
  5. To apply a predictive model to a data set with the intention of producing a classification or prediction for a new, untested case. See also weight.
  6. A number or ranking that expresses applicability in relation to a standard.

score-based metric
A metric that shows the distribution of business objects in two or three ranges according to the metric values that are calculated for each business object.


  1. A set of measurements on a subject to help to make a business decision. See also scoring strategy.
  2. A preconfigured graphical display of one or more configurable parameters and grades. Scorecards are configured to display key performance indicators meaningful to an organization, to which users can apply parameters and comparisons to deliver immediate, meaningful graphical information through the portal.
  3. A set of chapters and criteria that are assigned weight to evaluate a risk.
  4. A collection of metrics representing the performance of one unit or aspect of an organization.

scorecard property
A property that defines the reasoning strategy and the scoring strategy. Scorecard properties are used together to determine the final score and the reason codes that are displayed.

scorecard structure
The hierarchy of scorecards that reflects how an enterprise organizes its metrics.

The process of computing how closely the attributes for an incoming identity match the attributes of an existing entity. See also score.

scoring annotator
A specific type of UIMA annotator that produces one or more feature scores for each candidate answer.

scoring configuration
A configuration that defines model-specific settings for generating real-time scores, such as input data, processing rules, outputs, logging, etc.

scoring member
A member who can assign scores to RFIs, RFPs and buyer surveys.

scoring observer
An observer who can assign scores to RFIs, RFPs and buyer surveys.

scoring strategy
A strategy to calculate the final score from each of the attribute scores for the overall scorecard. See also scorecard.

See single copy object store.


  1. See System Control Process.
  2. See Secure Copy Protocol.
  3. See service control point.
  4. See secure copy program.

SCPF job
See start-control-program-function job.

SCP program
A client program that implements the SCP protocol.

See sustainable cell rate.

An editor that can be used to experiment and evaluate Java expressions. Workbench users can run, inspect, and display snippets of code in the scrapbook.

The state of a tape volume that is available for general use because it is not assigned. See also nonscratch volume, use attribute.

scratch file
A file, usually used as a work file, that exists temporarily, until the end of the program that uses it.

scratchpad area (SPA)
A work area used in conversational processing to retain information from an application program across executions of the program.

scratch pool
The collection of tape cartridges from which requests for scratch tapes can be satisfied.

scratch processing
The returning of a volume to scratch status once it is no longer in use and has no outstanding release actions pending.

scratch tape
See scratch volume.

scratch tape volume
An unassigned tape volume.

scratch volume
A labeled volume that is either blank or contains no valid data, that is not defined, and that is available for use. See also volume.


  1. The physical surface of a display device upon which information is shown to a user.
  2. See selection.
  3. The display that the user sees when connected to a 3270 application on the host system. A single 3270 application can include many screens, each of which has a purpose within the context of the application.

screen action
In Enterprise Service Tools, information stored in a recorded screen operations file. The stored information represents a particular user interaction with a screen, such as entering text, pressing an AID key, cursor repositioning, and so on. This stored information can be played back, or executed, on the same host screen to automate that user interaction.

screen capture

  1. An XML representation of a host screen, used to create or customize a screen customization or transformation.
  2. An image of an application. Annotated versions use the callout and zooming approaches to focus the user to a specific area.
  3. The storage of a screen display as a text or graphics file on disk.

A remotely shared projection of a user's screen.

screen coordinates
The coordinate system that defines the display screen. In GL, distances are measured in units of pixels, and the origin is in the lower left-hand corner. On most systems the screen size is 1024 pixels high by 1280 pixels wide. The viewport defines the mapping from normalized device coordinates to screen coordinates.

screen customization
A HATS resource with two parts: a set of screen recognition criteria used to match host screens, and a list of actions to be taken when a host screen matches the screen recognition criteria.

Screen Definition Facility (SDF)
An interactive tool used to define and maintain maps, map sets, and partition sets for CICS and BMS applications.

screen design aid (SDA)
A function of an application development program that helps the user design, create, and maintain displays and menus.

Screen Designer
A visual editor that is used to design and modify the content of DDS display files in a graphical format.

screen edit mode
In AFP Utilities, the mode that allows a user to design and edit an overlay.

screen editor
A 3270 terminal service development tool that enables a developer to create and modify recognition profiles for an imported screen and to assign names to the fields on the screen definition.

screened transfer
A type of call transfer in which the transfer of the held party to the third party is completed only if the third party answers the call. See also blind transfer.

screen entry translation object
A translation object that provides a standardized format for entering an EDI document into the Document Editor for translation and transmission to trading partners. The screen entry translation object ensures that users enter all the data necessary to create the required EDI document.

screen file
The result of importing a screen definition from a 3270 application into the 3270 terminal service development workbench. A screen file represents a screen definition. The screen definition contains identifiers such as the number of fields on the screen and the row and column position of fields on the screen. There are multiple screen files per 3270 terminal service project. Each screen file can have multiple recognition profiles assigned to it.

screen flow
A representation of a sequence of user-driven software processes that are presented as a series of graphical user interfaces.

screen-image interface
The part of the Front End Programming Interface that has a buffer with one byte for each screen position.

screen import
The process of importing a screen definition (in its current state) and saving it to a screen file within the 3270 terminal service tools workbench, for the purpose of generating recognition profiles and custom screen records. Use the 3270 terminal service recorder to import screens.


  1. In a document copying machine, a means of imposing a regular pattern of small dots onto the image of the original in order to produce an improved copy.
  2. A workflow that enables the reviewer to screen an entity before executing workflows associated with its disposition phases.

screen interaction
In Enterprise Service Tools, a set of screen actions that make up the total user interaction necessary to process a given screen. A screen interaction is restricted to having a single AID key action.

screen lock
In CDE, a function that locks the workstation screen, barring further input until the valid user password is entered.

screen message editor
In Enterprise Service Tools, a component with which artifacts in the information model that apply to screens or screen maps can be modified.

screen operation
In the service flow project tools of Enterprise Service Tools, an operation that represents all of the possible paths (the allowed user interactions) from a single screen. A screen operation refers to one screen description of a particular state, specifying the screen state, zero to N screen interactions representing the possible user interactions with that screen, and zero to N screen descriptions representing of the potential screen outputs.

screen operations editor
In Enterprise Service Tools, an editor that can be used offline to create operations for each screen description, with associated screen interactions and next screen descriptions.

screen operations file
In Enterprise Service Tools, a file that contains a set of screen operations with no more than one operation corresponding to a given screen description. A screen operations file represents all of the paths (the allowed user interactions) through the screens that are part of a single business function.

screen page
The amount of data displayed, or capable of being displayed, at any one time on the screen of a terminal.

screen reader
A device that renders onscreen text as audible language. See also digital speech synthesizer.

screen recognition
A runtime function that determines the state of a screen and processes the screen in accordance with the identifiers in the recognition profiles. Screen recognition compares the screen as presented by the 3270 application to the defined recognition profiles to determine which screen state applies.

screen recognition criteria
A set of criteria used to determine whether a host screen matches a screen customization and should have that screen customization's actions applied. Screen recognition criteria are also used in the process of recording a macro; in this context they are sometimes called descriptors.

screen saver
A program that, after a specified time period, switches off the workstation display or varies the images that are displayed, thereby prolonging the life of the screen.

screen space
See screen coordinates.

screen state
The set of conditions (at the time the screen was imported from the host) that determine the allowed and required processing on the screen. A screen state operates on input to change the status, cause an action, or result in a particular output screen. A single screen can have multiple states and the allowed user actions for the screen vary depending on which state the screen is in.

screen view
In AFP Utilities, the presentation of a display shown while a user is in screen edit mode.



  1. The logical flow of actions for a 3270 server program.
  2. A series of commands, combined in a file, that carry out a particular function when the file is run. Scripts are interpreted as they are run. See also customer service representative, Tivoli Storage Manager command script.
  3. A collection of graphic symbols used for writing. A script does not correspond one-to-one with either a language or a country. Members of the same linguistic family can use different scripts. For example, the Latin script is used by most western European languages, while the Arabic script is used in Arabic countries as well as in Iran for Farsi and in Pakistan for Urdu.
  4. An exact text for the Customer Service Representative (CSR) to read to a customer regarding transactions. Scripts can be short-hand or prompts to remind a representative to say certain things to a customer at certain points during a call.

scripted OS image
An unattended install action where operating system installation files that are used with some configuration files would install the operating system on the target system using boot server technology.

script file
In the Ada debugger, a file that contains a series of commands that can be used to drive the debugger. Script files are useful for debugging large, complex programs when you may not be able to complete a debugging session in one sitting.

A style of programming that reuses existing components as a base for building applications.

scripting language
A high-level programming, or command, language that is interpreted (translated on the fly) rather than compiled ahead of time. See also JavaScript.

scripting log
A standard output device comprising lines of text written by the programs executing.

script language
A high-level, application-specific scripting language that consists of statements used to develop 3270 scripts. These scripts are part of the interface between a state table and a 3270-based host business application.

A mechanism for adding scripting language fragments to a source file.

script operation
A method in the InfoSphere MDM for PIM Script API.

script package
A compressed file consisting of an executable file and supporting files that are added to pattern topologies to customize the behavior of a cell.

script sandbox
An area in the user interface where scripts and scriptlets can be executed. Scripts run in the script sandbox are run by the application server service.

script template
A pre- or post-provision template that defines an executable script that runs on servers in a cluster when an action is taken on the cluster.

script variable
A memory area in which values can be stored and read inside IBM ILOG Script statements (main , execute , and prepare blocks). See also variable.

The formatter component of DCF. SCRIPT/VS provides capabilities for text formatting and document management, macro processing and symbol substitution, and GML tag recognition and processing.


  1. To move a display image vertically or horizontally to view data that is not otherwise visible in a display screen or window.
  2. To move a slider interface item vertically on a touchscreen. Typically, apps use scroll gestures to move through a screen of content that is longer than the space allowed onscreen at one time.

A property of a cursor that indicates whether the cursor can fetch in a backward direction. See also fetch orientation.

scrollable cursor
A cursor that can be used to fetch in backward and forward directions. See also nonscrollable cursor.

scrollable result set
A result set that is associated with a scrollable cursor that allows the application to fetch rows and to refetch previously fetched rows.

scroll bar
A part of a window that shows a user that more information is available in a particular direction and can be moved into view by using a pointing device or the page keys.

scroll cursor
A cursor that can fetch the next row in a sequence or any of the output rows. See also sequential cursor.

The horizontal or vertical movement of graphic or text information presented on a display screen.

scrolling window
The portion of the presentation space that is mapped to the viewport at any given time. The window can be moved vertically within the presentation space by scrolling. See also presentation space.

scroll preview
A small graphical display of the overall structure of a module, including the current location of the cursor. The scroll preview is displayed when the scroll bar is moved in a module.

scroll region
In AIXwindows, the rectangular portion of a ScrollBar widget that contains two arrows and a slider.

scroll wheel
A disk on a computer mouse, usually located between the mouse buttons, that is used for scrolling.

See subcapacity reporting tool.

The removal from VOB and view storage directories of files that are no longer needed.

An agile software programming method that uses small, self-organizing, cross-functional teams, and iterative, incremental practices. See also Scrum master.


  1. An agile software programming method that uses small, self-organizing, cross-functional teams, and iterative, incremental practices.
  2. A daily, informal meeting between stakeholders in an agile development project. Participants must include a scrum master, the product owner, and the team and might include the product manager and other stakeholders. See also chicken role, daily wash-up, pig role.

Scrum master
The leader of a Scrum team. The Scrum master is dedicated to ensuring that the Scrum team follows Scrum methodologies. The Scrum master does not participate in day-to-day work. See also Scrum.

scrum of scrums
A meeting in which members of smaller scrums can discuss, integrate, and communicate overlapping ideas. A scrum of scrums is a technique used to scale scrums for larger project teams.


  1. See SNA character string.
  2. See Storage Cloud Services.

See Signal Computing System Architecture.

See serving-call session control function.

See Small Computer System Interface.

SCSI adapter
See Small Computer System Interface adapter.

SCSI back-end layer
The layer in a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) network that performs the following functions: controls access to individual storage systems that are managed by the clustered system; receives requests from the virtualization layer, processes them, and sends them to managed disks; and addresses SCSI-3 commands to the storage systems on the storage area network (SAN).

SCSI device
A product, such as a drive or adapter, connected to a host through an I/O interface using the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) protocol. A SCSI device is either an initiator,target, or both. See also Small Computer System Interface.

SCSI Enclosure Services (SES)
A subset of the small computer system interface (SCSI) protocol used to monitor temperature, power, and fan status for enclosure devices.

A standard that defines the protocol used to transfer Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) commands over the transport physical layer of the fibre-channel interface. This standard is published by ANSI as X3.269-1996.

SCSI front-end layer
The layer in a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) network that receives I/O commands from hosts and provides the SCSI-3 interface to hosts. SCSI logical unit numbers (LUNs) are mapped to volumes in this layer as well. Thus, the layer converts SCSI read and write commands that are addressed to LUNs into commands that are addressed to specific volumes.

SCSI host system
A host system that is attached with a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI). These host systems run on operating systems such as UNIX, OS/400, Windows NT, Windows 2000, or Novell NetWare.

A unique identifier assigned to a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) device that is used in protocols on the SCSI to identify or select the device. The number of data bits on the SCSI bus determines the number of available SCSI IDs. A wide interface has 16 bits, with 16 possible IDs.

SCSI initiator
The system component that initiates communications with attached targets.

SCSI target
A device that acts as a subordinate to a SCSI initiator and consists of a set of one or more logical units (LUs), each with an assigned logical unit number (LUN). The LUs on the SCSI target are typically I/O devices.


  1. See special data area.
  2. See statistics data area.
  3. See screen design aid.

See Server Display Control.

See source distributed data manager.

See software-defined environment.

See sequential dependent segment.

See Screen Definition Facility.


  1. See scalable distribution infrastructure.
  2. See sequential data set input.

See software development kit.

See Synchronous Data Link Control.

See service delivery manager.


  1. See software-defined networking.
  2. See subject's distinguished name.


  1. See sequential data set output.
  2. See Service Data Objects.

SDO repository
A database that is used for storing and serving the Web Services Description Language (WSDL) definitions of web services. For example, the WSDL definitions for service integration bus-enabled web services are stored as service data objects in an SDO repository.

See Session Description Protocol.

See synchronous dynamic random access memory.

See software-defined storage.

See shared dynamic storage area.

See spool data set browse.

See System Display and Search Facility.

See small-data-set packing.

See server distributed sync point resource manager.


  1. See start data traffic.
  2. See system dump table.

See service data unit.

See system dump.

See system diagnostic work area.

See sequential data set system printer.

See Support Element.

See shared Ethernet adapter.

To encrypt a record containing several fields in such a way that the fields cannot be modified without either knowledge of the encryption key or leaving evidence of tampering.

To request the display of objects that meet user-specified criteria.

Pertaining to a field that can be searched when looking for candidates of a certain type.

search agent
A utility typically available to candidates through career sites. The utility allows candidates to specify the kinds of positions they are interested in applying to. The search agent will then email the candidates on a specified frequency (typically daily, weekly, or monthly) when new positions become available that match the candidates' criteria.

search application
In enterprise search, a program that processes queries, searches the index, returns the search results, and retrieves the source documents.

search argument

  1. In RPG, a literal or field name specified in factor 1 of certain file operations (such as CHAIN) that identifies the record to be processed.
  2. The conditions specified when searching, consisting of one or several search terms and search parameters.

search cache
A buffer that holds the data and results of previous search requests.

search center
A portlet that enables site users to search for keywords. See also search collection, search service.

search collection

  1. A searchable collection of documents that can span multiple content sources. See also search center, search service.
  2. The set of one or more data sources and the online index that is created after the search engine crawls those sources. See also cluster collection store, seed.

search condition
A criterion for selecting rows from a table. A search condition consists of one or more predicates.

search criteria

  1. Attribute values that are used to retrieve a stored item.
  2. In Information Integrator for Content, specific fields that an administrator defines for a search template that limit or further define choices available to the users.

Search Designer
A Java applet used to create stored searches and search templates.

search engine
A program that accepts a search request and returns a list of documents to the user.

search engine optimization (SEO)
The process of boosting a website's page ranking during a web search, through the use of keyword phrases, backward links, and other optimizing techniques.

search engine session
See natural search session.

search failure
A demonstration that no solution exists under current conditions.

search field
In a DL/I call, a field that is referred to by one or more segment search arguments (SSAs). See also key field.

search form
A data entry window in which a search query is entered.

search handle
For System i Access, a number returned by the system to an application program when the application program requests a search. The search handle is used by the application program to request subsequent searches.

search index
An index of related topics that can be searched or browsed. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *SCHIDX.

search index database
The database files used by document library services for storing descriptive information about documents and folders (such as keywords, subjects, dates, and so forth). These database files are used when a search of the document library is requested on one or more document descriptors.

search index file
A file in which an index is stored in the search engine.

search path

  1. A list of directories searched by the shell when a command path name is not specified.
  2. A list of the libraries provided to a Rational Team Concert build to locate artifacts for the build, including the load library and object library for an i Project on IBM i.

search result
A list of documents that match the search request.

search rules
A set of rules that control how search results are displayed. For example, which products should be searched or how many hits should show up as "top search results."

search server
A server that runs the search (Solr) index and is used for configuring the search-index and search-runtime behavior.

search service
A service that is used to define the configuration parameters for a search collection. A search service can be local, remote, inside the product, or outside the product. See also search center, search collection.

search space
A space that consists of the Cartesian product of the domains of the constrained variables of the problem. See also search strategy, solution space.

search strategy

  1. A named collection of comparison parameter values that override existing or default values and that are used to conduct a search. For example, existing search strategies include standard (default values), broad (values that widen the search), and narrow (values that restrict a search). Administrators can define their own set of comparison parameter values and save them as a search strategy.
  2. A methodical and systematic way of exploring the search space. This is materialized as a data structure that is associated with an object, field, or value of a field. It controls the order in which decisions are made by a search engine. See also goal, search space.

search template

  1. A saved set of attributes that are used to search for items in a catalog or a hierarchy. The search template is used to determine which attributes are visible in the Rich Search panel of the user interface.
  2. A file that, when opened, prompts the user to enter or change values and then displays a list of the documents that meet the search criteria. See also template.
  3. A form, consisting of search criteria designed by an administrator, for a specific type of federated search. The administrator also identifies the users and user groups who can access each search template.

search term association
A preset relationship between terms that lead to additional, different, or replacement product suggestions in search results. Search term associations are used as a product recommendation strategy to increase store sales when customers search for products. Search submissions are modified to increase or target search results.

search term based recommendation
A recommendation that is dynamically delivered based on a the search performed by a user.

search value
User-defined information that is used either to make a list of filed documents with similar document details or content, or to find a directory entry.

search warrant
A written order from a judge for law enforcement officers to conduct a search of a person or persons, a property, or a location, for the purpose of finding and acquiring evidence pertaining to an investigation. See also arrest warrant.

Seascape architecture
A storage system architecture developed by IBM for open-systems servers, and S/390 and zSeries host systems. It provides storage solutions that integrate software, storage management, and technology for disk, tape, and optical storage.


  1. A trend in consumer behavior that is determined by the time of year.
  2. In time series analysis, the evidence of a repetitive, predictable pattern observed in the data. See also time series analysis.

seasonal usage ratio
The ratio of water usage between defined summer and winter months. The seasonal usage ratio can be used in IBM Work Optimization for Water Utilities to identify seasonal water usage trends.

See Systems Engineering Architecture and Test.


  1. See workpoint.
  2. To fit correctly into position.
  3. An installation of a licensed program.

seating capacity
See workpoint.

See Securities and Exchange Commission.

See security mechanism.

secondary access method
An access method that has routines that access an index. Secondary access methods hasten the speed of data retrieval.

secondary application program
An application program that acts as the secondary end of an LU-LU session.

secondary authorization ID
In DB2 for z/OS, an authorization identifier that is associated with a primary authorization ID by an authorization exit routine. See also primary authorization ID.

secondary axis
In the GDDM function, a horizontal or vertical axis drawn parallel to the primary axis and capable of having a title, ticks, and labels different from those of the primary axis. See also primary axis.

secondary cluster caching facility
A standby for the primary cluster caching facility. A secondary cluster caching facility takes over as the primary cluster caching facility if the primary cluster caching facility fails or must be taken offline. See also cluster caching facility, primary cluster caching facility.

secondary console
In a system with multiple consoles, any console other than the master console.

secondary controller
A system used in non-clustered environments that can be used as a process controller, a communications controller, or both.

secondary data set group
In databases, a data set group or groups defined in addition to the primary data set that can improve auxiliary storage use. See also data set group, primary data set group.

secondary device
One of the devices in a dual-copy or remote-copy logical-volume pair that contains a duplicate of the data on the primary device. Unlike the primary device, the secondary device can accept only a limited subset of channel commands. See also primary device.

secondary disk pool
An independent disk pool that defines a collection of directories and libraries and must be associated with a primary disk pool.

secondary domain

  1. A domain that is not the primary domain of a Domino server.
  2. The domain that is defined by the DNS domain database file that a secondary name server has obtained from a master name server.

secondary end of a session
An end of a session that uses secondary protocols. For an LU-LU session, the secondary end of the session is the secondary logical unit (SLU). See also half-session, primary end of a session, secondary logical unit.

secondary file

  1. For certain types of join operations using Query, all files except the first file that are joined in a query definition for the purpose of getting data.
  2. In RPG, any input file other than the primary file.
  3. In the DDS for a join logical file, any physical file, other than the first physical file, that is specified on the JFILE keyword. See also primary file.

secondary GPFS cluster configuration server
In a GPFS cluster, the node chosen to maintain the GPFS cluster configuration data in the event that the primary GPFS cluster configuration server fails or becomes unavailable.

secondary group buffer pool
For a duplexed group buffer pool, the structure that is used to back up changed pages that are written to the primary group buffer pool. No page registration or cross-invalidation occurs using the secondary group buffer pool. The z/OS equivalent is "new structure." See also primary group buffer pool.

secondary group layout
The allocation of the graphic characters of group 2 to the keys of a particular keyboard (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also alternate layer.

secondary HA host
The standby computer that is connected to the HA cluster. The secondary HA host assumes responsibility of the primary HA host if the primary HA host fails.

secondary half-session
In SNA, the half-session that receives the session-activation request. See also primary half-session.

secondary index

  1. In IMS or VSAM, any index used to provide a path for access to a data set other than that provided by the primary keys. See also alternate index.
  2. A nonpartitioning index on a partitioned table. See also nonpartitioned index.

secondary index database
An index that is used to establish accessibility to a physical or logical database by a path that is different from the one provided by the database definition. A secondary index contains an index pointer segment type that is defined in a secondary index database.

secondary instance
The backup copy of the primary instance of a replicated resource group. The secondary instance of the resource group is intended for data backup purposes. See also replicated resource group.

secondary language
One or more additional national languages that can be installed on the system to display and print information. See also primary language.

secondary link
The optical connection between two remote bus adapter cards.

secondary log
A set of one or more log files used to record changes to a database when the primary log is full. See also primary log.

secondary log file
A set of one or more log files that are used to record changes to a database. Storage for these files is allocated as needed when the primary log fills up.

secondary logical unit

  1. A nonhost port through which the user gains access to the services of the network.
  2. In SNA, the logical unit (LU) that contains the secondary half-session for one logical unit-to-logical unit (LU-to-LU) session. See also primary logical unit, secondary end of a session.

secondary logical unit key
A key-encrypting key used to protect a session cryptography key during its transmission to the secondary half-session.

secondary mail server
The on-premises server that the SmartCloud Notes service uses to route mail to on-premises servers when the primary mail server is unavailable.

secondary name server

  1. A name server that gets its domain data from a primary name server by way of a zone transfer.
  2. A Domino server that can stand in for a Notes user's home server to ensure that the Notes Name Service is always available over TCP/IP.

secondary node (SNODE)

  1. The Sterling Connect:Direct node that interacts with the primary node during process execution. See also adjacent node.
  2. A device that acts as the server node if the primary node is unavailable, that is, offline or down.

secondary owner
The co-owner of an opportunity.

secondary partition
A logical partition that has certain dependencies on the primary logical partition, but otherwise is independent from the primary logical partition. For example, a secondary logical partition may be powered off and on, dumped, or installed without affecting other logical partitions.

secondary processing sequence
In a database, the hierarchical order of segment types in a physical or logical database that results automatically when a database is accessed through a secondary index.

secondary program operator application program (SPO)
A program operator application program that is not authorized to receive unsolicited messages. See also primary program operator application program.

secondary referential constraint
The constraint that occurs when a unique constraint or a primary key constraint is added to file that is a parent file in a defined referential constraint relationship. The referential constraint is regarded as secondary processing because the primary request is for the processing of the unique constraint or the primary key constraint.

secondary request
In a multisystem environment, a message inserted into a transaction code destination by an application program. See also primary request, response.

secondary site

  1. The lower priority site for a replicated resource group. See also replicated resource group.
  2. A physical or virtual site that is made up of the hardware, network, and storage resources that support the recovery needs of the primary site. When a failure occurs at the primary site, operations can continue at the secondary site. See also primary site.

secondary space allocation
The amount of additional space requested by the user for a data set when existing space is full. See also primary space allocation.

secondary station
A data station that executes data link control functions as instructed by the primary station. A secondary station interprets received commands and generates responses for transmission. See also primary station.

secondary system name
An alternative system name that can be used to identify a system in a SNADS network. See also primary system name.

secondary system name table
In SNADS, the table containing all the system names that can be used to identify the local system for distributions arriving on the system.

secondary thread
Any thread that is started by, or on behalf of, the application that is not the initial thread. See also initial thread.

secondary vital-record specification
The second retention and movement policy that DFSMSrmm matches to a data set and volume used for disaster recovery and vital records purposes. See also primary vital-record specification, vital record specification.

secondary volume

  1. Pertinent to remote copy, the volume in a relationship that contains a copy of data written by the host application to the primary volume. See also relationship.
  2. A volume which is paired with a primary volume for the purposes of backup.

secondary window
A window that obtains or displays supplemental information that is often related to the objects that appear in a primary window. Dialog boxes and message boxes are secondary windows.

second backup object
The second backup copy of an object, which is stored in the object-backup storage group that is specified as a second, object-backup, storage group. See also object backup-storage group.

second-level destination
The part of a JES2 destination identifier that indicates a remote workstation, special local-route code, or user ID at the target node to which input is to be sent. See also first-level destination.

second-level interrupt handler (SLIH)
A device-dependent routine that handles the processing of an interrupt from a specific adapter. An SLIH is called by the first-level interrupt handler (FLIH) associated with that interrupt level.

secret key
A key that both encrypts and decrypts information. In symmetric cryptography, both communicating parties use a secret key. In asymmetric or public key cryptography, a public key and a private key are used to encrypt and decrypt information.

secret key encryption
See symmetric encryption.

secret question
A question whose answer is known only to the user. A secret question is used as a security feature to verify the identity of a user.


  1. In COBOL, a set of zero, one, or more paragraphs or entries preceded by a section header. Each section consists of a section header and the related section body.
  2. In a VSAM index record, a group of consecutive index entries. The index entries in an index record are divided into approximately as many sections as the square root of the number of entries in order to speed up a search for an entry.
  3. The segment of a plan or package that contains the executable structures for a single SQL statement. See also SQL and XQuery compiler.
  4. In computer graphics, to construct the bounded or unbounded intersecting plane with respect to one or more displayed objects and then to display the intersection. (T)
  5. A named collection of program object components, called elements. Each section is assigned a name in binder control statements.
  6. A defined area on a Notes form that can include fields, objects, layout regions, and text. Sections can be set to display (expand) or hide (collapse).
  7. A unit of code or data produced by the compiler. Sections do not have attributes. See also segment.
  8. A block of keys on a keyboard, mostly with some functional relationship (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). For example, function section, numeric section.
  9. A portion of a double-byte code page that consists of 256 consecutive entries. The first byte of a 2-byte code point is the section identifier. A code-page section is also called a code-page ward in some environments.

section actuals
Runtime statistics gathered during execution of the section for an access plan.

section identifier
See section number.

section number
In architecture, a value that identifies a section.


  1. The smallest amount of information that can be written to or read from a disk or diskette during a single read or write operation.
  2. In disk storage, an addressable subdivision of a track used to record one block of a program or data.

To control who can use and to what extent an object can be used by controlling the authority given to the user.

Secure Association Service (SAS)
An authentication protocol used to communicate securely for the client principal by establishing a secure association between the client and server.

secure attention key (SAK)
A key sequence that ends all processes associated with a terminal to provide a trusted path for secure communication with the TCB. The SAK sequence is Ctrl-x followed by Ctrl-r.

secure auditing facility
A facility of Informix database servers that lets a database system security officer monitor unusual or potentially harmful user activity. Use the onaudit utility to enable auditing of events and to create audit masks. Use the onshowaudit utility to extract audit event data for analysis.

secure chat
A chat that is encrypted. See also secure meeting.

secure copy program (SCP)
See secure shell/secure copy program.

Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)
The secure transfer of computer files between a local and a remote host or between two remote hosts, using the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol.

secured sign-on
An alternative logon to the RACF password that provides enhanced security across a network.

Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
An industry standard for secure credit card and debit card payments over open networks such as the Internet. The SET protocol ensures confidentiality of information, integrity of all transmitted data, authentication of the cardholder and the merchant, and interoperability.

secure file transfer protocol
A network protocol that provides secure file access, file transfer, and file management functionalities over any reliable data stream.

Secure FTP
An FTP protocol that uses Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol.

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
An encryption method in which data is encrypted in a way that is mathematically impossible to reverse. Different data can possibly produce the same hash value, but there is no way to use the hash value to determine the original data.

Secure Hash Algorithm digest (SHA digest)
A character string used to identify a GPFS security key.

Secure Internet Protocol Network
A SWIFT network based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and related technologies.

secure meeting
An online meeting that is encrypted. See also secure chat.

secure/MIME (S/MIME)
A secure version of the MIME protocol that allows users to send encrypted and electronically signed mail messages, even if users have different mail programs.

secure network
A set of nodes that are controlled by a single administrative party. See also nonsecure network.

secure overlay
In architecture, an overlay that can be printed anywhere within the physical printable area. A secure overlay is not affected by an IPDS Define User Area command.

secure point of entry (SPOE)
A security feature a trading partner can use to access a remote node using a proxy relationship. Remote users can use SPOE to submit work to the local Sterling Connect:Direct node without explicitly defining user IDs and passwords in processes. See also user proxy definition.

Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP)
An encrypted version of the RTP packet format used for delivering audio and video data securely over the Internet.

secure remote access
The solution that provides web browser-based single sign-on to all applications from outside the firewall.

secure server
A server that encrypts files that it is sending and decrypts files that it has received to facilitate secure communication with a client.

secure session
A communication session where both parties communicate through previously agreed upon secure protocols.

Secure Shell (SSH)
A network protocol for secure data exchange between two networked devices. The client can use public-key and private-key authentication, or password authentication, to access the remote server.

secure shell/secure copy program (SSH/SCP)
A program that copies files between hosts on a network. It requests passwords or pass phrases if needed for authentication.

secure shell/Secure File Transport Protocol (SSH/SFTP)
An interactive file transfer protocol that performs all operations over an encrypted SSH transport.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
A security protocol that provides communication privacy. With SSL, client/server applications can communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery. See also certificate authority.

Secure Sockets Layer virtual private network (SSL VPN)
A form of VPN that can be used with a standard web browser.

Secure System Command Execution Tool
An authenticated client/server system for running commands remotely and in parallel.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
A government organization, created by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that regulates the financial industry in the US.

Securities Industry Automation Corporation (SIAC)
A subsidiary of the NYSE group and the American Stock Exchange that runs the computer systems and communications networks that power the two exchanges, and disseminate U.S. market data worldwide.

The conversion of assets, such as loans, to securities in order to sell them to investors.


  1. A financial instrument such as an equity, bond, option, warrant, and so on.
  2. The protection of data, system operations, and devices from accidental or intentional ruin, damage, or exposure.

security administrator

  1. An individual who is responsible for managing security within a database.
  2. A programmer who manages, protects, and controls access to sensitive information.
  3. The person who controls access to business data and program functions.

security administrator authority
A special authority that allows a user to add users to the system distribution directory, to create and change user profiles, to add and remove access codes, and to perform office tasks, such as delete documents, folders, and document lists, and change distribution lists for other users.

security and privacy lead
Person with responsibility to ensure that the solution in all its phases complies with all IBM security and privacy standards, ASCA requirements, legal requirements, and moral obligations. He / she is responsible to the PDT and OMT Lead to ensure that security, privacy, ASCA and related requirements are identified and addressed by the solution plans through end-of-life.

security as a service
The delivery of security services through the cloud.

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML, SAML 2.0)

  1. An authentication standard from OASIS that allows a user to authenticate once with a designated identity provider (IdP) and access any server that is partnered with the IdP. Both Notes client and Web client users can make use of SAML-based authentication, which allows them to log in once and have access to multiple Domino web servers and applications, as well as any third-party applications partnered with the IdP.
  2. An XML framework for exchanging authentication and authorization information.
  3. A set of specifications written by the OASIS consortium to describe the secure handling of XML-based request and response messages that contain authorization or authentication information.

Security Association (SA)
A contract between a local key server and a remote key server. This contract protects data exchanges.

security attribute propagation
The transportation of security attributes from one server to another server in an application server configuration.

security audit
A manual or systematic measurable technical assessment of a system or application.

security category

  1. An additional hierarchical security marking.
  2. A non-hierarchical grouping of sensitive information used to control access to data.

security certificate
A certificate containing information used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. The information can include who a certificate belongs to, who issued it, its unique serial number, its valid dates, and its encrypted 'fingerprint’ that is used to verify the contents of the certificate.

security classification

  1. An installation-defined level of security printed on the separator pages of printed output.
  2. In RACF, the use of security categories, a security level, or both, to impose access controls. See also security level.

security classification guide (SCG)
See classification guide.

security compliance check
A type of compliance check that is used to check for a variety of security issues. See also software compliance check.

security constraint
A declaration of how to protect web content, and how to protect data that is communicated between the client and the server.

Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP)
A set of standards that is used to automate, measure, and manage vulnerability and compliance by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

security context

  1. The digitally signed token that identifies a principal, lists the roles and access rights for the principal, and contains information about when the token expires.
  2. For an RMI-IIOP request, information that is used to prescribe what the security characteristics are for a particular operation on an object in an Object Request Broker (ORB).

security definition
In z/OS, a member containing the definitions for one identification label. These definitions include instructions for the overlay name, and the size and origin of paper to be used.

security definitions library
In z/OS, a partitioned data set or a series of concatenated partitioned data sets that contain the security definitions for an entire system.

security dimension
A collection of related values that can be used to label a user according to their role or security clearance, with the aim of affecting their access to information. See also access level, grant level.

security domain
The set of all the servers that are configured with the same user registry realm name.

security DST capability
A dedicated service tools (DST) capability used by a service representative or an experienced system user that provides access to all DST functions.

security enabling interface (SEI)
The IBM MQ interface to which customer-written or vendor-written programs that check authorization, supply a user identifier, or perform authentication must conform.

security entity
Entities used to specify what a user is authorized to do. Security entities include roles and users.

security event
Any network occurrence or activity that may have an impact on the security of the network.

security exit
A channel exit program that is called immediately after the initial data negotiation has completed on channel startup. Security exits normally work in pairs and can be called on both message channels and MQI channels. The primary purpose of the security exit is to enable the message channel agent (MCA) at each end of a channel to authenticate its partner.

security file
A file that defines user access rights to objects and the plan.

security filter
A filter that is defined at a role level to set access permissions for users on particular nodes in a dimension.

security group
A group defined for the purpose of providing access to applications and optionally to collections of data.

security identifier (SID)

  1. An internal ID used within IBM Connections Content Manager and FileNet to reference a user when setting up anonymous access and configuring indexing.
  2. On Windows systems, a supplement to the user ID that identifies the full user account details on the Windows security account manager database where the user is defined.

security incident
An event in which the normal network operations are violated, compromised, or attacked.

security information and event management (SIEM)
A service that consolidates security alerts, events, and data from thousands of devices, endpoints, and applications distributed through a network. It correlates raw data to identify security offenses, detect anomalies, uncover threats and remove false positives.

security intelligence
The advanced analytics, expert analysis, and swift remediation of security risks to safeguard the enterprise from dangerous events and attacks without sacrificing innovation and growth.

security label

  1. A classification of users' access to objects or data rows in a multilevel security environment.
  2. In a trusted computing base, a label used to maintain multiple levels of security on a system. This label is a combination of a security class and a security level. See also identification label.
  3. In label-based access control (LBAC), a database object that can be granted to users and can also be applied to columns and rows in a table to protect the data. Only users who are granted appropriate security labels can access data that is protected by a security label. See also label-based access control, security label component, security policy.
  4. In Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), an installation-defined name that corresponds to a specific RACF security level with a set of security categories.

security label component
In label-based access control, a database object that represents one of the criteria that an organization uses to decide who has access to specific data. See also element, security label.

security level
In RACF, an installation-defined name that is associated with a number in the range 1 through 254. The security level increases as the numbers become higher. See also security classification.

security list
A set of users and user groups matched with permissions or permission groups and optional organization restrictions. It defines who can access an object, action, or feature that contains it, and what they can do once accessed.

security log
A log that maintains a history of administrator login activity generated by the administrative server.

security management
The management discipline that addresses the organization's ability to control access to applications and data that are critical to its success. See also availability management, deployment management, operations and administration.

security manager
A component that is responsible for authenticating user logins.

security manager domain
A CICS domain that handles all the interfaces to the external security manager, for example, RACF.

security mechanism (SECMEC)
A technical tool or technique that is used to implement a security service. A mechanism might operate by itself, or in conjunction with others, to provide a particular service. Examples of security mechanisms include access control lists, cryptography, and digital signatures.

security message
One of the messages, sent by security exits that are called at both ends of a channel, to communicate with each other. The format of a security message is not defined and is determined by the user.

security object
An object such as a user, group, or role that is created for authentication and authorization purposes.

security officer
A person assigned to control all of the security authorizations provided with the system. A security officer can, for example, remove password or resource security or add, change, or remove security information about any system user.

security operations center (SOC)
A centralized enterprise unit that monitors security threats, manages incident reporting, recruits and manages security personnel, develops and documents processes, and leads the strategy for handling emerging threats.

security overlay
An overlay, such as one created by use of Overlay Generation Language, that resides in a secure library and is used to place security resources on a page.

security paper
Specially formulated paper used for negotiable documents, such as checks, which improves the antifraud characteristics of the document.

security parent
A folder configured to propagate permissions to documents contained in the folder.

security permission
Authorization granted to access a system resource.

security policy

  1. In label-based access control, a database object that is associated with one or more tables and that defines how LBAC can be used to protect those tables. The security policy defines what security labels can be used, how the security labels are compared to each other, and whether optional behaviors are used. See also label-based access control, security label.
  2. A set of rules that determine the type of security event an agent detects, the priority of each event, and the way an agent responds to an event.
  3. A set of security templates that apply default security settings as the user adds objects.

Security Policy Index (SPI)
A value that the local systems and remote systems use to identify a particular Security Association (SA).

security profile
A role-based security model that supports classes of service, which have different levels of access to system and repository information.

security provider

  1. A system that performs user authentication. Users and groups can be defined locally (in which case, IBM SPSS Collaboration and Deployment Services itself is the security provider) or derived from a remote directory, such as Windows Active Directory or OpenLDAP.
  2. See authentication provider.

Pertaining to anything that occurs on the system that affects, either positively or negatively, the safety and integrity of the system's processes and data.

security risk
The potential success of a threat and the damage that could ensue.

security role
In Java EE, an abstract logical grouping of users that is defined by the application assembler. When an application is deployed, the roles are mapped to security identities, such as principals or groups, in the operational environment. (Sun)

security role reference
A role that defines the access levels that users have and the specific resources that they can modify at those levels.

security service
A service within a computer system that protect its resources. Access control is an example of a security service.

Security Support Provider Interface (SSI)
The means for networked applications to call one of several security support providers (SSPs) to establish authenticated connections and to exchange data securely over those connections. It is available for use on Windows systems.

security template
A set of security settings that can be applied to a document, folder, or custom object. Security templates are components of security policies. See also template.

security test
An ordered set of authentication realms that is used to protect a resource such as an adapter procedure, an application, or a static URL.

security testing
Testing to determine the security of the software product. (ISTQB) See also functionality testing.

security token

  1. A representation of a set of claims that are made by a client that can include a name, password, identity, key, certificate, group, privilege, and so on. See also user token.
  2. In programming, a string of characters designed as a security device and stored on the computer of authorized users. To log onto the network, the security token may be read directly like a credit card, or it may display a changing number that is typed in as a password.
  3. A token that can be used to represent an authenticated user. Often used when a user task may span multiple processes as in one client accessing multiple server functions.
  4. In RACF, a collection of security information that represents data to be accessed, a user, or a job. A security token contains a user ID, a group ID, a security label, the node of origin, and other information. See also resource token.
  5. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an opaque string of bytes, returned to an LU 6.2 from the Generic Security Service (GSS) application programming interface (API), that must be sent to the partner in order for the authentication process to continue. For example, in Kerberos, the contents of an authentication token would be a ticket and an authenticator; in the DCE the contents would be a ticket, an authenticator, an extended Privilege Attribute Certificate (PAC), and a token-granting ticket for delegation. Because the authentication token is opaque, the LU has no knowledge of the token's contents.

Security Token Service (STS)

  1. A web service that acts as a trusted third party to broker trust relationships between a web service requester and a web service provider according to the WS-Trust protocol.
  2. A web service that is used for issuing and exchanging security tokens.

security trust service chain
A group of module instances that are configured for use together. Each module instance in the chain is called in turn to perform a specific function as part of the overall processing of a request.

See shipper export declaration.

see also entry
A cross-reference from one index entry to additional information. See also see entry.


  1. A component that starts a connector to initiate a crawl. Seeds are added when a search collection is defined. See also search collection.
  2. A value that adds randomness to the creation of pseudorandom numbers.

seed data
Data that is provided by default in the Emptoris application software package.

A database that includes contacts who will receive all mailings from an organization except test mailings and automated mailings.

seedlist page
In WebSphere Portal, an XML page that contains links to the pages that are available on a portal. Crawlers use the seed list to identify the documents to crawl. The seedlist page also contains metadata that is stored with the crawled documents in the enterprise search index.

seed task
Data that is loaded from one database to another database to provide the initial data for integration.

seed URL
A URL that is used as a starting point for the web crawler.

see entry
A cross-reference to a preferred term from obsolete terms, selected synonyms, or terms used by competitive products. See also see also entry.

To position the read/write head of a disk unit or a diskette unit.

seek pointer
A data structure that contains the offset of the current location in a character file or device.


  1. A group of display elements.
  2. A part of a program that can be run without the entire program being in main storage.
  3. A collection of related sessions. The sessions returned from a search executed through the portal can be rendered into a segment.
  4. A section of cable between components or devices. A segment consists of a single patch cable, several patch cables that are connected, or a combination of building cable and patch cables that are connected.
  5. An EDI logical unit of information. EDI segments are made up of data elements and composites. Segments are delimited; their components are separated by a delimiter.
  6. A group of pages that holds a row of a single table.
  7. A portion of a message that can be contained in a buffer.
  8. A period of time in a deployment plan. Deployment plans can group tasks into segments to specify when tasks are run relative to each other.
  9. A set of customers/buyers within a market who have common wants, needs, characteristics and buying behavior. These wants and needs are sufficiently homogeneous that a consistent set of strategies, marketing campaigns and sales tactics can be directed toward them.
  10. A collection of composed text and images, prepared before formatting and included in a document when it is printed. See also page segment.
  11. For TCP/IP, the unit of end-to-end transmission in the TCP. A segment consists of control information and data fields. A segment is transmitted as an IP datagram.
  12. See BIU segment.
  13. Any part of an element as defined by two endpoints, two intersections, or one intersection and one endpoint. The intersections must be formed with real elements, not construction.
  14. In a video presentation, any material with a start and stop frame.
  15. A contiguous area of virtual storage allocated to a job or system task. The size of a segment varies with the system; in VM, for example, a segment is a 64KB area of storage. In other systems, a segment can vary in size from 4KB to 2 to the 28th power bytes.
  16. A unit of code or data produced by the linker and existing only in an executable image of the program. The linker assigns attributes to sections, orders and groups them, and puts them into segments. See also section.
  17. In IMS, the unit of access to a database; for the database system, the smallest amount of data that can be transferred by one IMS operation.
  18. A portion of a profile. The format of each segment is defined by a template.
  19. The information that can be addressed using a single, unique segment-register value (256MB).
  20. A defined section of a linear asset.
  21. One or more contiguous elements of a string.
  22. In the Enhanced X-Windows Toolkit, one or more lines that are drawn but not necessarily connected at the endpoints.


  1. The division of text into distinct lexical units such as words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or lemmas.
  2. A strategy that is used for building complex scorecards. This strategy defines segments or subgroups where a scorecard split might be necessary.
  3. The division of a message that is too large for a queue manager, queue, or application, into a number of smaller physical messages, which are then reassembled by the receiving queue manager or application.
  4. A process by which path control (PC) divides basic information units (BIUs) into smaller units, called BIU segments, to accommodate smaller buffer sizes in adjacent nodes. Both segmentation and segment assembly are optional PC features. The support for either or both is indicated in the BIND request and response.
  5. The process of identifying groups of records with similar values for a target field. The process takes the whole set of records and divides them into subgroups or segments based on characteristics of the records.

segmentation fault
A system-detected error, usually caused by a reference to a memory address that is not valid.

segmentation score
The maximum score of the scorecard when complex reasoning is not used. It is used to tune the contribution factor of a scorecard within the complex scorecard. The segmentation score is a property in a complex scorecard.

segmentation violation
An error caused when a program attempts to access memory not allocated to it.

segment call stack
In architecture, a pushdown list for storing specific current values, either when an attribute or drawing control is pushed onto the stack or when another segment is called.

segment chain
In architecture, a string of segments that defines a picture.

segmented data pool
A data pool that is divided into a fixed number of rows that are assigned to each virtual user during a test.

segmented table space
A table space that is divided into equal-sized groups of pages called segments. Segments are assigned to tables so that rows of different tables are never stored in the same segment. See also universal table space.

A component that divides sequential statements in non-segmented languages, such as Chinese, Japanese, or Korean, into individual components or words.

segment exception condition
In printing, an architecture-provided classification of the errors that can occur in a segment. Segment exception conditions are raised when a segment error is detected. Examples of segment errors are segment format, parameter content, and sequence errors.

segment file
A file that contains all the path segments in a particular configuration segment.

segment flag
The segflag parameter of the fp_open kernel service that indicates whether the path parameter is located in user space or in kernel space.

segment group
A group of segments that are related but not necessarily associated with a database.

segment ID number
One or more numbers used to identify a voice or prompt segment.

In OSI, a function performed by an (N)-entity to map one (N)-service-data-unit into multiple (N)-protocol-data-units.(I) Segmenting is the opposite of reassembly. See also fragmentation.

In COBOL, a user-defined word that classifies sections in the Procedure Division for purposes of segmentation. Segment numbers can contain only the characters 0 through 9. A segment-number can be expressed either as a 1- or 2-digit number.

segment occurrence
In a database, an instance of a segment type. See also segment type.

segment offset
In architecture, a position within a segment, measured in bytes from the beginning of the segment. The beginning of a segment is always at offset zero.

segment prolog
In architecture, the first portion of a segment's data. Prologs are optional. They contain attribute settings and drawing controls.

segment property
In architecture, a segment characteristic used by a drawing process. Examples of segment properties are segment name, segment length, chained, dynamic, highlighted pickable, propagated, and visible.

segment register
A register in the system that holds the actual addresses of the memory segments currently in use.

segment search argument (SSA)
The portion of a DL/I call that identifies a segment or group of segments to be processed. Each SSA contains a segment name and, optionally, one or more command codes, and one or more qualification statements. Multiple SSAs may be required to identify the desired segment. See also qualified segment search argument, unqualified segment search argument.

segment terminator
The character that marks the end of an EDI segment.

segment transform
In architecture, a model transform that is applied to a whole segment.

segment type
In a database, a user-defined category of data. See also segment occurrence.

segregation of duties (SoD)
A conflict of interests that arises after the assignment, to a user, of a specific entitlement that is incompatible with the already assigned entitlements.

See security enabling interface.

A Japanese syllable.

Pertaining to an earthquake.

To highlight a choice so that a subsequent action will use that choice. Selecting does not initiate the action.

select application license charge (SALC)

select cursor
A cursor that is associated with a SELECT statement.

select function
A system function that determines which records from a physical file are to be included in a logical file. See also omit function.


  1. A process whereby a criterion is evaluated against the data or members of a dimension in order to restrict the set of data retrieved. Examples of selections include the top ten salespersons by revenue, data only from the east region, and all products with margins greater than 20 percent. See also condition.
  2. A saved set of items or categories (and all items in those categories), or both (which is a static selection) or a saved search query of items (which is a dynamic selection).

selection-based set
A collection of individual items that the user has explicitly selected. The items or members may be selected from one or more levels of the same hierarchy. See also set.

selection border
The visual border that appears around a control, allowing that control to be moved with the mouse or keyboard.

selection character
A character used to select a choice in a selection list or a selection field.

selection data set
In aggregate backup and recovery processing, a sequential data set or a member of a partitioned data set (PDS) used to define the data sets that compose the input. The selection data set contains any include, exclude, accompany, or allocate lists.

selection entry
In System Manager, an entry that assigns each alert processed by the filter to a group. In this way, many alerts can be grouped into manageable categories.

selection field
A panel element that contains a fixed number of choices in which the user cannot page up or page down.

selection handler
A code module designed to determine the name(s) of the profile sets that should be applied at regen time to a given application. Selection handlers can use any logic needed to make this determination. The output of a selection handler is a String containing the name of a valid profile set.

selection list
In SAA Advanced Common User Access architecture, a set of choices that a user can scroll through to make a selection.

selection priority
See scheduling priority.

selective backup
The process of backing up certain files or directories from a client domain. The files that are backed up are those that are not excluded in the include-exclude list. The files must meet the requirement for serialization in the backup copy group of the management class that is assigned to each file. See also incremental backup.

selective cryptographic session
A cryptographic session in which an application program can specify the request units to be enciphered. See also clear session, cryptographic session, required cryptographic session.

selective data encryption
Data encryption support that enables the logical unit to specify that sensitive data on a session or conversation be encrypted in accordance with the user's request.

selective fallover
An automatically launched function that attempts to selectively move only a resource group that has been affected by an individual resource failure to another node in the cluster.

selective index
A type of generalized-key index that contains keys for only a subset of a table.

selective migration
The process of copying user-selected files from a local file system to server storage and replacing the files with stub files on the local file system. See also demand migration, threshold migration.

selective prompting
A function of the operating system that allows the user to tailor command prompts at a parameter level. See also conditional prompting.

selective recall
The process of copying user-selected files from server storage to a local file system. See also recall, transparent recall.

The probability that any table row will satisfy a predicate.

selectivity function
A function that calculates the percentage of rows that will be returned by a filter function in the WHERE clause of a query. The optimizer uses selectivity information to determine the fastest way to execute an SQL query.

select/omit field
A field in a logical file record format whose value is tested by the system to determine if records including that field are to be used. The test is a comparison with a constant, the contents of another field, a range of values, or a list of values; and the record is either selected or omitted as a result of the test.

select/omit level specifications
Data description specifications coded on the lines following the last key-field specification. These specifications are permitted only in a logical file.


  1. A variable-length string the contains a SQL query.
  2. An identifier for a data item. In the IBM MQ Administration Interface (MQAI), there are two types of selector: a user selector and a system selector.
  3. In Pascal, the term in a CASE statement that, once evaluated, determines which of the possible branches of the CASE statement are processed.
  4. An object associated with a project or step that selects the server where the project or step is run. Properties in the selector determine how the server is selected. Selectors can produce static information such as a server name, or dynamic information, such as specifying a server with designated properties.

selector component
A component that provides a means of interposing a dynamic selection mechanism between the client application and a set of target implementations.

In a standby group, a network setup in which all interfaces participate in connection distribution for load-balancing.

A method that supplies a set of operations so users can create and administer their own accounts, which they can provision into business-to-consumer environments.

To use a checking algorithm that can be applied to each character in a bar code independently to guard against undetected errors.

self-check digit
The far right digit of a self-check field.

self-check field
A field, such as an account number, consisting of a base number and a self-check digit. For data entry applications, the operator-entered self-check number is compared with the self-check number calculated by the system.

self-completion survey
A survey in which the respondent data is gathered without the aid of an interviewer. Respondents complete the questionnaires themselves and return them to the researcher.

To adapt to dynamically changing environments. See also autonomic computing.

self-defining message
An message for which no matching definition exists in the message model. For example, a message coded in XML is self-defining.

self-directed learning
See self-paced learning.

To discover, diagnose, and act to prevent disruptions.

self host

  1. To use a tool while it is being developed before making that tool generally available to customers. Self hosting a tool is a development best practice because it can promote the improvement of product quality and usability.
  2. A tool that is used while it is still being developed. Teams can use a self host to improve the quality and usability of a tool before it is made generally available to customers.

A self-taken picture, generally taken on a mobile device.

Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART)
An interface program that links the system BIOS to the hard disk that is used to detect and predict disk failures.

self-monitoring service
A service that monitors memory and other status conditions and reports them as events.

To tune resources and balance workloads to maximize the use of IT resources.

self-paced learning
An e-learning model in which the student proceeds through the content at their own speed. See also instructor-led learning.

self-paced virtual class (SPVC)
An online course model in which students engage in concepts, tasks, video demonstration, and hands-on exercises for several skills packaged together at their own speed.

To anticipate, detect, identify, and protect against attacks.

self-referencing constraint
A referential constraint that defines a relationship in which a table is a dependent of itself.

self-referencing row
A row that is a parent of itself.

self-referencing table
A table that is both a parent and a dependent table in the same referential constraint.

See registration.

Self-Regulation Organization (SRO)
An industry consortium that is used by the SEC to regulate the financial industry in the U.S.

self-service deployment
A tool that can be used to deploy custom releases and fixes into the IBM Commerce on Cloud environments without the need to open service requests for IBM to deploy the changes.

self-signed certificate
In cryptography, a public key certificate that is signed with its own private key rather than by a certificate authority.

self test
A test that runs automatically after a device is turned on.

self-timed interface (STI)
An interface that has one or more conductors that transmit information serially between two interconnected units without requiring any clock signals to recover the data. The STI performs clock recovery independently on each serial data stream and uses information in the data stream to determine character boundaries and inter-conductor synchronization.


  1. The role that supervises the overall store objectives and management, in addition to tracking the store sales. The seller role is equivalent to a merchant.
  2. An organization that supplies products to enterprises or other buyer organizations.
  3. A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that has access to all WebSphere Commerce Accelerator capabilities. See also expected inventory, expected inventory record.

seller administrator

  1. The seller administrator manages the information for the selling organization. The seller administrator creates and administers the suborganizations within the selling organization and the various users in the selling organization, including the assignment of appropriate business roles.
  2. A seller user with administrative privileges.

seller entitlement
An entitlement, defined by an enterprise, that grants and restricts access to categories in a catalog.

seller entitlement rule
A rule that is created to include or exclude items in the categories that can be assigned to organizations under seller entitlements.

selling, general, and administrative expense (SG)
The sum of operating costs, including direct and indirect selling expenses and all general and administrative expenses of a company, reported on an income statement.

selling catalog
A hierarchy of item groups that are organized to facilitate item sales. Typically, a selling catalog is displayed to customers as an online catalog.

semantic aging
A feature that allows the user to define a set of rules for date aging. For example, a set of rules can be defined to adjust aged dates to result in valid business days. See also age, incremental aging, target aging.

The relationships of characters or groups of characters to their meanings, independent of the manner of their interpretation and use. Semantics is the meaning conveyed by a character string. See also parsing, syntax.

semantic search
A type of keyword search that incorporates linguistic and contextual analysis. In a semantic search, the intent of the query is specified using one or more specifiers. For example, it is possible to specify a person named "Bush" and such a query would then not return results about the kind of bushes that grow in a garden but rather just persons named Bush. See also text analysis.

semantic type

  1. The usage or rules for an item. Base, annotation, and note are semantic types supplied by Content Manager; users can also define their own semantic types. See also item.
  2. A category that defines the real-world meaning of data, and therefore how applications should interpret that data. For example, Person is a semantic type that could be assigned to entity types such as Male, Victim, and Witness. See also entity semantic type, link semantic type, property semantic type.


  1. An indicator used to control access to a file. For example, in a multiuser application, a semaphore is a flag that prevents simultaneous access to a file.
  2. A global flag or label in the system that prevents activities from occurring at the same time. Typically projects or steps that require exclusive use of a resource are set up to obtain a semaphore in order to use it.
  3. An object used by multi-threaded applications for signaling purposes and for controlling access to serially reusable resources. Processes can be locked to a resource with semaphores if the processes follow certain programming conventions.
  4. A protected variable, used in a UNIX environment, that allows multiple program threads to share the same resource, such as file access, but not simultaneously.
  5. In UNIX and Linux systems, a general method of communication between two processes that extends the features of signals.
  6. An entity used to control access to system resources. Processes can be locked to a resource with semaphores if the processes follow certain programming conventions.
  7. A mechanism that is used to synchronize one or more jobs.

semaphore adjustment value
A value associated with a semaphore and applied to the semaphore's value if a process ends while holding resources represented by the semaphore.

semaphore ID (semid)
An integer that points to a set of semaphores and a data structure that contains information about the semaphores.

semaphore set
An interprocess communications mechanism that contains one or more semaphores.

semi-automatic mode
An operating mode in which all deployment requests are automatically generated, and then manually reviewed and approved by an administrator before being executed.

A typeface that is lighter than bold but darker than medium.

In REXX, a token that indicates the end of a clause and is implied by the REXX interpreter in three cases: by the end of a line, by certain keywords, and by a colon if it follows a single symbol.

See semaphore ID.

send depth
In SNADS, the number of items that must be on the distribution queue before any item is sent to the next system.

The object passing a stimulus to a receiver object. See also receiver.

sender bean
In extended messaging, an enterprise bean (stateless session bean) that can be built to send asynchronous messages. A sender bean translates its method invocation into a JMS message, then passes that message to JMS. It can also retrieve a response message, translate that message into a result value, and return it to the caller.

sender channel
In message queuing, a channel that initiates transfers, removes messages from a transmission queue, and moves them over a communication link to a receiver or requester channel.

send exit
A type of channel exit program that is called just before a message channel agent (MCA) issues a communications send to send a unit of data over a communications connection. See also receive exit.

sending cross-domain key
In Cryptographic Support, a cross-domain key used to encrypt a data-encrypting key before it is sent to another location.

In the UNIX operating system, the mail server that uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to route mail from one host to another on the network.

send pacing
In SNA, the pacing of message units that a component is sending. See also receive pacing.

send queue
In Q replication, a WebSphere MQ message queue that is used by a Q Capture program to publish transactions that it has captured. A send queue can be used either for Q replication or event publishing, but not both at the same time.

send time

  1. In SNADS, the values that specify the time that distributions are sent to other locations in a network. The from and to times inclusively specify the range during which distributions can be sent; the force time specifies the time at which distributions are sent regardless of the number of items in the queue.
  2. The moment when something is processed for sending, such as an email message that contains content retrieved from various locations.

sense byte
A byte that contains sense (exception) information.

sense code
A value sent or received, or a negative response to indicate what error occurred.

sense data

  1. In printers, sense information used to indicate the causes of command-stream and device exceptions and to direct the host program to the appropriate exception-recovery actions.
  2. In SNA, data sent with a negative response, indicating the reason for the response.

sense type and model (STM)
Command sent by the operating system to detect the type and model of an attached printer.

sensitive cursor
A cursor whose result table is affected by changes made to a database after the result table has been materialized. See also cursor, cursor sensitivity.

sensitive personal information (SPI)

sensitive resource
A resource that is marked to require a higher level of access.

sensitive segment
A segment type in a database to which an application program is sensitive.


  1. The amount of time by which a threshold-based health indicator must exceed its threshold or the amount of time that a state-based health indicator must be in a non-normal state before an alert is generated.
  2. An IMS capability that ensures that only data segments or fields predefined as sensitive are available for use in a particular application. The sensitivity concept also provides a degree of control over data security, inasmuch as users can be prevented from accessing particular segments or fields by omission of those segments or fields from the logical database. Sensitivity is implemented through the database program communication block (DB PCB).

sensitivity analysis (SA)
A technique that is used to assess the extent to which changes in assumptions or input variables will affect the ranking of alternatives.

sensitivity graph
A graph that displays changes in procurement costs depending on a varying factor.


  1. A device that detects or measures a physical property and then records or otherwise responds to that property, such as vibration, chemicals, radio frequencies, environment, weather, humidity, light, etc.
  2. A device that converts measurable elements of a physical process into data that is meaningful to a computer.
  3. Software that monitors security networks, applications, or systems for security-related information, possibly indicative of suspicious activity.
  4. A WiFi monitoring device that captures ping packets that are sent from any mobile device located nearby. The software sends the ping packet information to the IBM Presence Zones server to calculate the coordination of a batch of specific mobile devices. The ping packet includes the message authentication code (MAC ID) of the mobile device and the signal strength between the sensor and the device.
  5. An interface that exposes information about the state and state transitions of a managed resource. A sensor is used to retrieve data from a managed resource, whereas an effector is used to alter data in a managed resource. See also effector, manageability interface, managed resource, sensor value, touchpoint.
  6. A program that reads information from a managed software system to create configuration information.

sensor value
In a policy-enabled system, a data value that is returned by a sensor and that can be used by a policy. See also sensor.


  1. In COBOL, a sequence of one or more statements, the last of which is stopped by a separator period.
  2. In the vi editor, text that is separated from other text by a. (period), ! (exclamation point), or ? (question mark) followed by two spaces.

See search engine optimization.

separation character
A character that separates or delimits tokens. See also separation list, token.

separation list
The list of separation characters. See also separation character.

separation of duties (SOD)
A principle of organizing complex structures by dividing tasks and responsibilities between the members of an organization in order to prevent any member from having complete control of any transaction from initialization to completion.

separation of duty policy
A set of separation rules that define mutually exclusive relationships among roles.

A punctuation character that separates parts of a command or file, or that delimits character strings.

separator banner
An optional report page that contains information from a recipient's user ID for the purpose of distribution. This particular banner is used to separate individual reports from each other.

separator character
A character that is used to distinguish groups, segments, and fields, and are fixed in the NCPDP Standard.

separator page
An identifying sheet of paper between successive jobs.

A 7-bit byte.


  1. A list of recorded URLs.
  2. A mechanism for keeping rows unique in cases of multiple iterations of other key data fields.
  3. In fibre-channel technology, a group of related frames transmitted in the same direction between two node ports (N_ports).
  4. In the XQuery and XPath data model, an ordered collection of zero or more items. See also XQuery and XPath data model.
  5. A database object that is independent of any one table that automatically generates unique key values based on initial user specifications.
  6. A sequentially ordered flat collection.
  7. A list of items in a data set that tend to occur in a predictable order.
  8. A decision variable that represents a total order over a set of interval variables.
  9. To arrange in order.

sequence activity
One of three types of complex BPML activities that executes a series of child activities in the order in which they are listed.

sequence checking

  1. In RPG, a function that checks the sequence of records in input, update, or combined files used as primary and secondary files.
  2. The process of verifying the order of a set of records relative to some field's collating sequence.

Sequenced Packet Exchange protocol (SPX)
A session-oriented network protocol that provides connection-oriented services between two nodes on the network, and is used primarily by client/server applications. It relies on the Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol, provides flow control and error recovery, and guarantees reliability of the physical network.

sequence error
In Performance Tools, a frame received by the terminal equipment (TE) that contained sequence numbers indicating that frames were lost.

sequence field
The field in a database segment that used to store segment occurrences in sequential ascending order.

sequence flow
A connecting object, represented by a solid graphical line, that shows the order of flow objects in a process or choreography. A sequence flow can cross the boundaries between swimlanes of a pool, but cannot cross the boundaries of a pool. There are two types of sequence flows: exception flow and normal flow. See also flow, human service.

sequence grouping
The specification of the order in which entity beans update relational database tables.

sequence job
A job that runs other jobs in a specified order.

sequence line
An element that controls the sequence of activities and events during process execution.

sequence number

  1. A field in a journal entry that contains a number assigned by the system. This number is initially 1 and is increased until the journal is changed or the sequence number is reset by the user.
  2. In communications, a number assigned to a particular frame or packet to control the transmission flow and receipt of data.
  3. A numerical value assigned by VTAM to each message exchanged between two nodes. The value (one for messages sent from the application program to the logical unit and another for messages sent from the logical unit to the application program) increases by one for each successive message transmitted unless it is reset by the application program with a set and test sequence numbers (STSN) indicator.
  4. The number of a record that identifies the record within the source member.
  5. A 2-byte field in the structured field introducer that identifies the position of the structured field in the data set.
  6. A number assigned to each message exchanged between two nodes. The number is increased by one for each successive message. It starts from zero each time a new session is established.

sequence number wrap value
In IBM MQ, a method of ensuring that both ends of a communication link reset their current message sequence numbers at the same time. Transmitting messages with a sequence number ensures that the receiving channel can reestablish the message sequence when storing the messages.

sequence page
A page in the settings of a composite project that allows the user to specify the order in which projects are built.

sequence set
The lowest level of the index of a key-sequenced data set (KSDS); it gives the locations of the control intervals in the data set and orders them by the key sequence of the data records they contain. The sequence set and the index set together comprise the index. See also index set.

sequence type
A data type that can be expressed by using the SequenceType syntax, which describes the type of an XQuery value. Sequence types are used to refer to a data type in an XQuery expression.

sequencing time
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the amount of time it takes for the printer to become ready to print after being idle.

sequential access

  1. A mode of accessing data on a medium in a manner that requires the storage device to access consecutive storage locations on the medium.
  2. The process of referring to records one after another in the order in which they appear on the file.
  3. The retrieval or storage of a VSAM or SAM data record in either its physical order or its collating sequence relative to the previously retrieved or previously stored record.

sequential access method (SAM)
An access method for storing, deleting, or retrieving data in a continuous sequence based on the logical order of the records in the file.

sequential baseline
See baseline.

sequential baseline position
In architecture, the current addressable position for a baseline in a presentation space or on a physical medium. See also baseline coordinate.

sequential buffering (SB)
Efficient sequential input buffering techniques that reduce the elapsed time required to sequentially process large IMS OSAM databases.

sequential-by-key processing
A method of processing indexed files in which records are read or written in the order of the key field in the record.

sequential concatenation
The allocation of sequential data sets, partitioned data set (PDS) members, partitioned data set extended (PDSE) members, UNIX files, or any combination of these such that the system retrieves them as a single, sequential, data set. See also data set concatenation.

sequential cursor
A cursor that can fetch only the next row in sequence and can read through a table only once each time the cursor is opened. See also scroll cursor.

sequential data set
A data set whose records are organized based on their successive physical positions, such as on magnetic tape. See also direct data set, partitioned data set.

sequential data set input (SDI)
A batch utility used to import messages from a sequential data set or a tape into MERVA ESA queues.

sequential data set output (SDO)
A batch utility used to export messages from a MERVA ESA queue to a sequential data set or a tape.

sequential data set system printer (SDY)
A batch utility used to print messages from a MERVA ESA queue.

sequential data striping
A software implementation of the striping of a disk array that distributes data sets across multiple volumes to improve performance.

sequential dependent segment (SDEP)
A segment of a data entry database that is chained off the root segment and inserted (last-in first-out) into the last part of a DEDB area. After being inserted by an online program, the SDEP cannot be modified. See also data entry database.

sequential file

  1. For Network File System (NFS), a type of MVS file that has its records stored and retrieved according to their physical order within the file. It must be on a direct access volume.
  2. See sequential data set.

sequential file access
The location of a range of records through key values and the subsequent processing of them in some order related to those key values. The index of the file need not be unique.

sequential function
A function that specifies a column value in a column map by returning a number that is incremented sequentially by the step value based on the start value.

sequential millisecond response
A parameter specified in the definition of a storage management subsystem (SMS) storage class indicating the desired response time to read the next 4-KB block of a data entity assuming the prior 4-KB block has been read.

sequential mode
A rule execution mode for stateless pattern-matching. With this mode, rules can be processed sequentially, which can improve the speed of rule processing in specific cases. The sequential mode can be selected for individual tasks in a rule flow.

sequential organization
In COBOL, the permanent logical file structure in which a record is identified by a predecessor-successor relationship that is established when the record is placed into the file.

sequential prefetch
A mechanism that triggers consecutive asynchronous I/O operations. Pages are fetched before they are required, and several pages are read by using a single I/O operation.

sequential processing
A method of processing in which records are read, written to, or deleted in the order determined by the value of the key field. See also consecutive processing, random processing.

sequential read
A set of several consecutive blocks that are read with a single read I/O operation. Sequential reads are issued by the sequential buffering (SB) component of IMS in order to reduce the elapsed time required to sequentially process large IMS overflow sequential access method (OSAM) databases.

sequential stage group
The number of tracks that are obtained in advance for a sequential operation.

sequential tender
A tendering method that allows a shipper to tender a shipment to a list of carriers one at a time. In sequential tendering, a shipment is made available to the first carrier in the group for a set period of time. If the first carrier fails to respond within the allotted time or declines the tender, the shipment is tendered to the next shipper in the list for the same period of time. The process is repeated until a carrier accepts the tender or the shipment tender time expires.

sequential volume
A volume that uses extents from a single managed disk (MDisk).

sequential-within-limits processing
A method of processing indexed files in which limits are specified for the beginning and ending values of the key field for the records to be read or written.

sequestered atmospheric carbon
Carbon that is removed from the atmosphere by biological sinks and stored in plant tissue.

Pertaining to the sequential or consecutive occurrence of two or more related activities in a single device or channel. See also parallel.

Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA, Serial ATA)
A standard for connecting storage devices such as hard drives and CD ROM drives to computer systems that is based on serial signaling technology.

Serial ATA
See Serial Advanced Technology Attachment.

serial-attached SCSI (SAS)
A data-transfer technology that moves data to and from computer storage devices. Serial-attached SCSI uses a point-to-point serial protocol, which replaces the traditional, parallel SCSI bus technology.

serial connection
A method of device interconnection for determining interrupt priority by connecting the interrupt sources serially.

serial console
A mechanism that is used to remotely connect to a console of a compute node.

serial cursor
See nonscrollable cursor.

serial device

  1. A device that uses serial data as opposed to parallel data.
  2. A device that performs functions sequentially, such as a serial printer that prints one character at a time.

serial ID service provider interface
A programmatic interface intended for integrating AccessAgent with third-party Serial ID devices used for two-factor authentication.


  1. The process of handling files that are modified during backup or archive processing. See also shared dynamic serialization, shared static serialization, static serialization.
  2. The process of controlling access to a resource to protect the integrity of the resource.
  3. In Q replication, the process of applying transactions in the same order in which they were committed at the source.
  4. The consecutive ordering of items.
  5. In object-oriented programming, the writing of data in sequential fashion to a communications medium from program memory.


  1. To change from parallel-by-byte to serial-by-bit.
  2. To convert data from an internal representation to a form that can be exchanged with other programs, using files or a network. When serialized data is deserialized the resulting internal representation is indistinguishable from the original data. See also deserialize.
  3. To convert an XML value into a character string or binary string form. This process is the inverse of parsing.
  4. In XDR, to convert a particular machine representation to XDR format.

serialized asset
See rotating asset.

serialized item
See rotating item.

serialized profile
A Java object, one or more of which are produced by the SQLJ translator, that contains SQL statements and descriptions of host variables. A serialized profile file is used to describe the SQL statements so that they can be run with either a JDBC-based or a customized runtime library.

serialized XML
An XML value in the form of a character string or binary string. See also XML data.

A method for converting object data to another form such as binary or XML. See also deserialization.

serial line
A transmission medium commonly used for point-to-point link connections. Often, a serial line consists of an RS-232 connection into a modem over a telephone line.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
An Internet protocol that connects a computer to the Internet using a serial line.

serially reusable
The reusability attribute with which a program can be used sequentially by multiple tasks. A serially reusable module cannot be entered by a new task until the previous task has exited.

serial number

  1. A unique number embedded in the IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On keys, which is unique to each key and cannot be changed.
  2. A unique identifier of each single unit of a SKU attached to the item if serial number tracking is required.
  3. A unique number that identifies a custom configuration.

Serial Optical Channel Converter (SOCC)
A 220-Mbit/sec optical point-to-point link.

serial port

  1. An access point through which a computer transmits or receives data, one bit at a time.
  2. A connector on a serial device to which cables for other devices are attached.

serial printer
See character printer.

serial search
In COBOL, a search in which the records of a set of records are consecutively examined, beginning with the first record and ending with the last record.

Serial Storage Architecture (SSA)
An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, implemented by IBM, for a high-speed serial interface that provides point-to-point connection for peripherals, such as storage arrays. See also Redundant Array of Independent Disks, spatial reuse, SSA adapter.

serial transmission
The separate transmission of each bit of a data character over the same electrical path.


  1. In mathematics, the sum of a sequence.
  2. The consecutive occurrences of a component. In map rules, the [ ] characters denote an indexed member of a series.

A short line stemming from and at an angle to the upper or lower end of the strokes of a character. See also sans serif.

servant region
A contiguous area of virtual storage that is dynamically started as load increases and automatically stopped as load eases.


  1. In Network Computing System, a process that exports one or more interfaces to one or more objects, and whose procedures can be invoked from remote hosts.
  2. A single appliance, such as an IBM WebSphere DataPower appliance.
  3. In Enhanced X-Windows, the facility that provides the basic windowing mechanism. It handles interprocess communication connections from clients, de-multiplexes graphics requests onto screens, and multiplexes input back to clients.
  4. The target of a request from a remote requester. In a DB2 database system, the server function is provided by the distributed data facility, which is used to access a DB2 database from remote applications.
  5. A component that is responsible for maintaining the data model, managing services, and running policies.
  6. An object that is associated with a host. The server to use is defined by the selector associated with the project or step which is run on the host.
  7. A definition that identifies where an application will be tested or published. See also host.
  8. A compute node that is assigned to a cluster.
  9. A software program or a computer that provides services to other software programs or other computers. See also client, host.
  10. In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, the optional component that runs on the controlling system and handles requests from remote ISPF dialogs, remote PIF applications, and the Graphical User Interface for Application Description.
  11. A queue manager that provides queue services to client applications running on a remote workstation.

server addressing information
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an RPC protocol sequence, a network address, and an endpoint that represent one way to access an RPC server over a network. Server addressing information is a part of server binding information.

server and bus environment
The environment in which servers, service integration buses, and their resources are configured and managed.

server application thread
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a thread running the server application code that initializes the server and listens for incoming calls.

server-based certificate authority
A certificate authority (CA) that runs under the CA process, a server task. It can be either a Notes or Internet certifier. The CA process can handle any number of Notes and Internet certifiers, and it gives administrators the ability to manage them from the server console, using Tell commands. The CA process also gives Internet certifiers the ability to issue certificate revocation lists (CRLs).

server binding information
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Remote Procedure Call (RPC), information about the location of the server.

server call
A client-tagged, visitor-initiated event that passes data to the IBM Digital Analytics data warehouse, typically the execution of an IBM Digital Analytics tag.

server certificate
An electronic stamp stored in the server's key ring file that contains a public key, a name, an expiration date, and a digital signature. The server certificate uniquely identifies the server.

server channel
In message queuing, a channel that responds to a requester channel, removes messages from a transmission queue, and moves them over a communication link to the requester channel. See also requester channel.

server cluster
A group of servers that are typically on different physical machines and have the same applications configured within them, but operate as a single logical server.

server command
A command for performing a task, such as shutting down or restarting a server. A server command can be run manually at the console or automatically through the use of Program document.

server complex
In z/VM Center, a configuration profile for Linux guest systems that includes both Linux and z/VM aspects. A server complex can define network settings, Linux configuration scripts, disk access, and VM Resource Manager (VMRM) performance goals.

server configuration
A resource that contains information required to set up and deploy to an application server.

server connection
A document that is in the Domino Directory or a user's Personal Address Book and that defines a connection to a server. There are four types of server connection documents: dialup, network, passthru, and remote LAN.

server-connection channel type
The type of MQI channel definition associated with the server that runs a queue manager. See also client-connection channel type.

server definition

  1. In a federated system, the name and information that define the data source to the federated database.
  2. A definition for a computer that hosts a command server, to which systems under development in the Integration Flow Designer can be assigned as the intended execution server.
  3. The characteristics of a specific content server that uniquely identify it to Information Integrator for Content.

Server Display Control (SDC)
An ADSI control mode in which the ADSI telephone is controlled through a dialog with a voice response system.

server distributed sync point resource manager (SDSRM)
A resource manager that extends protection to resources across multiple nodes using a client/server protocol.

server document
A document that defines many of the settings that control how a Domino server operates. The server document is set up when the administrator or administrators register a server. The server document also enables mail routing

server engine
The component of the InfoSphere Information Server engine that runs server jobs and job sequences.

server entry
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE)Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an entry in the name server database that stores binding information associated with the RPC interfaces of a particular RPC server and object Universal Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) for any objects offered by the server.

server farm
A group of networked servers.

server firmware
The code that resides in system flash memory, and includes a number of subcomponents, including POWER Hypervisor, power control, service processor, and logical partition firmware that is loaded into either AIX or Linux logical partitions.

server friend
A server that allows other servers to communicate with it. After cross-server communication is configured, project areas and artifacts can be linked across servers.

server group

  1. See computer group.
  2. A group that is comprised of streams servers, database connections, and data source connectors.
  3. A group of items, usually applications, that can be tested as a unit.
  4. A group of Rule Execution Server for z/OS instances that are configured to be transferred to another if a server fails or if there is a planned outage. A server group can include one to 32 server instances.

server image
A file that contains the content and state of a virtual server, which can be saved and restored.

server implementation object
Enterprise beans that client applications require to access and implement the services that support those objects.

server instance

  1. A logical server that consists of a set of server jobs and configuration objects. Each server instance listens on either a unique IP address or a unique port with the same IP address. A server instance is created, configured, deleted, or controlled from the administration server. The configuration of each server instance is determined by the name of an associated configuration file, instance parameters, and values that are specified on the Configuration and Administration Forms and on the Global Attribute Values page.
  2. A single operating system process that runs on a single machine and responds to requests from clients. See also virtual server.

server inventory
The comprehensive list of native entities and native attributes from specified content servers.

server IPL
An initial program load (IPL) whereby all logical partitions on the server are shut down at the same time. This allows, for example, a new level of the server firmware to be activated on the server.

server job
A job that is compiled and run on the server engine.

server-level RAS granularity
The level of RAS granularity at which RAS attribute values are assigned on a server-wide basis. RAS attribute values defined at the server-level are assigned to all requests that the server processes. See also RAS granularity.

server locale
The locale that a database server uses when it performs its own read and write operations. The SERVER_LOCALE environment variable can specify a nondefault locale. See also client locale.

server locator
A locator that groups a related set of web applications that require authentication by the same authentication service. In AccessStudio, server locators identify the authentication service with which an application screen is associated.

server message
A message that is routed to a server application for processing, or a delivery notification that is routed to a client application to acknowledge the receipt of a client message by its destination.

Server Message Block (SMB)
A protocol that manages requests and responses in a client/server environment so that clients on a network can share files, directories, and devices. See also Common Internet File System, Server Message Block 2.0.

Server Message Block 2.0
A higher performing, more scalable version of Server Message Block (SMB). This protocol can send multiple commands in the same packet and uses larger buffer sizes. See also Common Internet File System, Server Message Block.

server mode
A processing mode of the dump job function that runs in its own address space and can use any tape devices in the system.

server multiplexer group connection (SMX connection)
A multiplexed network connection that provides reliable, secure, high-performance communication between servers in a high-availability environment.

server name

  1. An identifier that designates an application server. In a federated system, the server name also designates the local name of a data source. See also alias, database name.
  2. The unique name of a database server, assigned by the database server administrator, that an application uses to select a database server.

server node
In a single system image (SSI), a DirectTalk system that contains either the DirectTalk DB2 database, or the voice data, or both.

server number
A unique number between 0 and 255, inclusive, that a database server administrator assigns when a database server is initialized.

server operation
A collection of Java or non-Java process definitions that you can define to run on middleware servers. You can create server operations to enable or disable tracing, start or stop applications, query the running state of a server, and so on.

server options file
A file that contains settings that control various server operations. These settings affect such things as communications, devices, and performance.

A software-delivery package consisting of products and service for which IBM has performed the System Modification Program/Extended (SMP/E) installation steps and some of the post-SMP/E installation steps.

server preference
A parameter that affects all workstations and clients.

server process
A process that provides services to client processes. See also client process.

server-processing locale
The locale that a database server determines dynamically for a given connection between a client application and a database. See also client/server architecture, locale.

server program
A program that automates an administration task, such as compacting all databases on a server. Administrators can schedule server programs to run at a particular time or can run them as the need arises.

server project
A project that contains information about test and deployment servers and their configurations.

server-prompted scheduling mode
A client/server communication technique where the server contacts the client node when tasks must be done. See also client-polling scheduling mode.

Server-Requester Programming Interface
An IBM application programming interface (API) used by requester and server programs to communicate with the personal computer or host routers.


  1. Pertaining to an application or component of an application that runs on a server rather than on the client. JSP and servlets are two examples of technologies that enable server-side programming.
  2. Pertaining to an operation that is performed on the server based on input from the client application.

server-side application technology
A technology enabled for a web server that produces dynamic Web content.

server-side authentication component
See authenticator.

server-side include (SSI)
A facility for including dynamic information in documents sent to clients, such as current date, the last modification date of a file, and the size or last modification of other files. See also server-side include injection.

server-side include injection (SSI injection)
An attack technique that exploits a web application's failure to sanitize user-supplied data before it is inserted into an HTML file. This could give an attacker the ability to execute arbitrary operating system commands, or include a restricted file's contents the next time the page is served. See also server-side include.

server storage
The primary, copy, and active-data storage pools that are used by the server to store user files such as backup versions, archive copies, and files migrated from hierarchical storage management client nodes (space-managed files). See also active-data pool, copy storage pool, primary storage pool, storage pool volume, volume.

servers view
A view that displays a list of all servers and the configurations that are associated with them.

server task
A program provided with the Domino server that runs only when specifically loaded. Server tasks serve various purposes; the Administration Process, HTTP Server, and Reporter are just a few examples of server tasks.

server template

  1. A template that defines the operating system, network and software configurations for a server in a cluster.
  2. See computer template.

server time
The time that it takes for a web server to receive a requested transaction, process it, and respond to it.

server type definition
The list of characteristics, as identified by the administrator, required to uniquely identify a custom server of a certain type to Information Integrator for Content.


  1. An offering, function, or activity that performs a task in an organization, and is fulfilled through the use of an organization's intellectual, financial and physical assets.
  2. An external component that is called by a Java agent or rule agent to access external data or to perform advanced computation.
  3. A TCP/IP port number.
  4. A runnable sub-component that the user controls from within the graphical user interface (GUI).
  5. The outgoing and return route taken by a vehicle, that includes a schedule.
  6. A component of the system that is an abstraction layer between clients and the database.
  7. In network architecture, a capability of a given layer and the layers below it that is provided to the layer above. The service of a given layer is provided at the boundary between this layer and the next higher layer.
  8. In the Kerberos protocol, a software server that has been assigned a principal name and is registered with the key distribution center (KDC).
  9. An offering that provides skilled assistance to customers. A service may include consulting, education and training, offering enabling services, managed operations, integration and application development. Services are distinguished from products by their intangibility, inseparability, perishability and variability. See also Advanced Integration service, General System service, integration service.
  10. A networked application that is capable of participating in a RosettaNet conversation.
  11. An automated workflow submitted to run on-demand on workstations. It is implemented by a job stream or a process. See also job stream.
  12. A component type in the Tivoli Data Warehouse that is created by the IBM Tivoli Business Systems Manager product, displayed in the Executive Console, and provides independent status for associated SLAs based on violation and trend events.
  13. A set of business processes (such as web transactions) that represent business-critical functions that are made available over the internet.
  14. A collection of users. Services are used to provide linkage between user identities and external systems to which users may need to be provisioned.
  15. A component that accepts as input a message, and processes the message. For example, a service translates its payload into a different format, or routes it to one of several output queues. Most services are implemented as message flows or primitives.
  16. A unit of work that implements activities or interactions between systems or people.
  17. A process that stores data values or a database used by TM1.
  18. Work performed by a server. A service can be a simple request for data to be sent or stored (as with file servers, HTTP servers, or email servers), or it can be more complex work (as with print servers or process servers).
  19. A cloud extension that provides ready-for-use functionality, such as database, messaging, and web software for running code, or application management or monitoring capabilities. Services usually do not require installation or maintenance and can be combined to create applications.
  20. A program that performs a primary function within a server or related software.

The ability to address availability problems quickly and with as little disruption as possible. More specifically, the ability to complete repairs and maintenance within a certain period under a given condition. A key aspect of serviceability is quality problem determination.

serviceable unit
A logical unit of software that has an identifier and that is packaged as a unit. Products and bundles are made of one or more serviceable units. A fix can apply to only one serviceable unit.

service access point (SAP)

  1. A logical address that allows a system to route data between a remote device and the appropriate communications support.
  2. The protocol and credentials associated with a data center device for authentication of remote operations. A data center device can have more than one service access point.
  3. In the Ethernet logical link profile, the address for the transaction program on the local system. This address is a hexadecimal value.
  4. In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) architecture, the point at which the services of a layer are provided by an entity of that layer to an entity of the next higher layer.

service action log
A utility that displays entries requiring action by a service representative.

service address
The connection with an IP label between clients and applications. The service address is the address published by the Cluster Information Program (Clinfo) to application programs that want to use cluster services.

Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
A protocol that allows service providing nodes, such as file server and print server, to advertise their services so that clients can access the services. SAP also provides for responding to a user for a given type of service. This information is delivered through the use of the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol. A SAP packet contains sets of service entry information.

service agreement

  1. See service level agreement.
  2. An agreement between a provider and supplier, or a host and recipient, to define store setup and business relationship terms and conditions.

service alert
A serviceability feature that automatically notifies the IBM Support Center about a problem that occurred.

service alias
A named set of protocol, source ports, and destination ports that is used to help define filters in Internet Protocol (IP) packet security.

service application
An application used to deploy mediation modules.

service as a product (SaaP)
The delivery of productized services to a buyer as a cost-effective alternative to providing those services for their own organization. For example, a bank might contract IBM to provide IT support instead of handling it internally.

service assignment matrix record (SAMR)
A record that is associated with a contract that is used in the determination of responsible organization when multiple service providers are available.

service assistant
A user interface that services hardware independent of the storage system.

service authority
A special authority that allows the user to perform the alter function in the service functions.

service boundary
A category that identifies a group of components that are unavailable for use when one of the components of the group is being serviced. For example, service boundaries are provided on the ESS in each host bay and in each cluster.

service bundle (SVB)
A set of services that logically belong together, for example, because they share resources such as a status table or error processing queue. A service bundle contains the definition files for all resources required to provide the services, for example definition files for message flows, queues, and database tables. A service bundle has a unique name in the scope of an instance. A service bundle must be assigned to an organizational unit and loaded into a server before it is operational.

service bundle set
A group of service bundles that are packaged together to simplify ordering. A definition file that defines the resource classes, resource file types, place holders, and server types that can be used by the service bundles in the set is associated with each service bundle set.

service call
A mechanism that is associated with web-service requests to make a SOAP request at run time in accordance with an operation defined in a WSDL document.

service capacity
The resource potential for fulfilling service requests.

service catalog

  1. A list of available provisioning services.
  2. A repository for units and materials, fixed deliverables, and custom specification items that a company needs frequently.

service class

  1. For file archive collections, a policy object that is used to specify document retention settings.
  2. A group of work that has the same service goals or performance objectives, resource requirements, or availability requirements. For workload management, a service goal and, optionally, a resource group is assigned to a service class.
  3. An entity that acts as a point of resource control and monitoring for a set of database connections and activities within a DB2 database. There are two levels of service classes: service superclass and service subclass. See also service subclass, service superclass, workload definition.

service client
A requester that invokes functions in a service provider.

service component

  1. A component that configures a service implementation. A service component consists of an implementation and one or more interfaces, which defines its inputs, outputs, and faults, and also its references, if applicable.
  2. A container used to group related operations and infrastructure in the Logical or Physical view of the Rational Integration Tester Architecture School perspective.

Service Component Architecture (SCA)
An architecture in which all elements of a business transaction, such as access to web services, Enterprise Information System (EIS) service assets, business rules, workflows, databases and so on, are represented in a service-oriented way.

service configuration
A set of runtime parameters that is specified for a particular service type.

service content
The primary component of the payload of a RosettaNet Business Message, which is an XML document that represents the business content specified by a particular PIP. The Service Content plus any file attachments comprises the payload component of the RosettaNet Business Message.

service context
Part of a General InterORB Protocol (GIOP) message that is identified with an ID and contains data used in specific interactions, such as security actions, character code set conversion, and Object Request Broker (ORB) version information.

service control point (SCP)
A component of the intelligent network that provides transactional services, such as translation of toll-free numbers to subscriber numbers.

Service Data Objects (SDO)
An open standard for enabling applications to handle data from heterogeneous data sources in a uniform way, based on the concept of a disconnected data graph. See also business object.

service data unit (SDU)
In OSI, a unit of data transferred between a layer and the next higher layer.

service definition

  1. A set of data that provides the framework for deploying an IT landscape.
  2. One or more WSDL files that describe a service. Service definitions are produced by the Definition, Deployment, Adapter, Skeleton, and Proxy wizards.
  3. An explicit definition of all the workloads and processing capacity in a sysplex. A service definition includes service policies, workloads, service classes, resource groups, and classification rules.

service definition framework
A framework that defines how data is transported between systems, and that converts data into formats that are readable by each system. It defines boundary conditions for accessing services and logs exceptions.

service delivery manager (SDM)
IT manager for the contracted outsourcing-services on behalf of clients.

service deployment instance
An actual IT landscape derived from deploying a service definition.

service description
The description of a web service, which can be defined in any format such as WSDL, UDDI, or HTML.

service desk
The service management component that processes incidents and service requests, and serves as a single point of contact between service providers and users.

service destination
A specialization of a service integration bus destination. Each service destination can directly represent the web service implementation or can indirectly represent the service through a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document.

service document
A document that describes a web service, for example a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document.

service element

  1. One of the discrete hardware and software products that provide a terminal user with processing ability.
  2. In OSI, a unit of standardization specifying a complete group of functions.

service endpoint
The physical address of a service which implements one or more interfaces.

service endpoint interface
A set of endpoints that expose the functions of a session bean as a web service endpoint.

service flow
In Enterprise Service Tools, the generated output of the runtime code generator of the service flow project tools. A service flow is a reusable composed business function that exposes a programmatic interface to a service requester in an enterprise information system.

service flow modeler
In Enterprise Service Tools, the logical concept of a set of tools for building service flows. The service flow project tools in the Enterprise Service Tools perspective are a real-life implementation of the concept of a service flow modeler.

Service Focal Point
An application on the Hardware Management Console (HMC) that collects problems from the system and from logical partitions. It is used to view problems and to take action on problems.

Service-for-User-to-Proxy (S4U2Proxy)
The Kerberos constrained delegation that allows a service to use the ticket that can be obtained through S4U2Self to obtain another ticket to an external service on behalf of the client. See also Service-for-User-to-Self.

Service-for-User-to-Self (S4U2Self)
The Kerberos protocol transition that allows a service to obtain a ticket to itself from the KDC on behalf of a client. See also Service-for-User-to-Proxy.

service functions

  1. Specific capabilities within service tools that are typically used for problem determination and problem solving, often with the assistance of IBM support. Examples of service functions include Licensed Internal Code trace, Licensed Internal Code log, and the display, alter, dump function.
  2. Functions of Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS that allow the user to manage exceptional conditions, such as investigating problems, preparing APAR tapes, and testing during implementation.

service group (SG)
In a Remote Site Recovery (RSR) environment, a collection of all IMSs that access RSR-covered databases at an active or at a remote site, including the recovery control data set (RECON data set). A service group usually includes one or more IMSs at a single site, with the databases and RECON data set shared between the IMSs.

service header
An XML document that identifies the PIP, the business activity, and action with which the business message is associated: the sending and receiving services, partners, and roles. It is packaged together with other headers and the payload to form a complete RosettaNet Business Message.

service information message (SIM)
A message, generated by a storage subsystem, that is the result of error event location and analysis. A SIM indicates that some service action is required.

service information octet (SIO)
A field within an MTP message signal unit that identifies a higher layer user of MTP, and whether the message relates to a national or international network.

service input queue
The queue from which a service retrieves the messages it is to process. In WebSphere BI for FN, this queue is implemented as a WebSphere MQ local queue.

service instance
A particular invocation of a service configuration.

service instruction
A notation that is associated with a service.

service integration bus (SIBus)
A managed communication mechanism that supports service integration through synchronous and asynchronous messaging. A bus consists of interconnecting messaging engines that manage bus resources.

service integration bus link
A link between messaging engines on different service integration buses. This enables requests and messages to pass between the buses.

service integration bus web services enablement
A software component that enables web services to use IBM service integration technologies. This capability provides a quality of service choice and message distribution options for web services, with mediations that support message rerouting or modification.

Service Integration Hub (SIH)

service integration leader (SIL)
A Client First Organization role that has the end to end responsibility to organize, integrate and manage delivery professionals into a seamless service for clients.

service integration logic
Integration logic on an enterprise service bus to mediate between requesters and providers. The logic performs a number of functions such as to transform and augment requests, convert transport protocols, and route requests and replies automatically

service integration technology
Technology that provides a highly-flexible messaging system for a service-oriented architecture (SOA). This supports a wide spectrum of quality of service options, protocols, and messaging patterns. The technology supports both message-oriented and service-oriented applications.

Service Interface for Real Time Information (SIRI)
A European data interface standard for exchanging data about planned, current, or future performance of public transport operations.

service interface queue
The queue into which applications place messages that are to be processed by a service. In WebSphere BI for FN, each OU that uses a particular service has its own service interface queue, and this queue is implemented as a WebSphere MQ alias queue.

service interval
A time interval, against which the elapsed time between a put or a get and a subsequent get is compared by the queue manager in deciding whether the conditions for a service interval event have been met. The service interval for a queue is specified by a queue attribute.

service interval event
An event related to the service interval.

service item

  1. An item that can be a fixed deliverable, unit and material, or service level agreement (SLA) item that is procured in Emptoris Services Procurement.
  2. A service that is defined as an item by a catalog organization.

Service Leader
An IBM volunteer who creates or organizes volunteer projects to engage colleagues in applying their skills to meet community needs.

service level

  1. A set of logical characteristics of storage required by a data set managed by a storage management subsystem (SMS). Examples of these logical characteristics are performance, security, and availability.
  2. A class of service that can be used in business policies to aggregate a set of implied service qualities.
  3. One of the four levels of service (fast, status, data high, or data low) that determines if a distribution is put on the normal or priority distribution queue.

service level agreement (SLA)

  1. In IBM Business Process Management, a rule that a user creates to analyze the performance of business processes over time. An SLA establishes a condition that triggers a consequence and creates a report for one or more activities. Conditions in SLAs are based on a standard or custom key performance indictator (KPI).
  2. A contract between a customer and a service provider that specifies the expectations for the level of service with respect to availability, performance, and other measurable objectives. See also service level objective.

service level classification
A rule that is used by a monitor to evaluate how well a monitored service is performing. The results form the basis for service level agreements (SLAs).

service level criteria (SLC)
A set of performance objectives that require processing to occur within a certain time period. See also duration schedule, simple SLC, standard SLC, wildcard SLC, workflow SLC.

service level definition (SLD)
The governance enablement profile that specifies the physical communication mechanisms for a web service.

service level management (SLM)
The disciplined, proactive methodology used to ensure that adequate levels of service are delivered to all IT users in accordance with business priorities and at acceptable cost. IT organizations must thoroughly understand the priority and relative importance of each service it provides. Service level management is the continuous process of measuring, reporting, and improving the quality of service provided by the IT organization to the business.

service level objective (SLO)
A specification of a metric property that is associated with both threshold values for peak and off-peak hours in a schedule and a guaranteed level of service that is defined in a service level agreement (SLA). See also breach value, metric, service level agreement.

service level specification
A set of parameters and their values that defines the service offered to a traffic stream by a differentiated services domain.

service library
The system library provided in the system that is used temporarily for loading IBM-supplied programming changes and creating APARs. Named QSRV.

service line
A line item on an order that lists a particular service or set of services.

Service Location Protocol (SLP)
An Internet protocol that identifies and uses network hosts without having to designate a specific network host name.

service login password
The password associated with a user account that is used to log on to the cloud service from a browser.  

service machine
In z/VM, a guest virtual machine that provides a system service such as accounting, error recording, or monitoring. A system service can be part of z/VM or a licensed program.

service management process
A system automated process that uses a request class and service plan to determine business rules for the creation of a task or project, and assign the task or project to the responsible organization. See also request class.

service mapping
A connection between one client and one or more providers, allowing mismatching service interfaces, service endpoints, or both to be mapped to each other.

service message
A message exchanged between services.

service message object (SMO)
A service data object that can exist only in a mediation flow component. The service message object is composed of a body and headers. The body contains the parameters of the invoked interface operation, and the headers may contain information such as service invocation, transport protocol, mediation exception, JMS properties, or correlation information.

service mode
See maintenance mode.

service name
A name that provides a symbolic method of specifying the port number to be used at a remote node. To identify an application, the TCP/IP connection requires the address of the remote node and the port number to be used on the remote node.

service network
The Ethernet network that connects the management server, the Hardware Management Console (HMC), the POWER5 Service Processors, and Bulk Power Assemblies (BPA).

service node

  1. An element of an Intelligent Network that contains the service logic that controls an intelligent network application and resources.
  2. A Blue Gene system which is responsible for management and control of a Blue Gene solution.

service object
An object that can start additional processes when the queue manager starts and can stop the processes when the queue manager stops.

service-only environment
A SmartCloud Notes configuration in which all users have mail files in the cloud and there is no integration with on-premises Domino mail servers and on-premises users. 

service operation
A custom operation that can be run in the context of the data center. These operations are typically administrative operations and are used to automate the configuration. Service operations can also be used to enhance the catalog of available services with extra functionality.

service option
An option that is associated to a delivery service or provided service to add capacity requirements and cost to the corresponding service.

service order
An order created in the application to procure a circuit, service, or piece of equipment.

service-oriented architecture (SOA)
A conceptual description of the structure of a software system in terms of its components and the services they provide, without regard for the underlying implementation of these components, services and connections between components. See also web-oriented architecture.

Service-oriented architecture Modeling Language (SoaML)
A set of extensions to Unified Modeling Language (UML) that supports SOA modeling. Service-oriented architecture Modeling Language is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard.

service owner
A user who is typically defined as the owner or administrator of the external system to which the service is linked.

service pack
A collection of code fixes for a program that contains PC code. The fixes are contained in a single, orderable program temporary fix (PTF).

Service Parts Organization (SPO)
An organization within IBM that is responsible for delivering service parts e to support the maintenance and warranty business of IBM.

service pattern
A template that is based on the configuration of a service.

service personnel
A generalization referring to individuals or companies authorized to service IBM products. The terms service provider, service representative, and service support representative (SSR) refer to types of service personnel. See also service support representative.

service plan
A record that works with the request class record to determine the business rules for the service management process. Service plans are used to centralize the rules for managing service requests and work.

service policy

  1. A performance goal that is assigned to a specific application URI to help designate the business importance of different request types.
  2. A set of performance goals for all z/OS images using z/OS workload management in a sysplex. There can be only one active service policy for a sysplex, and all subsystems in goal mode within that sysplex process towards that policy. However, you can create several service policies, and switch between them to cater for the different needs of different processing periods.

service portfolio
The collection of business services that a subscriber is entitled to use.

service primitive
In the OSI reference model, the smallest defined interaction between service users and service providers in adjacent layers. This interaction is a service provided by the lower layer to the higher layer.(I)

service processor

  1. A generic term for Remote Supervisor Adapters, Advanced System Management processors, Advanced System Management PCI adapters, and integrated system management processors (ISMPs). These hardware-based management processors used in IBM Netfinity and xSeries servers work with IBM Director to provide hardware status and alert notification.
  2. The logic that contains the processor function to start the system processor and handle error conditions.
  3. The interface to the Hardware Management Console (HMC) that provides hardware control and logical partition (LPAR) support for IBM Power Systems servers.

service program

  1. See utility program.
  2. A bound program that performs utility functions that can be called by other bound programs.

service project
A collection of related items used to build a service.

service provider (SP)

  1. Any company that provides services for a fee to its customers, such as telecommunication companies, application service providers, enterprise IT, and Internet service providers.
  2. In the OSI reference model, a layer that provides services to the next higher layer.
  3. Any person, organization, or application that provides a service.
  4. An entity that connects stream data to feed handlers.
  5. A company or program that provides a business function as a service.
  6. In the context of OSLC, a container of resources that is hosted by a tool or product to enable the use of the resources.
  7. In System Manager, the system used to provide problem-handling support to another system or systems connected to it by communications lines. The service provider can also be the alert focal point in a network. See also service requester.
  8. In Enterprise Service Tools, the application that hosts access to a web service. A service provider describes its service using WSDL.

service provider determination
The process used to find a service provider and check for resource capacity for scheduling the service delivery.

service provider equipment (SPE)
The switching equipment owned by a telephone company.

service provider interface (SPI)

  1. An interface through which vendors can integrate any device with serial numbers with IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On and use it as a second factor in AccessAgent.
  2. An API that supports replaceable components and can be implemented or extended by a third party.

service rate
The rate at which an entity can service requests. See also request rate.

service recovery
The time that it takes for the service to recover from being in a failed state.

service registry
A repository that contains all of the information that is required to access a web service.

service repository
A repositories that contains updates for packages, for example IBM support sites or local repositories, which might be linked to other repositories. In managing installation packages, the service repository can be checked for updates to installed products.

service representative basic user profile
A system-supplied user profile, named QSRVBAS, that provides limited authority for a service representative to use dedicated service tools (DST) and system service tools (SST). See also service representative user profile.

service representative user profile
A system-supplied user profile, named QSRV, that provides all the authority required by a service representative to use the dedicated service tools (DST) and system service tools (SST). See also service representative basic user profile.

service request

  1. A request created in the Telecom Portal application to order a wireless product.
  2. A request that is created and passed to the request queue handler whenever a nucleus server requires a service that is not currently available.
  3. An element that is used to manage and track work requests.
  4. A request from a user for help, information, advice, or access to an IT service.

service request block (SRB)
A control block that represents a routine that performs a particular function or service in a specified address space. See also dispatch.

service requester

  1. The application that initiates an interaction with a web service. The service requester binds to the service by using the published information and calls the service.
  2. In Enterprise Service Tools, an application that is looking for and invoking or initiating an interaction with a web service provider. The requester role can be played by a browser driven by a person or a program without a user interface, for example, another web service. A service requester issues one or more queries to locate a service and determine how to communicate with that service.
  3. In System Manager, the system with a program or equipment problem that requires and asks for problem-handling support from another system in a network. See also service provider.

service request number (SRN)
A code that is used by service technicians or the customer to determine the failing area of the system.

service routine
A user program that accesses data to provide an Atom feed to web clients.

Collections of network endpoints or ports that are used to aggregate a set of related ports.

Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME)
An academic discipline that uses the ideas and skills of computer science, engineering, social science, and business management to improve the productivity, quality, and innovation in services.

service selection policy
A policy that determines which service to use in a provisioning policy.

Services for UNIX (SFU)
An interoperability toolkit from Microsoft Windows, it enables Windows-based and UNIX-based computers to share data, security credentials, and scripts.

service side
In an ebMS exchange, the side that hosts the service that will be called to do work.

service skill
A skill that is required for a service. For example, electrical work is a skill required for an installation service.

service slot
The time range during which a delivery or provided service is to be completed. A service slot is identified by a start time and an end time.

service slot group
A collection of multiple service slots.

service slot spanning
The process of determining service resource availability by considering adjacent slots and shifts.

service stack
The TCP/IP modules involved in service and support of the System i platform.

services tier
The application server, common services, and product services for the InfoSphere Information Server suite and product modules and the computer or computers where those components are installed.

service stub
A functional simulation of an existing service that is used for prototyping, entering specific data into a service under test, or replacing a service that is unavailable or impractical to use in a test environment. See also stub server.

service subclass
A grouping mechanism for database activities within a service superclass. Resources of a service superclass are shared by all related service subclasses. See also service class, service superclass.

service subscriber
A user who has rights only to subscribe or cancel provisioning services.

service superclass
A grouping mechanism for connections within a database. See also service class, service subclass.

service support representative (SSR)
An individual or a company authorized to service IBM products. See also service personnel.

service task
A task that uses a service implementation, such as a web service, that a BPM execution engine runs. This task does not require user interaction and does not appear on a task list.

service ticket
In the Kerberos protocol, a ticket that grants access to a particular resource, or service. A ticket from a Kerberos authentication server must be presented in order to obtain a service ticket.

service time
The calculation of end time minus start time for a load event or an unload event. The service time for a vehicle is calculated as: Site Arrival Time + Unloading Time + Loading Time + Site Exit Time. See also work time.

service tools device ID
A programming object used by both the PC and the IBM System i model as a means to authenticate the network connection between the two. A service tools device ID is unique to that PC and server connection. The service tools device ID can be managed by authorized users in dedicated service tools (DST) or system service tools (SST). The default service tools device ID is QCONSOLE.

service tools server
A server that allows the use of a PC to perform service tools functions through TCP/IP.

service tools user ID
A user ID that is required to access DST, SST, System i Navigator (for logical partitions and disk unit management), and Operations Console. Service tools user IDs are created through DST or SST and are separate from i5/OS user profiles.

service topology
In the context of a service definition, the set of physical IT components (such as hardware and software) that are available for inclusion in services based on that definition. On instantiation, the service topology is the actual set of these components in operation on behalf of the service deployment instance.

service topology node
In the context of a service definition, one element of the service topology to which resources can be allocated based on that definition. On instantiation, the service topology is the actual set of these components in operation on behalf of the service deployment instance.

service transaction program
A program that provides a function internal to SNA Server. See also application transaction program.

service type

  1. A shipment attribute that specifies how quickly the freight must be delivered.
  2. A component that contains code that is used to do work when executed in a business process.

service type definition
In Universal Discovery Description and Integration (UDDI), a description of specifications for services or taxonomies.

service update
Software that corrects a defect in or adds new function to the Base Operating System (BOS) or to an optional software product.

service user
In the OSI reference model, a layer that uses the services of the next lower layer.(I)

service vault
An ID vault located on SmartCloud Notes servers.

service virtualization
A virtualization that compensates for the differences in the syntactic details of the service interactions so that the service requester and provider do not have to use the same interaction protocol and pattern or the same interface, nor do they have to know the identities of the other participants.

service VLAN
See service network.

serving-call session control function (S-CSCF)
A server that acts as the central node of the signaling plane in a SIP network to register users and determine routing of messages. The S-CSCF also performs additional functions like providing routing services, enforcing policies, and providing billing information.

A Java program that runs on a web server and extends the server functions by generating dynamic content in response to web client requests. Servlets are commonly used to connect databases to the web.

servlet archive
A file that contains the same components as a servlet application. Unlike web archives, servlet archives can have only a sip.xml deployment descriptor and not a web.xml deployment descriptor.

servlet container
A web application server component that invokes the action servlet and that interacts with the action servlet to process requests.

servlet filtering
The process of transforming a request or modifying a response without exposing the resource used by the servlet engine. See also filter.

servlet mapping
A correspondence between a client request and a servlet that defines their association.

See servomechanism.


  1. A feedback control system in which at least one of the signals represents mechanical motion.
  2. An automatic device that uses feedback to govern the physical position of a part.

See SCSI Enclosure Services.

The Resource Description Framework triplestore that supports query APIs including SPARQL. Sesame is used to store word and concept relationships in an IBM Watson system.


  1. A logical or virtual connection between two stations, software programs, or devices on a network that allows the two elements to communicate and exchange data for the duration of the session. See also administrative session, SQL connection, transaction.
  2. The time during which an authenticated user is logged on.
  3. A collection of source and target volumes that are managed to create consistent copies of data. The type of data replication that is associated with the session determines the actions that can be conducted for the volumes.
  4. A series of requests to a servlet originating from the same user at the same browser.
  5. The period of time after an app is started on a mobile device and the quality assurance product is notified to begin collecting app behavior, issues, and problems.
  6. In a distributed application, a single conversation between a communicating pair of transactions. See also conversation.
  7. A single start-to-finish experience of interaction with a website. In Tealeaf, a session is used as the basis for evaluating visitor experience.
  8. A resource that controls local logical units (LUs), remote LUs, modes, and attachments.
  9. A collection of process groups established for job control purposes.
  10. In Java EE, an object used by a servlet to track user interaction with a web application across multiple HTTP requests.

session activation request
In SNA, a request that activates a session between two network accessible units (NAUs) and specifies session parameters that control various protocols during session activity.

session address space
In VTAM, an address space that is used to issue VTAM macroinstructions that establish sessions. See also ACB address space, associated address space.

session affinity
A method of configuring applications in which a client is always connected to the same server. These configurations disable workload management after an initial connection by forcing a client request to always go to the same server.

session attribute
An attribute that is used to store data from events that are triggered during a user session.

session awareness data (SAW data)
Data that is collected by the NetView program about a session that includes the session type, the names of session partners, and information about the session activation status.

session bean
An enterprise bean that is created by a client and that typically exists only for the duration of a single client/server session. (Sun) See also entity bean, stateful session bean, stateless session bean.

session class
A Sterling Connect:Direct parameter used to control the order in which processes are executed based on the number of available sessions.

session connection
In OSI, a connection between two nodes that enables them to communicate at the session layer.

session connector
A session-layer component in an APPN network node or in a subarea node boundary or gateway function that connects two stages of a session. Session connectors swap addresses from one address space to another for session-level intermediate routing, segment session message units as needed, and (except for gateway function session connectors) adaptively pace the session traffic in each direction. See also half-session.

session control (SC)
In SNA, one of the components of transmission control. Session control is used to purge data flowing in a session after an unrecoverable error occurs, to resynchronize the data flow after such an error, and to perform cryptographic verification.

session control block (SCB)
In NPM, control blocks in common storage area for session collection.

session cookie
A cookie that stores information in the form of session identification that does not personally identify the user. It is stored in temporary memory and is not retained after the browser is closed.

session credential
A string of data provided by the web server, stored within a cookie or URL, which identifies a user and authorizes that user to perform various actions.

session cryptography key
In SNA, a data encrypting key that is used to encipher and decipher function management data (FMD) requests transmitted in an LU-LU session that uses cryptography. See also data-encrypting key.

session default
A session assumed by the system for temporary use.

session description
An object that contains a description of the operating characteristics of an RJE session. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *SSND.

Session Description Protocol (SDP)
A set of rules that define the characteristics of the media streams that will be exchanged in an audio or video session.

session-establishment macroinstruction
In VTAM, the set of RPL-based macroinstructions used to initiate, establish, or terminate LU-LU sessions.

session-establishment request
In VTAM, a request to an LU to establish a session. For the primary logical unit (PLU) of the requested session, the session-establishment request is the CINIT sent from the system services control point (SSCP) to the PLU. For the secondary logical unit (SLU) of the requested session, the session-establishment request is the BIND sent from the PLU to the SLU.

session facade
A mechanism for separating the business and client tiers of an enterprise application by abstracting the data and business methods so that clients are not tightly coupled with the business logic and not responsible for data integrity. Implemented as session enterprise beans, session facades also decouple lower-level business components from one another.

session failure
The loss of all resources of a data management session due to the failure of the daemon on the session node.

session files library
The files library that will be in use when the current System/36 environment job ends.

session filter
A user-defined filter that is applied on the dimensional explorer only for a single user session.

session fixation
An attack technique that allows an attacker to fixate a user's session identifier and assume their online identity.

session flowchart
A means to create a persistent, global data artifact for use in all campaigns. Each session contains at least one flowchart. Running a session flowchart makes the outcome of the session (the data artifacts) available globally to all campaigns. A typical use for a session flowchart is to create strategic segments.

session functional unit
In OSI, logical groupings of related services provided by the Session Layer, such as activity management, capability data exchange, and negotiated release. Most session functional units are optional. The peer application entities negotiate whether or not the optional functions will be used when the session connection is established.

session global variable
A global variable whose value is shared only within the session where it exists. See also database global variable, global variable.

session hijacking
The compromise of a user's session by an attacker. The attacker could reuse this stolen session to masquerade as the user.

session ID
See session identifier.

session identifier (session ID)

  1. In IBM MQ for z/OS, the identifier, unique to CICS, that defines the communication link to be used by a message channel agent when moving messages from a transmission queue to a link.
  2. A unique string of data provided by the web server that is used in network communications to identify a session, and is stored within a cookie or URL.

session information block (SIB)
A control block that contains information about a particular SNA session.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
A protocol for initiating interactive multi-media sessions. See also siplet.

The process of properly assembling individual hits into visitor sessions.

session key

  1. A key that uniquely identifies each CICS-IMS session. The session key is formed from the CICS name for the session and the IMS subpool name.
  2. In computer security, a temporary key that grants access to a particular resource or session. A session key is similar to a service ticket in the Kerberos protocol.
  3. In Cryptographic Support, a data-encrypting key used to encrypt data before it is sent to another location.

session layer
In OSI, the layer that provides the services that organize and synchronize communications between functional units in different open systems located in the presentation layer.

session-layer protocol data unit (SPDU)
In OSI, a protocol data unit in the session layer.(I)

session-layer service access point (SSAP)
In OSI, a service access point in the session layer.

session-layer service data unit (SSDU)
In OSI, a unit of data transferred between the presentation layer and the session layer.

session leader
A process that has created a session.

session-level authentication
In Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a session level security protocol that enables two logical units (LUs) to authenticate each other while they are activating a session. Session level authentication is also known as LU-LU verification.

session-level cryptography
In Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a method of encrypting and decrypting data that flows on a session between two logical units (LUs).

session-level encryption (SLE)
The encryption of data that is sent to the host from a workstation during a session.

session-level LU-LU verification
An LU 6.2 security service that is used to verify the identity of each logical unit when a session is established.

session-level pacing
A flow control technique that permits a receiving half-session or session connector to control the data transfer rate (the rate at which it receives request units) on the normal flow. It is used to prevent overloading a receiver with unprocessed requests when the sender can generate requests faster than the receiver can process them. See also adaptive session-level pacing, fixed session-level pacing, virtual route pacing.

session-level security
For logical unit (LU) 6.2, partner LU verification and session cryptography.

session limit
In SNA, the maximum number of concurrently active logical unit to logical unit (LU-to-LU) sessions that a particular logical unit (LU) can support.

session management server
A server that manages user sessions by ensuring that the session state remains consistent across the participating servers and allows for the implementation of session policy across the participating servers.

session manager (SM)

  1. An application that allows a user at a terminal to log on to multiple applications concurrently.
  2. In CDE, a software application that controls saving sessions, restoring sessions, screen locking and unlocking, and the use of screen savers. When a session is saved, the state of the desktop environment (location of icons, size and location of open windows, open/closed status of applications, current color palette, and so on) is preserved so that it can be restored at the next login.

session monitor
The component of the NetView program that collects and correlates session-related data and provides online access to this information.

session node
The node on which a data management session was created.

session object
See security token.

session parameter
In SNA, a parameter that specifies or constrains the protocols (such as bracket protocol and pacing) for a session between two network accessible units (NAUs). See also logon mode.

session partner
In SNA, one of the two network addressable units (NAUs) participating in an active session.

session path
The half-sessions delimiting a given session and their interconnection (including any intermediate session connectors).

session profile

  1. In System i Access, a file that describes the characteristics of a PC5250 session.
  2. For the 3270 Host Connection Program 2.1 and 1.3.3 for AIX, a profile describing the characteristics of a session between a client system and a System/370 host computer.

session protocol
The available set of SNA communication requests and responses.

session qualifier pair
See session key.

session record
In the AIX accounting system, a record (produced from log in and log off records) of time connected and line usage for connected display stations.

session recovery
The XRF process that switches primary sessions on class 1 terminals to backup sessions or reestablishes service on class 2 terminals during takeover.

session resource usage
The amount of wait time, processor time, and space that is used or retrieved during a client session.

session security
In LU6.2 and MRO, the level of security applied when a request to establish a session is received from, or sent to, a remote system. Used to verify that the remote system is really the system it claims to be. See also link security, user security.

session sequence number
A sequentially incremented 10 byte identifier that is assigned to each request unit in an LT session. It is formed by concatenating the 4 byte session number with a 6 byte sequence number.

session services (SS)
One of the types of network services in the control point (CP) and in the logical unit (LU). These services provide facilities for an LU or a network operator to request that a control point (an ENCP, NNCP, or SSCP) assist with initiating or terminating sessions between logical units. Assistance with session termination is needed only by SSCP-dependent LUs. See also configuration service, maintenance service, management services.

session token
An identifier that is sent by the browser as a parameter or a cookie, in order to correlate between a user and their current session on the web application. See also transient token.

session trace
A function that collects session trace data for sessions that involve either specified resource types or a specific resource. The session trace data consists of session activation parameters, VTAM path information unit data, and network control program (NCP) data.

Session Traversal Utilities for NAT
A protocol that generates a public address for a client that is hosted behind a network address translator (NAT) or a firewall, enabling the client to receive data from clients outside the NAT or firewall.

session version
In OSI, pertaining to the two versions of the session-layer services and protocols standard. Session version 2 can handle the transmission of larger units of data than session version 1.


  1. An ordered list of unique elements.
  2. A collection of related items or members. Members in a set may be specifically chosen, or selected by one or more filter rules. In relational query processing, a set is produced by several operations, such as UNION, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT. See also category set, custom set, details-based set, page set, predefined set, selection-based set, stacked set.
  3. A field/variable whose values represent categories with no intrinsic ranking (for example, the department of the company in which an employee works). Examples of sets include region, zip code, and religious affiliation.
  4. A category within a grouping. An example of a set within a grouping, applied to an object type, is East Coast Warehouses, within Region, applied to warehouses. See also grouping.
  5. A collection of unique, unordered elements. No element appears more than once in a set, and by default, there is no reproducible order for the elements of a set.
  6. A temporary grouping of objects on a drawing that can be manipulated, changed, stored, or deleted.

See Secure Electronic Transaction.

set and test sequence number (STSN)
In SNA, a communication protocol whereby transmissions can be checked.

set associativity
An aspect of cache design that determines how many cache lines can be associated with a given memory location. A cache that is four-way set associative can contain a given memory location in one of four cache lines.

set asynchronous balanced mode (SABM)
In communications, a data link control command used to establish a data link connection with the destination in asynchronous balanced mode.

set asynchronous balanced mode extended (SABME)
In communications, pertaining to a control command used to initiate data transfer in the extended asynchronous balanced mode of operation with a remote link station. The SABME command uses modulus 128 sequence numbers.

set buffer address (SBA)
An order used to position data in the buffer of a 3270 terminal, thereby controlling the position of data on the screen. The SBA order is followed by a 2-byte buffer address.

set flag
A flag that can be put into effect with the shell set command.

set function
A function that performs calculations on a column in a set of rows in a view, such as the average value of the cost of some similar product orders. A set function may only be used in the selection list of a SELECT statement.

See set-group-ID mode bit.

set-group-ID mode bit (setgid)
In setting file access permissions, sets the effective and saved group IDs of the process to the group ID of the file on execution.

set integrity pending
A state indicating that integrity processing is required on a table. To remove this state, a SET INTEGRITY statement must be processed for the table. See also check pending, integrity processing.

set integrity pending no access state
A state indicating that integrity processing is required for a table and that no access to that table is allowed until integrity processing is complete.

set integrity pending read access state
A state indicating that integrity processing is required for a table and that only read access to that table is allowed until integrity processing is complete.

set normal response mode (SNRM)
A data link control command that puts the link connection in normal response mode (NRM).

set operation
An operation that combines infosets in different ways to produce another infoset or to highlight specific information contained within the infoset.

set operator
An operator in SQL that corresponds to a relational operator. A set operator derives a result table by combining two other result tables. An example of a set operator is UNION, which corresponds to the union relational operator.

set point
The input value at which a discrete device activates.

set point action
The wanted behavior of the discrete device, such as a switch, at the specified set point, such as on or off.

set services
In OSI, callable services that supply optional information to the subsystem. See also action service, extract service.

set size
In DCF, the set size of a given typeface determines the number of characters that will fit in a line of a given width when it is printed or set.

setter method
A method whose purpose is to set the value of an instance or class variable. This capability allows another object to set the value of one of its variables. See also accessor method, getter method, mutator method.

A value of an attribute that determines how an object looks and functions.

settings view
A view of an object that provides a way to display the attributes associated with the object. For example, using the settings view, the user can change the areas that display in a window, such as the title or columns.

settled quantity
The quantity on an order for which the payment is received.

A payment process that involves collecting funds for the amount recorded for an order.

settling time
A user-specified time interval during which the application waits before activating an offline resource group on a higher priority node that is joining the cluster. After the settling time expires, the resource group starts activating the node that has the highest priority among the nodes that joined the cluster during the settling time interval. See also delayed fallback timer, resource group, resource group policies, startup.

See set-user-ID mode bit.

The preparation of a computing system to perform a job or job step. Setup is usually performed by an operator and often involves the performance of routine functions.

setup program
A user-provided program that defines and inquires about FEPI resources, and performs housekeeping for the sessions.

set-user-ID mode bit (setuid)
In setting file access permissions, an attribute that sets the effective and saved user IDs of the process to the owner ID of the file on execution.


  1. The measurement of how important or significant a message is. The higher the severity level, the more severe or important the condition.
  2. A measure of the relative threat that a source poses on a destination.
  3. In software and systems development, a measurement of the importance for a unit of work, for example, critical, high, medium, or low.

severity code
A number that indicates the seriousness of an error condition.

severity level

  1. A classification for an error that indicates its degree of severity. The predefined severity levels, in order of descending severity, are: 1- critical business impact, 2- significant business impact, 3- medium business impact, and 4- low business impact.
  2. A classification for an event that indicates its degree of severity. The predefined severity levels, in order of descending severity, are: fatal, critical, warning, minor, harmless, and unknown.

severity rating
The level assigned to an issue by the scan, indicating the security risk it represents.

See waste water.

SFG partner
See Sterling File Gateway partner.

See sysplex failure management.

SFP transceiver
See small-form-factor pluggable transceiver.

See Suomen Standardisoimisliitto.

See Services for UNIX.

See service group.

See selling, general, and administrative expense.

See Standard Generalized Markup Language.

See smart grid maturity model.

See Bourne shell.

See application shell.

See Secure Hash Algorithm.


  1. To darken, as if with a shadow.
  2. In architecture, variation of a color produced by mixing it with black.

SHA digest
See Secure Hash Algorithm digest.


  1. Highlighting an area on the page by varying graded density.
  2. In computer graphics, emphasizing a given display group by changing the attributes of all the other display groups in the same display field. (T)


  1. A duplication of the Enterprise Address Book (EAB) data on another system.
  2. To duplicate Enterprise Address Book (EAB) data from one system to another and to send EAB changes, additions, and deletions to other systems.

shadow column
A hidden column on replicated tables that contains values supplied by the database server. The database server uses shadow columns to perform internal operations.

shadow copy
A snapshot of a volume. The snapshot can be taken while applications on the system continue to write data to the volumes.

shadow database
In an RSR environment, a database maintained at the tracking site as a remote copy of a database at the active site. If a remote takeover occurs, the shadow database becomes the master database.

shadow index
In index reorganization, an internal structure that is built and then used for index access after the index reorganization is complete.


  1. The capability of a system to copy data from one system to another system and keep it up to date whenever it is changed on any system that shadows the information in the network.
  2. A recovery technique in which current page contents are never overwritten. Instead, new pages are allocated and written while the pages whose values are being replaced are retained as shadow copies to support system restoration. The shadow copies are deleted when they are no longer needed.
  3. The process of having a high-level maintenance task, such as a yearly preventive maintenance check supersede a lower-level maintenance task, which eliminates the need for that instance of lower-level scheduling.

shadow log
A log of errors that occur from the time that an initial program load starts to the time storage management recovery ends. The log contains the latest occurring errors, and may contain errors not found in the error log.

shadow replicate
A copy of an existing (primary) Enterprise Replication replicate. Shadow replicates allow Enterprise Replication to manage alter and repair operations on replicated tables. See also master replicate, replicate.

shadow resource
In VTAM, an alternate representation of a network resource that is retained as a definition for possible future use.

shadow spend
The use of funds from outside an official budget or outside the control of a sanctioned group, like corporate procurement, to buy products and services.

shadow table
A source table copy that contains some or all of the columns of the source table and is implemented as a refresh-deferred materialized query table that is maintained by replication. See also latency-based routing, replication latency.

shadow volume
The data stored from a snapshot of a volume. The snapshot can be taken while applications on the system continue to write data to the volumes.

shadow zone
A zone where the tags might not be visible temporarily because they are out of reach of the tag reader infrastructure or the signals are shielded. WebSphere Sensor Events assumes that a tag continues to be in the shadow zone at the last reported position after it has been seen. No alert is generated if the tag is no longer visible.

To cause movement such that a device's accelerometer senses that movement, and starts an event. For example, testers and customers can initiate a problem report about an app by shaking their device.

shape compression
A method used to compress digitally encoded character shapes using a specified algorithm.

shape determination
For Arabic script, the process that decides which of the several (up to four) shapes of an Arabic character is to be used in the current context. The shapes are initial, middle, final, and isolated. For each character, the decision is based on the linking capabilities of current and surrounding characters. See also base shape, presentation shape.

shape document
A record that describes the resource shape and makes it available through the URI. See also resource shape.

A digital file format for geographic information systems software.

shape technology
A method used to encode character shapes digitally using a specified algorithm.

In QoS, the process of delaying packets within a traffic stream so that the traffic conforms to a user-defined profile.


  1. A subset of data that is assigned to a server. See also cluster collection store, sharded query, sharding.
  2. An instance of a partition. A shard can be a primary or replica. See also container server.

sharded deployment
A type of deployment in which multiple transaction database shards exist. Each colony has one transaction database shard.

sharded query

  1. A query that consolidates the results from one or more shards.
  2. A query that consolidates the results from all servers in a grid or region. See also shard, sharding.

The process of horizontally partitioning subsets of data across multiple servers. The servers can be logical or physical. See also shard, sharded query.


  1. To direct others to content for them to experience, enjoy, or partake in.
  2. An item that can be shared, such as a file.
  3. A file system, file set, or directory that has been made accessible to authorized remote clients by using supported services.
  4. A folder or file that is made accessible to multiple components or users on a network.

shareable edit
A method of editing where users can lock different sections in the same module and edit those sections.

Property of a resource that can be accessed by more than one user at the same time.

shared access
Access to a resource or application using a shared credential. See also credential.

shared access path
An access path used by more than one file member to get data common to both members.

shared access policy
A policy that authorizes role members to share access by credentials or credential pools. A policy can be defined for a specific credential pool, a specific credential, or all pools or all credentials with the same organization container context.

shared access transport facility (SATF)
A network fabric that is shared amongst a number of networking partners that provides any-to-any communication between those partners.

shared address space
A type of address space shared by multiple UNIX System Services (z/OS UNIX) processors.

shared broadcasting
A condition in which the TSO data sets SYS1.UADS (TSO user definition) and SYS1.BRODCAST (TSO message transmission definition) are shared by all systems in the multi-access spool (MAS) complex.

shared common component
A common component that is a serviceable unit and is consumed by multiple other products or bundles.

shared communications area (SCA)

  1. A memory structure in a cluster caching facility that can be simultaneously accessed by multiple members in a DB2 pureScale instance. The SCA contains database-wide control data that must be synchronized across all members.
  2. A coupling facility list structure that a DB2 for z/OS data sharing group uses for communication between members of the data sharing group.

shared contract folder
A contract folder that is available to all internal users and is managed by permission. All shared folders share a single company customer-wide top-level parent folder.

shared control
A function that allows the participants to see the presenter’s entire desktop or a specific application.

shared database
A CICS facility that allows a DL/I batch region under a CICS controller to access a database owned by a CICS online system.

shared disk
A disk that is configured to serve more than one node. Shared disks are physically connected to multiple nodes. See also shared file system.

shared dynamic serialization
A value for serialization that specifies that a file must not be backed up or archived if it is being modified during the operation. The backup-archive client retries the backup or archive operation a number of times; if the file is being modified during each attempt, the backup-archive client will back up or archive the file on its last try. See also dynamic serialization, serialization, shared static serialization, static serialization.

shared dynamic storage area (SDSA)
The user-key storage area for any non-reentrant user-key RMODE(24) programs, and also for any storage obtained by programs issuing EXEC CICS GETMAIN commands for storage below 16 MB with the SHARED option.

shared Ethernet adapter (SEA)
A Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) component that connects a physical Ethernet adapter and one or more virtual Ethernet adapters.

shared field
In Notes, a field that is used in more than one form. For example, many forms have a creation date field, so designers can define the field once and reuse it.

shared file
A file whose open data path can be shared between two or more programs processing in the same job. See also open data path.

shared file system

  1. An operating system extension that allows multiple users or computers to use the same set of files at the same time, across a network. To each user, the shared file system appears to be an extension of the local file system. See also export.
  2. A file system that is configured to serve more than one node. See also shared disk.

shared folder

  1. A folder that is specific to a section like a database or template, which can be accessed and used, but not edited, by anyone in the organization with access rights.
  2. A directory or folder to which network users can connect. File storage and content cache areas must be located in a shared folder.

shared-for-read lock state
The lock state for a file in which the file can be shared with another program if the program does not request exclusive use of the file. The predefined value for this lock state is *SHRRD.

shared-for-update lock state
The lock state for a file in which the file can be shared either for update or for read operations with another program. The predefined value for this lock state is *SHRUPD.

shared GID
A group ID value that has been assigned to more than one z/OS UNIX group.

shared inbound channel
In IBM MQ for z/OS, a channel that was started by a listener using the group port. The channel definition of a shared channel can be stored either on page set zero (private) or in the shared repository (global).

shared index database
A secondary index database containing more than one secondary index in the same physical operating system data set.

shared IP address
An IP address that is configured so that it can rotate among cluster nodes. See also nonconcurrent resource group.

shared ledger technology
See distributed ledger technology.

shared library
A library device that is used by multiple storage manager servers. See also library, shared-object file.

shared library file
A file that consists of a symbolic name, a Java class path and a native path for loading Java Native Interface (JNI) libraries. Applications that are deployed on the same node as this file can access this information.

shared library program
A program that, when loaded, is put in the shared library region for system-wide sharing.

shared library region
The area of storage in the system in which shared library objects are loaded.

shared list
A response list that is shared between different questions.

shared lock

  1. A lock that several tasks can hold.
  2. A lock that limits concurrently running application processes to read-only operations on database data. See also exclusive lock, gross lock.

shared logical volume
A logical volume that is configured to allow access by more than one node.

shared mail
In Domino, a feature that stores messages addressed to more than one user on a mail server in a central database, called the shared mail database.

shared managed object
A data object that is shared, defined, and managed independently of active work. Instances of shared managed objects exist beyond the end of the process applications that the shared managed objects were created in. See also data object.

shared member
A member that explicitly shares storage space with another member of the same name. Shared members prevent making extra calculations on a member that appears in more than one location in the outline.

shared memory

  1. An interprocess communications service that provides shared memory segments.
  2. An area of memory simultaneously accessible to more than one cooperating process.
  3. Physical memory that is assigned to a shared memory pool and shared among multiple logical partitions.

Shared Memory Communications over RDMA (SMC-R)
A method of using RDMA technology for transparent communications to applications.

shared memory ID (shmid)
An identifier assigned to the shared segment for use within a particular process.

shared memory pool
A defined collection of physical memory blocks that are managed as a single memory pool by the hypervisor.

shared memory segment
An interprocess communications mechanism that allows a process to directly read data from, write data to, and share data with other processes without having the data manipulated by the operating system.

shared-nothing architecture
See shared-nothing environment.

shared-nothing environment
A distributed database architecture in which each database partition server has its own processor, memory, and disks.

shared-no-update lock state
The lock state for a file in which the file can be shared with another program if the program requests either a shared-no-update lock state or a shared-for-read lock state. The predefined value for this lock state is *SHRNUP.

shared object
A report object that is made available for its content to be referenced within the same report or across reports.

shared-object file
A library that is not linked to an application at compile time but instead is loaded into memory by the operating system as needed. Several applications can share access to the loaded shared-object file. See also dynamic link library, library, shared library.

shared object library
A collection of subroutines that can be shared by multiple processes.

shared outbound channel
In IBM MQ for z/OS, a channel that moves messages from a shared transmission queue. The channel definition of a shared channel can be stored either on page set zero (private) or in the shared repository (global).

shared place
A place created for a community of people with a common purpose. Shared places can be public or restricted. The place creator (who automatically becomes the place manager) specifies whether a place is public or restricted during place creation.

shared port
A communication port on a single input/output processor using short-hold mode on a single SDLC line description.

shared private cloud
A cloud computing environment in which a company owns the infrastructure and the customer has shared access and pays per usage.

shared procedure
A routine that is defined and called, using SQL, to perform operations that can include both host language statements and SQL statements.

shared processing pool
See shared processor pool.

shared processor pool
A group of physical processors that provide processing capacity that can be shared among multiple logical partitions. Processing capacity from the shared processor pool can be assigned to each of the logical partitions in partial processor increments. The sum of the assigned processing capacity across all logical partitions in the shared processor pool cannot exceed the total processing capacity of the shared processor pool.

Shared Product Object Tree (SPOT)
A /usr file system for diskless and dataless clients, as well as the network boot support for all clients.

shared queue

  1. A collection of data objects with the same name that reside on a coupling facility queue structure. Data objects on a shared queue are available to all CQS clients that have access to the structure.
  2. In IBM MQ for z/OS, a type of local queue. The messages on the queue are stored in the coupling facility and can be accessed by one or more queue managers in a queue-sharing group. The definition of the queue is stored in the shared repository. See also queue-sharing group.

shared record format
A record format that is used in more than one externally described file.

shared repository

  1. A storage location of server objects where each file is stored only once even if it belongs to several objects.
  2. In IBM MQ for z/OS, a shared DB2 database that is used to hold object definitions that have been defined globally.

shared resource

  1. A function that permits the sharing of a pool of I/O-related control blocks, channel programs, and buffers among several Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data sets that are open at the same time. See also global shared resource, local shared resource.
  2. A software file or plug-in that is stored in a directory and can be shared by packages. See also installation directory.
  3. A special resource or workstation resource that can be used simultaneously by more than one operation.

shared resources directory
The directory that contains software files or plug-ins that are shared by packages. The contents of this directory are used by all products in all the package groups that are defined on the computer.

shared RoCE environment
An environment in which multiple operating system instances can concurrently use or share the same physical RoCE feature. A shared RoCE environment applies to an IBM z13 (z13) or later system.

shared secret
An encrypted value that is used to retrieve the initial password of a user. This value is defined when the personal information for the user is initially loaded into the system.

shared-secret key cryptography
A method of cryptography where the same key is used by two communicating parties, that is, for both encryption and decryption.

shared segment
In VM, a feature of a saved system that allows one or more segments of reentrant code in real storage to be shared among many virtual machines.

shared service
A predefined virtual application pattern that is deployed and shared by multiple application deployments in the cloud, including virtual applications, virtual systems, and virtual appliances.

shared service instance
An application capability that is made available in the cloud as an always-on, multitenant, elastic service for multiple users or applications.

shared static serialization
A copy-group serialization value that specifies that a file must not be modified during a backup or archive operation. The client attempts to retry the operation a number of times. If the file is in use during each attempt, the file is not backed up or archived. See also dynamic serialization, serialization, shared dynamic serialization, static serialization.

shared storage

  1. Storage within a storage facility that is configured such that multiple homogenous or divergent hosts can access the storage concurrently. The storage has a uniform appearance to all hosts; the host programs that access the storage must have a common model for the information on a storage device.
  2. An area of storage that is the same for each virtual address space. Because it is the same space for all users, information stored there can be shared and does not have to be loaded in the user region.

shared storage pool

  1. A storage pool that can be shared by more than one subsystem. See also private storage pool.
  2. A storage pool that provides distributed storage access to one or more logical partitions or virtual servers in a cluster or that can be shared by more than one subsystem.

shared subscription
A subscription in which a client shares the work of receiving messages from multiple consumers. See also durable subscription, nondurable subscription.

shared UID
A single UID value that has been assigned to more than one z/OS UNIX user.

shared view
A view that is public to more than one Notes user.

shared virtual area (SVA)
In VSE, a high address area of virtual storage that contains a system directory list (SDL) of frequently used phases, resident programs that can be shared between partitions, and an area for system support.

shared volume group
A volume group that is configured to allow access by more than one node. A shared volume group resides entirely on the external disks shared by cluster nodes.

shared weight
A shared value for sorting purposes. For example, in a simple sort table, the letters a and A might share the same weight value of 24, and b and B the value 25. This would ensure that words such as able and Able would be kept close to each other. See also unique weight, weight.

shared-weight sort sequence
A sort sequence in which some graphic characters in the sequence may have the same weight as some other characters in the sequence. Those with the same weight will sort together as if they were the same character.

share limit
In SNA, the maximum number of control points that can control a network resource concurrently.

share lock
A lock that prevents concurrently executing application processes from changing data, but not from reading data. See also exclusive lock.

Using a file on a remote system. Sharing is performed by mounting the remote file system and then reading or writing files in that remote system.

sharing complex
A group of subsystems using IMS and DBRC that share the same RECON data sets.

sharing control data set
A linear data set (LDS) that contains information DFSMSdfp requires to ensure the integrity of the data-sharing environment for record-level sharing (RLS).

sharing conversations
The facility for more than one conversation to share a channel instance, or the conversations that share a channel instance.

sharing group
A collection of agents that scan the same object, such as a table, using the same mechanism, such as a table scan, and potentially share pages or records of this object that are in the buffer pool.

sharing ratio
In offices, the number of mobile workers who can share a workpoint.

sharing set
A collection of sharing groups that access the same object, such as a table, using the same mechanism, such as a table scan.

The angle of slant of a character cell that is not perpendicular to a baseline.

shearline direction
In GOCA, the direction specified by the character shear and character angle attributes.


  1. A division of the physical medium; multiple sheets can exist on a physical medium. For example, a roll of paper might be divided by a printer into rectangular pieces of paper, each representing a sheet. See also form.
  2. A page in a spreadsheet.
  3. In a workbook, a grid-like representation of data that includes predefined logic for analyzing data. See also workbook.

shelf location
A single space on a shelf for storage of removable media. In DFSMSrmm, a shelf location is defined in the removable media library by a rack number; in a storage location, it is defined by a bin number. See also bin number, rack number.

shelf management
A function that manages the placement of volumes in individual slots in a location. In DFSMSrmm, shelf management is provided for the removable media library using rack numbers. For storage locations, shelf management is optional and uses bin numbers.

shelf-resident optical volume
An optical volume that resides outside of an optical library. See also optical volume.

shelf-resident tape volume
A tape volume that resides outside of a tape library. See also tape volume.


  1. Software that allows a kernel program to run under different operating system environments.
  2. A component that provides custom native capabilities and security features for applications.
  3. A software interface between users and an operating system. Shells generally fall into one of two categories: a command line shell, which provides a command line interface to the operating system; and a graphical shell, which provides a graphical user interface (GUI).
  4. The CICS facility that provides an isolated area for running CICS programs without adversely affecting other users.

shell procedure
See shell script.

shell program
See shell.

shell prompt
On operating systems such as AIX or UNIX, the character or character string indicating that the shell can accept commands. The shell prompt is typically the dollar sign ($).

shell script
A program, or script, that is interpreted by the shell of an operating system.

shell widget
In Enhanced X-Windows and AIXwindows, a top-level widget that is internal and communicates directly with the window manager. This widget does not have parents, nor can it be instantiated.

shielded twisted pair
A cable medium consisting of a telephone wire wrapped in a metal sheath to eliminate external interference.


  1. A keyboard action to allow uppercase or other characters to be entered. See also level.
  2. A scheduled work period. For example, a 24-hour day is often divided into three 8-hour shifts.

Shift_JIS (SJIS)
A character encoding for the Japanese language developed by the Japanese company ASCII. It is based on character sets defined within JIS standards JIS X 0201:1997 (for the single-byte characters) and JIS X 0208:1997 (for the double byte characters).

shift control character
A shift-in character or a shift-out character.

shift-in character
A control character (X'0F') that is used in EBCDIC systems to denote that the subsequent bytes represent single-byte character set (SBCS) characters. See also shift-out character.

shift-out character (SO)
A control character (X'0E') that is used in EBCDIC systems to denote that the subsequent bytes, up to the next shift-in control character, represent double-byte character set (DBCS) characters. See also shift-in character.


  1. A part for adjusting gaps, play, or position in a mechanism.
  2. A thin, often tapered, piece of material, such as metal, used to fill in space between things for support, adjustment, or leveling.

A string of consecutive tokens (words) that are taken from a sentence. For example, from "This is a very short sentence.", the 3-word shingles (or trigrams) are: This is a/ is a very/ a very short/ very short sentence/. Shingles can be used in statistical linguistics. For example, if two different texts have a lot of common shingles, the texts are probably related somehow.

ship advice
Notification that specifies when the order is sent to the ship node.

ship as complete
A shipping option that requires all items in an order to be shipped together.


  1. A group of items from one or more customer orders that uses one shipment hub and has the same ship-to address.
  2. A quantity of product transported from one site to another. See also site.

shipment container marking (SCM)
An identifier for a pallet, usually in bar code format.

shipment group
A grouping of shipments with similar attributes that is based on defined shipment selector parameters, such as shipment priority.

shipment ID
See shipment identifier.

shipment identifier (shipment ID, SID)
The number or alphanumeric code the shipper defines for each shipment.

shipment line
The process of determining the location from which a product is shipped.

shipment mode (SM)
The different means of shipping items, generally full truck load (TL), less than truck load (LTL), and parcel.

shipment receipt record
A record that contains information about the receipt of materials at a location, for example, at a site or storeroom within an organization. A shipment receipt record contains details such as the quantity of items that are received, the date of receipt, and the locations of the source and destination storerooms.

shipment record
A record that contains information about the transfer of materials between source and destination storerooms, such as between two sites within an organization. A shipment record contains details such as the delivery method, the quantity of items, the date of the shipment, and the storeroom locations.

shipment shell
A temporary shipment file that allows shippers and carriers to submit status updates before the shipper has submitted the shipment to Sterling TMS.

shipment status
The status of a shipment during the delivery cycle, such as loaded, departed, arrived, or unloaded. See also plan status.

shipment term
A condition of a shipment that is bound to a quote. The terms can specify the period within which the payment is to be made by the customer or the carrier service that will be used to fulfill the products in the quote.

ship node
The warehouse or distribution center that is shipping the shipment or products.

ship order total pricing rule
A pricing rule that changes the total shipping charges charged to a customer based on the order total. For example, an organization can create a pricing rule under which a customer can avail a 100% discount on shipping charges if the customer buys goods worth $5000 or more.

shippable terminal
In transaction routing, a terminal whose definition can be shipped to another CICS system when the other system requires a remote definition of that terminal.

The manufacturer, retailer, or other organization that manages contracts, shipments, and freight payments. The shipper organization can also work with vendors and suppliers that might not be licensed to use Sterling TMS.

shipper export declaration (SED)
A required customs document for exportation of goods from the United States.

shipper's export declaration
A document that accompanies international shipments from the USA, which is used as a record of US exports and to compile trade statistics.

shipper status code
A code that is used to define a shipper or ASN. The code descriptions can be set up according to customer requirements.

shipping calendar
A calendar set up by a ship node to schedule shipments and ensure that they are scheduled only within the working times of the node.

shipping carrier
A company that provides shipping services from a fulfillment center to a customer. See also fulfillment center.

shipping charge
The amount of money that is charged to send an item or items to a requested destination.

Shipping Procedural Instruction (SPI)
The import and supply chain security requirements that must be met when IBM is responsible for customs clearance of a cross border shipment. The SPI contains the requirements for country of origin marking, preparing documents, invoicing IBM, and the Shipping/Routing Guide.

shipping unit
The packaging units, such as a pallets or cartons, that are specified in a shipment manifest. A shipment can contain one or more shipping units. Each shipping unit can contain one or more items.

ship-to code (STC)
An IBM internal three digit alphanumeric code assigned to a ship-to address. All IBM shipments require that a valid ship-to code be utilized when shipping to IBM or non-IBM locations.

ship together
An advanced order shipping option that allows items in an order to be marked for multiple group shipping instructions in the order item list.

ship with orders
A process in which a shipper marks a set of orders that must ship together on the same truck or container.

See simple HISAM.

See short-hold mode.

See shared memory ID.

shoot the other node in the head (STONITH)
A technique that fences off a failed node within a cluster.

See customer.

shopping cart
A container that holds items that a user intends to order. See also interest item.

shopping currency
The currency that is used by a store in its transactions with a particular customer. See also preferred currency, supported currency.

shopping flow URL
A controller command that has a URL interface and is run from a store interface.

shopping language
The language that is used when displaying pages to a particular customer. See also preferred language.

In ODM, a terminal descriptor type used to define a variable as a signed 2-byte number.

shortage resolution
The act of either manually or automatically resolving inventory shortages that are detected. Inventory shortages can be resolved by placing an order for the additional quantity, or by canceling some of the orders placed at a later date for the item that has the inventory shortage.

short circuiting
The evaluation of Boolean expressions with AND and OR such that the right operand is not evaluated if the result of the operation can be determined by evaluating the left operand. The evaluation of the expression is always from left to right.

shortcut bar
In Eclipse, the vertical toolbar at the left side of the workbench window that contains buttons for open perspectives and for fast views.

shortcut key
See keyboard shortcut.

short description
A brief description of a term in a business glossary. See also long description.

shortest distance
The mileage type that is based on the fewest number of miles from the origin to the destination.

shortest path
The processing path that takes the shortest time to complete of all parallel paths in a process instance, where each path considered begins at a start node or an input to the process and ends at a terminate node.

Shortest Path First (SPF)
A routing algorithm in which each router uses the length of the path to determine the shortest-path spanning tree. Shortest Path First is used by link-state routing protocols. See also link state routing protocol.

short format
In binary floating-point storage formats, the 32-bit representation of a binary floating-point number, not-a-number, or infinity.

short-form identifier
See coded character set identifier.

short frame
In Performance Tools, a frame that has fewer bytes between its start flag and end flag than is permitted by the data control protocol of the integrated services digital network (ISDN).

short frame errors
In Performance Tools, the total number of short frames received by the terminal equipment (TE).

short-hold mode (SHM)
A mode specified during configuration that allows the DTE to connect or reconnect when no data is being transmitted over a circuit-switched line, while maintaining the logical connection of the sessions across the circuit.

short host name
The system or machine name portion of a fully qualified host name; for example, in the fully qualified host name "system1.mysite.mycompany.com," the short host name is "system1."

short interface
In query management, the set of language-specific interfaces that allow commands to run that do not require access to program variables. The short interface includes the communications area, command length, and command string.

Short Message Service (SMS)
A message service that is used to send alphanumeric messages that are 160 characters or less between mobile phones. See also Multimedia Messaging Service.

Short Message Service Center (SMSC)
A component of the mobile telephony network, specified by the GSM group of standards, that provides for exchange of alphanumeric messages of less than 160 bytes. Messages can be exchanged between different types of system such as mobile telephone, alphanumeric pager, terminal, email, telex, or DTMF telephone.

Short Message Service gateway (SMS gateway)
An external server which is used to send SMSs.

Short Message Service message (SMS message)
A message commonly referred to as a "text message" that allows for messages of up to 160 characters to be sent to another mobile device. Longer messages are automatically split into parts.

short name
In personal communications, the one-letter name (A through Z) of the presentation space or emulation session.

short notebook
A choice that reduces the number of choices that appear in a notebook.

short-on-storage (SOS)
The condition in CICS that occurs when requests for storage from the dynamic storage areas exceed available storage. CICS cannot satisfy these requests, or can satisfy them only by using some of the storage cushion, even when all programs that are eligible for deletion, and are not in use, have been deleted. See also program compression, storage cushion.

short-path transformer
A transformer program for function shipping over MRO links. It is designed to optimize the pathlength involved in the construction of the TIOAs send on an MRO session for function shipping.

short picked
Pertaining to a container or shipment that contains less than the full amount of items that were ordered because of insufficient inventory.

short-running process
See microflow.

short status
Status output in abbreviated form (short form) from the spooling subsystem.

short string
A fixed-length string or a variable-length string whose maximum length is less than or equal to 254 bytes.

short-term canister
An in-memory database that is used for storing active sessions.

shortwave laser adapter
A connector used between a host and the ESS to support shortwave fibre-channel communication.

short wavelength
A type of fiber optic cabling that is based on 850-mm lasers and supports 1.0625-Gbps link speeds. SWL can also refer to the type of gigabit interface converter (GBIC) or small form-factor pluggable (SFP). See also long wavelength.

show card
A card that presents information to respondents. For example, a show card can format a category list in a larger font so that interviewers can show the card to respondents instead of reading out loud the list of categories.

A business space that displays example widgets and data that describes a particular scenario to the user.

A feature that can determine if the supplier is favorable or not favorable for business. When a question or questionnaire is designated as a show-stopper, the suppliers must attain the minimum score required for it. If a supplier does not achieve the required score, buyers may not consider them favorable for business.

In bar codes, the generally undesirable property of a substrate that permits underlying markings to be seen.


  1. The process of breaking up an XML document for storage in database tables.
  2. See decomposition.

The reduction in inventory due to theft or loss.

shrink wrap
A method of wrapping and sealing materials by surrounding them with plastic and then shrinking the plastic by applying heat. This method is used for protection during transportation or storage, as well as a safety sealant.

See simple hierarchical sequential access method.

The status of a unit of recovery that has failed at one of the following points: while in doubt during a two-phase commit process; while attempting to commit changes to resources at the end of the unit of recovery; or while attempting to back out the unit of recovery. If a unit of recovery fails for one of these reasons, it is removed (shunted) from the primary system log to the secondary system log pending recovery from the failure.

Pertaining to the status of a UOW that has failed at one of the following points: while in-doubt during a two-phase commit process, while attempting to commit changes to resources at the end of the UOW, while attempting to back out the UOW, or if a UOW fails for one of these reasons, it is removed (shunted) from the primary system log (DFHLOG) to the secondary system log (DFHSHUNT) pending recovery from the failure.

The process of suspending a unit of work in order to allow time to resolve the problem that has caused the suspension. Shunting releases the user's terminal, virtual storage, and CP resources, and allows completion of the unit of work to be deferred for as long as necessary.

In SNA, a command used to complete a session.


  1. The process of ending operation of a system or a subsystem by following a defined procedure.
  2. A status condition that describes when the cluster is shut down as intended.

See soft hyphen.

See Securities Industry Automation Corporation.

See session information block.


  1. In a database outline, any member that is at the same branch level as another member. For example, Quarter 1, Quarter 2, and Quarter 3 are siblings.
  2. Children of the same parent window.

sibling document
In a Notes view or folder, a document at the same level as another document.

sibling node
One of several nodes within the scope of another node.

sibling segments
Two or more occurrences of different sibling segment types having a common parent segment occurrence. See also twin segments.

sibling segment types
Two or more segment types having a common parent segment type.

See service integration bus.

SiCounter value
In Performance Toolbox, a value that is incremented continuously. Instruments show the delta (change) in the value between observations, divided by the elapsed time, representing a rate per second.


  1. See security identifier.
  2. See shipment identifier.
  3. See SCCS identification.
  4. See subject identifier.
  5. See source ID.


  1. In architecture, a physical surface of a sheet. A sheet has a front side and a back side.
  2. See physical partition.
  3. The part of a sector address that indicates which surface of a double-sided diskette is to be accessed by the read/write head.

Information placed at one or both sides of an article in a printed or web publication, graphically separate from the rest of the display but with some contextual connection.

sidebar plug-in
A plug-in that allows users to update their status and view the status for colleagues in the same network from their Lotus Notes clients.

side-by-side installation
The process of installing a different level of code alongside an existing level of code. See also slip installation.

side-by-side migration
A data migration strategy that preserves the previous version of databases, minimizing the downtime of a production environment but requiring more hardware resources. See also in-place migration.

A library that publishes the functions of a dynamic link library (DLL) program. Entry names and module names are stored in the library after the source code is compiled.

side effect

  1. An undesirable result caused by altering the values of nonlocal variables by a procedure or function.
  2. A change in the state of the execution environment.

A storage area used to maintain copies of tracks within a concurrent copy domain. A concurrent copy operation maintains one sidefile in storage control cache and another in processor storage.

side information

  1. In OSI, system-defined values that are used as the initial values of certain parameters. In OSI Communications Subsystem, side information is a combination of (a) information in the OSI Communications Subsystem information base, and (b) information provided by directory service.
  2. System-defined variables that are used for the initial values of the communications element of the SAA Common Programming Interface partner_LU_name, mode_name, and TP_name characteristics.

On Windows 8 environments, the process of loading a file of type appx on a mobile device without using the Windows Store.

See security information and event management.

See signaling information field.

sift-down effect
The copying of a value from a higher-level resource to a lower-level resource. The sift-down effect applies to many of the keywords and operands in NCP and VTAM definition statements.

An algorithm developed to use the characteristics of models that have a large ratio of the number of columns to the number of rows.

A REXX special variable that contains the line number of the last instruction that caused a jump to a label.

To attach a unique electronic signature, derived from the sender's user ID, to a document or field when a document is mailed. Signing mail ensures that if an unauthorized user creates a new copy of a user's ID, the unauthorized user cannot forge signatures with it. In addition, the signature verifies that no one has tampered with the data while the message was in transit.


  1. A mechanism by which a process can be notified of, or affected by, an event occurring in the system. Examples of such events include hardware exceptions and specific actions by processes.
  2. In operating system operations, a method of inter-process communication that simulates software interrupts.
  3. In replication, an SQL statement that allows communication with the Capture program and the Q Capture program. A signal is inserted into the signal control table and received by the Capture program or the Q Capture program when the program reads the log entry for the signal insert.
  4. A condition that might or might not be reported during program execution. For example, a signal can represent erroneous arithmetic operations, such as division by zero.

signal cable
An electrical wire or set of wires, such as twinaxial, coaxial, or twisted pair cables to attach devices to a computer.

signal catching function
See signal handler.

Signal Computing bus (SCbus)
A time division multiplexed (TDM) hardware bus originated by Dialogic to interconnect different vendors' computer telephony adapters. Specified as part of Signal Computing System Architecture (SCSA).

Signal Computing System Architecture (SCSA)
An architecture defined by Dialogic to support interoperability of software and hardware components developed by different vendors in the computer telephony industry.

signaled error
In OSI, an error detected but not recovered by the network layer. The error is signaled to the transport layer for action. For example, the network connection is lost and reset to a known state, possibly with loss of data, but the connection remains available for use. See also residual error.

signal handler
A subroutine or function that is called when a signal occurs.


  1. In IBM MQ for z/OS and IBM MQ for Windows, a feature that allows the operating system to notify a program when an expected message arrives on a queue.
  2. The exchange of control information between functional parts of the system in a telecommunications network.

signaling connection control part (SCCP)
A layer 3 protocol conforming to OSI.

signaling information field (SIF)
The user data portion of an MTP message signal unit.

signaling link code (SLC)
A code that identifies a particular signaling link connecting the destination and originating signaling points. This is used in MTP signaling network management messages to indicate the signaling link to which the message relates.

signaling link selection (SLS)
A field used to distribute MTP signal units across multiple signaling links.

signaling mode
The type of signaling protocol, either channel-associated signaling or common-channel signaling.

signaling NaN (sNaN)
In decimal floating-point operations, a value, not interpreted as a mathematical value, that contains a mask and a sequence of floating-point digits and that causes an invalid operation condition if used in certain arithmetic operations. See also decimal floating-point number.

signaling point
A node in a signaling network that either originates and receives signaling messages, or transfers signaling messages from one signaling link to another, or both.

signaling process
A DirectTalk component that controls signaling for an exchange data link or common-channel signaling protocol. Some signaling processes are supplied with DirectTalk, and others can be custom-written.

signaling protocol
A signal, such as resource reservation setup protocol (RSVP), that carries an admission control request to a network. The signal requests bandwidth resource according to an application's request. To get quality of service from a network, systems need to use signaling protocols.

Signaling System 7 (SS7)
The international high-speed signaling backbone used for the public-switched telephone network.

signal mask
A collection of signals that are currently blocked from delivery to a process.

signal safe
Pertaining to a function, macro, or operating system service that can be called from within a signal handler.

signal stack
An alternate stack on which signals are to be processed.


  1. In profiling, unique identification information for any application, window, or field.
  2. A code in a policy that determines what an agent can detect.
  3. A value that identifies the interfaces supported by a service program. Signatures are based on the exports and the sequence of the exports allowed from a service program.
  4. The name and parameters of a behavioral feature.
  5. The set of unique information that identifies a software application, such as the name, version, and file size of an application. See also signature candidate.
  6. The collection of types associated with a method. The signature includes the type of the return value, if any, as well as the number, order, and type of each of the method's arguments.

signature algorithm
An algorithm that is used to sign digital certificates.

signature bank
A collection of signatures. The signature emitter gets new signatures from the signature bank.

signature candidate
A file, registry entry, or other identifier that has to be verified and tested before it is applied as a valid software signature. See also raw data set, signature.

signature CSECT
The resident routine that indicates that the load module in which it is present contains a routine written in a particular language.

signature file
A set of information that uniquely identifies a software application, by such information as the name, version, and file size of an application.

signature option (sig option)
An option that enables a user to determine who can access applications, menu options, or toolbar items.

sign condition
In COBOL, a condition that states that the value of a data item is less than, equal to, or greater than zero.


  1. In DCE Security, pertaining to information that is appended to an enciphered summary of the information. This information is used to ensure the integrity of the data, the authenticity of the originator, and the unambiguous relationship between the originator and the data.

signed message
A message that requires certificate verification when it is exchanged.

signed object
In Java, an object that has been associated with a security certificate to verify its authenticity.

signed security token
A token that is cryptographically endorsed by a specific authority, such as an X/509 certificate.

signer certificate

  1. The trusted certificate entry that is typically in a truststore file.
  2. The digital certificate that validates the issuer of a certificate. For a CA, the signer certificate is the root CA certificate. For a user who creates a self-signed certificate for testing purposes, the signer certificate is the user's personal certificate. See also truststore.

significance exception
The program interruption that occurs when the resulting fraction in a floating-point addition or subtraction instruction is zero. This program interruption can be disabled through a program mask-bit setting.


  1. The significant digits of a floating-point number.
  2. In binary floating-point format, the part of a number that contains the whole number and fraction.

significant data
State data that keeps a resource from being deleted in Resource Manager (RM) when the resource is no longer active on any IMS. See also state data.

significant digit

  1. Any number of a series of numbers that follows the farthest left number, that is not a zero, and that is within the accuracy allowed.
  2. A number or series of numbers to the right of a decimal point.

significant status
A resource status classified as significant. In addition to being recoverable, if the resource status is specified as significant, the resource cannot be deleted after a terminal logoff, a user signoff, or an IMS restart.

signing password
A password that is used by a console operator to sign an action for deployment.


  1. The expression of approval or acknowledgment, often with a signature.
  2. The act a terminal user performs in order to end an identification of a user to IMS. When the terminal is an ETO terminal, the signoff process usually disconnects the user structure from the terminal structure and deletes the user structure.

sign off
To express approval or acknowledgment, often with a signature.


  1. A request made by an application process or terminal user to verify authorization to use resources.
  2. The procedure by which the user starts working at a workstation.

sign on
To connect to a computer system or network.

sign-on automation
A technology that works with application user interfaces to automate the sign-on process for users.

sign-on capable terminal
A terminal that allows sign-on transactions, either CICS-supplied (CESN) or user-written, to be run.

sign-on table (SNT)
A table holding terminal operator data, including the operator name, password, and operator priority. Each entry in the table contains data used by CICS to verify an operator name and to establish a priority and operator class for transactions entered by the operator.

sign-on table terminal entry (SNTTE)
An entry created by CICS if a terminal user sign-on is valid.

sign-on transaction program
A user-written transaction program that provides send support required by the CICS PEM server.

sign-on verification
The verification of a user ID that takes place at sign-on. Sign-on verification is required before a user can access protected IMS resources.

signpost message
A piece of text that is stored and displayed with an item or a placeholder. The signpost message explains how to obtain more control over, or more information about, the item. See also cloaked item, placeholder.

sign up
To request a resource.

sig option
See signature option.

See Service Integration Hub.

See service integration leader.

A brief pause between utterances.

silent call
A call where a connection is achieved but no interviewers are free to take the call.

silent installation
An installation that does not send messages to the console but instead stores messages and errors in log files. A silent installation can use response files for data input. See also response file, unattended installation.

silent mode
A method for installing or uninstalling a product component from the command line with no GUI display. When using silent mode, you specify the data required by the installation or uninstallation program directly on the command line or in a file (called an option file or response file).

silent uninstallation
An uninstallation process that does not send messages to the console but instead stores messages and errors in log files after the uninstall command has been invoked.

Pertaining to information or organizations that have little integration with outside entities.

See service information message.

SIM card
See Subscriber Identity Module card.

See single-instruction, multiple-data.

similarity threshold
In information analysis, a comparison threshold that defines the degree of variation that is allowed in the spelling or representation of another value.

See single inline memory module.

simple activity
In Business Process Modeling Language (BPML), a single step in a business process.

Simple and Protected GSS API Negotiation Mechanism (SPNEGO)
An authentication mechanism that provides single sign-on capability in Microsoft Windows environments.

Simple API for XML (SAX)
An event-driven, serial-access protocol for accessing XML documents, used. A Java-only API, SAX is used by most servlets and network programs to transmit and receive XML documents. See also Document Object Model.

Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)
An Internet protocol that allows LDAP clients to authenticate with an LDAP server and provides security for the data transmitted with this protocol.

simple checkpoint
The periodic recording of control information and system status on the system log at user-specified intervals.

Simple Cloud Identity Management
See System for Cross-domain Identity Management.

simple condition
In COBOL, one of the conditions chosen from the following set of conditions: relational condition, class condition, condition-name condition, switch-status condition, sign condition. See also complex condition.

simple data element
A single piece of information defined by the standards.

simple disk
See basic disk.

simple element
In Enterprise Service Tools, a field in a message that is based on a simple type. A simple element can repeat, and it can define a default or a fixed value.

simple event processing
The processing of events that have rules that rely only on the data and timing that is associated with a single event.

simple hierarchical sequential access method (SHSAM)
A type of HSAM database that contains only root segments, which have no prefixes.

The support for a HISAM database that contains only one segment type.

simple image
An image composed of a single raster pattern. See also complex image.

simple letter
A lowercase letter. See also capital letter.

simple list
A list of like values; for example, a list of user names. See also mixed list.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
An Internet application protocol for transferring mail among users of the Internet. See also email, Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol gateway (SMTP gateway)
An external host which is used to relay email messages through the SMTP.

simple name
In the CDS Cell Directory Service (CDS), one element in a CDS full name. Simple names are separated by slashes in a full name.

simple name server
A switch service that stores names, addresses, and attributes for up to 15 minutes, and provides them as required to other devices in the fabric. SNS is defined by Fibre Channel standards and exists at a well-known address. See also Fibre Channel service.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
A set of protocols for monitoring systems and devices in complex networks. Information about managed devices is defined and stored in a Management Information Base (MIB). See also Management Information Base, SNMP agent, SNMP data source adapter, SNMP manager, SNMP trap.

simple nodelocked license
A nodelocked license that allows an unlimited number of simultaneous uses of the licensed application on the local workstation.

simple page set
A nonpartitioned page set. A simple page set initially consists of a single data set (page set piece).

simple password
A password that, once enrolled on a license server, represents one or more licenses. Enabled applications can use the simple password directly. See also compound password, password.

simple policy group
A policy group whose policies belong to a scope and have a single common characteristic, such as an application name. See also node-attached policy group, node-level policy group.

simple repetitive loop
In REXX, a repetitive DO loop in which the repetitive phrase is an expression that evaluates to a count of iterations.

simple run cycle
A specific set of user-defined days a job stream is run. A simple run cycle is defined for a specific job stream and cannot be used by other job streams. See also run cycle.

simple search
The basic search type for the novice user which consists of a text box for terms and a drop-down list to select the field.

simple SLC
An SLC that is created by specifying values for basic parameters and giving the SLC a name and a description. When a simple SLC is created, all of the necessary supporting objects are also created. See also service level criteria, standard SLC, wildcard SLC, workflow SLC.

simple symbol
In REXX, a symbol that does not contain any periods and does not start with a digit (0-9).

simple table space
A table space that is neither partitioned nor segmented.

simple text language (STL)
A language that uses the single-byte character set. Simple text languages have the following characteristics: (a) the total number of alphabetic and other characters needed by these languages are small and are containable in single-byte encodings; (b) the languages are written unidirectionally left to right and top to bottom; (c) each character is assigned a single code position and does not utilize any combining sequence representation; (d) the languages are non-ideographic, that is, they use words consisting of one or more characters from their alphabets. See also complex text language, ideographic language.

simple type

  1. In the XML, a type that cannot have element content and cannot carry attributes. Elements that contain numbers (and strings, and dates, and so on) but do not contain any sub-elements are said to have simple types.
  2. A characteristic of a simple element that defines the type of data in a message (for example, string, integer, or float). In XML, a simple type cannot have element content and cannot carry attributes. See also complex type.

simple type name
The type name that appears next to the type icon in the type tree.


  1. Pertaining to communication that carries a signal in one direction only. Radio transmission is an example of simplex communication.
  2. Pertaining to printing on only one side of the paper. See also tumble.

simplex method
An algorithm for solving linear programming problems by testing adjacent vertices of the feasible set in a sequence such that at each new vertex the objective function is either unchanged or improved.

simplex state
The state of a volume that is not part of a dual-copy or a remote-copy volume pair. Ending a volume pair returns the two devices to the simplex state, in which there is no longer any capability for either automatic updates of the secondary device or for logging changes.

simplex volume
A volume that is not part of a FlashCopy, Extended Remote Copy (XRC), or Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC) volume pair.

Simplified Chinese (CHS)

  1. Characters defined and used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Simplified Chinese characters are derived from Traditional Chinese characters in one of two ways: 1. Remove or simplify the strokes of the Traditional Chinese character; 2. Replace the Traditional Chinese character by another (simpler) Traditional Chinese character. See also Traditional Chinese.
  2. The Chinese character set that has been simplified by reducing the number of strokes in common characters and deleting complicated variants. Simplified Chinese characters are used primarily in the People's Republic of China.

Simplified Chinese double-byte character set
An IBM-defined double-byte character set for Simplified Chinese. It consists of Simplified Chinese non-Chinese set, primary set, secondary set, and up to 1,880 user-definable characters.

Simplified Chinese non-Chinese character set
A subset of the Simplified Chinese DBCS, consisting of non-Chinese characters, such as Latin alphabet, Greek, Russian, Roman numeric, alphanumeric and related symbols, Katakana, Hiragana, Japanese, special symbols, and Chinese phonetic symbols. There are 712 characters in this set.

Simplified Chinese primary character set
A subset of the Simplified Chinese DBCS, consisting of commonly used Chinese characters. There are 3,755 characters in this set.

Simplified Chinese secondary character set
A subset of the Simplified Chinese DBCS, consisting of less commonly used Chinese characters. There are 3,008 characters in this set.

Simplified Message Desk Interface (SMDI)
A Northern Telecom service that transmits out-of-band information between DirectTalk and certain switches.

Simplified Message Service Interface (SMSI)
A Lucent Technologies service that transmits out-of-band information between DirectTalk and certain switches.

Simplified Policy Language
A human-readable syntax for the Autonomic Computing Policy Language and policy templates. See also Autonomic Computing Policy Language.

A faster-than-real-time performance of a process. Simulation enables organizations to observe how a process will perform in response to variations of inputs to the process, just as in a real-life work environment.

simulation profile
A copy of a process model and the elements on which it depends, augmented with simulation attributes, that you use to run a simulation. Each simulation profile in a snapshot is based on the process as it existed at the time that the snapshot was taken.

simulation snapshot
A record of the complete process model in a state that you want to preserve for simulation purposes. This record contains a copy of all the project elements the process uses, as well as any additional project elements.

An environment for staging code that is written for a different platform. Simulators are used to develop and test code in the same IDE, but then deploy that code to its specific platform. For example, one can develop code for an Android device on a computer, then test it using a simulator on that computer.

simultaneous editing
A means of working with colleagues on the same storyboard at the same time and seeing their comments and edits in real time.

simultaneous multithreading (SMT)
A processor design that combines hardware multithreading with superscalar processor technology. Using SMT, a single physical processor emulates multiple processors by enabling multiple threads to issue instructions simultaneously during each cycle.

simultaneous peripheral operation online
See spooling.

single-area structure
In a data-sharing environment, a coupling facility structure that contains only one VSO DEDB area. See also multiple-area structure.

single authorization
A setting allowing an action to be carried out by a single person. See also dual authorization.

single-board computer (SBC)
A functional computer with a microprocessor, memory, and input/output features that is built on a single circuit board.

single buffer mode
In GL, a mode in which the frame buffer bitplanes are organized into a single large frame buffer. This frame buffer is the one currently displayed and is also the one in which all drawing occurs.

single bus connection
The connection that links a single bus to the optical link card. One connector is not used.

single-byte character
A character that uses one byte of storage. Because a single byte can store values in the range of 0 to 255, it can uniquely identify 256 characters. With these code sets, an application can assume that one character is always stored in one byte. See also 8-bit character, multibyte character.

single-byte character set (SBCS)
A coded character set in which each character is represented by a 1-byte code. A 1-byte code point allows representation of up to 256 characters. See also double-byte character set, multibyte character set.

single-byte coded font (single-byte font)
A font in which the characters are defined by a 1-byte code point. A single-byte coded font has only one coded font section.

Single-Byte Command Code Sets Connection (SBCON)
The standard, approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), for the command set used by ESCON and FICON, known as FC-SB as used over a standard fibre-channel physical interface.

single-byte font
See single-byte coded font.

single-choice selection field
A field that contains a fixed number of choices arranged in a list in which only one selection can be made.

single-choice selection list
A field that contains a potentially scrollable list of choices in which only one selection can be made.

single-cluster control data set
In DFSMShsm, a migration control data set (MCDS) or backup control data set (BCDS) that is represented by a single, Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), key-sequenced data set (KSDS) cluster. The cluster can be a key-range cluster or a cluster not employing a key range.

single-cluster pattern
A reusable deployment environment architecture for IBM Business Process Management products and solutions in which the functional components of the environment (messaging, support, web-based components, and application deployment) are on one cluster.

single copy object store (SCOS)
The Domino feature that allows mail addressed to multiple users to be stored in a central database, called the shared mail database.

single deployment
A type of deployment where a single action was deployed to one or more devices.

Single Digital Trunk Processor
The combination of a single digital signal processing card and supporting equipment that provides high-level voice compression, high voice quality, and digital telephone signaling functions (transmit and receive) using an external shielded cable to an attached IBM RS/6000 computer. The Single Digital Trunk Processor supports one T1 or E1 trunk. See also Multiple Digital Trunk Processor.

single-entry font
Fonts with a single entry in the Map Coded Font structured field. This includes all single-byte fonts and those double-byte fonts being defined as coded fonts. See also multiple-entry font.

single-image mode
The state of a processor complex when all of its hardware resources are in a single configuration.

single inline memory module (SIMM)
In computer hardware, a small circuit card that carries a number of surface-mounted memory chips in a space-saving configuration with the connector pins protruding in a single line from the edge of the card. Varying numbers of SIMMs can be plugged easily into slots in a memory board to expand random access memory. See also dual inline memory module.

single instance queue manager
A queue manager that does not have multiple instances. See also multi-instance queue manager.

single-instance storage
See data deduplication.

single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD)
A parallel programming technique where multiple processors execute the same instructions on different data at the same time.

single-level versioning
A document version series containing only major versions.

single lock manager
A concept where locks for database resources shared between programs or subsystems are handled by one control point. Either an IRLM or a Program Isolation locking function can be invoked for the subsystem.

single logging
A method of recording IBM MQ for z/OS activity where each change is recorded on one data set only. See also dual logging.

single-member warm start
A type of warm start in which a member that ended abnormally joins an active configuration. This member can recover only work in process when it failed or stopped.

single message mode
A processing mode in which synchronization points occur as each message is read from the queue, as well as at application termination. See also message mode, multiple message mode.

single-mode optical fiber
An optical fiber in which only the lowest-order bound mode (which can consist of a pair of orthogonally polarized fields) can propagate at the wavelength of interest. See also multimode optical fiber.

single-MVS environment
An environment that supports one MVS image. See also MVS image.

single-node cluster
A cluster whose configuration is preserved when an application is installed and other nodes are added. Single-node clusters are used when an operating system has configured dependencies between applications running on a single node and application monitors for the applications.

single order picking
A picking strategy in which items are picked for one order at a time.

single-partition database environment
A database server with all instances, databases, and logical database partitions on one computer.

single-phase backout
A method in which an action in progress must not be allowed to finish, and all changes that are part of that action must be undone.

single-phase commit
A method in which a program can commit updates to a commitment resource without coordinating those updates with updates the program has made to resources controlled by another resource manager.

single ply
Pertaining to forms that have only one layer.

single point of control (SPOC)
In a sysplex, a method for managing multiple subsystems as if they were one system. For example, instead of entering commands on each subsystem, a user can enter commands from one SPOC and the commands will run on each subsystem in the sysplex.

single point of failure

  1. An environment in which one failure can result in simultaneous loss of both the coupling facility (CF) list structure for a log stream and the local storage-buffer copy.
  2. A configuration in which a critical cluster function is provided by a single component. If that component fails, the cluster has no alternative way to provide that function and essential services become unavailable.

single port sharing
An arrangement for short-hold mode operation in which each port is shared by a set of DTEs, with the restriction that all reconnection calls (recalls) must use the same port as the first call for that logical connection.

single precision

  1. The specification that causes the floating-point value to be stored internally in the short format. See also double precision.
  2. The use of one computer word to represent a number, in accordance with the required precision.

single-precision floating-point number
A 32-bit approximate representation of a real number. See also floating-point number.

single-process installation
The process of installing licensed programs one at a time.

single product rule
A constraint imposed on the optimization of a single product.

single program, multiple data (SPMD)
A parallel programming model in which different processors run the same program on different sets of data.

single response
Pertaining to a question that allows for only one entry within an entry field.

single response category
A category that cannot be chosen with any other category in the category list in response to a question.

single response variable
A categorical variable that can have only one value for each case, such as a variable based on a question that requires the respondent to choose one answer from a predefined set of answers.

single root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV)
A Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Special Interest Group specification to allow multiple partitions that are running simultaneously within a single computer to share a Peripheral PCI Express (PCIe) device.

single-selection field
In System i Access, a list from which a user can select only one item.

single session
A type of APPC connection with limited function. A single-session connection supports only one session and does not have SNA service manager support.

single set
A single CD-ROM that contains one licensed program or a separately orderable feature for the system and its secondary languages.

single sign-on (SSO)
An authentication process in which a user can access more than one system or application by entering a single user ID and password.

single source of truth (SSOT)
The practice of storing each data element in an information model only once to avoid duplication or synchronization problems from changes and updates.

single-subsystem scope
A classification model used in conjunction with the DB2 access control module, or RACF external security module, to construct DB2 classes with the subsystem ID as part of the class name. See also multiple-subsystem scope.

single system image

  1. The collection and presentation of data about multiple CICS systems as though they were a single CICS system. In CICSPlex SM, the single-system image is provided by the CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS).
  2. A cluster of DirectTalk systems that are connected together using a local area network. Each system (known as a node) in the cluster is configured as either a client or a server.

single-system RRSF node
An RRSF node consisting of a single z/OS system image.

single-system sysplex
A sysplex in which only one system can be initialized as part of the sysplex. In a single-system sysplex, cross-system coupling facility (XCF) provides XCF services on the system, but does not provide signaling services between MVS systems.

single task node
a node in the console navigation in which only one page instance can be opened in the work area per session.

single threading
The execution of a program to completion. Processing of one transaction is completed before another transaction is started.

single-thread test
In CICS, a test of a single application or transaction running by itself. See also multithread test.

A class that can be instantiated only once. A singleton class cannot be an interface.

singleton implicit transaction
A single-statement transaction that does not require either a BEGIN WORK or a COMMIT WORK statement. This type of transaction can occur only in a database that is not ANSI compliant, but that supports transaction logging. See also explicit transaction, implicit transaction.

single-user mode
A mode in which the user runs the application locally and can access workspaces and scenarios stored in the local ODM Scenario Repository.

single value
A property attribute that restricts the property to only one value.

single value prompt
A prompt into which a user can enter any value.

sink operator
An operator that sends information as a stream to an external system, such as a dashboard, web server, mail server, or a database.


  1. See Start I/O.
  2. See service information octet.

See Session Initiation Protocol.

SIP-based calling
An advanced form of Voice over IP calling that supports conferencing (multiple people can speak) and multicast sessions (one person speaks, many listen) in addition to traditional two-party phone calls.

A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) servlet that performs SIP signaling to back-end applications of the SIP server, such as the presence server or instant messaging server. See also Session Initiation Protocol.

An address that is formatted like an email address but directs a SIP-based call to a particular computer's softphone or to a video-conferencing device.

SiQuantity value
In Performance Toolbox, a value that represents a level, such as memory used or available disk space. The actual observation value is shown by instruments.

See Service Interface for Real Time Information.

See Standiseringskommissionen I Sverige.

See Standiseringskommissionen I Sverige-Informationstekniska standardiseringen.


  1. See system integration testing.
  2. See system initialization table.


  1. A subdivision of an organization that can track inventory and other data separately from other sites.
  2. The set of components that monitor and control agents.
  3. A work location, such as a plant or facility. See also organization.
  4. A physical location that the IBM Presence Zones system is interested in. For example, in retail, each physically separated store is a site.
  5. A representation of a geographical location where resources are well connected through a fast, reliable LAN. Object stores, storage areas, content cache areas, index areas, and virtual servers are all associated with an individual site.
  6. A location containing a node or nodes with access to either the production copy or mirror copy. The sites can be in close proximity or geographically dispersed.
  7. The place at which a customer, a plant, a warehouse, or a hub is located. See also hub, shipment.
  8. A location in a network that holds Active Directory servers. A site is defined as one or more well-connected TCP/IP subnets.
  9. A collection of BigFix content. A site organizes similar content together.

site administrator

  1. A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that installs, configures, and maintains WebSphere Commerce and the associated software and hardware. See also access group, customer group.
  2. The person in charge of installing IBM Endpoint Manager, authorizing and creating new console operators.

site awareness
The association of a location with each storage system in a session. Site awareness ensures that a volume can only be selected for a session if it matches the location of the site. Site awareness helps to prevent both reversing a hardware relationship and selecting volumes at the wrong location.

site certificate

  1. A certificate obtained for an individual site. A site certificate is different from a trusted root certificate in that a site certificate lets you access only a specific site. A trusted root certificate lets you access any servers with certificates issued from that trusted root certificate authority.
  2. A certificate that is associated with an off-platform server or other network entity, such as a peer VPN server.

site database
The database where security data, command and control jobs, and asset information are kept.

site policy
An intersite management policy for startup, fallover, and fallback for replicated resource groups.

site preference
A configuration setting that determines the FileNet P8 client appearance, behavior, and connectivity. Administrators can set site preferences for their site. Non-administrative users can set personal preferences, which override some site preferences.

site primary node
In cross-site mirroring, a node that owns the independent disk pool, either the production copy or mirror copy, at a particular site. The production-site primary node is also the primary node for the cluster resource group. The mirror-site primary node is a backup node in a cluster resource group.

site report
A report that contains information for a specific location.

site visit
The act of entering a site.


  1. See event rule.
  2. A significant occurrence that is detected when a set of conditions are met. For example, exceeding the limits of a Key Performance Indicator (KPI).
  3. Any significant change in the state of a system resource, as represented in a Common Base Event. An event can be generated for a situation, such as a problem, the resolution of a problem, or the successful completion of a task. See also Common Base Event.
  4. A set of conditions that, when met, creates an event. See also attribute group, condition, event.

situational awareness
An understanding of information required and conducting analysis in real time to identify patterns and anomalies that can affect the outcome of a business or process.

situation event
A Common Base Event that is emitted when a defined situation occurs.

Six Sigma
An approach to business which requires a very high level of quality with only 3.4 defects, failures, or errors per million measurable units of product and service. See also Green Sigma.

size class
A group of products that is determined by their size, volume, and weight.

size class set
A group of size classes that is populated with similar size classes comprised of related product categories.

sized attribute
An attribute that can be assigned to one or more components within a group type, whose value specifies the size, in bytes, of the component immediately following it.

size family
A subset of a size class. Size families are created in order to exclude some members of the same size class.

size field
In an inode, a field that indicates the size, in bytes, of the file associated with the inode.

size group
See size class.

Size of Files over Time widget
A widget that provides a snapshot view of the size of file transfers for each monitored server as user has permission to view over time.

size rule
A constraint imposed on similar products that are related in volume, weight, and count.

The process of making paper resistant to liquids that may penetrate it.

sizing border
In VisualAge RPG, the border or frame around a control or set of controls that allows resizing of the control by selection with the mouse or the keyboard.

See Shift_JIS.

skeleton bean
A bean created from an existing WSDL document that contains a set of methods that corresponds to the operations described in the document. When the bean is created, each method has a trivial implementation that can be replaced by editing the bean.

skeleton code
A server-side code.


  1. The time difference between two clocks or clock values.
  2. In the Netezza environment, a condition that occurs when data for a user table is not evenly distributed across the data slices of the system. The skew results in a performance impact for queries against that table.
  3. In printers, the position of paper going through the paper path at a slight angle. Skew causes the printed lines to not be aligned properly.
  4. The position of being slanted or tilted; oblique.

skew threshold
A measure that describes the difference between the size of the smallest data slice for a table and the size of the largest data slice for that table.

skew time
The difference between the local system clock and time on other systems.

See slipsheet.

An attribute that is used to identify what a resource knows, for example, C++.

skills planner (SP)
The person who analyses skills gaps, identifies or obtains possible skills solutions, and builds the skills plan to close the gap. The SP identifies the need for new skills and templates. The SP works closely with Market Planning to quantify skills and resources needed, and plans both internal and sub-contractor skill and resource needs.

skill surcharge
An additional charge that is levied for skill of the contingent staff and is defined in percentage values or in specific amounts.

An element of a graphical user interface that can be changed to alter the appearance of the interface without affecting its functionality.


  1. To pass over one or more positions on a data medium; for example, to perform one or more line feed operations. (A)
  2. A move of the current print position to another location.
  3. To ignore one or more instructions in a sequence of instructions.

Pertaining to a configurable data entry feature that enables the system to automatically insert a defined data value into fields that the system skips based on previous responses and implemented logic.

skip-to-channel control
A line-printer control in line data that allows space to be left between print lines. This control is compatible with page printers when the data is formatted by page definitions.

See stock keeping unit.

SKU cross referencing
The process of defining item SKU numbers in multiple catalogs that are supported (referenced) through a single mechanism, such as a Global Trade Item Number (GTIN).

SKU master
The main system configuration screen for setting up SKU-related criteria.

See skunkworks project.

skunkworks project (skunkworks)
A high priority, often secret, project taken on by a small team without constraints from management. Skunkworks projects are initiated with an eye towards rapid radical innovation. For example, the Macintosh computer was developed by a skunkworks team for Apple.

See standard label.

See service level agreement.

SLA breach
A violation of a commitment that is defined in a service level agreement (SLA).

Spare time. Slack can be calculated for the critical path by taking the deadline less the input arrival less the sum of operation durations.

slack basis
A basis that contains all the slack variables.

slack variable
A variable that is introduced into the standard formulation of a problem so that a constraint can be expressed as a strict equality instead of a “less than or equal to” OR “greater than or equal to” inequality.

The character /, also known as forward slash. This character is named <slash> in the portable character set.


  1. See service level criteria.
  2. See signaling link code.

See service level definition.

See system log data set.

See session-level encryption.

sleeping process
A process that is waiting for input or output to complete, time slices, an event to occur, or signals from other processes. When a process is sleeping, it can be paged out of memory.


  1. A subset of a multidimensional array that corresponds to a single value for one or more members of the dimensions not in the subset. For example, if the member Actuals is selected from the Scenario dimension, then the sub-cube of all the remaining dimensions is the slice that is specified.
  2. Those parts of a waveform lying inside two given amplitude limits on the same side of the zero axis. In FD:OCA, a subarray that consists of all elements that have an identical position within any given dimension of a regular n-dimensional array.
  3. The set of blocks that contains pages with data having a certain value of one of the clustering dimensions.
  4. A single iteration of a grid or loop. See also loop.
  5. A view of a cube saved as a standard spreadsheet that retains a bi-directional link to the cube so that changes made in either the cube or in the slice are available in both locations.

slice and dice
A user-initiated process of navigation that calls for page displays interactively, through the specification of slices via rotations and drill down/up.

slice label
In the GDDM function, the alphanumeric label that a user can assign to each slice on a pie chart.

A mathematical technique for processing a sparse matrix. It consists of creating pairs of values that identify cells of interest, as opposed to empty cells. The pairs of values can be used to set up processing loops. In OPL, the process of defining constraints with nested iterations on filtering conditions.


  1. To move a slider interface item horizontally on a touchscreen. Typically, apps use slide gestures to lock and unlock phones, or toggle options. See also gesture.
  2. Hardware attached to a device that moves the device in and out of the rack in a drawer-like action. See also rail.


  1. An interface element that moves from one end of a track to the other.
  2. A control that uses a track and arm to set a value from among the available values. The position of the arm (or a separate indicator) gives the currently set value.

See second-level interrupt handler.

slim client
See thin client.

See Serial Line Internet Protocol.

slip installation
An installation of a product at a higher maintenance level than the existing version. See also side-by-side installation.

A durable cardboard or plastic sheet onto which commodities are stacked or set.

See service level management.

See service level objective.

The posture, or incline, of the main strokes in the graphic characters of a font. Slope is specified in degrees by a font designer.


  1. A space in a library where a cartridge is stored. See also cell.
  2. A long electrical socket inside the system unit into which an electronic circuit board (card) is installed.
  3. For a fixed-length relative record data set (RRDS), the data area addressed by a relative record number that may contain a record or be empty.
  4. A location that represents a maintenance area, such as an aircraft hangar, and a period of time in which maintenance activities are performed.

slot directory
An array of byte-offset locations at which index keys are located on an index page.

slot spanning
See service slot spanning.

slotting fee
A fee charged to a manufacturer for introducing a new product onto a retailer's shelf.

slow drain device
A device that experiences latencies and responds slowly due to the inability of a receiver to receive frames at the expected rate.

slow list
A list of secondary stations on a multidrop network that, due to their inactivity, are polled less often by the primary station.

See Service Location Protocol.

See signaling link selection.

See secondary logical unit.

A secondary logical unit that uses LU2 protocols.

An LU0 protocol defined by IMS as a protocol to communicate between a programmable workstation, such as a 4700, and IMS. IMS is the Primary Logical Unit (PLU) and the workstation is the Secondary Logical Unit (SLU) in the connection.

See statement local variable.


  1. See shipment mode.
  2. See session manager.

See systems management application entity.

small caps
Capital letters in the same style as the normal capital letters in a font, but approximately the size of the lowercase letters.

Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
An ANSI-standard electronic interface that allows personal computers to communicate with peripheral hardware, such as disk drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, printers, and scanners faster and more flexibly than previous interfaces. See also Internet Small Computer System Interface, open system, SCSI device.

Small Computer System Interface adapter (SCSI adapter)
An adapter that supports the attachment of various direct-access storage devices (DASD) and tape drives to the system unit.

small-data-set packing (SDSP)
In DFSMShsm, the process used to migrate data sets that contain actual data that is equal to or less than a specified amount. The data sets are written as one or more records into a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set on a migration-level-1 volume.

small-data-set-packing data set
In DFSMShsm, a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) key-sequenced data set (KSDS) allocated on a migration-level-1 volume and containing small data sets that have been migrated.

small-form-factor pluggable transceiver (SFP transceiver)
An optical transceiver used to convert signals between optical fiber cables and switches.

small integer
In DB2 for i5/OS, a data type indicating that the data is a binary number with a precision of 15 bits.

small queue element
A queue element that is smaller than the smaller of either the limiting value specified during the customization of MERVA or 32KB.

small word
In the vi editor, a contiguous set of alphanumeric characters bounded on at least one end with a character that is not a blank, a tab, or a new-line indicator. For example, in the word isn't, the two sets of characters isn and t are small words.

See system-managed access-path protection.

See Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology.

smart approval
An application module that allows clients to design a sequencial rules-based approval flow.

Smart Business Desktop Cloud
A virtualized IT environment to help provide security-rich, anytime, anywhere access to applications, information and resources.

smart card
An intelligent token that is embedded with an integrated circuit chip that provides memory capacity and computational capabilities.

smart card middleware
Software that acts as an interface between smart card applications and the smart card hardware. Typically the software consists of libraries that implement PKCS#11 and CAPI interfaces to smart cards.

smart contract
A set of business terms that are embedded into a blockchain and executed with transactions. A smart contract can also include a digital representation of a set of business rules and defines conditions under which transfers occur.

smart device
A mobile telephone or tablet that functions more like a computer and less like a traditional telephone. Smartphones typically can function as an Internet browser, MP3 player, gaming platform, digital camera, email client, GPS, and more. See also smartphone, tablet.

smarter campus
An interconnected, enriched campus that provides on-the-ground knowledge that is being developed by social networks. A smarter campus provides a personalized and collaborative learning experience for students, and instant access to deep computing resources for researchers.

smarter exploration
In the Smarter Planet initiative, exploration that integrates and processes geophysical and other relevant data to develop 3-D models of reservoirs. Smarter exploration can find previously inaccessible oil and gas reserves embedded beneath difficult terrain or the deepest ocean waters.

smarter food system
In the Smarter Planet initiative, a food system that has standards for quality, process, and accountability. Through these standards food can become safer, more affordable, sustainable, and efficient. See also track and trace service.

smarter home
In Smarter Planet, a home that has appliances and devices that are interconnected, and have the intelligence to automate household routines through bidirectional communication.

Smarter Planet
An IBM initiative to build instrumented, interconnected, and intelligent systems. Smarter Planet takes advantage of the increasing quality and amount of data and advanced analytics to understand complex systems and some of the most challenging problems within them.

smarter power grid
In the Smarter Planet initiative, a power grid that uses broadband data streams, digital sensors, and advanced analytics. Utilities can analyze demand in real time, source, and manage power more effectively, and give more control of usage to customers.

smarter product
In the Smarter Planet initiative, a product that uses embedded systems so that a user can personalize and customize a product. Even after purchase, a smarter product has the capacity for continual and dynamic upgrading.

smarter production
In the Smarter Planet initiative, oil production in which information is captured about the volume and quality of oil and gas reservoirs before a new well is drilled.

smarter reservoir management
In the Smarter Planet initiative, a reservoir management system that makes use of sensors embedded across pipes, pumps, and an entire field. Smarter reservoir management generates data that can be compared against historical trends and applied to optimize well performance.

smarter traffic
In the Smarter Planet initiative, a traffic system, such as streets, bridges, intersections, signs, signals, and tolls, that is instrumented and interconnected. Smarter traffic aims to curb the increasing pressure urban development puts on commuting by reducing inefficiency and congestion in the system.

smarter workforce
In the Smarter Planet initiative, an engaged workforce that drives innovation, develops deeper client relationships, and moves business forward by taking advantage of behavioral science, predictive analytics, and collaboration tools.

smart folder

  1. A folder in which to organize artifacts to access them easily. A smart folder might contain artifacts that share properties or a smart folder might contain all the artifacts that were modified within a specific period.
  2. A view on a rule project that allows the user to display project elements grouped by property.

smart grid
An electrical grid that can predict and respond independently to the consumers, suppliers, and networks that are connected to it.

smart grid maturity model (SGMM)
A power grid that has reduced outages, improved responsiveness and efficiency, and is better equipped for future demand compared to traditional power grids. Smart grids are achieved through process improvement, increased automation, and better analysis.

smart large object
A large object that is stored in an sbspace, which has read, write, and seek properties (similar to a UNIX file), is recoverable, obeys transaction isolation modes, and can be retrieved in segments by an application. Smart large objects include BLOB and CLOB data types.

smart logical ordering scheme
A mechanism for storing bidirectional text with a special algorithm introduced to improve the data exchange between zSeries systems and Rational Developer for System z.

smart meter
A device that measures the consumption of electricity, gas, or water to ensure reliable billing, to meet regulatory requirements, and to enable smart grid initiatives that support the intelligent utility network for a Smarter Planet.

smart object
A specific instance of a business object. A smart object describes the capabilities and features that are accessible at the core of a business object feature set at run time.

smart offer list
A dynamic list of campaign offers that can resolve to different sets of results each time that the list is used.

A mobile phone that functions more like a computer and less like a traditional telephone. Smartphones typically can function as an Internet browser, MP3 player, gaming platform, digital camera, email client, GPS, and more. See also smart device.

smart relay host
A mail relay or mail gateway that has the capability to correct email addressing problems.

smart room
In the healthcare system, a workflow optimization tool that prioritizes a nurse's tasks for a given patient in his or her room using an interactive, in-room monitor.

smart section
A section within a record that can reference fields in one or multiple other records. A smart section contains a set of fields for each record that it references, and each field in a smart section corresponds to a field in a referenced record. Each smart section in a record is based on an association between the record that contains the smart section and another record. For example, you can associate an Organization record to a triPeople record.

smart segment
A group of customers with defined traits.

Smart Shift
An online forum where users can discuss issues facing the environment, business, cities, and the workplace.

Smart Surveillance Engine (SSE)
A component of Intelligent Video Analytics, which receives and analyzes video streams from a VMS and generates video metadata.

smart wind farm
A wind farm that is equipped with sensors to collect data and monitor the health of a farm and operations. Sensors are placed on wind turbines to track wind levels and turbine output, and meteorological sensors around the farm measure wind speed and direction, temperature, pressure, and humidity at hub height, along the vertical blade extent and near the ground.


  1. See Server Message Block.
  2. See system-managed buffering.
  3. See scheduler message block.

See system management BIOS.

SMC-D link
A logical representation of communication between two virtual servers that use SMC-D protocols. The concept of an SMC-D link exists primarily for operational consistency with SMC-R processing.

See Shared Memory Communications over RDMA.

SMC-R link
A logical point-to-point link between two virtual servers that is used for SMC-R communications.

SMC-R link group
A logical grouping of equal SMC-R links between two communicating peers.

See system-managed directory entry.

See Simplified Message Desk Interface.

See subject matter expert.

See System Management Facilities.

SMF header
Component of a CICS monitoring or statistics SMF record that describes the system creating the output.

SMF product section
Component of a CICS monitoring or statistics SMF record. The SMF product section describes the CICS data section that follows it in the record and contains operational data pertaining to the processing of the data.

SMF record
A collection of information about capacity and system management that is written to a Systems Management Facility (SMF) data set. Each SMF record includes information about the system's configuration, paging activity, and workload. See also RACF SMF data unload utility.

SMF switch intercept
A process by which offloaded records are saved in data sets dedicated to a particular agent to prevent the ES actuator from missing SMF records.

SMF type 6 record
The record that PSF uses to record data for each print data set.


  1. See system-monitoring interface.
  2. See Structure of Management Information.

See secure/MIME.

See Storage Management Initiative Specification.

See System Management Interface Tool.

See service message object.

smoothing factor
A value that controls the extent to which actual durations and deadlines are fed back into the application description database.

smoothness of curve
In the GDDM function, the connection of the plotted points in a data group by a continuous curve. On the System/370 system GDDM function, called curve fitting.


  1. See symmetrical multiprocessing.
  2. See symmetric multiprocessor.
  3. See symmetric multiprocessing.
  4. See symmetrical multiprocessor system.

See SMP/E for z/OS.

Pertaining to a program's ability to avoid any action that would cause functional or performance problems in an SMP environment. A program that is described as SMP-efficient is generally assumed to be SMP-safe as well. An SMP-efficient program has usually undergone additional changes to minimize incipient bottlenecks.

SMP/E for z/OS (SMP/E)
An IBM licensed program that is used to install software and software changes on z/OS systems.

SMP Expansion Module
An IBM xSeries hardware option. It is a single module that contains microprocessors, disk cache, random access memory, and three SMP Expansion Port connections. Two SMP Expansion Modules can fit in a chassis.

SMP Host
The client or server that controls and coordinates SPU activities, performs query plan optimization, table and database operations, and system administration.

SMP system
See symmetrical multiprocessor system.


  1. See Software Management Services.
  2. See storage management system.
  3. See system management services.
  4. See storage management subsystem.
  5. See Short Message Service.

See Short Message Service Center.

SMS class
A list of attributes that the storage management subsystem (SMS) applies to data sets having similar allocation (data class), performance (storage class), or backup and retention (management class) requirements.

SMS complex (SMSplex)
A group of one or more systems that share a common storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration. All systems in an SMSplex share a common set of SMS control data sets: the active control data set (ACDS) and the communications data set (COMMDS).

SMS configuration
The entity that DFSMS uses to manage storage: a base configuration; definitions of storage management subsystem (SMS) classes, group, library, and drive definitions; and automatic class selection (ACS). See also active configuration, base configuration, source control data set.

SMS gateway
See Short Message Service gateway.

See Simplified Message Service Interface.

SMS mail address format
The format for sending an email message using a mobile device's SMS text messaging ability. The format usually includes the phone number of the receiving device, for example 9495551212@vtext.com. SMS mail address formats vary depending on the service provider.

SMS-managed volume
A volume, managed by the storage management subsystem (SMS), that is defined in the active configuration.

SMS message
See Short Message Service message.

See SMS complex.

SMS table space
See system-managed space table space.

The name of the VSAM server that provides VSAM record-level sharing (RLS). See also VSAM record-level sharing.


  1. See station management.
  2. See simultaneous multithreading.

See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

SMTP gateway
See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol gateway.

smurf attack
A denial-of-service attack in which a spoofed source address is flooded with echo replies. The replies are caused when many ping (ICMP echo) requests using the spoofed source address are sent to one or more broadcast or multicast addresses.

SMX connection
See server multiplexer group connection.

See serial number.


  1. See serial number.
  2. See subarea node.

See Systems Network Architecture.

SNA 3270 API
See SNA 3270 program interface.

SNA 3270 device emulation
A function of the operating system that allows a system to appear to the host system as a 3274 Control Unit.

SNA 3270 program interface
A function that allows an application program to communicate with a System/370, 30xx, or 43xx VTAM program by sending and receiving 3270 data streams.

In PSF, pertaining to a device that is linked to the host system through VTAM or ACF/VTAM and uses an SNA protocol to transfer data. See also TCP/IP-attached.

SNA backbone
In an SNA network, the set of all interconnected nodes that consist of 37xx products running the Network Control Program.

SNA character string (SCS)
In SNA, a string of EBCDIC control characters carried within a request/response unit (RU); the string can also contain user data.

SNA distribution services
See Systems Network Architecture distribution services.

See Systems Network Architecture distribution services.

SNADS receiver
A user-configured (using the ADDCMNE command) batch job that is started in the subsystem specified on the communications entry when the system receives SNADS distribution from a sending system in the SNADS network. See also SNADS sender.

SNADS router
A system-provided batch job that runs in the QSNADS subsystem and routes distributions to the configured distribution queue.

SNADS sender
A user-configured (by using the CFGDSTSRV command to add the SNADS distribution queue) batch job that is started in the QSNADS subsystem, and sends distributions to another system in the SNADS network. See also SNADS receiver.

SNA/File Services
See Systems Network Architecture File Services.

See Systems Network Architecture File Services.

See SNA Network Link.

SNA/Management Services Transport
See Systems Network Architecture Management Services Transport.

In C, a single-case external modifier that is, at most, 8 characters in length.

SNA/MS Transport
See Systems Network Architecture Management Services Transport.

See signaling NaN.

SNA network
The part of the user application network that conforms to the formats and protocols of Systems Network Architecture (SNA). The SNA network consists of network addressable units (NAUs), a gateway function, intermediate session routing function components, and the transport network.

SNA network interconnection (SNI)
The connection, by gateways, of two or more independent SNA networks to allow communication between logical units in those networks. The individual SNA networks retain their independence.

SNA Network Link (SNALINK)
A function that allows the use of an SNA subarea routing network to transfer data using TCP/IP protocols. SNALINK provides an interface between TCP/IP and the SNA network. SNALINK must be defined as an application program to VTAM, which causes LU 0 sessions to be established between the SNALINK logical unit and other logical units in the SNA network.

See Systems Network Architecture/network job entry.

See subnetwork access protocol.

SNA pass-through
The i5/OS software processes through which SNA data is passed from source secondary applications or devices to target primary applications. SNA pass-through supports LU session types 0 through 3.

snap dump
A dump that can be requested by a task at any time that the task is being processed.

A registered user exit program that is defined to be called from mail server framework user exit points. The mail server framework user exit points are referred to as ports by the mail server framework. Systems will snap-in the programs that are needed to operate.

snap-in provided information (SPIN)
An area where snap-in user exit points programs can store information that other snap-ins can use. SPIN provides a place where information relating to a specific recipient can be stored and used by snap-ins in the same user exit point or in different user exit points. The information that is stored in snap-in provided information is completely user defined and interpreted data.

SNA Primary LU2 Support (SPLS)
The i5/OS communications support that allows 3270-type displays and 3287-type printers to communicate with System i systems through an SNA network.


  1. A capture of information at a specific time for analysis. The information can be data, a project, or a branch.
  2. A copy of changed data in the active files and directories of a file system with the exception of the inode number, which is changed to allow application programs to distinguish between the snapshot and the active files and directories.
  3. An image backup type that consists of a point-in-time view of a volume. See also image snapshot.
  4. A record of the current state of the database environment.
  5. A statistical sample.
  6. A collection of specific versions of components. Typically, a snapshot represents a set of component versions that are known to work together.
  7. In source control management, a collection of baselines that represents the configuration of a workspace or stream at a particular point in time.
  8. A stored version of a chart that preserves its contents and layout at a particular stage of its development.
  9. See baseline.
  10. A record of backup data at a certain point in time.
  11. A point-in-time copy of an entire active file system.
  12. In Tivoli NetView, a copy of a map that reflects the topology and status of the map's nodes and links at a given moment in time.
  13. An image that is an exact copy of the original files or directories from which it was created.
  14. A saved version of a storyboard.
  15. A captured state, data, and hardware configuration of a running virtual machine.
  16. A capture of data at a point time for performance analysis.
  17. A collection of information about resources and the state of a virtual data center at a point in time.
  18. The content of a report or report object captured at a specific moment in time.

snapshot chain
A series of snapshots of the same volume, within the same policy.

snapshot copy
A copy services function that can quickly copy data from a source location to a target location.

snapshot dump
See snap dump.

snapshot interval
An interval that defines how often snapshots are taken of the work in progress.

snapshot policy
A configured policy comprised of a client group and a job schedule.

snapshot set
The result of taking snapshots of a consistency group. See also consistency group.

snapshot view

  1. A view that is a replica of a view at the time a query was executed.
  2. A view that uses a local file system to access versions of elements.

SNA remote job entry
See remote job entry.

SNA report code
In SNA, a registered code identifying the condition that is being reported.

SNA sense data
An SNA-defined encoding of error information. In SNA, the data sent with a negative response, indicating the reason for the response.

SNA service manager mode name (SNASVCMG mode name)
The architecturally defined mode name identifying sessions on which CNOS is exchanged. Most APPC-providing products predefine SNASVCMG sessions.

SNASVCMG mode name
See SNA service manager mode name.

SNA terminal
A terminal that supports SNA protocols.

See SNA topology manager.

SNA topology manager (SNATM)
A component of NetView for MVS that dynamically collects status and topology data into the Resource Object Data Manager (RODM) for display by the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility (NGMF). SNATM includes the function formerly provided by the NetView APPN Topology and Accounting Manager (APPNTAM).

SNA upline facility (SNUF)
The communications support that allows a System i system to communicate with CICS/VS and IMS/VS application programs on a host system. For example, DHCF communicates with HCF and DSNX communicates with the NetView Distribution Manager program.

See switched network backup.

See SNA network interconnection.

See Storage Networking Industry Association.

See physical sensor.

The practice of monitoring or eavesdropping on electronic transmissions. Information that is sent across the Internet might pass through many routers before it reaches its destination. Any of those routers can sniff the transmission and attempt to interpret the information. Passwords or other confidential information that is sent in an unencrypted form might be discovered.


  1. An excerpt of source code.
  2. A unit of database work that is to be performed by the SPU.

snippet-level scheduling
The process of making scheduling decisions at the snippet level rather than at the gatekeeper or GRA level.

snippet processing array (SPA)
A logical collection of SPUs and their associated disk drives.

Snippet Processing Unit (SPU)
A logical processor that consists of the SPU and the associated data slices that it manages.

snippet processor
A logical connection between one CPU core, one FPGA engine, and its associated memory to process a snippet.

See SWIFTNet Link.

See Simple Network Management Protocol.

SNMP Access and Trap Forwarding
An IBM Director Agent feature that enables SNMP to access managed-system data. When installed on a managed system, this feature enables SNMP-based managers to poll the managed system and receive its alerts. If System Health Monitoring is installed on the managed system also, hardware alerts can be forwarded as SNMP traps.

SNMP agent

  1. A device that reports information through the SNMP to SNMP managers. See also Simple Network Management Protocol.
  2. A server process that resides on a network node and is responsible for communicating with managers regarding that node. The node is represented as a managed object, which has various fields or variables that are defined in the appropriate MIB.

SNMP data source adapter (SNMP DSA)
A data source adapter that allows management information stored by SNMP agents to be set and retrieved. It also allows SNMP traps and notifications to be sent to SNMP managers. See also Simple Network Management Protocol.

SNMP device
An embedded device that uses SNMP to monitor network-attached devices, printers, or computers for conditions that require system-management attention.

See SNMP data source adapter.

SNMP manager

  1. A host that collects information from SNMP agents through the SNMP. See also Simple Network Management Protocol.
  2. A managing system that runs a managing application or suite of applications. These applications depend on Management Information Base (MIB) objects for information that resides on the managed system. The SNMP manager generates requests for this MIB information, and an SNMP agent on the managed system responds to these requests.

SNMP trap
An SNMP message sent from the SNMP agent to the SNMP manager. The message is initiated by the SNMP agent and is not a response to a message sent from the SNMP manager. See also Simple Network Management Protocol.

A programming language designed for string processing and pattern matching.

See secondary node.

A configuration that administrators can use to verify that WebSphere Application Server is running.

To send recurring event notifications until the events are cleared.

snowflake schema
A schema that represents a dimension in a series of tables that correspond to the levels of the dimensions. The primary key of each table is the member identifier of each level. Each table has a foreign key to the level above. See also metadata schema.

See set normal response mode.

See sign-on table.

See sign-on table terminal entry.

See SNA upline facility.

See Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung.

See shift-out character.

See service-oriented architecture.

See Service-oriented architecture Modeling Language.

A lightweight, XML-based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP can be used to query and return information and invoke services across the Internet. See also web service.

SOAP back channel
A network channel on which communications are exchanged directly between two SOAP endpoints.

SOAP encoding
Rules for serializing data over the SOAP protocol. SOAP encoding is based on a simple type system that is a generalization of the common features found in type systems in programming languages, databases, and semi-structured data.

SOAP envelope
An element in the SOAP standard that describes what is in the SOAP message and provides instructions about how to process it.

SOAP header
An element in the SOAP envelope of a SOAP message that contains application-specific context information (for example, security information) that is associated with the SOAP request or response message.

SOAP with attachments API for Java (SAAJ)
An application programming interface (API) that is used to send XML documents over the Internet from a Java base.

SOA record
See start-of-authority record.

See Scale Out Backup and Restore.


  1. See security operations center.
  2. See sphere of control.

See Serial Optical Channel Converter.

social bookmarking
The use of bookmarks in a shared, collaborative environment. See also Dogear.

social business
A business that uses social media to communicate with customers and staff in real time without geographic restrictions. With social media, businesses can disseminate and collect large amount of data about products and customer and employee satisfaction.

social collaboration
In enterprise social business, the interaction of work peers to solve common problems across the organization. Enterprise social software facilitates knowledge sharing between peers and engenders social collaboration.

social commerce
The process of adding social networking capabilities to the framework of a store in order to integrate user-generated content into the storefront. Although social networking content can be viewed by any customer, it can only be created by registered customers.

social enablement
The process of encouraging specific social business behaviors from social business software users and responding to those behaviors.

To enable for sharing on social media.

social media
Online collaboration services that facilitate communication, file sharing, and networking. See also social network.

social messaging bridge
A program or application that connects different aspects of a company's collaboration portfolio together. For example, IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition complete the social messaging bridge to IBM Connections.

social network
An online community where people with similar interests, needs, and goals can interact, make connections, and collaborate. See also follower, hashtag, social media, tweet, tweet, tweeter.

social network analysis
A method of analyzing the structure of social relationships that uses mathematical metrics to make claims about social organization and social dynamics. See also centrality, weight.

social networking
The act of participating and interacting in a social network. See also tweet, tweet, tweeter.

Social Networking and Discovery (SaND)
An aggregation platform for information discovery and analysis. It leverages the complex relationships between content and people that surface through social applications. Its integrated index supports the combination of content-based analysis and people-based analysis over a rich data foundation

social plug-in
A tool or app that integrates functions from social software and provides personalized social experiences, such as comments, ratings and reviews, live chat, and newsfeeds.

social referral
A function that enables employees to use their social media to refer candidates (jobless and job-specific) through a new social referral widget, and to track their candidate referral activity.

social retailing
The use of social computing platforms, such as blogs, communities, and forums, to encourage customer interaction as a way of generating sales and increasing social commerce.

social sentiment analysis
The use of analytics and natural language processing technologies to gauge consumer preferences, market trends, and brand awareness from a range of social media.

social shopping
The process of visiting a social network in order to find product information, such as price, quality, or inventory, before going to a retail website to make a purchase.

social sign-in
A form of single sign-on that uses existing login information from a social networking service to sign into a third party website instead of creating a new login account specifically for that website.

social software
Programs and applications that are designed to foster a sense of community, enable collaboration, and promote interactivity between peers.

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)
An industry-owned cooperative that supplies standardized messaging services and software to financial institutions.

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
A non-profit educational and scientific organization dedicated to advancing mobility technology to better serve humanity. The SAE is composed of over 90,000 engineers and scientists that develop technical information about all forms of self-propelled vehicles including automobiles, trucks and buses, off-highway equipment, aircraft, aerospace vehicles, marine, rail, and transit systems.


  1. A piece of electronic circuitry that accepts a processor chip. A socket is a unit of measure by which a program can be licensed.
  2. A communications handle used by TCP/IP.
  3. A means for directing data to an application in a TCP/IP network using a unique identifier that is a combination of an IP address and a port number.
  4. In the Network Computing System (NCS), a port on a specific host; a communications end point that is accessible through a protocol family's addressing mechanism. A socket is identified by a socket address.
  5. An identifier that an application uses to uniquely identify an end point of communication. The user associates a protocol address with the socket by associating a socket address with the socket.

socket address
A data structure that uniquely identifies a specific communications end point. It also specifies the protocol family. For example, a TCP/IP socket address consists of a port number and a host address.

socket API
See socket application programming interface.

socket application programming interface (socket API)
An industry standard API that provides application programs with a connection-oriented or a connectionless transfer of data over multiple protocols.

socket DSA
A data source adaptor that allows information to be exchanged with external applications using a socket server as the brokering agent.

socket interface
A callable TCP/IP programming interface that is used by TCP/IP network applications to communicate with remote TCP/IP partners.

Sockets Secure (SOCKS)

  1. A mechanism by which a secure proxy data channel can be established between two computers.
  2. A client/server architecture that transports TCP/IP traffic through a secure gateway. A SOCKS server performs many of the same services that a proxy server does.

sockets server
See SOCKS server.

See Sockets Secure.

SOCKS server
A proxy server that provides a secure one-way connection through a firewall to server applications in a nonsecure network. The server applications in the secure network must be compatible with the socket interface.


  1. See separation of duties.
  2. See segregation of duties.

See separation of duties.

See subject of analysis.

See Scale out File Service.

soft booking
The allocation of a resource that assigns the resource to work on a project for its entire duration. Contoured work is placed in a proposed state.

soft bounce
An email message that was not delivered to a contact due to message size or temporary issues with the contact's mailbox or email server. A soft bounce can occur because a contact's mailbox is full, their email server is down, or the email message is too large.

soft bundle
A collection of products that have not been modified. Purchasing the separately sold products delivers the same functionality as the soft bundle.

soft checkpoint
The process of writing information to the log file header; this information is used to determine the starting point in the log in case a database restart is required.

soft commit
A form of commitment control that differs from traditional commitment control in that it limits the number of times that the system writes journal entries that are associated with a transaction to disk. Soft commit improves transaction performance and guarantees transaction atomicity, but does not guarantee the durability of recently committed transactions in case of a system failure.

One or more files that can be electronically distributed, manipulated, and printed by a user.

soft CPU shares
An attribute that defines the relative share of CPU resources on a host or LPAR that the WLM dispatcher allows a particular service class to use and exceed when additional CPU resources are available.

soft error page
A type of web page that provides information about why the requested web page cannot be returned. For example, instead of returning a simple status code, the HTTP server can return a page that explains the status code in detail.

soft failure
The result of an abnormal but permitted behavior that caused the gradual degradation of the operating system.

soft hyphen (SHY)
A special character inserted automatically or by the user in a word to mark where the word can be divided, and displayed as a hyphen when the word must be divided at the end of the line because of lack of space. Also called syllable hyphen, discretionary hyphen, phantom hyphen. Soft hyphens are subject to hyphen drop, which makes sure that these characters do not appear when they are not needed.

soft invalidation
A process whereby access to a dependent object is allowed to continue after an object on which it depends was dropped or modified by a DDL statement. The next explicit reference to the dependent object that requires the dynamic SQL cache to be accessed causes the dependent object to be recompiled.

soft keyboard
An onscreen keyboard for touchscreen mobile devices.

soft page segment

  1. A page segment sent to the printer as part of the overlay or page that includes it. See also hard page segment.
  2. A resource that is not declared in the Map Page Segment structured field but is sent to the printer inline with data.

A software program that enables Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls on a computer.

soft reservation
A request for items or tools that is not yet defined by the need for the items within a specific time frame. A soft reservation does not reduce the available balance. When a reservation is classified as soft, the item is available for eventual issue from the list of reservations. See also hard reservation.

soft resource
A resource that is not declared in a Map structured field but is sent to the printer inline with data. It cannot be reused during the job without being reloaded to the printer. See also hard resource.

soft stop

  1. A policy according to which, if the end user starts the product and there are no licenses available, the product starts.
  2. A function that halts the system after all the business processes finish running.

soft task
A task that can be completed during the next maintenance opportunity.

software (SW)
The programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a system. See also hardware.

software as a service (SaaS)
A model of software deployment whereby software including business processes, enterprise applications, and collaboration tools, are provided as a service to customers through the cloud.

software bundle
A collection of software installation files, configuration files, and metadata that can be deployed on a virtual machine instance.

software catalog

  1. A portable representation of the contents of the software knowledge base that serves IT management applications including asset management, license management, and software provisioning. Catalog format and content might vary, depending on the target application. See also software knowledge base.
  2. All software defined in the data center model.

software compliance check
A compliance check that determines if a software application should be present on a computer. See also security compliance check.

software configuration management (SCM)
The tracking and control of software development. SCM systems typically offer version control and team programming features. See also source control management.

software configuration template
A set of parameters that define configuration options and software resources to create on a managed system during software installation.

software-defined environment (SDE)
An IT infrastructure that enables compute, network, and storage resources to adapt to changing workloads.

software-defined networking (SDN)
A networking infrastructure in which the management of the network is decoupled from the physical devices.

software-defined storage (SDS)
A storage infrastructure that is managed through a programmatic API in the data center instead of through hardware.

software definition
The deployment configuration that describes how to install one or more installable software dependencies. It includes a list of installable files, software prerequisites, and advanced attributes. See also installable file.

software development kit (SDK)
A set of tools, APIs, and documentation to assist with the development of software in a specific computer language or for a particular operating environment.

software distribution application
An application that controls software management tasks such as software distribution, configuration, version control, and asset inventory management.

software distribution catalog
A file that contains a list of the installed software packages and their associated version number.

software hierarchy
The combination of software product, version, release, and variation that represents a software item in the software knowledge base. The product is the root of the hierarchy. See also parent software, release, software item, software knowledge base, variation, version.

software installation

  1. The set of files that is created by an installable file.
  2. The process of restoring software from external media to a local file system. The software can require further processing, or configuration, before it is ready to use.

software instance

  1. For z/OS platform software, the SMP/E target and distribution zones that are associated with a product set and the target and distribution libraries described by those zones. See also product set.
  2. An activation of an application system or environment.

software item
Any version of any software product or component. See also expectation list, software hierarchy.

software keyboard
A table mapping a raw keystroke to a display symbol, predefined function or string. Software keyboards that are shipped with the operating system are associated with languages (U.S. English, U.K. English, Danish, Japanese, and so on).

software keyboard map
A table that maps a keystroke to a character or to a predefined function such as a tab.

software knowledge base
A collection of information about distributed software products and components, dependencies between them, the means to discover them, and their basic licensing properties. The knowledge base is used to generate software catalogs that asset management tools can use for software inventory identification, license compliance, and software provisioning. See also parent software, software catalog, software hierarchy.

software license key
An authorization that regulates the use of software licensed programs. Software license keys need to be installed on the system when software is upgraded or moved, the hardware processor group is changed, additional license usage is added, or new software that requires license keys is purchased.

software maintenance

Software Management Services (SMS)
A set of offerings that provide the user with a consistent distribution, installation, and service strategy for both IBM licensed programs and System Manager-packaged programs.

software manufacturer
A business entity that produces software and, when the software is a commercial product, receives the license revenues.

software module
A group of files, and potentially command lines, packaged together under one name. A software module can be installed on a target during deployment.

software package

  1. A collection of Fixlets that install a software product on a device. Software packages are uploaded to BigFix by an operator for distribution. A BigFix software package includes the installation files, Fixlets to install the files, and information about the package (metadata).
  2. In software distribution, a compressed text file that describes the actions to perform on the target system to which it is distributed. See also stanza.
  3. A file that defines a collection of artifacts and the actions to take with those artifacts on the target system to which it is distributed.

software package block (SPB)
A file or set of files that can be included in a particular software deployment. Examples include an installation package, installation files for a patch downloaded from the vendor's website, or a software image.

software package definition (SPD)
A compressed text file that describes the actions to perform on the target system to which it is distributed. See also stanza.

software product
A software item that is licensed independently of other software items. For licensing purposes, software products are sometimes bundled into a single sales offering. See also unconfirmed instance.

software regression
A defect that causes a feature to stop working after an upgrade, patch or other event.

software release
A distribution of a new product or new function and authorized program analysis report (APAR) fixes for an existing product. The first version of a product is announced as release 1 modification level 0.

software resource
Installed software, software configurations, and application data that is created when a piece of software is installed. Software resources are defined by a software configuration template.

software scan
An automated process that discovers instances of software installed on the computers in a network. The software scan results include details about discovered software, such as version numbers. See also network scan, scan.

software scanner
A tool that verifies that the provided signature catalog is syntactically correct.

software signature
A signature that is used in system management applications to represent and detect installed software products.

software snapshot
A differential image of software installed on top of a running operating system. Software snapshot creation is deprecated. Any previously created software snapshots can be deployed for backward compatibility.

software stack
A list of software products, organized in the required installation order. A software stack can contain individual pieces of software as well as other software stacks.

software subscription and support

software suite
A group of software applications licensed as a single unit; for example, an office software suite might include a spreadsheet application, a word processing application, and a photo editor.

software support facility (SSF)
An IBM online database that allows for storage and retrieval of information about all current authorized program analysis reports (APARs) and program temporary fixes (PTFs).

software tap (S-TAP)
An agent installed on a database or file server to monitor traffic and forward information to a Guardium system. See also inspection engine.

software transparency
Criteria applied to a processing environment that states that changes do not require modifications to the host software in order to continue to provide an existing function.

software vendor
The source from which a customer purchases software, for example a retail outlet or e-commerce site.

software view
A way to organize software in the data center based on specific criteria. There are two types of software views. Public views are available to all users. Personal views are specific to the user account of the person who created them.

SOH character
See start-of-header character.

Pertaining to the act of requesting information from an autonomic manager. See also unsolicited.

solicited message
A response from VTAM to a command entered by a program operator. See also program operator, unsolicited message.

solid compound
A compound that does not have any white space, for example: 'Autofahren' in German. See also compound word, multiword expression.

solid-state drive (SSD)

  1. A data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data.
  2. See flash drive.


  1. In constraint programming, an assignment of values to variables that satisfies all the constraints of the problem, including any objective function. See also feasible.
  2. A predefined response to a commonly asked question or problem containing symptom, cause, and resolution information.
  3. A combination of products that addresses a particular customer problem or project.
  4. In operations research, an assignment of values to variables that satisfies the constraints of the problem. If, in addition to satisfying the constraints, the assignment of values to variables also optimizes an objective function, then the solution is an optimal solution.
  5. A set of one or more related case types, tasks, steps, and other components that provide documents, data, business processing, and routing to case workers. For example, a solution for a human resources department might include a case type for new hires, a case type for retirement, and a case type for employee termination.
  6. An application that processes events. A solution consists of agents, business object models, connectivity, and supporting OSGi services.

solution definition
A set of solution assets as defined in the design object store.

Solution Document Generator
A command line tool that is used to generate a solution description document.

Solution for Compliance in a Regulated Environment (SCORE)
A document management portal solution that is an interactive and intuitive method to manage regulated documents and key business processes. SCORE provides a full view of systems and processes such as document, submission and data management, application integration, collaboration and business process management.

solution locale
The locale of display names, such as case properties, case types, tasks, and other solution artifacts that are created with Case Manager Builder.

solution package
A package that is created when a solution is exported and refers to the archive file of the solution.

solution partner
For RosettaNet, an organization or company that produces RNIF 2.0-compliant products.

solution project manager (SPM)
The focal point for the development and deployment of the IT solution. The SPM is accountable for the performance of the IGS effort, including technical proposal, solution development, solution delivery and rollout,

solution space
A subset of the search space of a problem. It consists of only those tuples (of the Cartesian product of the domains of the variables) that satisfy the constraints. See also search space.

solveAnyway algorithm
An algorithm that systematically adds constraints in the relaxable pool of constraints, starting with those that have the lowest priority.

solve queue
A queue of solve processes that are solved in the order in which they were submitted. Users can check on the progress of the current solve process or cancel it using menu options and toolbar buttons.

A specialized optimization engine for analyzing a model and providing feasible or optimal solutions for a problem that is expressed as an objective function. Examples of the optimization criteria are least cost, greatest profit.

See System Object Model.

sonic alert
A sound that is emitted by a user's machine, enabled by the Data Collection system, to notify a user to an error or discrepancy that requires attention before proceeding.

See standard operating procedure.


  1. See system of record.
  2. See statement of requirements.

To rearrange some or all of a group of items, based upon the contents or characteristics of those items.

The act of segregating items by final destination. Sortation can be performed by a sortation system using a sort line.

sortation system
The computerized system that controls the scanning and diversion of the sortation process and the sort line.

sorted map
A sorted flat collection with key and element equality.

sorted relation
A sorted flat collection that uses keys, has element equality, and allows duplicate elements.

sorted search
A search that allows a client to receive search results sorted based on a list of criteria, where each criteria represents a sort key. This moves the responsibility of sorting from the client application to the server, where it might be done more efficiently.

sorted set
A sorted flat collection with element equality.

sort file
In COBOL, the temporary file that contains all the records to be sorted by a SORT statement. The sort file is created and used only by the sort function.


  1. A procedure for placing items in order. Sorting can be done at various levels of sophistication. The simplest sorting uses the code points, whereas the sorting done for dictionaries must consider cultural and language values. See also cultural sort.
  2. The process of establishing a specific order for the information in a RequisitePro view. See also filtering, query.

sort line
The section of an automated conveyor system that scans each carton, determines its final destination, and diverts the carton to the path on the conveyor which takes it to its destination.

sort-merge file description entry
In COBOL, an entry in the File Section of the Data Division that is composed of the level indicator SD, followed by a file name, and then followed by a set of file clauses as required.

sort sequence
The order in which characters are arranged within the computer to sort, combine, or compare data. A binary sort uses the internal representation of a character to sort characters in a sequence. When you use binary representation to sort characters, your resulting data may not be in the order that you expect.

sort sequence table
A table containing the order in which characters are arranged within the computer for sorting, combining, or comparing.

sort strategy
Warehouse plans to segregate shipments based on carrier, buyer, and so forth. Sorting is done so that multiple containers for a shipment can be grouped and shipped together.

sort utility
A function of the operating system used to arrange records in a sequence determined by data contained in one or more fields in the record.

sort while pick
A process where the picker picks quantities for multiple shipments, and then sorts the picked quantity into multiple cartons or totes.


  1. See short-on-storage.
  2. See special ordered set.

A phonetic algorithm that is used for indexing similar or identical names with variant spellings based on their English pronunciation. For example, Shawn, Shaun, and Sean would be indexed with the same fixed-length key. See also Double Metaphone, Metaphone, Metaphone 3.


  1. A system, a program within a system, or a device that makes a request to a target.
  2. The markup-language pertaining to files that define a HATS project or one of its resources. Also the name of a folder contained in each HATS project.
  3. In VisualAge RPG, a part that can notify target parts whenever the state of the source part changes. A source part can have multiple targets.
  4. A port that places voice data on the SCBus.
  5. In distributed data management (DDM), the platform that originates a request for remote data. See also Distributed FileManager, target.
  6. In advanced program-to-program communications, the system or program that starts jobs on another system.
  7. A specified instance of an application that provides a service to the WebSphere Front Office environment. Each source is uniquely identified by its source name in the configuration file.

source address

  1. The IP address of a computer that sends a network packet.
  2. The location from which information is to be sent. See also destination address.

source application
An application whose data is collected from its operational data stores and placed into the central data warehouse using an extract, transform, and load (ETL) process. See also consumer application.

source call view
A display of the nodes in the Application Diagram which represent blocks of code within the source that can be called, such as RPG subroutines, RPG subprocedures, COBOL procedures, and main entry points. The connections represent calls between the blocks of code.

source catalog entry
A product or SKU that contains one or more merchandising associations. When a source catalog entry is displayed, the user can view the defined merchandising associations. See also target catalog entry.

source code

  1. An organization-defined unique identifier associated with the method of advertising through which the candidate found the position.
  2. A computer program in a format that is readable by people. Source code is converted into binary code that can be used by a computer. See also object code.

source code control
A utility that allows the user to share catalogs between developers where concurrent access to the catalogs is required. See also multi-developer support.

source code control system (SCCS)
A program for maintaining version control of the source files in a developing program. SCCS stores the changes made to a file instead of the changed file, thus allowing several versions of the same file to exist in the system.

source code data
Metadata, dependency properties, and other user-defined data that are created and updated periodically by running scanners against the source code. The data can be queried, edited, and used to analyze the impact of potential changes. Source code data is used by dependency builds to determine which dependant artifacts have changed and therefore require that buildable files be rebuilt.

source control
A tool that is used to manage source code, documents, and other artifacts to place under version control and share with a team.

source control data set
A linear data set (LDS) containing a storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration. The SMS configuration in an SCDS can be changed and validated using the Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF). See also active control data set, communications data set, control data set, SMS configuration.

source control management (SCM)
An aspect of software configuration management that involves managing changes to collections of files. See also software configuration management.

source data
Data that is transformed and sent to the target database.

source data queue program
In System i Access, a series of PC programs that allow end users or user-written programs to manipulate data using data queues.

source debugger
A tool for debugging Integrated Language Environment (ILE) programs by displaying a representation of their source code. See also symbolic debugger.

sourced function
A function that duplicates the semantics of another function, called a source function. Only scalar and aggregate functions can be sourced functions. See also function, routine, user-defined function.

source directory
In VisualAge RPG, the directory in which all source files for the VRPG application are stored.

source distributed data manager (SDDM)
In a distributed data management network, programming support that translates local data management requests for remote files or SQL requests for a remote database into a DDM request, establishes communications to the remote system where the data file or database is located, and sends the request to the remote (target) system for processing. See also target distributed data manager.

source document
A machine-readable collection of lines of text or images that is used for input to a computer program.

source file
A file of programming code that is not compiled into machine language. See also data file.

source file variable
A text helper variable that holds the name of a file that contains an image or a recording of a question response, such as a .tiff file that contains a scanned image of a hand-written response or a sound file that contains a recording of an open-ended response in a CATI interview.

source host
The managed node on which the source files and directories referred to in a software package or a file package reside.

source ID (SID)
The 3-byte identifier of the originator device.

source interface
In a mediation flow component, the interface that allows the service requester to access the mediation flow through an export.

source limitation
A policy limitation on a data source, such as a volume type.

source line
A line of source code.

source listing

  1. A portion of a compiler listing that contains source statements and, optionally, test results.
  2. In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a listing of the overlay definition and messages after OGL has processed the definition.

source map
A source file that contains graphical mapping instructions for translation.

source map component
An object that references an executable map within a source map file.

source member
A member of a database source file that contains source statements, such as ILEC, COBOL, RPG, or DDS statements.

source module
See source program.

source node

  1. The node on which a data management event is generated.
  2. A node that can import data stored in a particular format. Supported formats include fixed- and variable-length field files, as well as file formats from other IBM and non-IBM products.

source operator
An operator that fetches information from an external system, such as a sensor, messaging system, or a database, and presents that information as a stream.

source overlay
In AFP Utilities, a file member that contains the definition of an overlay.

source permission
A value specifying the source of a permission, with four possible values: direct, default, template, and inherited.

source physical file
In IBM i, a file that contains members and that stores text or source statements instead of data.

source port
The port that the originating computer assigned to a network packet.

source program

  1. In communications, the program that starts a session with a remote system. See also target program.
  2. A set of host language statements and SQL statements that is processed by an SQL precompiler.
  3. A set of instructions that are written in a programming language and must be translated into machine language before the program can be run.
  4. In DB2 for i5/OS, the source in an i5/OS source file member used to create an SQL program.

source queue manager
See local queue manager.

source reference
An identifier that indicates the source of information, for example, a document reference number.

source release
During software upgrades, the version, release, and modification level of the installed product before a new level of the product is installed. See also target release.

source route bridging
In LANs, a bridging method that uses the routing information field in the IEEE 802.5 medium access control (MAC) header of a frame to determine which rings or token-ring segments the frame must transit. The routing information field is inserted into the MAC header by the source node. The information in the routing information field is derived from explorer packets generated by the source host.

source router
In LANs, the router that determines the route that the frame will follow.

source routing
In LANs, a method by which the sending station determines the route the frame will follow and includes the routing information with the frame. Bridges then read the routing information to determine whether they should forward the frame.

source segment
A database segment containing the data used to construct the secondary index pointer segment.

source server

  1. In distributed data management (DDM), the function that converts source requests to data streams containing DDM commands and output data, and sends them over the network to the target server.
  2. A database or subsystem that contains the source tables for replication.
  3. A server that is being upgraded with new hardware or software or whose data is being migrated.

source service access point (SSAP)
In SNA and TCP/IP, a logical address that allows a system to send data to a remote device from the appropriate communications support. See also destination service access point.

source statement
A statement written in the symbols of a programming language. For example, COBOL, RPG, and DDS statements are source statements.

source system

  1. The system that is being upgraded or migrated to a newer version of software.
  2. In communications, the system that issues a request to establish communications with another system.
  3. The system that currently owns the production copy of an independent disk pool in a cross-site mirroring (XSM) environment. Changes to the production copy of an independent disk pool are replicated to all mirror copies of the independent disk pool that exist on backup nodes within the recovery domain.
  4. In distributed data management (DDM), a system containing an application program that requests access to data in another system.
  5. The system that sends information in a network of systems that exchange objects and data. See also target system.

source table
A table that contains data that is to be replicated to a target table. See also target table.

source temporary store (STS)
The SMP/E primary data set, used to hold updated versions of source elements.

source-to-target mapping
A row in a mapping specification that describes a transformation between one or more source columns and business terms to one or more target columns and business terms.

source tree
The XML input document that is transformed by an XSL stylesheet.

source type

  1. In the application development tools, a characteristic of i5/OS members that allows the user to select a subset of the members available in a CoOperative Development Environment/400 session. Source types include i5/OS members with a particular member type.
  2. An existing type that is used to internally represent a distinct type.
  3. The data type from which a DISTINCT type is derived.

source user ID
An ID which, when altered, has the change propagated to other systems by RRSF. See also target user ID.


  1. The process of determining the location from which a product is shipped.
  2. The process of finding, evaluating, and selecting products and services for procurement from third parties.

sourcing classification
A customizable attribute used to determine which sourcing rule should be used for shipping, delivery services, provided services and procurement.

sourcing rule
A rule that controls which node, external organization, or group of nodes should be considered for sourcing a product or service request based on the product, product classification, ship-to region, and other parameters.

Southwest Europe
For IBM business, legal, marketing, or organizational contexts, the administrative region comprising France, some parts of Africa, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Italy, Turkey, and some parts of the Middle East. See also Europe, Middle East, and Africa, Northeast Europe.


  1. See statement of work.
  2. See scope of work.


  1. See system performance.
  2. See service provider.
  3. See skills planner.

See Scalable Parallel 2.


  1. See scratchpad area.
  2. See snippet processing array.


  1. To cause a printer to move the paper a specified number of lines either before or after it prints a line. See also line feed.
  2. An organizational unit that contains applications and services in the Cloud Foundry infrastructure and can be used to store and track application resources.
  3. Any storage area that can be directly accessed, down to its individual (8-bit) bytes, by a machine interface user such as a program or procedure.
  4. A site intended for storage of data, such as a location in a storage medium.
  5. In a neutral circuit, an impulse that causes the loop to open or causes absence of signal. In a polar circuit, it causes the loop current to flow in a direction opposite to that for a mark impulse. A space impulse is equal to a binary zero.
  6. In bar codes, the lighter element of a printed bar code symbol, usually formed by the background between bars. See also bar, intercharacter gap.
  7. A sub-group within a Bluemix org. Users who are members of an org are given access to one or more of its spaces, with permissions associated with a particular role (such as developer, manager, or auditor). Any member of the space can view apps, but only members with the developer role can create apps and add service instances to the space. Apps and service instances are associated with spaces. See also organization.
  8. An object on the drawing that is composed of closed boundaries that are created to track the area and perimeter of the object. When the database form contains the AREA and PERIMETER attributes, records of these values are maintained and updated automatically.
  9. A sequence of one or more blank characters.
  10. A basic unit of area, usually the size of a single character.
  11. An access-controlled area within an account where Blueworks Live artifacts can be created and organized.
  12. A graphic character with an IBM GCGID of SP010000. On a typewriter, the space character is produced by movement (spacing or escapement) that does not imprint a graphic character. Unlike other graphic characters, space can sometimes be eliminated or lost, as when a space between words occurs at the end of a line of text. See also null character, numeric space, required space.

space audit
An evaluation of the use of spaces in a building or structure that enables users to determine the accuracy, efficiency, and utility of spaces. By using periodic space audits, users can track and compare space allocations, space usage, and space costs over time.

space bar
A control key for the spacing function.

space character
In the portable character set, the <space> character.

space class
A classification structure or hierarchy that is used to establish the function of a space, such as warehouse or office.

space demand
The projected space needs of business units that are based on business goals and space drivers from the space forecasting process.

space efficient
See thin provisioning.

space-efficient VDisk
See thin-provisioned volume.

space forecasting
The process of estimating future space utilization needs by using a supply vs. demand analysis.

space-managed file
A file that is migrated from a client node by the hierarchical storage management (HSM) client. The HSM client recalls the file to the client node on demand.

space management

  1. The process of managing aged data sets on DFSMShsm-managed and migration volumes. The three types of space management are migration, deletion, and retirement.
  2. See hierarchical storage management.

space monitor daemon
A daemon that checks space usage on all file systems for which space management is active, and automatically starts threshold migration when space usage on a file system equals or exceeds its high threshold.

space plan
A plan that is used to provide an environment for a planner to work with a set of planning data (supply and demand) for a given set of locations (scope). Space plans are created under a portfolio plan or subplan in the portfolio planning hierarchy.

space planning process
A process that is used to establish a space plan of record or to evaluate scenarios that are related to unplanned events. The process can be initiated by routine planning cycles, strategic initiatives, mergers and acquisitions, an emergency response, or a business change event. Space planning processes can also be used to develop feasibility studies or contingency plans that do not go into an execution phase.

space plan scenario
A scenario that portfolio plan participants use to develop and evaluate options to optimize the use of space based on organizational growth or an unplanned event.

space pointer
A pointer that points to the storage associated with a variable.

space standard
A specification that defines the attributes of a space, including capacity, average area, and which roles can be assigned. There must be a space standard specification for every space class.

space supply
Existing and planned space inventory.

space token (STOKEN)
An 8-byte identifier for an address space, data space, or hiperspace. A STOKEN is similar to an address space identifier (ASID), except for two important differences: the system does not reuse the STOKEN value while a program is running and data spaces do not have ASIDs.

space unit
In DCF, a unit of measure of horizontal or vertical space. In GML markup, the em is used when a measure that is relative to the current font size is required. When an absolute measure is required, as in specifying the depth of a figure, recommended space units are inches (nnI), millimeters (nnW), picas or points (nnPnn), or ciceros or didot points (nnCnn), where nn is the number of units.

space width
In bar codes, the thickness of a bar code symbol space measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same space.

In PMF, to pass over one or more positions on a sheet of paper; for example, to do one or more line-feed operations.

A logical component consisting of a base card, which connects to the digital trunk adapter in the RS/6000, and a trunk interface card (TIC), which manages the trunk connection to the switch. See also VPACK, XPACK.

Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Italy (SPGI)


  1. See unsolicited email.
  2. To send unsolicited email to a large number of addresses.


  1. An attribute of a policy that defines the range of influence of a policy in a policy hierarchy. For example, the span attribute indicates whether a policy in a policy hierarchy is inherited only by its immediate child nodes or by its immediate child nodes and all their descendents.
  2. A sequence of characters in a text document.
  3. A user-defined group of network resources within a single domain. Spans provide a level of security by allowing the system administrator to define (a) the resources to which an operator can issue commands, (b) the views of resources that an operator can display, and (c) the resources in a view that an operator is allowed to see (an operator might not be authorized to see all the resources in a particular view). See also span of control.

spanned record

  1. In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a logical record whose length exceeds control interval length and, as a result, crosses, or spans, one or more control interval boundaries within a single control area.
  2. A logical record stored in more than one block on a storage medium.

In IPDS architecture, a method in which one command is used to start a sequence of constructs. Subsequent commands continue and terminate that sequence. See also control sequence chaining.

spanning tree
A loop-free subset of a network topology.

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
A network protocol that prevents loops while still allowing for redundancy in a bridged network.

span of control
The total network resources over which a particular network operator has control. All the network resources listed in spans associated through profile definition with a particular network operator are within that operator's span of control. See also span.

span time
The number of hours between a vehicle's end time and start time.

An extra storage component, such as a drive or tape, that is predesignated for use as a replacement for a failed component.

spare goal
The optimal number of spares that are needed to protect the drives in the array from failures. The system logs a warning event when the number of spares that protect the array drops below this number.

spare metadata server
An idle metadata server that has no statically assigned file sets. It is used for failover to take on the workload of another metadata server that goes offline.

spare pool
See resource pool.

spares strategy
A strategy for maintaining the optimal amount of spare parts in order to keep inventory as low as possible while reducing the possibility of running out of critical parts.

A line chart without axes and co-ordinates that shows variations over a period of time.

A query language for RDF that is used to express queries across diverse data sources. The W3 specification defines the syntax and semantic of the SPARQL query language.

sparse dimension
A dimension in a multidimensional database that has a low probability for occupying one or more data point in every combination of dimensions that occurs. For example, in a typical multidimensional database, the products dimension is often sparse since not every product is sold in every market. See also dense dimension.

sparse file
A file that is created with a length greater than the data it contains, leaving empty spaces for the future addition of data.

sparse root model
A root filesystem model for non-global Solaris zones that contains only a subset of the Solaris packages.

The fraction of zeroes in a matrix. If matrix A is m by n , and A(i, j) != 0 for k of its elements, its sparsity is k/mn . Large linear programs tend to be very sparse, increasing as the dimensions get large.

spatial column
A column in a table that is defined using one of the spatial data types provided by DB2 Spatial Extender.

spatial data
Data that is made up of coordinates that identify a geographic location or geographic region.

spatial function
A function provided by DB2 Spatial Extender that performs various operations on spatial data.

spatial reference system
In DB2 Spatial Extender, a set of parameters that includes coordinates that define the maximum possible extent of space that is referenced by a given range of coordinates, an identifier of the coordinate system from which the coordinates are derived, and numbers that convert coordinates into positive integers to improve performance when the coordinates are processed.

spatial reuse
A feature of Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) that enables a device adapter (DA) loop to support many simultaneous read/write operations. See also Serial Storage Architecture.

A function in which a calling process (the parent process) creates a new process called a child process. The child process inherits attributes from the parent process. A new program is specified and starts running in the child process.

See software package block.

See system power control network.


  1. See system product division.
  2. See software package definition.

SPD bus
A System i input/output bus architecture.

See session-layer protocol data unit.


  1. See strong password encryption.
  2. See service provider equipment.
  3. See Synergistic Processor Element.

speaker-dependent speech recognition
Identification of spoken words based on knowledge of the speech characteristics of one speaker. See also speaker-independent speech recognition.

speaker-independent speech recognition
Identification of spoken words based on aggregated knowledge of the speech characteristics of a population of speakers. See also speaker-dependent speech recognition.

speaker notes
A view in which notes for each slide in a presentation can be added or edited.

spear phishing
A targeted phishing attack that is directed at a particular company, organization, group or government agency.

See specification.

Special Administrative Region (S.A.R.)
Shortened form for Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Examples are Hong Kong and Macao.

SPECIAL attribute
An attribute which when assigned, allows the user to create, modify, and delete users, groups, and profiles, and set system options.

special authority
The types of authority a user can have to perform system functions, including all object authority, save system authority, job control authority, security administrator authority, spool control authority, service authority, and system configuration authority. See also specific authority.

special category
A category that groups a set of regular categories from any level in the same dimension, without regard to their normal hierarchical organization. For example, in a dimension called Management that includes the levels Senior Management, Middle Management, and Junior Management, it is possible to have a special category called Social Committee that includes specific personnel from each of these levels.

special character

  1. A character other than a digit, a letter, or one of these characters: $, #, @, ., or _. For example, the following characters are special characters: *, +, and %.
  2. In COBOL, a character that is neither numeric nor alphabetic.
  3. A character that is not alphabetic, numeric, or blank. For example, a comma (,) or an asterisk (*).
  4. A non-alphabetic and non-numeric character, such as %, &, /, ?, ], and a number of other characters that have a unique function in the SQL language.
  5. A graphic character that is not a letter, a digit, or a space character and not an ideogram.
  6. In REXX, a token that acts as a delimiter when found outside a literal string. Special characters include the comma (,), semicolon (;), colon (:), right parenthesis ()), left parenthesis ((), and the individual characters from the operators.

special-character keyboard set
In System i Access, an optional keyboard set, used by Western European countries and the Americas, that contains special characters like the Spanish tilde or the international currency symbol.

special-character word
In COBOL, a reserved word that is an arithmetic operator or a relational character.

special code
Keycode and analysis values that are configured for Data Collection-standard categorical responses for "Don't Know", "Refused", and "No Answer".

special cost
The cost of a resource for work performed during non-standard working hours, such as overtime or holidays.

special data area (SDA)
In architecture, the data area in an IPDS Acknowledge Reply that contains data requested by the host or generated by a printer as a result of an exception.

special element
An element that typically shows statistical information, such as the mean, standard deviation, or standard error.

special file

  1. A file that provides an interface to input or output devices. There is at least one special file for each device attached to the computer.
  2. On AIX, UNIX, or Linux systems, a file that defines devices for the system, or temporary files that are created by processes. There are three basic types of special files: first-in, first-out (FIFO); block; and character.

special handling
Material handling procedures required by law, customer requirement, or company policy. Items requiring special handling can include, for example, hazardous materials, breakable items, or items of high value.

A user-supplied definition which replaces a corresponding template instantiation.

specialized constraint
A set of arithmetic or logical constraints that expresses complicated relations between variables, for example, relations that would require a large number of arithmetic constraints. Specialized constraints enter into such considerations as counting values, maintaining load weights, and other critical activities. In most of the cases, a specialized constraint achieves more domain reduction than the equivalent set of basic constraints, and in all cases it performs domain reduction more efficiently.

specialized IT audience
Users whose primary domain of knowledge relates to the technical tasks of information technology (IT). This includes users such as programmers, database administrators, and network administrators. See also general purpose audience.

special ordered set (SOS)
A set of variables in a math programming (MP) problem that must sum to one.

special register

  1. In COBOL, compiler-created data items used to store information produced by specific COBOL features (for example, the DEBUG-ITEM special register).
  2. A storage area that is defined for an application process by the database manager and is used to store information that can be referenced in SQL statements. Examples are USER and CURRENT DATE. See also built-in global variable, global variable.

special resource
A resource that is not associated with a particular workstation, such as a data set.

special selling rate
The rate at which a resource's time is billed for work performed during non-standard working hours, such as overtime.

special service
An additional service that is related to a purchased product. For example: gift wrapping, monogramming, and personalization (engraving).

Generalization of a particular class of users; a product-defined entity independent of the user registry.

special text
Text that allows document-placement information from views to be automatically recalculated as a postprocessing step. After the column formulas in a view are calculated, special text is replaced with an integer. For this reason, although special text appears to be a number, it is not.

special variable
In REXX, a variable set automatically by the language processor. Special variables are RC, RESULT, and SIGL.

special weight (SW)
In cultural sorting, the weight of special characters such as the percent, ampersand, and punctuation symbols. See also alphanumeric weight, case weight, diacritical weight, indifferent weight, level 4, mark weight.

specification (spec)

  1. A declarative description of what something is or does.
  2. A detailed document that provides a definitive description of a system for the purpose of developing or validating the system.
  3. A representation or definition of the attributes for items (item spec), categories (category spec), locations (location spec), imports (file spec), exports (destination spec), lookup tables (lookup spec), or scripts (script input spec).

Specification 1170
A series of system interfaces, headers, and utilities. Specification 1170 is a superset (with some changes) of the POSIX 1003.1 and POSIX 1003.2 standards. Specification 1170 is also a superset of XPG4 Base. It includes sockets, the SVID real-time model for interprocess communications, and miscellaneous interfaces.

specification attribute
See property.

specification check
A synchronous indication of a condition, caused by data that are incorrect or invalid, that was transmitted as the result of a channel command. The specification check condition appears in the status information sent to the channel.

specification node
See attribute definition.

specification node attribute
See property.

specification X.21 (X.21)
In data communications, a specification of the CCITT that defines the connection of data terminal equipment to an X.21 (public data) network.

specific authority
The types of authority a user can be given to use the system resources, including object authorities and data authorities. See also special authority.

specific function name
A particular user-defined function that is known to the database manager by its specific name. Many specific user-defined functions can have the same function name. When a user-defined function is defined to the database, every function is assigned a specific name that is unique within its schema. Either the user can provide this name, or a default name is used.

specific gate
Entry point or interface to a CICS domain. A specific gate gives access to a set of functions that are provided by that domain only. The functions are likely to be requested by many different callers.

specific mode
In VTAM, (a) the form of a RECEIVE request that obtains input from one specific session and (b) the form of an ACCEPT request that completes the establishment of a session by accepting a specific queued CINIT request.

specific poll
One of the locations on a polling list.

specific polling
In Managed System Services, a type of polling used by the topology manager when collecting topology information for a particular system in the network.

specific resource capacity
The resources available for a specific day of the week/time slot combination for a given date range.

specified resolution
See format resolution.

A name or keyword used in declarations to indicate storage class, fundamental data type and other properties of the object or function being declared.

speech recognition
The process of identifying spoken words.

Speech Recognition Control Language (SRCL)
In WebSphere Voice Server, a structured syntax and notation used to define speech grammars. SRCL defines annotations, repetitions, words, phrases, and associated rules.

speech recognition session
In WebSphere Voice Server, a sequence of recognition commands that allocate a recognition engine and return a unique identifier to identify the engine.

speech synthesis
The production of speech by a computer, by putting together sounds that are created either algorithmically or from recordings of human speech.

The ability to add computing hardware and achieve faster performance for a decision support (DSS) query or online transaction processing (OLTP).

spell mode
The method of operation that uses spell aid and spell check functions to proofread and replace words in a document.

A measure that indicates the number of monetary transactions associated with an attribute.

spend accrual reset frequency
The time period in months, quarters, or years after which the accrued amount applicable for a discount is reset to zero.

spend analysis
The process of collecting, cleansing, classifying, and analyzing expenditure data with the purpose of reducing overall procurement costs for one or more IT categories (for example hardware, software, IT services, telecommunications), improving efficiency, and monitoring compliance. This process can be done manually or with spend analysis software.

spend type
An amount on which a discount is applicable when an order containing contingent staff line items becomes active, or when a receipt is generated or invoiced.

See Shortest Path First.

See Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Italy.

A Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) cluster with one or more associated alternate indexes and paths.

sphere component
The Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) cluster (sometimes referred to as the base cluster), alternate indexes, and paths that compose a sphere.

sphere of control (SOC)
In SNA, a collection of network node control points for which another system is acting as a focal point. This collection includes both control points explicitly defined by the customer, if the controlling system is a primary focal point, and control points assumed by the system if the controlling system is a default focal point.

sphere record
A collection of logically related records describing a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set.


  1. See sensitive personal information.
  2. See service provider interface.
  3. See schedule performance index.
  4. See Shipping Procedural Instruction.
  5. See system programming interface.
  6. See stub programming interface.
  7. See Security Policy Index.

spider label
In the GDDM function, a label used to add a comment or a note for a pie-chart slice. Each label is joined to its associated slice by a line.

A time-boxed process for exploring and learning about a user story in order to make accurate estimates.

spill area
A storage area that is used to save the contents of registers.

spill backup volume
A volume owned by DFSMShsm to which either all but the latest backup version of a data set are moved when more space is needed on a direct access storage device (DASD), daily, backup volume, or all valid versions are moved when a tape backup volume is recycled.

spill file
In SQL replication, a temporary file that the Apply program creates to hold data for updating target tables.

spill process
A DFSMShsm process that moves all but the latest backup version of a data set from a direct access storage device (DASD), daily, backup volume to a spill backup volume.

spill queue
In Q replication, a dynamic queue that the Q Apply program creates to hold transactions that occur at the source table while a target table is being loaded. The Q Apply program later applies these transactions and then deletes the spill queue.

spill storage group
See overflow storage group.

See snap-in provided information.

spin button
A type of entry field that shows a scrollable ring of choices from which a user can select a choice. After the last choice is displayed, the first choice is displayed again. A user can also type a choice from the scrollable ring into the entry field without interacting with the spin button.

spin data set
A data set that is available for printing, or deallocated, when it is closed.

A card internal to a switch chassis that provides connectivity between leaf cards.

A UI function that increments or decrements a numeric value according to the specified increment until the maximum or minimum values are reached. A spinner can be applied to either a numeric field or to a date/time field that contains a "time" component.


  1. See Streams Processing Language.
  2. See Stored Procedure Language.

See standard point location code.

SPL function
An SPL routine that returns one or more values. See also stored procedure.

In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a flat surface located ahead of the transfer carriage tractors. The splicer has a vacuum plate and tractor drive pins that can be used to correctly align and put together the last sheet in an old box and the first sheet in a new box.

The separation of a business process into one or more business processes or subprocesses to run simultaneously.


  1. An error state in which the data in one part of a highly available clustered application or system is inconsistent with another due to a network partition or failure, and results in two sets of conflicting data.
  2. An error state that occurs when the images of data on each Netezza host are different. It typically occurs when synchronization is disabled and users change data independently on each Netezza host.

split-brain incident
A separation of the nodes in a cluster by some type of communications failure. For example, in a four-node cluster, if two nodes are connected by a LAN switch that fails and the two nodes lose the communications link between the other two nodes, the cluster is deemed to have a split-brain incident. In a split-brain incident, each subset of nodes might behave as if it owned the resources that it had been configured to share; therefore, any coordination of those shared resources would result in unexpected behavior.

split-brain scenario

  1. An error state that occurs when the images of data on each Netezza host are different. It typically occurs when synchronization is disabled and users change data independently on each Netezza host.
  2. A type of failure in which communication with the remote site is lost, but the remote site does not fail. This situation leads to a mirror split with two live sites where neither site mirrors the data.

split database
A RACF database that has been divided among multiple data sets.

split line
An order line that is divided into multiple lines because only partial inventory existed and the remaining quantity was substituted with a similar item.

split send
A mailing that is sent to one part of a database before being sent to another part of the database.

Pertaining to a workstation where operations can be interrupted while being processed.

split task
A task that has an interruption in its duration.

A runtime component that exists on the output port of an operator and that sends tuples to different channels in the parallel region.

In OSI, the technique of a single transport connection using multiple network connections so that an application entity can use more than one line to send data on an association. Splitting can increase data throughput and resistance to network failure. It might be used, for example, to send a large file more quickly than if a single line were used. Splitting is available only with transport layer class 4.

split tunneling
A multiple-branch networking path that is used to provide concurrent access to a public network while accessing resources on the VPN.

SPL procedure
An SPL routine that does not return a value.

SPL routine
A user-defined routine that is written in Stored Procedure Language (SPL). Its name, parameters, executable format, and other information are stored in the system catalog tables of a database. An SPL routine can be an SPL procedure or an SPL function. See also stored procedure, Stored Procedure Language.

See SNA Primary LU2 Support.

SPL variable
A variable that is declared with the DEFINE statement in an SPL routine. See also stored procedure.


  1. See supplier performance management.
  2. See solution project manager.

See single program, multiple data.

See System Performance Measurement Interface.

See Simple and Protected GSS API Negotiation Mechanism.


  1. See Service Parts Organization.
  2. See secondary program operator application program.

See single point of control.

See secure point of entry.

spoilage allowance
A discount offered to the retailer to compensate for the spoilage of goods.


  1. The act of modifying, moving, or deleting information that was identified as evidence in a legal matter.
  2. The willful or accidental destruction of a record prior to its scheduled destruction.


  1. See buyer.
  2. In Cloud/SaaS offerings, a company that purchases a subscription to an application or service on behalf of another company. See also business partner.

sponsor user
A user that is engaged throughout a project to represent target personas. Sponsor users are often expected to lead playbacks.

spontaneous registration
A self registration done by suppliers.

spoofed source address
A source IP address that is not the actual source address of a datagram, but the address of a victim of an attack. All responses to the datagram are sent to this source IP address.


  1. The practice of masquerading as a trusted system to try to obtain confidential information. For example, when a would-be intruder sets up a client system with an IP address that is trusted by another system, it is called IP spoofing.
  2. The technique of faking the sending address of a transmission in order to gain illegal entry into a secure system.


  1. The system function of putting files or jobs into disk storage for later processing or printing.
  2. To reduce, through the use of auxiliary storage as buffer storage, processing delays when transferring data between peripheral equipment and the processors of a computer.

spool control authority
A special authority that allows the user to perform spooling functions, such as display, delete, hold, and release spooled files on the output queue for himself and other users. This authority also allows the user to change the spooled file attributes, such as the printer used to print the file.

spool data management
The recording and retrieval of data on the spool data set and the management of space within the spool data set.

spool data set
A data set written on an auxiliary storage device and managed by the Job Entry Subsystem (JES).

spool data set browse (SDSB)
An application that allows a program to read spool data sets.

spool device
A direct-access device used for intermediate storage of control blocks and data needed for processing jobs. During multiprocessing, the spool device becomes a collection point for job input data to be distributed to local mains, and for job output data coming from local mains on route to I/O devices attached to the global.

spooled file
A file that holds output data waiting to be processed, such as information waiting to be printed.

spooled printing
A printing mode in which a print file is sent to a spooling subsystem. The spooling subsystem then directs the file to a printer.

spool file

  1. A file containing output that has been saved for later printing.
  2. A file that is used in the transmission of data among devices.


  1. The sending of data to auxiliary storage for later processing. The most common spooling application is print spooling.
  2. The process of performing a peripheral operation such as printing while the computer is busy with other work.

spooling job
A batch job that is started by the spooling subsystem.

spooling reader
The general name to refer to the function of the diskette reader and the database reader.

spooling subsystem
A part of the system that provides the operating environment for the programs that read jobs onto job queues to wait for processing and write files from an output queue to an output device. IBM supplies one spooling subsystem: QSPL.

spooling writer
The general name to refer to the function of the diskette writer and printer writer.

spool manager
In DPF, a function that enables users to view and manage the DPF print spool, set up DPF, and configure error-recovery functions.

spool partition
A named collection of spool data sets.


  1. A circular area on a printed sheet that is either darker or lighter than desired.
  2. In bar codes, the undesirable presence of ink or dirt in a bar code symbol space.

See Shared Product Object Tree.

spot carbon
Paper from which carbon is omitted in certain areas to suppress printing of data on specific copies.

A unique formatting and positioning of boosted search results in a graphic. See also boost.

spot rate
A manual rate that the carrier submits for a shipment. The spot rate overrides the flat rate that is defined by the shipper. See also fixed rate.

spot rate accessorial
A charge in which the carrier is permitted to submit a new rate for a single shipment.

spotted status
A shipment status that indicates a carrier has placed the trailer at the destination. A user sets Drop Loaded Trailer as the status event, which causes the shipment status to change to Spotted.

See Subpool Queue Block.

To distribute values across a range of cells using a specific algorithm, such as percent or increments.


  1. See iteration.
  2. In Scrum development, a set period of time in which work is completed. Sprints can vary in length, for example, from 1 to 4 weeks, but typically have a fixed duration within a project.

In computer graphics, a small graphics picture, or series of pictures, that can be moved independently around the screen under program control, producing animated effects.

See sync point services.

See strategy and plans team.


  1. See Synergistic Processor Unit.
  2. See Snippet Processing Unit.

See SQL Processor Using File Input.

See self-paced virtual class.

See Sequenced Packet Exchange protocol.

Malicious software that is designed to transmit information or take partial control of a computer without the informed consent of the user of the computer.

See system queue area.

See Structured Query Language.

See SQL-92.

The successor to SQL2.

ANSI SQL standard adopted in 1992.

See SQL3.

The target successor to SQL-92.

SQL and XQuery compiler
A DB2 component that analyzes the semantics of an SQL or XQuery statement and produces an efficient executable form of the statement. See also section.

SQL authorization ID (SQL ID)
In DB2 for z/OS, the ID that is used for checking the authorization of dynamic SQL statements in some situations.

See SQL communication area.

SQL communication area (SQLCA)
A set of variables that provides an application program with information about the execution of its SQL statements, XQuery expressions, or requests from the database manager.

SQL connection
An association between an application process and a local or remote application server or database server. See also connection, dormant connection, session.

See SQL descriptor area.

SQL database DSA
A data source adaptor that retrieves information from relational databases and other data sources that provide a public interface through Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). SQL database DSAs also add, modify and delete information stored in these data sources.

SQL data change statement
An SQL statement, such as the INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or MERGE statement, that is used to change data in user tables.

SQL descriptor area (SQLDA)
A set of variables in a structure used in the processing of certain SQL statements that describe input variables, output variables, or the columns of a result table. The SQLDA is intended for dynamic SQL programs. See also system-descriptor area.

SQL escape character
The symbol that is used to enclose an SQL delimited identifier. This symbol is the double quotation mark (").

SQL filter
An expression that is used to select rows in a database table. The syntax for the filter is similar to the contents of an SQL WHERE clause. See also filter.

SQL function
A function that is implemented entirely by using a subset of SQL statements and SQL procedural language (SQL PL) statements. See also function, routine, user-defined function.

SQL generation
The generation of SQL statements in order to perform SQL pushback. See also SQL pushback.

SQL Helper
See SQLTerm.

See SQL authorization ID.

SQL injection
See Structured Query Language injection.

See Structured Query Language for Java.

SQL method
A method that is implemented entirely by using a subset of SQL statements and SQL PL statements. See also method, routine.

SQL optimization
The reordering of nodes within a stream in order to maximize the number of operations that can use SQL pushback. See also SQL pushback.

SQL path
An ordered list of schema names that is used to resolve unqualified references to user-defined functions, distinct types, and procedures.

See SQL Procedural Language.

SQL Procedural Language (SQL PL)
A language extension of SQL that consists of statements and language elements that can be used to implement procedural logic in SQL statements. SQL PL provides statements for declaring variables and condition handlers, assigning values to variables, and for implementing procedural logic. See also Procedural Language SQL.

SQL procedure
A user-written program that is implemented entirely by using a subset of SQL statements and SQL PL statements and that is invoked by using the SQL CALL statement. See also built-in procedure, procedure, routine, SQL routine, user-defined procedure.

SQL processing conversation
Any conversation that requires access of DB2 for z/OS data, either through an application or by dynamic query requests. See also conversation.

SQL Processor Using File Input (SPUFI)
A facility of the TSO attachment subcomponent that enables the DB2I user to run SQL statements without embedding them in an application program.

SQL pushback
The execution of generated SQL statements by the data mining algorithms of a connected database, rather than by SPSS Modeler algorithms. SQL pushback can improve performance as data does not need to be extracted from the database for processing by the algorithm. See also SQL generation, SQL optimization.

SQL query

  1. In query management, a type of query that is created by running an IMPORT command against a file containing an SQL statement.
  2. Any valid SQL statement in the dialect of the target database. This may be either data definition, such as CREATE TABLE, or data manipulation, such as SELECT.
  3. A component of certain SQL statements that specifies a result table.

SQL replication
A type of replication that uses staging tables. See also Q replication, staging table.

SQL return code
The SQLSTATE or SQLCODE value that indicates whether the previously run SQL statement completed successfully, with one or more warnings, or with an error.

SQL root element
An element that represents the SQL data sources that Sterling B2B Integrator uses during translation. The SQL root element is a looping structure that contains groups, SQL statements, cursor operations, and input and output records that repeat in sequence until either the group data ends or the maximum number of times that the loop is allowed to repeat is exhausted. The SQL root element cannot be referenced by standard rules or links.

SQL routine
A function, method, or procedure that has its routine logic implemented entirely with SQL statements and SQL PL language elements and statements. See also routine, SQL procedure.

SQL schema
A collection of database objects such as tables, views, indexes, functions, user-defined types, or triggers that defines a database. An SQL schema provides a logical classification of database objects.

SQL Server
A full-scale database engine from Microsoft that can be acquired and installed into the IBM Endpoint Manager system to satisfy more than the basic reporting and data storage needs.

SQL statement
A complete instruction to the database manager that is written using SQL.

SQL statement coprocessor
An alternative to the DB2 for z/OS precompiler that can be used to process SQL statements at compile time. The user invokes an SQL statement coprocessor by specifying a compiler option.

SQL string delimiter
See string delimiter.

A utility that helps the user build SQL statements. It is available wherever SQL statements are required.

An implementation of SQL over text files.

SQLTXT Designer
A utility that allows the user to configure the SQLTXT definition files to access text files as though they are in an SQL database.

A section of the ISO Database Languages - SQL standard that defines XML-related functionality in SQL that allows SQL statements to construct, manipulate, and query XML data.

SQL/XML constructor
A function that creates XML structures or typed atomic values within an SQL statement.

A collocated team that has all of the necessary skills to design, develop, test, and release a product or component to production (like a fully operational mini-startup). Each squad is given a long term mission and is led by a product owner. The product owner does not get involved with the actual work, but rather, acts as an “entrepreneur,” looking to deliver work as efficiently as possible. See also chapter, guild, tribe.

square bracket
See bracket.

The status report application support PDU, which is used by MERVA Link for acknowledgment messages.

See service request block.


  1. See system reference code.
  2. See System Resource Controller.

See subrecord control byte.

See Speech Recognition Control Language.

See structure recovery data set.

S reference point
In Performance Tools, the interface (including the cable) between the terminal equipment (TE) and network termination 2 (NT2).

See single root I/O virtualization.

See system resources manager.

SRM database object
See system resource management database object.

See service request number.

See Self-Regulation Organization.

See system requirements review.


  1. See Structure Rule Table.
  2. See system recovery table.

See Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol.


  1. See start-stop.
  2. See session services.

See Signaling System 7.


  1. See Serial Storage Architecture.
  2. See segment search argument.

SSA adapter
A physical adapter based on Serial Storage Architecture (SSA). SSA adapters connect disk drive modules (DDMs) to ESS clusters. See also device adapter, Serial Storage Architecture.


  1. See session-layer service access point.
  2. See source service access point.

SSAP selector
In OSI, an external identifier for a service access point at the session layer. The SSAP selector is part of a presentation address.

See subsystem control block.

See system services control point.

SSCP-LU session
In SNA, a session between a system services control point (SSCP) and a logical unit (LU). The session enables the LU to request the SSCP to help initiate LU-LU sessions.

SSCP-PU session
In SNA, a session between a system services control point (SSCP) and a physical unit (PU); SSCP-PU sessions allow SSCPs to send requests to and receive status information from individual nodes in order to control the network configuration.

SSCP rerouting
In SNA network interconnection, the technique used by the gateway system services control point (SSCP) to send session-initiation request units (RUs), by way of a series of SSCP-SSCP sessions, from one SSCP to another, until the owning SSCP is reached.

SSCP-SSCP session
In SNA, a session between the system services control point (SSCP) in one domain and the SSCP in another domain. An SSCP-SSCP session is used to initiate and terminate cross-domain LU-LU sessions.

SSCP takeover
See resource takeover.

See solid-state drive.

See Sales Support Database.

See session-layer service data unit.

See Smart Surveillance Engine.

See software support facility.

See Secure Shell.

SSH File Transfer Protocol
A network protocol that provides the ability to transfer files securely over any reliable data stream.

See secure shell/secure copy program.

See secure shell/Secure File Transport Protocol.


  1. See system status index.
  2. See structural significant item.
  3. See subsystem interface.
  4. See server-side include.
  5. See single system image.
  6. See Security Support Provider Interface.

See subsystem identification block.

SSI-compliant custom server
A custom server that runs correctly in a single system image. The custom server complies with all the guidelines for the operation of custom servers in an SSI environment.

See subsystem identifier.

SSI injection
See server-side include injection.

SSI-tolerant custom server
A custom server that runs in a single system image, but only with some restrictions.

See Secure Sockets Layer.

SSL authentication
Authentication in which the server exchanges the server certificate with the client and, optionally, the client exchanges the client certificate with the server. This exchange determines whether the client and server have a certificate in common and verifies the identities of the server and, optionally, the client.

SSL channel
A type of channel within a transport chain that associates a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) configuration repertoire with the transport chain.

An implementation of SSL, written in Java, and no longer supported by CICS Transaction Gateway.

SSL server authentication
A type of authentication that allows a client to confirm the identity of a server. SSL-enabled client software uses standard techniques of public-key cryptography to ensure that the certificate and public ID of a server are valid and that the certificate and ID were issued from one of the client's trusted certificate authorities (CAs). See also certificate, certificate authority.

See Secure Sockets Layer virtual private network.

See Strategic Sales Model.

See Service Science, Management and Engineering.


  1. See single sign-on.
  2. See sanitary sewer overflow.

See subsystem options block.

See single source of truth.

See System Support Program.

See service support representative.

See subsystem support services.

See system service tools.

stabilized file space
A file space that exists on the server but not on the client.

Pertaining to a confirmed state of position without change.


  1. An area in memory that typically stores information such as temporary register information, values of parameters, and return addresses of subroutines and is based on the principle of last in, first out (LIFO).
  2. In kernel mode, an area that is paged with the user process. The kernel maintains a stack for each process. It saves the process information such as the call chain and local variables used by the kernel for the user process.
  3. See protocol stack.
  4. An area of storage in which stack frames can be allocated.

Indicating that a form has reached the stacker and its data is thus considered secure.

stacked bar chart
A chart consisting of bars of equal width that are plotted horizontally. Each bar represents a group of two or more categories that are stacked on top of one another. A stacked column chart emphasizes the part-to-whole relationship of the categories that compose a group. The total value of the group is indicated by the height of each bar.

stacked bar code
Horizontally stacked bar code with a row number identifier denoting how many rows (2-8) are stacked. Permits multiple bar code scanning in any order by sweeping top to bottom or bottom to top across the entire block.

stacked column chart
A chart consisting of bars of equal width that are plotted vertically. Each bar represents a group of two or more categories that are stacked on top of one another. A stacked column chart emphasizes the part-to-whole relationship of the categories that compose a group. The total value of the group is indicated by the height of each bar.

stacked icon
A Notes database icon that represents a database and all of its associated replicas that are currently added to the workspace.

stacked product
A product that extends the tooling, functionality, or features of another product. For example, Rational Software Architect is a stacked product of Rational Application Developer.

stacked set
Two or more sets arranged one above another in rows or side-by-side in columns. See also set.

stacked status
In mainframe computing, the condition in which the control unit is in a holding status for the channel, and, the last time the control unit attempted to present the status, the channel responded with the stack-status control.

stacked tape
A bootable tape with multiple software images.

stacked volume
A volume that has a one-to-one association with physical tape media and is used in a virtual tape server (VTS) to store logical volumes (LVOLs). Stacked volumes are not used by MVS applications but by the VTS and its associated utilities. They may be removed from a VTS to allow transportation of LVOLs to a vault or to another VTS. See also container.

An enclosure in a printer in which printed media is stacked.

stack frame

  1. The physical representation of the activation of a routine. The stack frame is allocated and freed on a last-in, first-out basis.
  2. See dynamic storage area.
  3. A section of the stack that contains the local variables, arguments, and register contents for an individual routine, as well as a pointer to the previous stack frame.

stack frame collapse
An action that occurs when the condition manager skips over one or more active routines and execution resumes in an earlier routine on the stack.

stacking number
The number of application servers that are required for a dynamic cluster to use all the power of a node.

stacking order
The relationship between sibling windows that stack on top of each other.

stack lean
In printers, a measurable slope from the vertical of a stack of forms. Excessive stack lean can cause failures when feeding and refolding forms.

stack operator
An operator that programs use to manipulate values that are on the stack.

stack overflow
An error condition in DOS that results from an insufficient number of stack frames, which are used by DOS to handle hardware interrupts.

stack plan
A graphical display of space supply and demand that is overlaid to determine space fit and gaps for a group of locations, most commonly at the floor level.

stack pointer
A register providing the current location of the stack.

stack queue
A queue containing PPQ entries whose page, represented by the form ID, has reached the stacker.

stack segment
A contiguous area of storage obtained directly from the operating system. The Language Environment storage management scheme subdivides stack segments into individual dynamic storage areas (DSAs). If the initial stack segment becomes full, a second segment or increment is obtained from the operating system.

stack storage

  1. See automatic storage.
  2. An area of storage used for suballocation of stack frames. Such suballocations are allocated and freed on a LIFO (last-in, first-out) basis. A stack is a collection of one or more stack segments consisting of an initial stack segment and zero or more increments.

The people who are responsible for managing the data source.

staff activity
An activity in a process that queries human interaction for decisions on how to proceed. A staff activity is used in a long-running process where the process will halt to await the outcome of the human interaction.

staff augmentation
See contingent labor.

See talent acquisition.


  1. To mark a set of file changes as being ready for Git commit.
  2. To deploy an application, service, or instance to a pre-defined location for running or testing before deployment to a production environment. See also deployment.
  3. To move data from the production database to the staging database.
  4. A group of jobs within a shared execution context that consists of source input, environment variables, and a defined order of execution.
  5. A program that processes messages in a NetView pipeline. Stages send messages to each other serially.
  6. Part of a scan phase in which AppScan either explores or tests the site. See also job design.
  7. The element of a job design that describes a data source, a data processing step, or a target system and that defines the processing logic that moves data from input links to output links. A stage is a configured instance of a stage type. See also job design, operator, stage type.

stage 1 system definition
The first part of the process of defining an IMS system. Stage 1 checks input specifications and generates a series of job steps that are the input to stage 2.

stage 2 system definition
The second part of the process of defining an IMS system. Stage 2 builds IMS system libraries, execution procedures, and the IMS online control program tailored to support the desired set of IMS functions. Stage 2 then stores these in an IMS library.

Pertaining to a database table in which the content can be propagated to the production environment.

stageable font
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a font that can be loaded from the host processor into printer diskette font storage for use when printing selected graphic characters. See also nonstageable font.

stage type
An object that defines the capabilities of a stage, the parameters of the stage, and the libraries that the stage uses at run time. See also stage.

staggered closing
An auction closing where the first item or lot closes at the RFx closing time and thereafter each item or lot closes sequentially after a certain interval.

The process of returning return data or an object from an offline or low-priority device to an online or higher priority device, typically on demand of the system or on request of the user.

staging area

  1. The area of the file system that can store both data that will be imported (it is identified as the data source) and data that has been exported (it can be identified as the distribution). See also export, import.
  2. See resource manager cache.
  3. An area into which subsystem interface routines store data to be transferred between address spaces. Staging areas can be contained in the common service area (CSA) or in an address space used by auxiliary storage.

staging buffer
Memory that the TCP/IP stack allocates for outbound SMC-R data. Staging buffers are not associated with specific SMC-R links or link groups, and are used by all TCP connections that traverse SMC-R links on this stack. Only local applications access the staging buffer storage.

staging configuration directory (SCD)
The directory in which program-specific ODM object classes are stored temporarily during a dynamic reconfiguration operation. See also active configuration directory, default configuration directory.

staging data set
Data sets that are created by the system logger to safeguard log data when there is an error that leaves the only copy of log data in a volatile configuration.

staging drive group
A collection of staging drives for space management and recovery.

staging libraries
Those libraries that are modified by offline functions in a system using online change. Changes are first applied to the staging libraries, which are then copied to the inactive libraries.

staging server

  1. An instance of a WebSphere Commerce Server that is used for testing purposes before new functions or data are deployed to the production server. See also authoring server, production server, production-ready data.
  2. A temporary on-premises Domino server used for transferring mail files to the SmartCloud Notes service.

staging stream
A copy of a stream hierarchy that acts as a staging area for a new baseline.

staging table

  1. In SQL replication, a consistent-change-data table that is used to save data before that data is replicated to the target database. A consistent-change-data table used for staging data can function as an intermediate source for updating data in one or more target tables. See also consistent-change-data table, SQL replication.
  2. An intermediate table that is written to from an external system and used to populate business object tables.
  3. A temporary database table that is used to hold data for further processing. A staging table might be created automatically by the system, or the administrator might have to create it for a specific purpose.

stair chart
A chart that represents a transition between two values as a stair instead of straight lines.

An individual or organization that is involved in or may be affected by project activities.

stale connection
A connection in a connection pool that is no longer valid.

stale data
Data that is out of date.

stale file handle
A file handle for a file or prefix that is no longer valid.


  1. Pertaining to a program that can run separately from the DB2 database system, without using DB2 services.
  2. Independent of any other device, program, or system. In a network environment, a stand-alone machine accesses all required resources locally.

stand-alone application
A streams processing application that runs locally as an executable file and does not require the runtime system. See also distributed application.

stand-alone CICS bundle
A CICS bundle that is deployed as its own entity, rather than as part of a management bundle. See also CICS bundle, management bundle.

stand-alone client
The node in a one-node cluster.

stand-alone deployment
A deployment where the IMS Server is deployed on an independent WebSphere Application Server profile.

stand-alone dump
A printout of main storage requested separately from normal system operations, which does not require the system to be in a condition for normal operations.

stand-alone optical drive
An optical drive housed outside of an optical library.

stand-alone project
A single project within a single organization. May be part of component project.

stand-alone relationship
In FlashCopy, Metro Mirror, and Global Mirror, relationships that do not belong to a consistency group and that have a null consistency-group attribute.

stand-alone restore
A DFSMSdss program that runs independently of the z/OS system environment and provides a full or partial restoration from a dump tape.

stand-alone server

  1. A catalog service or container server that is managed from the operating system that starts and stops the server process.
  2. A fully operational server that is managed independently of all other servers, using its own administrative console.

stand-alone support element
See Support Element.

stand-alone system

  1. A DirectTalk system that is not part of a single system image (SSI). A stand-alone system is not connected to other DirectTalk systems, so it contains its own application and voice data.
  2. A system that runs application programs independently of another system. The exchange of data files or applications with another system is done manually, through portable media, such as diskette or tape.

stand-alone task
A unit of work that exists independently of a business process, and implements human interaction as a service. See also human task, inline task.

stand-alone text search server
The Enterprise Content Management text search server that is installed with the DB2 Accessories Suite for use with a DB2 server.

stand-alone workstation
A workstation that can perform tasks without being connected to other resources such as servers or host systems.


  1. A set of clearly defined and agreed-upon conventions for specific programming interfaces which have been approved by a formally constituted standards-setting body.
  2. See measuring and test equipment.
  3. User-specified open intervals for a typical day at a workstation.

standard access list
See access list.

standard accessorial
An accessorial that is used for general shipping charges, such as a driver load/unload charge, detention charge, or stop charge.

standard action
In architecture, the architecture-defined action to be taken on detecting an exception condition, when the environment specifies that processing should continue.

standard agent
An installed agent component in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that runs jobs, but requires a domain manager to resolve local dependencies and launch the jobs.

standard allowable minutes (SAM)
A value that is defined by a warehouse to determine how much time is allocated for each activity, including receiving, pallet moves, case replenishment, and special ticketing.

Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC)
A unique two-to-four-letter code used to identify transportation companies. See also carrier ID, fleet ID.

standard database
In high availability disaster recovery, a database that is neither the primary nor the standby. A standard database is not configured for high availability disaster recovery. See also high availability disaster recovery.

standard data format
In COBOL, the format in which data is described as it appears when it is printed rather than how it is stored in the computer.

standard deployment
A deployment of the IBM Endpoint Manager that applies to workgroups and to enterprises with a single administrative domain. It is intended for a setting in which all Client computers have direct access to a single internal server.

standard deviation
A measurement of how varied the values in a frequency distribution are from the average value of the distribution. A low standard deviation value means that the values are close to the average value, whereas a high standard deviation value means that the values are more widely dispersed over a large range of values.

standard DL/I application program
An application program that uses the existing DL/I call interface. It does not issue any CPI communications calls, nor does it allocate any LU 6.2 conversations.

standard environment
IBM Intelligent Operations Center installed on a series of servers, where each server provides specific services to the solution.

standard error (STDERR)
The output stream to which error messages or diagnostic messages are sent. See also standard input, standard output.

standard event reader
A service that monitors a database for new, updated, and deleted events and triggers policies based on the event data. See also event reader.

standard exit
An exit routine that is called to derive the value for a destination column in a column map. See also exit routine.

standard format dictionary
A dictionary where a match will only be found if exactly the same sequence of characters is found in a text as the dictionary entry.

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
A standard metalanguage for defining markup languages that is based on the ISO 8879 standard. SGML focuses on structuring information rather than presenting information; it separates the structure and content from the presentation. It also facilitates the interchange of documents across an electronic medium.

standard input (STDIN)
An input stream from which data is retrieved. Standard input is normally associated with the keyboard, but if redirection or piping is used, the standard input can be a file or the output from a command. See also standard error.

standard I/O board
A board that provides access to a group of I/O functions that are basic to most system units. Common standard I/O functions are keyboard, tablet, speaker, mouse, serial port, parallel port and diskette adapter.

A process that separates records into parts, changes them to implement enterprise data quality standards, and potentially enriches the data for when it is used. See also standardization rule.

standardization rule
One or more conditions, such as a pattern, and the associated set of actions, which is used to standardize data. See also action, condition, pattern, pattern-action language, standardization.

standard label (SL)
An IBM, ANSI, or ISO standard tape label.

standard MIB
In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), a MIB module that is located under the management branch of the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and that is considered a standard by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

standard MSI file
A common Windows file type that is used in a Windows installation program.

standard operating procedure (SOP)
A procedure defining a sequence of activities that are triggered in response to an event whose parameters meet certain predefined conditions.

Standard Operating Procedure selection matrix
A matrix containing unique sets of event parameters that determine whether a standard operating procedure is initiated for a particular event.

standard output (STDOUT)
The output stream to which data is directed. Standard output is normally associated with the console, but if redirection or piping is used, the standard output can be a file or the input to a command. See also standard error.

standard point location code (SPLC)
A code that the National Motor Freight Traffic Association assigns to many freight origin and destination locations. See also location code.

standard portlet
A portlet that complies with one of the OASIS portlet standards: JSR168 or JSR286.

standard req field
See standard requisition field.

standard requisition field (standard req field)
The non-configurable data entry points on the requisition form used for standard reports and other standard features.

standard resource capacity
The potential resource pool for each day of the week/time slot combination for a given date range.

standard rule
A rule that allows access to functions necessary for mapping operations more complex than simple linking but less complex than extended rules. Standard rules are mutually exclusive (only one can be used on a particular field).

Standards Council of Canada (SCC)
A federal Crown corporation that has the mandate to promote efficient and effective standardization in Canada through the development and deployment of standards. It is the Canadian national member for ISO.

standard screen
In the extended curses library, a memory image of the screen to which the routines make changes.

standard set
A group of CD-ROMs that contains the i5/OS program, no-charge options, and no-charge licensed programs.

standard SLC
An SLC that one can use to monitor elements using specific criteria, such as process names and file names. See also service level criteria, simple SLC, wildcard SLC, workflow SLC.

standard system action
The name given to the language-defined default action taken when a condition occurs and it is not handled by a condition handler.

standard term
A term in a business glossary that has been thoroughly evaluated and approved by the team and that has been defined as definitively describing a characteristic of the enterprise or organization. See also candidate term.

standard value
The element of a classification definition that is a standardized spelling or representation of the value and that can be used to facilitate matching.

standard volume
A volume that emulates one of several S/390 volume types, such as the 3390-2, 3390-3, 3390-9, 3390-2 (3380-track mode), or 3390-3 (3380-track mode). A standard volume presents the same number of cylinders and capacity to the host as the native S/390-volume type of the same name presents. See also custom volume.

Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT)
An Eclipse toolkit for Java developers that defines a common, portable, user interface API that uses the native widgets of the underlying operating system. See also Abstract Window Toolkit, Swing Set.

An idle resource available to replace another equal resource currently in use, for example, a processor or a network interface.

standby database
In high availability disaster recovery, a copy of the primary database. Updates to this database occur by rolling forward log data that is generated on the primary database and sent to the standby database. See also auxiliary HADR standby database, high availability disaster recovery, principal HADR standby database.

standby group
A collection of interfaces on different appliances in the multicast domain that share the responsibility for one virtual IP address.

standby host

  1. The logical partition that acts as a standby for an administration host, a management host, or a data host. The standby host can take ownership of the resources from only the same type of failed active host and process the workloads intended for that failed host.
  2. The host server that is in a passive mode. The standby host becomes the active host when a user manually migrates control from the active host to the standby host or in a case of failover.

standby interface
See boot interface.

standby management server
A management server that is a backup for the active server. The replication environment cannot be monitored or managed from the standby server.

standby node
A device that assumes the identity of a primary node if the primary node fails or is taken out of service. The standby node runs the primary node's workload until the primary node is back in service. See also primary node.

standby queue manager instance
An instance of a running multi-instance queue manager ready to take over from the active instance. There are one or more standby instances of a multi-instance queue manager.

standby system
A system that automatically becomes active when the active system fails. If disk replication is enabled, replicates data from the active system.

Standiseringskommissionen I Sverige (SIS)
The national standards-setting organization in Sweden.

Standiseringskommissionen I Sverige-Informationstekniska standardiseringen (SIS-ITS)
A Swedish national information technology standards setting organization.

standout mode
A terminal display method that is used for highlighting text.

stand-up meeting
See scrum.


  1. A section of a software package that defines either a specific action to be performed on that the software package or a set of conditions under which actions are to be performed on the software package. The complete software package is a stanza that contains a hierarchy of many different stanzas. See also software package, software package definition.
  2. A grouping of options in a configuration file to control various aspects of compilation by default.
  3. A group of lines in a file that together have a common function or define a part of the system. Stanzas are usually separated by blank lines or colons, and each stanza has a name.

See software tap.

star-connected communications network
A network in which all nodes are connected to a central node.

star join
A method of joining a dimension column of a fact table to the key column of the corresponding dimension table. See also dimension table, fact table, join, star schema.

star schema

  1. A simple schema that represents each dimension in a single table. Levels of the dimension are represented as columns within this table. The primary key of this table is the member identifier of the lowest dimension level. See also metadata schema.
  2. A type of relational database schema that is composed of a set of tables comprising a single, central fact table surrounded by dimension tables. See also dimension table, star join.

star schema data model
A relational schema whose design represents a multidimensional data model. The star schema consists of one or more fact tables and one or more dimension tables that are related through foreign keys.

start-control-program-function job (SCPF job)
A job used during a portion of the initial program load process that starts the operating system.

start data traffic (SDT)
In SNA, a command issued by the primary logical unit, which allows user data to be sent on the logical unit-to-logical unit (LU-to-LU) session.

start date
A point in time associated with the start of work and usually qualified as actual, planned, estimated, and scheduled. Start date combined with duration and dependencies permits the calculation of finish date.

started procedures table
A function that provides a method for assigning RACF identities to started procedures

started task
In MVS, a process that begins at system start and runs unattended. Started tasks are generally used for critical applications. The UNIX equivalent of a started task is a daemon.

started-task computer workstation
A computer workstation that supports started tasks as a result of giving the workstation the STC option. Operations defined to this workstation are treated as started tasks, not as jobs.

started-task operations
Operations that start or stop started tasks. These operations are run at a computer workstation with the STC option specified.

started transaction
A CICS transaction initiated by a terminal user can start other transactions by means of a CICS START command. A transaction started in this way is known as a started transaction.

A template that includes predefined services and application code that is configured with a particular buildpack.  A starter might be application code that is written in a specific programming language, or a combination of application code and a set of services. See also runtime.

starter set

  1. An example of GML support that is provided with DCF. It consists of a document-type description for general documents, a profile, and a library of APFs.
  2. In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, the subset of the programming interface that can be used by customer programs that use simplified data communications.

starter store
A fully functional online store, provided in store archive format with WebSphere Commerce. Starter stores are designed to be used as a base on which an online store can be created.

starter store archive
A store archive for the WebSphere Commerce starter store.

start event
An event that indicates where a process starts. The start event starts the flow of the process and does not have any incoming sequence flow but can have a trigger. Start event types are none, message, timer, ad hoc, and error. See also ad hoc start event, error start event, message start event, none start event, timer start event.

Start I/O (SIO)
A machine instruction asking a channel to start the execution of the I/O operation.

start method
A method that takes a device from a stopped state to an available state. The start method applies only to devices that support the optional stopped state.

start node

  1. A node that identifies where a rule flow begins. A rule flow has one and only one start node.
  2. A node that identifies where a process begins.

start-of-authority record (SOA record)
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the resource record that defines a zone.

start-of-header character (SOH character)
In binary synchronous communications, the transmission control character indicating that the information that follows is a header.

start-of-text character (STX character)
In binary synchronous communications, a transmission control character used to begin a logical set of records that will be ended by the end-of-text character or end-of-transmission-block character.

star topology
In network architecture, a network topology in which every node on the network is connected to a central node or "hub," through which they communicate with each other.

start option
In VTAM, a user-specified or IBM-supplied option that determines certain conditions that are to exist during the time a VTAM system is operating. Start options can be predefined or specified when VTAM is started.

start-stop (SS)
Pertaining to asynchronous communications line control that uses start signals and stop signals to control the transfer of data over a communications line. Each group of signals representing a character is preceded by a start signal and followed by a stop signal. See also asynchronous communication.

start-stop character

  1. In bar codes, a special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as a scanning direction indicator. The start character is normally at the left end and the stop character at the right end of a horizontally oriented symbol.
  2. A character including one start signal at the beginning and one or two stop signals at the end. (I)

start-stop pattern
In bar codes, a special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as a scanning direction indicator. The start character is normally at the left end and the stop character at the right end of a horizontally oriented symbol.

start table
The first table used in processing an archive or extract file. Any table in the access definition can be specified as the start table, except a reference table.

A dependency type between two project elements where the predecessor element must start before the successor element can finish.

A dependency type between two project elements where the predecessor element must start before the successor element can start.

start Uniform Resource Locator (start URL)
The starting point for a crawl.

A process in which a joining or reintegrating node acquires a resource group that previously remained offline. A startup policy can also be specified for a resource group. See also distribution policy, fallback, fallover, resource group, resource group policies, settling time.

startup job stream
A set of job control statements used to initialize CICS.

startup procedure
A procedure used to start an application and to specify initialization parameters and libraries containing system resources.

startup window
A time period during which a schedule must be initiated.

start URL
See start Uniform Resource Locator.

stash file

  1. A file that hides other data files within it.
  2. A file that stores an encrypted version of the key database password. See also key database.


  1. A condition in which the circuit remains until application of a suitable pulse.
  2. The attribute of a program that determines the domain of objects that it can access directly.
  3. A stage in the lifecycle of an object that identifies the status of that object.
  4. A record taken at each choice point during the search for a solution. The record includes information on all constrained variables, their current values, their domains, and constraints upon them.
  5. One step in the logical sequence of actions that comprises a voice application.
  6. In a business state machine, one of several discrete individual stages that are organized in sequence to compose a business transaction.
  7. A condition or situation during the life of an object during which it satisfies some condition, performs some activity, or waits for some event.
  8. The situation of a conversation from the point of view of one of the participating transactions. The conversation state determines the commands (if any) that a transaction can validly issue. The state of each transaction changes dynamically in the course of a conversation. See also state variable.
  9. An indication associated with an icon, color, and severity level assigned to a situation at a point in time. A situation can reflect one of the following states: critical, warning, or informational.
  10. The overall physical condition of an asset or a location.

State Adaptive Choreography Language (SACL)
An XML notation that is used to define state machines.

state artifact
In Enterprise Service Tools, a folder for the existing application resources will be imported into a service flow project.

state change

  1. In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, an event that indicates that a resource--such as a line--has had a change in status. State change events are logged and generate a message to the operator.
  2. In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a change in the status of an application entity or association--for example, an application entity changing from activated to deactivated.

A chart, added at the class level, that describes the behavior of a particular class. Statecharts also define the behavior of objects by specifying how they react to events or operations.

state data
Information that must be kept in Resource Manager (RM) so that users can sign onto another IMS and resume their states. See also significant data.


  1. In CSIv2 security, pertaining to a security context that can be reused by multiple requests after it is established and until the target security service or client security service invalidates it.
  2. Of or pertaining to a system or process that keeps track of the state of interaction. See also stateless.

stateful image profile
A profile for packaged-based provisioning. Package-based provisioning loads the operating system image onto persistent storage. Changes that are made to the operating system image are persistent across node reboots.

stateful node
A node that is provisioned using a stateful image profile where the OS is installed to the disk of the node.

stateful session bean
A session bean that acts on behalf of a single client and maintains client-specific session information (called conversational state) across multiple method calls and transactions. See also session bean, stateless session bean.

stateful view
A view that contains the results of aggregations derived from past data streams in a single row. A view is stateful if it contains a set function or moving set function in the SELECT clause, or contains a GROUP BY clause (in which case there is one row for each group), or is derived from another stateful view.

state function
A function that is used to describe the state of a feature of the problem as a non-negative integer. For example the various operating temperatures of an oven can be described as a state function.

state history
Data about customer activity that is retained for use in evaluating events.

State Inducer
A tool that uses recorded URL sequences to induce specific server-side states needed for state-dependent tests.

state instrument
In Performance Toolbox, a tool that shows the latest statistics for a system resource, with the option of showing them as a weighted average.


  1. In CSIv2 security, pertaining to a security context that can be used only for the duration of a request and not for subsequent requests.
  2. Having no record of previous interactions. A stateless server processes requests based solely on information that is provided with the request itself, and not based on memory from earlier requests. See also stateful.

stateless image profile
A profile for stateless image-based provisioning. Stateless image-based provisioning loads the operating system image into memory. Changes that are made to the operating system image are not persistent across node reboots.

stateless node
A node that is provisioned using a stateless image profile. A stateless node is booted from memory and not from the local disk.

stateless protocol
A protocol that does not maintain a relationship between commands. HTTP is an example of a stateless protocol.

stateless session bean

  1. A session bean with no conversational state. All instances of a stateless bean are identical. (Sun) See also session bean, stateful session bean.
  2. A session bean that is a collection of operations. The server can optimize resources by reusing bean instances on every method call.

stateless view
A view that contains only rows representing the effect of the last event.

state machine
A behavior that specifies the sequences of states that an object or an interaction goes through during its life in response to events, together with its responses and actions.

state maintained page
A console page that can manage updates within its content and render changes without forcing the user to wait for a response from the server.


  1. In programming languages, a language construct that represents a step in a sequence of actions or a set of declarations.
  2. An instruction in a program or procedure.

statement block
A unit of SPL program code that performs a particular task and is usually marked by the keywords begin and end. The statement block of an SPL routine is the smallest scope of reference for program variables.

statement cache
The portion of the package cache related to dynamic SQL statements. See also package cache.

statement concentrator
A mechanism that modifies dynamic SQL statements at the database server so that SQL statements with similar but not identical text can share the same access plan. The modified and original statements produce the same results.

statement function
In FORTRAN, a name, followed by a list of dummy arguments, that is equated to an arithmetic, logical, or character expression, and that can be substituted for the expression throughout the program.

statement handle
The data object that contains information about an SQL statement or XQuery expression that is managed by the DB2 call level interface. Such information includes dynamic arguments, bindings for dynamic arguments and columns, cursor information, result values, and status information. Each statement handle is associated with a connection handle. See also connection handle, handle.

statement label

  1. In FORTRAN, a number containing 1 - 5 decimal digits that is used to identify a statement. A statement label is usually used to transfer control, define the range of a DO loop, or refer to a FORMAT statement.
  2. An SQL identifier that enables the GOTO label statement to transfer program control to the first executable statement that follows the declaration of the specified statement label.

statement local variable (SLV)
An SPL, C, or Java function that is invoked in the WHERE clause of a query, which can declare one or more statement-local variables that are visible in other parts of the same query, including its subqueries.

statement of requirements (SOR)

statement of work (SOW)

  1. A document prepared by a Project Manager (PM) as a response to a Request for Service from a customer. The project SOW is the technical solution proposal, and it should describe the deliverables and identify all Global Services risks and impacts, infrastructure investments, capacity, cost elements, assumptions and dependencies.
  2. See scope of work.

Statement Online
A service that offers the possibility to view the statements of accounts online . See also Customer Support Online, Invoice Online, Order Status Online.

statement optimization guideline
An optimization guideline that applies to a single DML statement. See also optimization guideline.

statement record
A unit of SQL that includes an SQL query (which may or may not return a result set), a command (which does not return a result set), or a stored procedure invocation (which may or may not return a result set). Each statement record is associated with a single data source.

statement string
The character string form of a dynamic SQL statement.

statement trigger
A trigger that is defined with the trigger granularity FOR EACH STATEMENT.

Binary data collection that is used in problem determination.

state table
A list of all the actions used in a particular voice application. A component of DirectTalk.

state table action
One instruction in a set of instructions contained in a DirectTalk state table that controls how DirectTalk processes various operations such as playing voice prompts or recording voice messages.

state transition
The change from one state to another.

state transition model
The sequence of states that a change request goes through from submission through disposition. This model specifies the actions that a user can take to move a change request from one state to another.

state variable
A program can obtain values that indicate the conversation state. CICS places such values in a variable named by the program, known as the state variable. See also state.


  1. A Java programming language keyword that is used to define a variable as a class variable.
  2. In C++, a keyword used for defining the scope and linkage of variables and functions. For internal variables, the variable has block scope and retains its value between function calls. For external values, the variable has file scope and retains its value within the source file. For class variables, the variable is shared by all objects of the class and retains its value within the entire program.
  3. Pertaining to an operation that occurs at a predetermined or fixed time. See also dynamic.

statically known namespaces
In XQuery, a set of prefix and URI pairs that defines all of the namespaces that are known during static processing of an expression. Statically known namespaces are a component of the static context of an expression.

static analysis
The process of extracting targeted types of information on the models in their static form. This differs from dynamic analysis, which extracts information based on the results of process simulations.

static bind
A process by which SQL statements are bound after they are precompiled. All static SQL statements are prepared for execution at the same time. See also automatic bind, dynamic bind, incremental bind.

static binding

  1. The act of resolving references to external variables and functions before run time.

static call
A type of call in which the program is link-edited into the same load module as the calling program. See also dynamic call.

static class descriptor table
An optional portion of the CDT that can be defined by the client or supplied by IBM. See also dynamic class descriptor table.

static cluster
A group of application servers that participates in workload management. Membership for the static cluster is manually managed.

static connection
A connection between two nodes created by either a JES2 initialization or an operator command.

static content
A set of files referenced in the pages of a web application that are unlikely to change during the course of a visitor's session. Examples include stylesheets, JavaScripts, and images (files in formats such as JPEG, GIF, and PNG).

static context
The information that is available during compilation of an XQuery expression before the expression is evaluated. See also dynamic context, expression context.

static cursor
A named control structure that does not change the size of the result table or the order of its rows after an application opens the cursor. See also cursor, dynamic cursor.

static data

  1. Data that retains its last-used state across calls.
  2. Data that is stored in static storage. See also automatic data.

static display
In text formatting, a block of text that the nroff command places on the current page only if there is room for the entire block. If there is not enough room, the nroff command starts a new page and places the block of text there. See also floating display.

static file set
A file set that is manually assigned to a specific metadata server by the administrator.

static IP address
A fixed IP address for a persistent device or logical unit on a network that uses the IP standard. See also IP address.

static kit
An unmodifiable group of products that are ordered as a unit.

static library
A library linked with other modules when those modules are built.

static link
An element of a data model that defines a static relationship between data items in internal data types. See also link.

static linking
The incorporation of procedures and data into a load module at build time, instead of dynamically loading them at run time. Compared to dynamic linking, static linking increases the size of the executable file. See also dynamic linking.

static member
A member of a reference structure that is defined as part of the specification, and not by reference to tables in a database.

static memory
Allocated memory of a fixed size.

static method
See class method.

static NAT
See static network address translation.

static network address translation (static NAT)
A one-to-one mapping of IP addresses that allows a user to map an IP address on an internal network to an IP address that is to be made public. If static NAT is used, traffic can be initiated from either side of the connection. See also network address translation.

static node

  1. A VTAM node defined by the IMS system definition.
  2. A node that can be used to submit documents for approval to specific individuals.

static node group
A node group consisting of nodes specified by the user.

static organizational role
An organizational role that is manually assigned to a person.

static paging
A phase of the IPL sequence that takes place prior to limited paging during which only predefined areas of the load-source disk unit can be accessed. See also full paging, limited paging, prestatic paging.

static partition
A view-only scalable partition.

static power save mode
An IBM System z (z196) function used for periods of low utilization or potentially when a CBU system is sitting idle waiting to take over in the event of a failure. The server uses frequency and voltage reduction to reduce energy consumption of the system. Static power save mode is initiated by the customer using the HMC/SE or Active Energy Manager.

static procedure call
A high-level language (HLL) call statement that specifies the name of an Integrated Language Environment (ILE) procedure to be called. See also procedure pointer call.

static product group
A collection of products with similar or related costs to which new products are manually added or removed.

static program call
A connection among programs during binding (program creation time). See also dynamic program call.

static ranking
A type of ranking in which factors about the documents that are being ranked, such as date, the number of links that point to the document, and so on, augment the rank. See also dynamic ranking, ranking, text-based scoring.

static route
A route between hosts, between networks, or between a host and a network, that is entered into a routing table.

static routing
A method of setting paths between hosts, networks, or both by manually entering routes into the routing table. Static routes are not affected by routing daemons and must be updated manually.

static routing channel
A routing channel that identifies the consumer when the routing channel is created.

static serialization
A copy-group serialization value that specifies that a file must not be modified during a backup or archive operation. If the file is in use during the first attempt, the backup-archive client cannot back up or archive the file. See also dynamic serialization, serialization, shared dynamic serialization, shared static serialization.

static SQL
SQL statements that are embedded within a program and are bound before the program is executed. After being bound, a static SQL statement does not change, although values of host variables specified by the statement can change. See also deferred embedded SQL, dynamic SQL, embedded SQL, incremental bind statement.

static storage
An area that is allocated by the system when a program is activated. Static storage exists as long as the program activation exists. If the program has not been deactivated, the values in the storage persist from one call to another. See also automatic storage, dynamic storage.

static summarization
A type of summarization in which the search results contain a specified, stored summary from the document. See also dynamic summarization, summarization.

static system symbol
In MVS, a symbol whose substitution text is defined at system initialization and remains fixed during the initial program load (IPL). Static system symbols are used to represent fixed values, such as system names.

static table
A nonlogging, read-only permanent table.

static terminal
A terminal created through the system definition process. See also dynamic terminal.

static text

  1. Text that remains constant on every document created with a particular form, as opposed to fields in which the user types or in which Notes calculates information.
  2. Text that is always included in the screen entry or print translation object. Examples of static text include legends and column headings.

static transaction routing
Non-dynamic terminal-initiated transaction routing. The transaction routing request is routed to a predetermined system. Static transaction routing occurs when DYNAMIC(NO) is specified in the transaction definition and the request is routed to the system named in the REMOTESYSTEM attribute.

static user
Non-ISC user or ISC user defined statically through the IMS system definition process.

static variable
A variable that is allocated as soon as a program starts running and that remains allocated until the program stops. Normal scoping rules apply to the variable. See also automatic variable.

static web page
A web page that can be displayed without the additional client- or server-side processing that would be required for JavaServer Pages, servlets, or scripts.

static web project
A project that contains resources for a web application with no dynamic content such as servlets or JavaServer Pages (JSP) files, or Java code. A static web project can be deployed to a static HTTP server and does not require additional application server support.


  1. An input or output point of a system that uses telecommunication facilities; for example, one or more systems, computers, terminals, devices, and associated programs at a particular location that can send or receive data over a telecommunication line. See also attaching device.
  2. A point or location on a site where work is performed, usually a valve or transformer.
  3. A computer or device that can send or receive data.
  4. A location in a warehouse where an activity is performed.

station address
A 2-character hexadecimal value from 01 to FE. For a primary controller, it is called the SDLC station address; for a secondary controller, it is called the remote system address.

station ID
For the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a 2-byte pipeline counter that is incremented when the last copy of a page reaches the point in the hardware represented by that counter.

station management (SMT)
A Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) standard that specifies the local portion of the system management application process for FDDI, including the control required for proper operation of a station in an FDDI ring.

station protector
A device attached to the system cable to protect work stations attached in different buildings from lightning.

station-to-station (STS)
A three-pass variation of the basic Diffie-Hellman protocol that allows a shared secret key to be established between two nodes with mutual entity authentication.

In the NetView program, a resource-generated database record that contains recoverable error counts, traffic, and other significant data about a resource.

statistical event
In OSI, an event counted for a specific purpose. Statistical events are logged but do not generate a message to the operator.

statistically targeted
Pertaining to the method used to target a deployment to a device or piece of content. Statically targeted devices are selected manually by an operator.

statistical view
A view for collecting statistics that the query optimizer uses to obtain the most appropriate access plan.

statistic line
In Performance Toolbox, the lines in a list that represent a specific value. See also context line.

statistics data area (SDA)
A control block that contains processing information. The SDA consists of a header and function-dependent extensions.

statistics domain
Major component of CICS that controls the collection of resource statistics for a CICS system. It collects data at user-specified intervals, at shutdown and logical end-of-day, and when requested by the user.

statistics profile
A file that contains all of the option information that specifies which statistics are collected for a table when using a particular RUNSTATS command.

statistics shard
In a sharded deployment, a shard that contains statistics about an application. It is shared by all colonies that exist for a particular version of the application.

statistics utility program (DFHSTUP STUP)
CICS program that provides offline formatting of CICS statistics. DFHSTUP can format all types of statistics generated by CICS and provides a summary function to collect all statistics produced in a given period. See also summary report.


  1. An attribute of a configuration item or other record, indicating the artifact's stage in the associated lifecycle.
  2. The processing stage of a document or interchange, indicated in the status box.
  3. An activity posted on a user's profile.
  4. The state of a transaction at a particular point in time, such as whether it failed, was successful, or slow.
  5. The state of a job or job stream instance. See also internal status.
  6. The true or false condition of a situation.
  7. The current condition or state of a program or device, for example, the status of a printer.
  8. A property of a contract that represents its current stage and restricts or enables certain user or system actions.

status area
A part of a window that displays information indicating the state of the current view of an object.

status bar

  1. In System i Access, the part of a window that displays information indicating the current state of that window's content.
  2. A section of an application window that defines information about a selection, command, or process. It also defines menu bar items as the user highlights each item, and indicates any current keyboard-initiated modes for typing (for example, CAP for the Caps Lock key or NUM for the Num Lock key).

status code

  1. In printers, two hexadecimal numbers associated with printer conditions.
  2. Code that represents the current state of an operation. The status code is often associated with an extended status code.
  3. In VTAM, information on the status of a resource as shown in a 10-character state code; for example, STATEACTIV for active.
  4. A two-character code in the program communication block (PCB) mask that indicates the results of a DL/I call. See also PCB mask.

status line
A line at the top of a display that contains information about a document and current operations, including an audit window, the document name, and page and line number.

status modifier
An indicator, either in a status code or status message, that provides detailed information about the state of an object or operation.

status recovery mode
The scope of recovery for a resource, it determines where the resource status can be recovered from. GLOBAL indicates the status is managed by RM, LOCAL indicates the status is managed by IMS in local control blocks and log records, and NONE indicates the status is not recovered.

status update
See microblog.

status variable
A program variable that indicates the status of some aspect of program execution. Status variables often store error numbers or act as flags to indicate that an error has occurred.

status window
A window in which the function results can be displayed.

See ship-to code.

See standard error.

See standard input.

See standard output.

The process whereby the Virtual Memory Manager reallocates a real-memory page frame containing a virtual-memory page that is being used by a currently executing program.

stealth commanding
An attack technique that conceals dangerous commands through a Trojan horse with the intent to run malicious or unauthorized code that is damaging to the site.

steering assembly
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a device that causes the paper to move straight through the fuser station.

See science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.


  1. In REXX, that part of a compound symbol up to and including the first period. It contains just one period, which is the last character. It cannot start with a digit or a period. A reference to a stem can also be used to manipulate all variables sharing that stem.
  2. The root of an inflected or derived word form that is obtained by stripping off inflectional or derivational affixes, for example: 'polit' is the stem of 'political'. A stem does not have to be a valid word. See also lemma, stemmer.

A component that identifies or derives stems from words in a data source. See also stem.

See word stemming.

A pattern of memory references used for averaging. For example, a 4-point stencil in two dimensions for a given array cell, x(i,j), uses the four adjacent cells: x(i-1,j), x(i+1,j), x(i,j-1), and x(i,j+1).

stencil element
A labeled icon that represents services and BPML activities in the Graphic Process Modeler.


  1. A component of a project or library that contains one or several command lines to be executed.
  2. A single user action that is captured by one of the Tealeaf client frameworks and submitted to Tealeaf for capture in JSON format.
  3. To cause a computer to run one operation.
  4. A stage in a workflow where a distinct, well-defined action is performed. Each step on a workflow map represents a specific activity or task in the business process described by the map. For example, in insurance claims processing, verify account number and calculate deductible could be individual steps. A workflow consists of two or more steps.
  5. In the Application Lab, a unit of work, like a command or a program, that runs on an agent.
  6. A part of an XQuery path expression that generates a sequence of items and then filters the sequence by zero or more predicates. The value of the step consists of those items that satisfy the predicates. See also node test, path expression.

step allocation
The system function that establishes a logical connection between a running program and a data set, device, or volume in preparation for running the program. See also dynamic allocation.

step design
A part of the interview design that consists of input controls and exit actions.

step injection
A step that allows Sterling Connect:Direct Process statements to be inserted into the communications session with the SNODE independent of the PNODE Process statements.

step into
To enter into a method while debugging.

step log
A list of data about a completed step within a completed job.

step map
In a workflow policy, a map which allows property mapping between form template cells and workflow data fields for workflow policies.

step over
To skip a method while debugging code.

step processor
An application that provides the information and resources a participant needs to complete a step in a workflow.

step restart
A restart that occurs at the beginning of a job step. There are two types of step restart: automatic or deferred. See also checkpoint restart.

step through
To evaluate code line by line in a method while debugging.

step-up full-text action
A built-in action that can be run on an infoset to provide content to the full-text index for objects that are infoset members.

step-up snippet action
An action that runs on an infoset to extract and store text for any data object to which it is applied.

step volume discount
A volume discount bid in which the supplier specifies different bids on different quantity ranges.

stepwise linear function
A special case of the piecewise linear function where all slopes are equal to zero. The primary use of a stepwise linear function is in scheduling, typically used to model the efficiency of a resource over time. In all uses with scheduling, the domain and image of the function are limited to integers.

A meta-classification of an element. Stereotypes have semantic implications which can be specified for every specific stereotype value.

Sterling Connect Direct FASP usage widget
A widget that provides a graphical representation of the performance for Sterling Connect:Direct servers that support FASP compared to Sterling Connect:Direct servers that do not support FASP.

Sterling Control Center engine
The server portion of Sterling Control Center that is installed on a network computer. See also event processor.

Sterling File Gateway partner (SFG partner)
An organization such as a trading partner or a business unit. A partner can be a producer or a consumer or both a producer and a consumer.

Sterling TMS number
A code that shippers and customers can use to refer to the same location. Sterling TMS automatically assigns this number to each location. See also location code.


  1. The user or group of users that is responsible for the definition, purpose, and use of business glossary assets or the information assets that are described in the metadata repository. The steward does not have to be a user of the business glossary.
  2. An IT employee who is responsible for operating and maintaining a data source. A single data source can have more than one steward or none unless the system is configured such that a steward is a required part of a data source's definition. When a data source is added to the scope of a legal request, the data source's stewards are automatically added to scope. See also discovery delegate.

See self-timed interface.

stick reading
A measurement of the fuel or fluid in a tank that is obtained by inserting a marked measuring stick into the tank.

sticky bit
A type of access permission bit that causes an executable program to remain on the swap area of the disk. Only someone with root authority can set the sticky bit. This bit is also used on directories to indicate that only file owners can link or unlink files in that directory.

sticky key
An input method that enables the user to press and release a series of keys sequentially (for example, Ctrl+Alt+Del), yet have the keys behave as if they were pressed and released at the same time. This method can be used for those who require special-needs settings to make the keyboard easier to use.

sticky pool
The part of the page pool that is made available to cache the first block of frequently used interactive files. Sticky pool size is one of the file manager startup configuration parameters.

still frame
See information frame.

S/T interface
In Performance Tools, the interface at the S and T reference points defined in the reference model of the integrated services digital network (ISDN). When there is no network termination 2 (NT2), the S and T reference points become one S/T point.

STI policy
See Synthetic Transaction Investigator playback policy.

A bitmap used to tile a region. A stipple pattern serves as an additional clip mask for a fill operation with the foreground color.

A data transfer process that is used for the collection and processing of data. Stitchers take information from one database, process it, and place it in its new form in another database or send it to another process.

The process of tracking transactions between domains or from different types of Data Collector plug-ins.

See simple text language.

See sense type and model.

stocked tool
A tool that is available in a storeroom.

stock keeping unit (SKU)
An alphanumeric identifier for each item of merchandise, or catalog entry. The smallest unit available for keeping inventory control. It can include variables for department, class, vendor, style, color, size, and location. See also package, product.

See pantry loading.

stock replenishment order
An inbound order that is created for the purpose of replenishing stock levels.


  1. See security token.
  2. See space token.

See shoot the other node in the head.


  1. The arrival of a vehicle at a site to pick up or deliver one or more shipments (or both) and then leave. See also route ID, visit.
  2. A point where passengers can board or alight from vehicles.

stop and go light
See traffic lighting.

stop bit
In start-stop transmission, a signal at the end of a character that prepares the receiving device for reception of a subsequent character.

stop delivery request
A request through which an item can be stopped from being delivered or shipped to the customer even after it has reached a status that cannot be cancelled.

stop method
A method that takes the device from the available state to the stopped state. The stop method applies only to devices that support the optional stopped state.

A halt in the regular processing of a system function.

stopped state
A state that allows a device to be made unavailable although it is still known by the device driver, which remains loaded and bound in the kernel.

stop record
In Performance Toolbox, a special type of value record which signals that recording was stopped for a set of statistics and gives the time it happened. This allows programs using the recording file to distinguish between gaps in the recording and variances in the recording interval.

stop word

  1. A frequently occurring word that many natural language processing (NLP) applications identify as such, to improve processing.
  2. A word that occurs frequently and is therefore not useful in distinguishing the semantic content of one document from another. For example, given a query about the size of Vermont, it would not be helpful to return documents containing the word of, whereas documents containing the word Vermont might be relevant. Stop words often operate to provide the structure of a sentence, so they are needed for full parsing, but not for shallow analysis.
  3. A word that is commonly used, such as "the," "an," or "and," that is ignored by a search application.
  4. A word that adds no meaning to an organization name and that is not included in any name comparison or name scoring.

stop word removal
The process of removing stop words from the query to ignore common words and return more relevant results.


  1. The location of saved information.
  2. A functional unit into which data can be placed, in which it can be retained, and from which it can be retrieved.

storage accounting area (SAA)
A field at the start of a CICS storage area that describes the area and enables CICS to detect some storage violations. Each CICS storage area has either an SAA or a storage check zone.

storage adapter
A service in IBM Sterling B2B Integrator that is used to read and write message data to the storage component in Multi-Enterprise Interface Gateway.

storage administration group
A centralized group within the data processing center that is responsible for managing the storage resources within an installation. See also system operator.

storage administrator
A person in the data processing center who is responsible for defining, implementing, and maintaining storage management policies. See also system operator.

storage agent
A program that enables the backup and restoration of client data directly to and from storage attached to a storage area network (SAN).

storage architecture type (storage type)
The type of storage architecture, either count key data (CKD) or fixed block (FB), for which an array, pool, or volume is provisioned. See also count key data, fixed-block architecture.

storage area network (SAN)
A dedicated storage network tailored to a specific environment, combining servers, systems, storage products, networking products, software, and services.

storage array
A set of one or more disk enclosures which contain the user databases and tables in the Netezza system.

storage bucket
A storage container for BLOBs in the system.

storage check zone
A pair of fields at the beginning and end of a CICS storage area that enable CICS to detect some storage violations. Each CICS storage area has either a storage check zone or a storage accounting area (SSA).

storage class

  1. The type of media that an object is stored on. It is not directly associated with a physical location; however, it is directly associated with the device manager. See also storage group, storage system.
  2. A named list of data-set storage attributes that identify performance goals and availability requirements. A storage class is defined by the storage administrator to select a device that can meet those goals and requirements.
  3. In IBM MQ for z/OS, the page set that is to hold the messages for a particular queue. The storage class is specified when the queue is defined.

storage-class memory (SCM)

  1. A collective technology designed to replace disk drives with solid-state drives, reducing the space and power required in the data center.
  2. Flash memory that is nonvolatile and can, in some cases, be used as an alternative to hard disks.

storage class specifier
A storage class keyword that determines storage duration, scope, and linkage.

storage client network
A classic, interconnected, fibre-channel fabric with a single, fibre-channel, fabric name.

Storage Cloud Services (SCS)
A high-performance, secured, and shared storage cloud infrastructure used to provide enterprise-class storage capacity and multitenancy for multiple customers.

storage complex
Multiple storage facilities.

storage component
The software that runs on the informational and operational members and stores system data.

storage construct
Any of the predefined models (data class, management class, storage class, and storage group) that are used to classify storage management needs and procedures for data sets under the storage management subsystem (SMS). Each data set has construct names associated with it, by explicit specification or by default. See also data class.

storage control

  1. In CICS, a facility that controls requests for main storage to provide intermediate work areas not automatically provided by CICS.
  2. The component in a storage subsystem that handles interaction between processor channel and storage devices, runs channel commands, and controls storage devices. Storage control is an example of a control unit.

storage controller
A device, such as a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) controller, that creates and manages other storage devices.

storage controller enclosure
See control enclosure.

storage cushion
A noncontiguous area of storage in the dynamic storage areas reserved for use by CICS when processing a short-on-storage condition. See also short-on-storage.

storage device

  1. A physical unit that provides a mechanism to store data on a given medium so that it can be subsequently retrieved.
  2. A logical unit number (LUN) that terminates a collection of ports on the storage network.

storage device subsystem
A part of the computer consisting of the controller and one or more attached storage devices.

storage director
A physical or logical element that manages multiple paths to storage components, such as devices or controllers. See also storage path.

storage enclosure
A specialized chassis that is designed to hold and power drives while providing a mechanism to allow them to communicate to one or more separate computers.

storage expansion enclosure
See expansion enclosure.

storage facility
A physical unit that consists of a storage server integrated with one or more storage devices to provide storage capability to a host computer.

storage group

  1. A named set of storage paths on which DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows data can be stored.
  2. The user-defined partition of a database.
  3. A collection of storage volumes and attributes that are defined by the storage management subsystem (SMS) administrator to meet a defined service strategy. The collections can be a group of direct access storage device (DASD) volumes; tape volumes; or a group of DASD, optical, or tape volumes treated as a single, object-storage hierarchy. See also object backup-storage group, object storage group, pool storage group, tape storage group, virtual input/output storage group.
  4. A named set of disks on which DB2 for z/OS data can be stored.
  5. A group that associates a storage system to a storage class. See also storage class, storage system.

storage group category
A grouping of specific storage groups that contain the same type of data. This concept is analogous to storage pools in an environment that is not system-managed.

storage heap
An unordered group of program stack areas that may be associated with programs running within a process.

storage hierarchy

  1. A logical order of primary storage pools, as defined by an administrator. The order is typically based on the speed and capacity of the devices that the storage pools use. The storage hierarchy is defined by identifying the next storage pool in a storage pool definition. See also storage pool.
  2. An arrangement of storage devices with different speeds and capacities. The levels of the storage hierarchy include: main storage, such as memory and direct access storage device (DASD) cache; primary storage (DASD containing user-accessible data); migration level 1 (DASD containing data in a space-saving format); and migration level 2 (tape cartridges containing data in a space-saving format). See also hierarchical storage management, migration level 1, migration level 2, object storage hierarchy, primary storage.

storage image
The representation of a computer program and its related data as they exist at the time they reside in main storage. (I) (A)

storage key
A key associated with each 4 KB block of storage that is available in the CICS region. Access to CICS storage is controlled by key-controlled storage protection. When key-controlled protection applies to a storage access, a store operation (write) is permitted only when the storage key matches the access key associated with the request; a fetch (read) is permitted when the keys match or when the fetch-protection bit of the storage key is zero. In most cases, the access key for a storage operation is the PSW key in the current PSW.

storage layer
A payload data layer that is located underneath the mailbox, where the payload actually resides.

storage location

  1. A location physically separate from the removable media library where volumes are stored for disaster recovery, backup, and vital records management. See also inventory management.
  2. A specific space (floor space, shelf, rack) used to store material. Each storage location has a distinct identifier known by the warehouse management system and warehouse operator.
  3. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a place where media and containers can be stored awaiting expiration or movement to another location such as off-site storage, vaults, or long-term (permanent) retention. Backup, Recovery, and Media Services has two predefined locations that can be overridden by the user: 1) *HOME, the system keyword for the on-site library (or home location); and 2) VAULT, a default storage location that refers to the default off-site storage location.

storage location dominance
A priority scheme used to decide where in the hierarchy of physical storage locations a specific volume or logical unit number (LUN) should be located.

storage-location management processing
In DFSMSrmm, the process of inventory management that assigns a shelf location to each volume that has moved as a result of vital record processing. See also inventory management, vital record processing.

storage management
The activities of data set allocation, placement, monitoring, migration, backup, recall, recovery, and deletion. Storage management can be performed either manually or using automated processes. The storage management subsystem (SMS) automates these processes while optimizing storage resources. See also storage management subsystem.

storage management cycle
An invocation of the OAM Storage Management Component (OSMC). The purpose of the storage management cycle is to ensure that every object scheduled for processing is placed in the correct level of the object storage hierarchy (as specified by its storage class), has expired or is backed up (as specified by its management class or by an explicit application request), and, if necessary, is flagged for action during a subsequent storage management cycle.

Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S)
A design specification developed by the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) that specifies a secure and reliable interface with which storage management systems (SMSs) can identify, classify, monitor, and control physical and logical resources in a storage area network (SAN). The interface integrates the various devices to be managed in a SAN and the tools used to manage them.

storage management recovery
A function that prepares the system to access data from all disk units configured to the system.

storage management station
A system that is used to manage the storage subsystem. A storage management station does not need to be attached to the storage subsystem through the fibre-channel I/O path.

storage management subsystem (SMS)
Software that automates as much as possible the management of physical storage by centralizing control, automating tasks, and providing interactive controls for system administrators. See also storage management.

storage management system (SMS)
A registered storage location for backups, such as a file system or a third-party backup system.

storage manager
A layer of a server that handles the mapping of data to the appropriate location in the server memory. The storage manager controls lock, index, data, allocation, and transaction management functions.

storage manager domain
Major component of CICS which manages virtual storage requests.

Storage Manager Enterprise Management window
See graphical user interface.

storage media
Objects on which data can be recorded such as tape cartridges, optical disks, CD-R, DVD, diskettes, and cleaning cartridges.

storage model
A creation attribute for modules, programs, and service programs that describes the type of storage supplied by the system at run time for automatic, static, and constant storage. The system-recognized identifiers for storage model are *SNGLVL (single-level store), *TERASPACE (teraspace), and *INHERIT (inherit). *INHERIT, which is specified only for modules and service programs, indicates that the object must be created such that it will run when either single-level store or teraspace is supplied.

storage network
An arrangement that provides shared access to a set of logical unit numbers (LUNs) across one - n storage client networks.

Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
An alliance of computer vendors and universities that focus on developing and promoting industry standards for storage networks.

storage node

  1. A node used to provide the back-end storage and file system to store the data in a system.
  2. A component of a storage system that provides internal storage or a connection to one or more external storage systems.

storage object
A portion of a storage volume that is managed as a single entity. A storage object can contain many segments of report data.

storage path
The hardware within storage control that transfers data between the direct access storage device (DASD) and a channel. See also storage director.

storage pod

  1. A subcomponent of a network-attached storage (NAS) system that consists of two or more storage nodes and one or more supported storage systems.
  2. A logical entity of components of a system consisting of two storage nodes, and one or two storage subsystems directly connected with these storage nodes.

storage policy
A policy that provides mapping to specific physical storage areas and is used to specify where content is stored for a given class or object with content, such as a document.

storage pool

  1. A grouping of storage space consisting of volumes, logical unit numbers (LUNs), or addresses that share a common set of administrative characteristics. See also user pool.
  2. A collection of storage that identifies an underlying set of resources. These resources provide the capacity and management requirements for a volume or set of volumes.
  3. A reserved area of virtual disk space that serves storage requirements. See also volume.
  4. A logical division of storage (directories, cooked files, and raw devices) reserved for automatically expanding existing storage spaces (dbspace, temporary dbspace, sbspace, temporary sbspace, or blobspace).
  5. A logical division of storage reserved for processing a job or group of jobs.
  6. A collection of storage capacity that provides the capacity requirements for a volume.
  7. A set of storage volumes or containers that is the destination that is used to store client data. See also active-data pool, cloud-container storage pool, copy storage pool, directory-container storage pool, primary storage pool, storage hierarchy.

storage pool volume
A volume that has been assigned to a storage pool. See also active-data pool, copy storage pool, primary storage pool, server storage, volume.

storage port
An engine's connection point to a storage client network. A storage port is a member of a single fabric. See also engine.

storage privilege class
A privilege class that gives an administrator the authority to control how storage resources for the server are allocated and used, such as monitoring the database, the recovery log, and server storage. See also privilege class.

storage profile
A profile that allows the user to define storage parameters for creating an archive file on fixed or secondary media.

storage protection
An optional facility in CICS Transaction Server that enables users to protect CICS code and control blocks from being overwritten inadvertently by application programs. See also transaction isolation.

storage protection key

  1. An indicator that appears in the current program status word whenever an associated task has control of the system. This indicator must match the storage keys of all main storage blocks that the task is to use.
  2. A hardware key associated with each page of virtual memory that is available in POWER6 processors and is supported as of AIX Version 5.3 with the 5300-06 Technology Level. Access to pages is controlled on a per-thread basis depending on the access mode of the running thread as represented in the authority mask register (AMR). See also authority mask register.

storage resource group
A named collection of logically related resources that are monitored by Tivoli Storage Productivity Center. Monitored resources can include fabrics, switches, computers, storage systems, and other storage resource groups.

storage server
A physical unit that manages attached storage devices and provides access to the storage or storage related functions for one or more attached hosts.

storage set
A named collection of storage nodes that determines the locations that can hold report data.

storage space
A dbspace, blobspace, or sbspace that is used to hold data.

storage subsystem

  1. See system.
  2. A storage control and its attached storage devices. See also tape subsystem.

storage subsystem controller
See node canister.

storage system

  1. A generic term for storage in the Content Manager system. See also media archiver, storage class, storage group.
  2. A device, such as a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) controller, that creates and manages other storage devices.
  3. A system that provides persistent storage within a network. A storage system can include facilities for host attachment, user role authentication, a command-line interface (CLI), a graphical user interface (GUI), and storage devices that most often include Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) controllers. It might also include agents for enabling third-party management software to monitor or manage the storage devices.

storage template
A model that describes a set of storage requirements and configurations.

storage type

  1. See storage architecture type.
  2. A user defined code attached to a SKU that is used to differentiate types of SKUs. Storage type can be used to ensure specific types of SKUs are sent to specific warehouse areas for storage.

storage unit
Hardware that contains one or more drive bays, power supplies, and a network interface. Some storage units contain Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) controllers; in this case, the storage unit is accessed by the appliance.

storage violation
An error in a storage accounting chain in the dynamic storage area. A storage violation can be detected by the storage manager domain in CICS.

storage volume
A volume that has been assigned to hold report data on a Content OnDemand server.


  1. In WebSphere Commerce, the place where all transactions for an online business occur.
  2. To place and retain data in a storage device, so that it is available for retrieval and updating.
  3. A set of external identity repositories that are grouped under catalogs. See also catalog.

store and forward (SAF)
The temporary storing of packets, messages, or frames in a data network before they are retransmitted toward their destination.

store archive (SAR)
A compressed file that contains all the assets (including file assets and database information) necessary to create a store. Publishing the store archive to a WebSphere Commerce Server creates an operational store. See also composite store archive, SAR file format.

store controller
See retail controller.

stored descriptor definition
The information from which IMS builds a runtime descriptor definition.

store developer
An application developer who creates or customizes a WebSphere Commerce storefront.

stored procedure

  1. A user-written application program that can be invoked through the use of the SQL CALL statement.
  2. A block of procedural constructs and embedded SQL statements that is stored in a database and that can be called by name. Stored procedures allow an application program to be run in two parts, one on the client and the other on the server, so that one call can produce several accesses to the database. See also SPL function, SPL routine, SPL variable.
  3. See procedure.

Stored Procedure Language (SPL)
An Informix extension to SQL that provides flow-control features such as sequencing, branching, and looping. See also SPL routine.

stored record
A data record, together with its control information, as stored in auxiliary storage.

stored resource definition
The resource information that is stored offline, from which IMS builds runtime resource definitions. Stored resource definitions can reside in system data sets, such as IMS.MODBLKS, IMS.ACBLIB, IMS.FORMAT, and a resource definition data set (RDDS).

stored search
A file that displays a list of the documents that meet the search criteria.

stored value card (SVC)
A configurable payment type that represents a card on which funds are available for use. Some examples of SVCs are gift cards, employee cards, pre-paid cards, merchandise return cards, and electronic gift cards.

store entity
An abstract super class that can represent either a store or a store group.

store-for-store sales
See same-store comparison.

An organization that has the role of an enterprise and a seller, and has a theme associated with it.

storefront asset
Any part of an online store that customers see while shopping. Storefront assets include HTML pages, JSP files, style sheets, images, graphics, and other multimedia file types. See also back-office business logic.

storefront asset store
A type of asset store that is a collection of JSP files, commands, business processes (for example, order processing), business policies and access control policies that create a virtual storefront. See also asset store, catalog asset store.

store group
A set of stores that are treated as one unit to achieve a business goal. For example, stores in a given region are treated as a unit.

Store Management tool
A Management Center tool that sellers and site administrators can use to manage general store information, change store layout and color, select store functions, select and view a store, open or close a store, and find stores.

store mode
In architecture, a mode in which segments are stored for later execution. See also immediate mode.

store owner
In WebSphere Commerce, the position that controls and owns the database and the file assets related to the online store. A store owner can be an organization.

store preview
A feature, available in Management Center, that enables a business user to ensure that content changes show up in the storefront as expected.

A physical location where items are stored.

store server
A server that runs the presentation layer of a remote store. The store server contains two modules: a customizable module containing your static assets, and a non-customizable module that contains IBM static assets.

store-through caching
A process in which changed data is written to the cache structure and to permanent storage simultaneously and under the same serialization; as a result, the data in the cache structure always matches the data in permanent storage

store traffic
The number of shoppers per unit of time.

store zone
A group of stores that share a set of prices.

stormwater discharge
A discharge that is generated when precipitation from rain and snow melt events flows over land or impervious surfaces and does not percolate into the ground. As the runoff flows over the land or impervious surfaces (paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops), it accumulates debris, chemicals, sediment or other pollutants that could adversely affect water quality if the runoff is discharged untreated.

A development work item that defines part of a use case or a specific contribution to the value of the overall product.


  1. A sequential illustration of a user scenario that consists of numbered frames on a timeline.
  2. A collaborative workspace where designers can create journey maps and interactions.

See Spanning Tree Protocol.

The serial-attached SCSI (SAS) connectivity of a set of drives within multiple enclosures. The enclosures can be either control enclosures or expansion enclosures.

strategic alliance
A key alliance that is utilized in supporting the IBM internal business processes.

strategic importance
A module designed to identify the key suppliers and evaluate their importance in order to ensure the long term success of the organization.

Strategic Sales Model (SSM)
An IBM sales model to link territory assignments to MAP (Market Alignment Program) data to ensure that territories are assigned to resources based upon revenue commitment. See also Market Alignment Program.

strategic segment
A globally persistent list of IDs that is available for use in multiple campaigns. A strategic segment is a static list of IDs until the original flowchart is rerun.

The overall plan of action (such as for a brand unit, business unit, channel, or company) to achieve a stated goal.

strategy and plans team (SPT)
Group that assists in developing the segment strategy and plans.

strategy map
In Metric Studio, a visual representation of the strategy and the objectives of that strategy for an organization. For example, a strategy map may show employees how their jobs are aligned to the overall objectives of the organization.


  1. Physical channel of communication between a single transmitter and one or more receivers.
  2. In source control management, a repository object that includes one or more components. Streams are typically used to integrate the work that is stored in repository workspaces. Team members deliver their changes to the stream and accept changes from other team members into their repository workspaces from the stream.
  3. To send data from one device to another.
  4. A path of connected nodes along which data flows in order to analyze data, make predictions, or both. See also instantiate, node.
  5. A sequence of tuples. See also component, data flow graph, workspace.
  6. The kernel aggregate created by connecting STREAMS components, resulting from an application of the STREAM mechanism. The primary components are a stream head, a driver, and zero or more pushable modules between the stream head and driver. A stream forms a full duplex processing and data transfer path in the kernel, between a user process and a driver. A stream is analogous to a shell pipeline except that data flow and processing are bidirectional.
  7. A sequence of data or data items.
  8. A personalized, dynamically and continuously updated list of activities (stories and status updates) that relate to a user, their friends, and profiles that they follow.
  9. A file access object that allows access to an ordered sequence of characters, as described by the ISO C standard. Such objects can be created by the fdopen() or fopen() functions, and are associated with a file descriptor. A stream provides the additional services of user-selectable buffering and formatted input and output.
  10. An object that specifies configuration rules for a UCM view.
  11. A continuous sequence of data elements being transmitted one character at a time, or intended for transmission, using a defined format.
  12. To unidirectionally transmit multimedia content to a user from a streaming provider.
  13. In configuration management, a modifiable set of versioned artifacts. See also artifact, baseline, component, configuration.
  14. In the CVS team programming environment, a shared copy of application resources that is updated by development team members as they make changes. The stream represents the current state of the project.

stream buffer
In C++, an area of storage between the ultimate consumer and the I/O Stream Library functions that format data.

stream collection
A method of collecting auditing data that writes audit records to a circular buffer within the kernel. The data can be displayed, or printed to provide a paper audit trail, or converted into bin records.

stream computing
An event processing technology that is designed to simultaneously address two information challenges: the need for much faster information handling and analysis, and the ability to analyze growing volumes of diverse information.

stream data file
Data sets with a byte-oriented structure, which are accessed as continuous streams of data bytes. This structure is common in workstation environments. See also record-oriented file.

stream decryption
A symmetric algorithm that decrypts data one bit or byte of data at a time.

streamed data
Any data sent over a network connection at a specified rate. A stream can be one data type or a combination of types. Data rates, which are expressed in bits per second, vary for different types of streams and networks.

stream editor
A type of editor that is used to perform basic transformations on text read from a file or a pipe. The results are sent to a standard output.

stream encryption
A symmetric algorithm that encrypts data one bit or byte of data at a time.

stream end
The end of the stream that is furthest from the user process. The stream end contains the driver.

A module that provides individual pages of a document as required in response to user page selection in the document viewer.

stream file

  1. A file that contains continuous streams of bits such as PC files, documents, and other data stored in System i folders.
  2. A file containing a continuous stream of data. Stream files are well suited for storing strings of data such as the text of a document, images, audio, and video. The content and format of stream files are managed by the application rather than by the system.

stream head
The end of the stream that is closest to the user process and provides an interface between that process and the stream. The principal functions of the stream head are processing STREAMS-related system calls, and bidirectional transfer of data and information between a user process and messages in STREAMS' kernel space.


  1. In object-oriented programming, the serialization of class information and object instance data.
  2. The one-way transmission of multimedia content to a user from a streaming provider. See also 3G, podcast, podcast.
  3. A method of writing and reading data on magnetic tape as continuous fields without record boundaries.

streaming tape device
See streaming tape drive.

streaming tape drive
A magnetic tape unit that stores large amounts of data and is designed to make a nonstop dump or restore of magnetic disks without using interblock gaps.

To simplify a process or make a process more efficient.

stream mode

  1. A method of sending and receiving data in which records are defined as a stream of data without boundaries.
  2. In MFS, the input mode in which fields are defined as a stream of data without record boundaries. See also input mode, record mode.

stream object
An object used in the TX Programming Interface that permits overrides to the loaded map input and output specifications.

A kernel mechanism that supports development of network services and data communication drivers. It defines interface standards for character input and output within the kernel, and between the kernel and user level. The STREAMS mechanism comprises integral functions, utility routines, kernel facilities, and a set of structures.

streams processing application
An application that consists of a main composite operator with at least one primitive operator and possibly one or more composite or primitive operators, all of which process streams of data. See also application description language file, composite operator, job, main composite operator, mixed-mode application, primitive operator, Streams Processing Language.

Streams Processing Language (SPL)
A programming language that is used to create streams processing applications. See also streams processing application.

strength reduction
An optimization that replaces an arithmetic operation with a functionally equivalent arithmetic optimization of lesser strength. For example, 4*2 can be transformed into 4+4.


  1. A shortage of free space in a CICS dynamic storage area, such that CICS cannot recover from virtual storage depletion.
  2. The relative emphasis that may be given to a syllable in a word.

stretched cluster
A cluster that contains nodes from sites that are located at the same geographical locations. The sites share at least one repository disk.

strict type checking
Checking data types for compliance with the rules of C language more strictly than the C compiler, such as with the lint program.

The relationship between the layout of an array's elements in memory and the order in which those elements are accessed. A stride of 1 means that memory-adjacent array elements are accessed on successive iterations of an array-processing loop. A stride of N means that for each array element accessed, N-1 memory-adjacent elements are skipped over before the next accessed element.

A character entered in a space currently occupied by another character.

A font style that displays characters with a line through them, and that is typically used to indicate a text deletion.


  1. In programming languages, the form of data used for storing and manipulating text.
  2. A field or element that contains one or more printable characters.
  3. A contiguous sequence of bytes terminated by and including the first null byte.
  4. A sequence of elements of the same nature, such as characters considered as a whole. For example, character string, binary string, and hexadecimal string.
  5. A group of auxiliary storage devices connected in a series on the system. The order and location in which each device is connected to the system determines the physical address of the device.
  6. The value of a character string, graphic string, or binary string data type, consisting of a sequence of bytes that might represent characters.

string concatenation
In REXX, an operation that joins two characters or strings in the order specified, forming one string whose length is equal to the sum of the lengths of the two characters or strings.

string constant
Zero or more characters enclosed in double quotation marks. See also string literal.

string control byte (SCB)
In MTAM and RJE, a control character in the SNA character string that identifies how user data is compressed.

string delimiter
A symbol that is used to enclose a string constant. The SQL string delimiter is the apostrophe (') except in COBOL applications, where the user assigns either a quotation mark (") or an apostrophe (').

string field
A field that can contain one or more printable characters.

string literal

  1. Zero or more characters enclosed in double quotation marks. See also string constant.
  2. A literal that specifies a column value in a column map or relationship when the corresponding column contains character data.

string operator
A built-in function that performs an operation on two strings. See also operator.

string register
A register that holds a defined string value to be called by a token.

string unit
The unit that is used to determine the length of a character string or a graphic string. Possible string units are OCTETS (bytes), double bytes, CODEUNITS16, or CODEUNITS32.

string value
The value of a specified string. In AIXwindows, the value of a string that identifies a Text widget.

strip buffer
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a buffer containing 128 scan lines, part of the data to be printed, that accepts input from the character generator while the serializer is removing data.

strip character
A character to be removed when parsing text into tokens. See also strip list, token.


  1. The set of tracks located on the set of physical disk drives configured in a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) logical unit (LU) that have the same parity track. See also striped data set.
  2. The portion of a striped data set (for example, an extended sequential data set) that resides on one disk. The records in that portion are not necessarily logically consecutive. The system distributes records among the stripes such that the disks can be read or written simultaneously to gain better performance.

Pertaining to a volume that is created from multiple managed disks (MDisks) that are in the storage pool. Extents are allocated on the MDisks in the order specified.

striped data set
An extended-format data set that occupies multiple volumes. A striped data set is a software implementation of sequential data striping. See also extended format, stripe, striping.

stripe group

  1. The set of disks comprising the storage assigned to a file system.
  2. A collection of disks that are grouped together for serving media streams. The multimedia file system uses stripe groups to optimize delivery of multimedia assets.

stripe width
The size of the block that data is split into for striping.


  1. A storage process in which information is split into blocks (a fixed amount of data) and the blocks are written to or read from a series of disks in parallel.
  2. A data mapping technique for disk arrays in which fixed-length sequences of virtual-disk data addresses are mapped to sequences of member disk addresses in a regular rotating pattern. See also striped data set.
  3. A method by which tables are evenly distributed across active disks. Striping prevents overwhelming any one disk with too much data.

strip list
The list of strip characters. See also strip character.

A straight or curved line used to create the shape of a letter.

strong authentication
A solution that uses multifactor authentication devices to prevent unauthorized access to confidential corporate information and IT networks, both inside and outside the corporate perimeter.

strong dependency
A dependency that causes an object to be recompiled when another object that it depends on, such as a table or a data type, is dropped or modified. See also weak dependency.

strong digital identity
An online persona that is difficult to impersonate, possibly secured by private keys on a smart card.

strong export
An export that allows only one definition of an external symbol to be used by the binder. The first definition in the binder search is chosen, and duplicate definitions are discarded. The binder always chooses a strong export over a weak export for the same symbol. See also weak export.

strongly typed cursor data type
A cursor data type that is associated with a row data type. A variable or parameter of a strongly typed cursor data type can reference only a result set with the same definition as the row data structure. See also cursor data type, weakly typed cursor data type.

strongly typed distinct type
A distinct type that restricts most operations in which the data types of the operands are not the same distinct type. See also distinct type, weakly typed distinct type.

strong password encryption (SPE)
A security feature that is used to secure passwords.

strong typing
A process that prevents two objects with mismatched data types from being compared to each other and prevents data from being assigned to an object defined to accept data of a different type. See also implicit casting, weak typing.


  1. An aggregate of elements having arbitrary types.
  2. See structure.

struct tag
See structure tag.

structural damage and repair record
A record that is used to describe, review, and track all damage that occurs in the structure of an aircraft or a piece of equipment.

structural data source
A data source that defines the structure of a Transformer model. It contains columns that map to levels and categories to build dimensions in the model. See also transactional data source.

structural significant item (SSI)
Any detail, element, or assembly that contributes to carrying flight, ground, pressure, or control loads, and whose structural integrity is necessary for aircraft safety, for example, landing gear


  1. A name that refers collectively to different types of DB2 objects, such as tables, databases, views, indexes, and table spaces.
  2. A construct that uses z/OS to map and manage storage on a coupling facility.
  3. A class data type that contains an ordered group of data objects. Unlike an array, the data objects within a structure can have varied data types.
  4. A series of elements that have been graded or ranked in some useful manner. In WebSphere Business Modeler, a graphical representation of the relationships between different real entities in an organization.
  5. A relationship that describes how accounts, companies, forms or extended dimensions are connected.

structure attributes
In OSI, keywords and syntax that tell the Abstract Syntax Checker how to build the data structures.

structure data
Semi-static data that is used to provide context for other data within a relational database and is typically used to construct a reference structure. For example, a product master contains a list of products with which the company deals. The product master may also contain supporting information, such as product characteristics.

Structured Call Interface (SCI)
A CSL component that manages communications between the IMSplex members.

structured collection
A process that uses a query template to specify the documents that must be collected. Manual structured plans are sent to IT staff who preserve or collect information on behalf of a set of custodians. Automated structured plans are issued to IBM Atlas eDiscovery Policy Syndication connectors for automated execution.

structured collection plan
A collection plan that uses query templates to create collection instructions.

structured data
Data that resides in fixed fields within a record or file. Relational databases and spreadsheets are examples of structured data. See also unstructured data.

structured field

  1. Output from the DFSMSrmm application programming interface (API) consisting of a structured field introducer (SFI) and output data.
  2. A mechanism that permits variable length data to be encoded for transmission in the data stream.
  3. A self-identifying string of bytes and its data or parameters.

structured field introducer
The first 8 bytes of a structured field that indicate its length, type, and number.

structured file
An INed file that contains specialized data, such as information about the structure of the data in the file, and history information about changes that have been made to the file. Structured files can contain hierarchical data that is displayed and edited by using forms.

structured information
Items stored in structured resources, such as search engine indices, databases, or knowledge bases.

structured preservation
A process that uses a query template to specify the documents that must be preserved. Manual structured plans are sent to IT staff who preserve or collect information on behalf of a set of custodians. Automated structured plans are issued to IBM Atlas eDiscovery Policy Syndication connectors for automated execution.

Structured Query Language (SQL)
A standardized language for defining and manipulating data in a relational database. See also Data Manipulation Language, Structured Query Language injection.

Structured Query Language for Java (SQLJ)
A standard for embedding SQL in Java programs, defining and calling Java procedures and user-defined functions, and using database structured types in Java.

Structured Query Language injection (SQL injection)
An attack technique used to exploit websites by altering back-end SQL statements through manipulating application input. See also Structured Query Language.

structured type
In OSI, an ASN.1 type defined by reference to one or more other ASN.1 types.

structured viewing
The tabular aspect of the Design view of the XML editor that separates the structural constituents of an XML document, such as elements and attribute types, from values, such as attribute values and textual content.

structure item
In EGL, a field in a structure or record. Each structure item is substructured (as a word is substructured into letters) or is not divisible (as a letter is not divisible).

Structure of Management Information (SMI)
In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the rules used to define the objects that can be accessed by means of a network management protocol.

structure owner
In relation to group buffer pools, the DB2 member that is responsible for the following activities: coordinating rebuild, checkpoint, and damage assessment processing; and monitoring the group buffer pool threshold and notifying castout owners when the threshold has been reached

structure pair
A primary queue structure and its associated overflow structure.

structure recovery data set (SRDS)
Shared data sets that contain structure checkpoint information for shared queues on a structure pair. There are two SRDS data sets per structure pair.

Structure Rule Table (SRT)
A recurring attribute of the directory schema containing the permitted structures of distinguished names.

structure tag
The identifier that names a structure data type.

An open source framework designed to help developers create web applications that keep database code, page design code, and control flow code separated from each other.

Struts action
A class that implements a portion of a web application and returns a forward. The superclass for a Struts action is called the Action class.

Struts module
A Struts configuration file and a set of corresponding actions, form beans, and web pages. A Struts application comprises at least one Struts module.

Struts project
A dynamic web project with Struts support added.


  1. See Security Token Service.
  2. See station-to-station.
  3. See source temporary store.

See set and test sequence number.

STSN Handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles STSN requests.


  1. In the Enhanced X-Windows Toolkit, the hooking functions that are used as extensions to the protocol to generate protocol requests.
  2. A replica or Notes database copy that has not yet been filled with documents. The database is no longer a stub after the first replication takes place.
  3. A line in a state table that is only partially displayed.
  4. A small module, link-edited into application code, that locates and transfers control to a larger body of related code.
  5. A component containing functionality for testing purposes. A stub is either a pure "dummy", just returning some predefined values, or it is "simulating" a more complex behavior.
  6. A program module that transfers remote procedure calls (RPCs) and responses between a client and a server. Stubs perform marshalling, unmarshalling, and data format conversion. Both clients and servers have stubs. The Network Interface Definition Language (NIDL) compiler generates client and server stub code from an interface definition.
  7. The two types of Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) that are produced by the compiler when an interface is defined. The application code calls the stub, and the RPC mechanism translates this into a call to the appropriate function on the remote machine.
  8. A protocol extension procedure that connects with the library but remains outside the library.
  9. A small program routine that substitutes for a longer, possibly remote, program. For example, a stub might be a program module that transfers procedure calls (RPCs) and responses between a client and a server. In web services, a stub is an implementation of a Java interface generated from a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document.
  10. To reduce the space that user mailboxes occupy on email servers.
  11. In email archiving, an email document from which previously archived content has been removed. The stub usually contains links to the archived content, that is, to the attachments and the body text of the email. Clicking these links, users can view, and, in a second step, restore the content to its original location.
  12. A shortcut on the Windows file system that is generated by the hierarchical storage management (HSM) client for a migrated file that allows transparent user access. A stub is the sparse file representation of a migrated file, with a reparse point attached.

stub area
In the OSPF protocol, a routing area for which packets can flow into and out of, but not through.

stub code
A piece of client-side code used for converting parameters.

stub file
A file that replaces the original file on a local file system when the file is migrated to storage. A stub file contains the information that is necessary to recall a migrated file from server storage. It also contains additional information that can be used to eliminate the need to recall a migrated file. See also migrated file.

stub file size
The size of a file that replaces the original file on a local file system when the file is migrated to server storage. The size that is specified for stub files determines how much leader data can be stored in the stub file. The default for stub file size is the block size defined for a file system minus 1 byte.

stub procedure
In transport independent remote procedure call (TI-RPC) programming, a functional subset of procedures that is needed to implement a client or server protocol.

stub programming interface (SPI)
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a private run-time interface whose routines are unavailable to application code.

stub routine
Within a runtime library, a routine that contains the minimum lines of code needed to locate a given routine.

stub server
An application server that is dedicated to running service stubs. See also service stub.

stuck process
A process that cannot proceed because it is waiting for an event that cannot, or does not, occur.

STX character
See start-of-text character.

A set of formatting characteristics that can be applied to text, tables, and lists in a document to change their appearance.

Style Manager
In CDE, the software application used to customize some of the visual elements and system device behaviors of the workspace environment, including colors and fonts, and keyboard, mouse, window, and session start-up behaviors.

style segment
A section of a theme line between adjacent items to which color and strength can be applied.

style sheet
See stylesheet.

stylized item
See child item.

A pen-like input device that is used to write, draw, and manipulate items.

A child account or secondary account that is associated with the master account for further distribution of charges.


  1. In X.25 communications, the unallocated digits at the end of the national terminal number (NTN). If the network provider allocates all digits to the NTN, there can be no subaddress.
  2. An extension of an ISDN address used to identify individual users, processors, or groups of users within a large group of users or processors that are identified by a single network number.


  1. A logical grouping of bundles and services on the common agent. An application uses a subagent to perform actions on a system where the common agent is installed. See also agent, bundle, common agent.
  2. An extension to an SNMP agent that permits a user to dynamically add, or in some cases replace, management variables in the local MIB, thereby providing a means of extending the range of information that network managers may access.
  3. An agent that the coordinator agent enlists to speed up SQL processing. See also coordinating agent.

subagent request
A request issued by a coordinator agent to a subagent at the same or a different database partition. See also request.

An alternative name that is used when several names are required for an object. For example, a single multiple response variable translates into a number of separate variables in SPSS .sav format. The subaliases are the names that are given to the variables in the SPSS .sav file.

suballocated file
A Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) file occupying a portion of a data space that is already defined. The data space may contain other files. See also unique file.


  1. A portion of the SNA network consisting of a subarea node, attached peripheral nodes, and associated resources. Within a subarea node, all network addressable units (NAUs), links, and adjacent link stations in attached peripheral or subarea nodes that are addressable within the subarea share a common subarea address and have distinct element addresses. See also adjacent subarea, element.
  2. An area that is nested within another area.

subarea address
In SNA, a value in the subarea field of the network address that identifies a specific subarea. See also element address.

subarea link
In SNA, a link that connects two subarea nodes. See also channel link.

subarea network
A network in which interconnected subareas, their directly-attached peripheral nodes, and the transmission groups that connect them are linked.

subarea node (SN)
In SNA, a type 4 or type 5 node that uses network addresses for routing and whose routing tables are, therefore, affected by changes in the configuration of the network. Subarea nodes can provide boundary function support for peripheral nodes.

subarea subnetwork
In NetDA/2, a group of subarea nodes that are connected through subarea protocols and have the same network ID.

An assembled unit that is incorporated with other units into a complete assembly.

The smallest unit of data accessible in an I/O operation, equal to one thirty-second of a data block.

Pertains to a software licensing scheme that bases charges on the capacity of the partition where the licensed program is used, rather than on the total capacity in the server. See also full-capacity, partition, processor value unit, virtualization, virtualization.

subcapacity licensing
A software licensing scheme that bases charges on the capacity of the partition where the licensed program is used, rather than on the total capacity of the server.

subcapacity pricing
In a partitioned operating environment, a software license that bases charges on the capacity of the partition where the licensed program is used, rather than on the total capacity in the server.

subcapacity reporting tool (SCRT)
A tool that calculates the actual subcapacity measurement data and sends it to IBM on a monthly basis.

subcatalog organization
An enterprise whose items are available in the catalog of a catalog organization. These items can be viewed and ordered through a business' website.

A logical function of a channel subsystem associated with the management of a single device.


  1. In Java, a class that is derived from a particular class, through inheritance.
  2. A Workload manager class that is given resource entitlements relative to the entitlements of its associated superclass.
  3. In a generalization relationship, the specialization of another class; the superclass.

See subcontractor.

A request for an operation that is within the scope of work requested by a previously issued command.

A group of closely related DB2 for z/OS modules that work together to provide a general function.

subcontractor (subco)

A decision that describes how an aspect of the root decision is assessed. The root decision depends on the sub-decisions. Each sub-decision can have its own description and properties.

A tree of categories with levels that are independent of levels in the dimension. A subdimension can provide different details, or different levels of detail, for categories in a level. Subdimensions are permitted in dimensions with only one drill-down path or, in an alternate drill-down structure, at or below the convergence level.

A directory contained within another directory in a file system hierarchy.

A domain that makes up a part of a larger domain. See also custom domain, domain, host, route, Uniform Resource Locator.

In UN/EDIFACT EDI standards, an EDI data element that is part of an EDI composite data element. For example, an EDI data element and its qualifier are subelements of an EDI composite data element.

Secondary or tertiary entry that provides added detail or classification of the main entry. Subentries are used to help users find specific information.

An atomic event that has been added to a composite event.

sub-event queue
A list of the sub-events of a particular composite event that have fired. Each composite event has a sub-event queue associated with it. The queue may be empty. Sub-events remain on the sub-event queue until they are retrieved, or until a syncpoint occurs.


  1. In RPG, the layout of a field within a data structure.
  2. A subdivision of a field with a specific meaning. For example, the SWIFT field 32 has the subfields date, currency code, and amount. A field can have several subfield layouts depending on the way the field is used in a particular message.

In IBM i, a group of records of the same record format that can be displayed at the same time at a display station. The system sends the entire group of records to the display in a single operation and receives the group from the display in another operation.

subfile control record format
One of two record formats required to define a subfile in DDS. The subfile control record format describes the size of the subfile and the size of the subfile page, and is used by the program to write the subfile to and read the subfile from the display.

subfile record format
One of two record formats required to define a subfile in DDS. The subfile record format defines the fields in a subfile record and is used by the program to perform input, output, and update operations to the subfile.

A sequence of processing steps, implemented using message flow nodes, that is designed to be embedded in a message flow or in another subflow. A subflow must include at least one Input or Output node. A subflow can be executed by a broker only as part of the message flow in which it is embedded, and therefore it cannot be deployed. See also message flow.

subflow node
A message flow node that represents a subflow. See also primitive.

subflow task
In a rule flow, a task that refers to another rule flow. A subflow task can reference a rule flow in the current project, or in a parent project.


  1. In CDE, a folder contained within another folder. When discussing command-line activities, this may be called a subdirectory.
  2. A folder that is in another folder. For example, if folder A contains folder B and folder B contains folder C, then B and C are subfolders of A because the folder path for each begins with A (A/B/C).

A form-building shortcut that lets designers store regularly used fields, sections, actions, and other form elements together. Subforms can be placed on a form either permanently or as computed subforms that display on documents as dictated by a formula.

A data flow graph for a composite operator that is reused by streams processing applications. See also composite operator, data flow graph.


  1. A group that is subordinate to another group. A subgroup corresponds to a nested looping structure, a loop within a loop.
  2. The name of a company type group that is connected to another group.
  3. A set of modifications within a copy group that applies to a certain number of copies of a form. A copy group can contain more than one subgroup.


subject identifier (SID)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a string that identifies a user or a set of users.

subject matter expert (SME)
An individual who provides technical details for development of information or education.

subject of analysis (SofA)
A piece of data, such as a text document, image, audio segment, or video segment, that is intended for analysis by UIMA analysis components. Each SofA belongs to a CAS View that has the same name.

subject's distinguished name (SDN)
The X.509 name in a digital certificate that is associated with the name of a subject.

subject table
The table for which a trigger is created. When the defined triggering event occurs on this table, the trigger is activated.

In REXX, a symbol reserved by the language processor within the clause of individual instructions. For example, the symbol FOREVER is a subkeyword of the DO instruction.

In OSI, a subdivision within a layer.(I)

In VSE, a subdivision of a library.

A Look that formats a portion of a compound question.

A map that is called from within another map. Submaps are often used to map child business objects.

A menu that appears as an option on another menu.

A collection of form sets reported during a specific period and actuality.

submission template
A template that connects to applications running remotely through a web interface.

submit/release data set
A data set shared between the Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS host and a local Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS processor that is used to send job-stream data and job-release commands from the host to the local processor.

submitting peer
A node that collects an endorsement for a transaction and broadcasts it through consensus. The peer communicates with the other blockchain nodes on behalf of one or more clients for executing the transaction.

One of two models used in model decomposition as applied, for example, in column generation techniques. See also master model, model decomposition.

See subnetwork.

subnet address
In Internet communications, an extension to the basic IP addressing scheme where a portion of the host address is interpreted as the local network address.

subnet mask
For internet subnetworking, a 32-bit mask used to identify the subnetwork address bits in the host portion of an IP address. See also address mask.

subnet value
The bit template that identifies to the TCP/IP protocol code which host or hosts are defined by this route. This bit template must be a subset of the subnet mask.

subnetwork (subnet)

  1. A network that is divided into smaller independent subgroups, which still are interconnected.
  2. To divide a network into smaller interconnected, but independent subgroups.
  3. A grouping of connected traffic links that is defined by the user. This grouping is to improve application performance.
  4. A distinct partitioned piece of an internet network represented by two or more sets of addresses that are subsets of the network's range of addresses.
  5. The communications media that join two network nodes together. A subnetwork is a representation within the OSI reference model of a real network, such as a carrier network, a private network, or a local area network (LAN).

subnetwork access protocol (SNAP)
In LANs, a 5-byte protocol discriminator that identifies the non-IEEE standard protocol family to which a packet belongs. The SNAP value is used to differentiate between protocols that use $AA as their service access point (SAP) value.

subnetwork address
In OSI, a DTE address.

subnetwork mask
See subnet mask.

subnormal number
In floating-point representation, any nonzero number that is smaller than the smallest normal number. A subnormal number has zero as the leftmost digit of the significand. See also decimal floating-point number, normal number.

One of multiple elements in a list that comprises an operand. See also definition statement.

A value that can be provided as part of a compile-time or runtime option to specify the meaning of the option.

The part of an order that is being shipped to a specific address.


  1. In two-phase commit processing, a recovery manager that must wait for confirmation from its coordinator before committing or backing out changes made to recoverable resources by its part of a distributed unit of work. The subordinate can be in doubt in respect to its coordinator. See also coordinator.
  2. A system in which a child unit of recovery (UR) of a multisystem cascaded transaction resides.

subordinate agent
See subagent.

subordinate server
Any database server in a distributed query that did not initiate the query. See also coordinating server, remote table.


  1. A part of a logical page on which traditional line data can be placed. In the page definition, multiple subpages can be placed on a physical page as specified in the print data.
  2. The unit into which a physical index page can be divided.

In CDE, an extension of the Front Panel that slides up providing access to additional elements. Subpanels usually contain groups of related elements.

A discrete element of a regular expression.

A collection of logical terminals (LTERMs) that can be allocated to an ISC node and can be used with parallel sessions.

Subpool Queue Block (SPQB)
An IMS control block that represents a user.

subpool storage
All of the storage blocks allocated under a subpool number for a particular task.

An access point for data entry or exit over a logical connection. The relationship between the physical line and the port is analogous to the relationship between the logical connection and the subport. See also frame handler subport.

Any subset of variables in the original problem.


  1. An independent process that is part of another business process.
  2. A process initiated by another process. Control is transferred back to the main process after the subprocess finishes running.
  3. A local process that is also a part of another process. See also deployment manager.

An employee of an external corporation who is contracted to sell a carrier’s products.


  1. In the IPA Link version of the Inline Report listing section, an equivalent term for 'function'.
  2. A called program that is combined with the calling program at run time to produce a run unit. A subprogram is below the calling program in the call stack.
  3. In FORTRAN, a program unit that has a FUNCTION, SUBROUTINE, or BLOCK DATA statement as its first statement.
  4. In Ada language, a program unit that can be either a procedure or a function. A subprogram includes: a) a declaration, which specifies its name, formal parameters, and (for a function) its result; and b) a body, which specifies the sequence of actions.
  5. A program that is called by another program, such as a subshell. See also main program.

In zIDE, a set of programming resources that constitute a single load module; a z/OS project can contain one or more subprojects.

subproject property file
In zIDE, a host-based project configuration file that defines the properties of a subproject.


  1. A select expression that is enclosed in parentheses as a nested query block in a query statement.
  2. In SQL, a subselect used within a predicate, for example, a select-statement within the WHERE or HAVING clause of another SQL statement.
  3. A form of a fullselect that is enclosed within parentheses and used as a component of a query.

A component of a grid or numeric grid question. The subquestions in a grid and numeric grid question share the same category list.

The user definition level of a sphere, such as an alternate index, cluster, or generation data set (GDS).

subrecord control byte (SRCB)
In MTAM and RJE, a control character used to provide additional information about a record.

A set of resource names and rules for the construction of resource names. Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS uses these names when checking a user's authority to access individual Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS data records.


  1. A sequence of instructions within a larger program that performs a particular task. A subroutine can be accessed repeatedly, can be used in more than one program, and can be called at more than one point in a program.
  2. In REXX, an internal, built-in, or external routine called by the CALL instruction that may or may not return a result string. If a subroutine returns a result string, a subroutine can also be called by a function call, in which case it is being called as a function.

subroutine ID
A unique identification number associated with each subroutine included in an application.


  1. To register to access the mastered data from Emptoris Strategic Supply platform.
  2. To request information about a topic.
  3. In SQL replication, to enable tables or views registered as replication targets to receive initial source data and subsequent changes from tables or views registered as replication sources.
  4. To sign up to receive a stream of messages on a given channel.
  5. To register to access data that is published by another application or system. See also publish.

subscribed element
A transformation model element that has been selected for delivery to a target system.


  1. A person who is registered to receive email notifications of events.
  2. The consumer of a business service.
  3. A publish/subscribe application that requests information about a topic.
  4. In voice mail, any person who owns a mailbox.

subscriber class
A named set of variables used to define a specific level of service available to telephone subscribers, such as maximum number of messages per mailbox and maximum number of members per mailbox distribution list.

Subscriber Identity Module card (SIM card)
A portable memory card that contains the user's subscription information, personal data, and contact list. SIM cards are exclusive to GSM (or GSM compatible) networks and are supported around the world. See also Global System for Mobile Communications, phone locking.


  1. An integer or variable whose value selects a particular element in a table or array.
  2. In COBOL, a positive number or variable whose value refers to a particular item in a table.
  3. A character that is printed one-half line below the normal printing line. For example, the number 2 in the chemical formula for water, H 2 O, is a subscript. See also superscript.
  4. One or more expressions, each enclosed in brackets, that follow an array name. A subscript refers to an element in an array.

subscripted data-name
In COBOL, a data name that is made unique with a subscript.


  1. In SQL replication, an object that creates subscription sets and subscription-set members. See also Q subscription, registration, subscription set.
  2. A record that contains the information that a subscriber passes to a local broker or server to describe the publications that it wants to receive.
  3. A schedule of reports to be executed or delivered to a distribution list.
  4. The process of exporting a subset of master data or a set of profiles to stores.
  5. An order that allows continuous access to a service or a product for a specified period of time. For example, a monthly magazine can be ordered for one year for $20, or two years for $35.
  6. A method that sets up the conditions required for an event action to take place and the class, object, instance or workflow that event acts upon.
  7. The set of mappings between source replication objects and target replication objects.
  8. Email notices and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds that repository users create to receive when the state of an asset changes.
  9. In a storage environment, the process of identifying the subscribers to which the profiles are distributed. See also enterprise configuration, managed server.
  10. A request made to an owner center for data to be sent periodically to an external center.
  11. The enablement of one or more paid services for a user in a user account.

subscription cycle
The process in which the Apply program retrieves changed data for a given subscription set, replicates the changes to the target table, and updates the appropriate replication control tables to reflect its status and current progress.

subscription set
In SQL replication, a definition that controls the replication of changed data during a subscription cycle. A subscription set can contain zero or more subscription-set members. See also replication source, subscription.

subscription-set member
In SQL replication, a definition that maps a registered replication source to a replication target. Each member defines the structure of the target table and the rows and columns that are replicated from the source table. See also replication source.

A function that allows a search query to be performed within a set of completed search results.

The form of a query that does not include a UNION, INTERSECT, or EXCEPT operator. Subselect query syntaxes can differ depending on the platform.

subsequence field
In a secondary index, a field added to the index segment key data to make the pointer segment key unique.

subserial number
A unique number that identifies which license is currently enrolled.

A system resource or program that is directly controlled by a server program running under control of the System Program Controller.


  1. A set of elements from within another set.
  2. To replicate data from part of a source table, rather than from the entire table, to a target table. Data can be subset by rows or by columns.
  3. A named collection of companies.
  4. A variant form of a programming language with fewer features or more restrictions than the original language.
  5. A set of elements within a dimension. Subsets may be named and saved for future use.

subset character set
A set of characters that is completely contained in another larger set of characters. See also full character set.

subset pointer
In IMS, a pointer used to give direct access to subsets of long twin chains of segments; this can speed up processing of DEDBs.

subsetting tower
In architecture, within the base-and-towers concept, a tower representing an aspect of function achieved by an architecture. A tower is independent of any other towers. A tower can be subdivided into subsets. A subset contains all the function of any subsets below it in the tower

An instance of the shell program started from an existing shell program.

subspace group
A group of subspaces and a single base space, where the base space is the normal MVS address space. See also subspace group facility.

subspace group facility
A facility in MVS that can be used for storage isolation to preserve data integrity within an address space. See also subspace group.

A state that is part of a composite state.

substitute product
A product that a consumer would purchase instead of another product with the same or similar utility without the loss of a significant amount of perceived value.

substitution character
A unique character that is substituted during character conversion for any characters in the source program that do not have a match in the target coding representation.

substitution item
An item that can be associated with the primary item and offered in place of the primary item if the primary item is unavailable.

substitution rule
A data correlation rule for which it is not necessary to manually correlate data for every test that is recorded for an application. See also data correlation.

substitution set
A set that contains multiple items that can be substituted for each other. Suppliers can bid for one or more items in the set and buyers can choose the option with the best bid.

substitution string
A specified string of characters that replaces a string of characters that were located by a scan operation.

substitution text
The character string that is substituted for a symbol.

substitution variable

  1. A variable that can be used to specify column selection criteria or to create an SQL WHERE Clause.
  2. A variable with a user-specified value that is used to perform a one-off replacement wherever a substitution is required. Even if the value of the variable changes throughout the process, this is not reflected in the substitution variable. See also variable scope.
  3. A variable in a form whose value is specified by a global variable.
  4. A variable used to pass information, such as a file name, for use in a message.
  5. A variable in a procedure or query whose value is specified either by a global variable or by a runtime variable.


  1. In bar codes, the surface on which a bar code symbol is printed.
  2. The molded plastic portion of a videodisc or compact disc.
  3. In a microcircuit, the supporting material upon which or within which an integrated circuit is fabricated, or to which in integrated circuit is attached.

A part of a character string.

substring function
A function that specifies a column value in a column map or relationship by returning a substring of the named column.


  1. In z/OS, a service provider that performs one or many functions but does nothing until a request is made. For example, each IBM MQ for z/OS queue manager or instance of a DB2 for z/OS database management system is a z/OS subsystem.
  2. The part of communications that handles the requirements of the remote system, isolating most system-dependent considerations from the application program.
  3. In the Remote System Explorer, a container for a particular user's remote IBM i libraries, command sets, and jobs.
  4. A secondary or subordinate system, usually capable of operating independently of, or asynchronously with, a controlling system.
  5. An operating environment, defined by a subsystem description, where the system coordinates processing and resources.

subsystem component
An Integration Flow Designer object that references another system which a user has defined.

subsystem control block (SSCB)
The data structure by which the MVS operating system communicates with subsystems such as JES, NetView, and IMS.

subsystem description
A system object that contains information defining the characteristics of an operating environment controlled by the system. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *SBSD.

subsystem identification block (SSIB)
The control block that identifies the particular subsystem to which a request is being directed.

subsystem identifier (SSID)

  1. A user-assigned number that identifies a direct access storage device (DASD) subsystem. This number is set by the service representative at the time of installation and is included in the vital product data (VPD).
  2. A number that uniquely identifies a logical subsystem (LSS) within a computer installation.

subsystem information base
In OSI, an information base that specifies configuration information. The subsystem information base is built mostly by the Administrative Facility and used by OSI Communications Subsystem to control its own operations and network operations.

subsystem interface (SSI)
The means by which system routines request services of the master subsystem, a job entry subsystem, or other subsystems defined to the subsystem interface.

subsystem options block (SSOB)
The control block that identifies the function being requested.

subsystem support services (SSS)
A set of IBM-supplied programs, executed in the host system, that provide services for subsystems such as creating and updating subsystem libraries at the host system, processing programs and data to be used by the subsystems, and transmitting the programs and data to communication controllers and program-controlled terminals.

A typed table that inherits properties (column definitions, constraints, triggers) from a supertable above it in the table hierarchy.

A task that is initiated and ended by a higher order task.

An individual step (such as a single-page request) in an overall transaction.


  1. A tree structure created by arbitrarily denoting a node to be the root node in a tree. A subtree is always part of a whole tree. See also forest of trees index.
  2. A lower-level directory structure.
  3. A branch of a type tree that includes a type and all of the subtypes that stem underneath it.
  4. A section of a directory tree. The subtree typically starts at a particular directory and includes all subdirectories and objects below that directory in the directory hierarchy; that is, any subdirectories or objects connected to the directory or to any lower level of its subdirectories.


  1. In Ada language, a subset of the values of a type that is determined by a constraint on the type. Each value in the set of values of a subtype belongs to the subtype and satisfies the constraint determining the subtype.
  2. A type that extends or implements another type; the supertype.
  3. A named row data type that inherits all representation (data fields) and behavior (routines) from a supertype above it in the type hierarchy and can add additional fields and routines. The number of fields in a subtype is always greater than or equal to the number of fields in its supertype.

An operative unit, such as company or sub-group, that is summed with other sub-units to form a legal unit.

In the network management vector transport (NMVT), a subcomponent of the major vector.

A vocabulary that is called by another vocabulary.

success code set
One or more expressions that specify the return codes of a successful task. For example, > -1 can be specified to consider all return codes of zero or more a success.

A job that cannot start until all of the predecessor jobs or job streams on which it is dependent are completed successfully. See also predecessor.


  1. A distinguished name that identifies the top entry in a locally held directory hierarchy. Because of the relative naming scheme used in Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), this suffix applies to every other entry within that directory hierarchy. A directory server can have multiple suffixes, each identifying a locally held directory hierarchy.
  2. A character string attached to the end of a file name that helps identify its file type.
  3. An affix that appears at the end of a name. For example, the affix "eddin" in "Nur-eddin" is a suffix.
  4. A code dialed by a caller who is already engaged in a call.


  1. The process of aggregating events and then submitting the set of events with a much smaller number of summary events.
  2. The process of including non-redundant sentences in search results to briefly describe the content of a document. See also dynamic summarization, static summarization.

summarize option
A customization option that restricts access to selected information in the cube. The option sums all descendant categories for a category and suppresses the descendants.

In reporting and analysis, an aggregate value that is calculated for all the values of a particular level or dimension. Examples of summaries include total, minimum, maximum, average, and count.

summary data
Information about the response times and volume history, as well as total times and counts of successful transactions for the whole application See also data interval.

summary file
A file that contains all of the values for a particular object.

summary interval
The number of hours that data is stored on the agent for display in the Tivoli Data Warehouse workspaces.

summary line
A row that is returned within a break group that is a result of a summary function applied to the break group data.

summary partition
A partition that contains pre-summarized values for the categories in higher levels of one or more dimensions. Information requests that can be satisfied from the summary partition use the pre-summarized values and, therefore, require less calculation at the time of the request.

summary record
A single record (or document) that provides an "at a glance" summary view of a process or file transfer. Summary records dramatically reduce number of records that IBM Control Center must process when searching for file transfers and completed processes. See also file transfer summarization, process summarization.

summary records
In System i Access, an operation that allows a user to specify that only summary information be transferred instead of entire records.

summary report

  1. A statistics report produced by the CICS statistics utility program (STUP). It summarizes the interval, unsolicited, requested reset, and end-of-day statistics on an applid by applid basis. See also statistics utility program.
  2. In Query, a report that contains only summary information, such as the total, average, minimum, maximum, or count by a query. See also detail report.

summary status
An amount of time in which to collect data on the Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent.

summary table
A materialized query table whose fullselect contains a GROUP BY clause that summarizes data from the tables referenced in the fullselect. See also materialized query table.

summary task

  1. A container element that comprises a series of tasks.
  2. A task that comprises a series of subtasks.

summary text
The descriptive text that appears to the left of the summary line data within a break group.

summation account
An account to which other accounts are summed.

summer time
See Daylight Saving Time.

Suomen Standardisoimisliitto (SFS)
The national standards-setting organization in Finland.

super administrator
A user who has full access to the entire Presence Zones system and is responsible for the system administration and user management. This user is the key administrator who sets up the system and creates and manages users, and creates and deploys sites.

super asynchronous mode
In high availability disaster recovery, the synchronization mode in which the primary database considers a transaction committed when the transaction is successfully written to the disk of the primary system. The primary database does not wait for an acknowledgment that the log data was sent to the standby system. See also high availability disaster recovery, peer state, synchronization mode.

In UNIX-based operating systems, a block containing critical information about the filesystem, such as the filesystem type, layout, and size. In AIX, the superblock is block 1.


  1. In Java, a class from which a particular class is inherited, perhaps with one or more classes in between.
  2. In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, a class of widgets that passes inheritable resources down the hierarchy to a lower subclass.
  3. See parent class.

A computer that leads the world in processing capacity and speed of calculation when it is introduced. See also Watson.

A single flow that is comprised of multiple flows with similar properties in order to increase processing capacity by reducing storage constraints.

supernet mask
A bit template that identifies to the TCP/IP code which bits of the host address are used for routing to specific subnets. A subnet mask has fewer 1 bits than the corresponding class mask for a given Internet Protocol (IP) address.

A group of four Power 775 CEC drawers that have a total of 1024 processor cores in addition to the memory, hub switch chips, and PCIe slots.

Having the capability to execute multiple instructions in a given clock cycle.

A symbol, number, or letter written immediately above and to the right or left of another character. For example, a footnote can be identified in text with a superscript number. See also subscript.

To replace or take the place of another component. For example, when an operation is undone, a previous instance of a component supersedes the current component.

superseded patch

  1. A type of patch that notifies an operator when an earlier version of a patch has been replaced by a later version. This occurs when a later patch updates the same files as an earlier one. Superseded patches flag vulnerabilities that can be remediated by a later patch. A superseded patch cannot be deployed.
  2. A patch made obsolete by a later version of itself or another related patch.

superseded version status
A major or minor version that is not the most recent.

A process that recognizes if an ordered item can be superseded by a chain of items.

supersession association
An association between an item and a chain of items such that if the original item's effective date becomes obsolete, it can be superseded by the chain of items.

Given two sets A and B, A is a superset of B if and only if all elements of B are also elements of A. That is, A is a superset of B if B is a subset of A.

A typed table that passes properties (constraints, storage options, triggers) to a subtable beneath it in the table hierarchy.


  1. In a type hierarchy, a type that subtypes inherit attributes from.
  2. All the interfaces and classes that are extended or implemented by that type.
  3. A named row data type whose representation (data fields) and behavior (routines) is inherited by a subtype below it in the type hierarchy.


  1. A user who has various system control authorities above and beyond that of the ordinary user. In UNIX environments, the standard superuser is root.
  2. See root user.

superuser authority

  1. The unrestricted ability to access and modify any part of the operating system, usually associated with the user who manages the system.
  2. See root user authority.

A combination of two or more versions of the metadata. The versions are combined to form a superset, although when there is a conflict between, for example, a text in one or more of the versions, the more recent versions generally take precedence over the older versions.

The part of a control program that coordinates the use of resources and maintains the flow of processor operations. See also privilege, supervisory routine.

supervisor call (SVC)

  1. A request that serves as the interface into operating system functions, such as allocating storage. The SVC protects the operating system from inappropriate user entry. All operating system requests must be handled by SVCs.
  2. An instruction that interrupts the program being run and passes control to the supervisor so that it can perform the specific service indicated by the instruction.

supervisor state
A state during which a processing unit can execute input/output and other privileged instructions. See also problem state.

Pertaining to a frame format that performs data link control functions such as acknowledging information frames, requesting retransmission, and requesting temporary suspension of transmission. Receive ready (RR), receive not ready (RNR), and reject (REJ) are examples of supervisory frame formats.

supervisory routine
A routine, usually part of an operating system, that controls the execution of other routines and regulates the flow of work in a data processing system. See also supervisor.

supervisory terminal operator
Any CICS operator whose security key(s) allow use of the supervisory terminal functions.

supplemental group
One or more group profiles of which the user is a member. The user's first group profile is specified in the group profile (GRPPRF) parameter of the user profile. Supplemental group profiles are specified in the supplemental group profile (SUPGRPPRF) parameter of the group profile.

supplemental marking
An additional non-hierarchical security marking.

supplementary group ID
A process attribute that is used when file access permissions are determined.

supplementary service
In Euro-ISDN, a service outside the minimum service offering that each signatory is obliged to provide. For example, calling line identification presentation (CLIP) and call session.

supplied CDT
The required portion of the CDT that is supplied by IBM and shipped with RACF. Classes defined in the supplied CDT must not be modified by the installation.


  1. A provider of products, services, or both to a customer.
  2. A manufacturer or other company that provides goods to the shipper.

supplier approval
A feature designed to judge suppliers based on their assessment results and requirement fulfillment.

supplier basket
A functionality provided to make a selection of suppliers.

supplier classification
A module that can be used to segment, structure, and classify the existing and potential suppliers.

supplier community
A configured group of selected partners based on the sponsor's business rules.

supplier container
A group of suppliers that is created by the buyer to manage large number of suppliers, and is shared with other buyers for reference.

supplier cost constraint
The excess cost incurred when doing business with certain suppliers. This cost gets added to the bids, and the awarding suggestions are made by taking into account the excess cost.

supplier count constraint
The maximum or minimum number of suppliers to whom a user wants to award business.

supplier-created constraint
A mechanism that suppliers can use to indicate the volume of business or the number of items they can provide to the buyer organization.

supplier development
A module designed to improve the efficiency and productivity of a supplier.

supplier management
The governance of relationships by customers with their suppliers across multiple different engagements or types of work, with the goal being the optimal balance between cost reduction, efficiency, quality, and innovation. Supplier management encompasses the categories supplier performance management and supplier risk management.

supplier performance management (SPM)
Monitoring and remediating the performance of a supplier. This includes comparing the service quality to industry standards and making sure that the performance meets the expectations defined in the contract.

supplier qualification
A module designed to collect information from suppliers, validate the correctness of the information and assess if the given information meets the requirements.

supplier registration
A process of including new suppliers in the application.

supplier server
A server that sends changes to a consumer server.

supplier system
For directory shadowing, a system that provides initial or changed Enterprise Address Book (EAB) data to a collector system in a network. See also collector system.

supply and demand analysis
A graphic space capacity fit or gap analysis to develop portfolio plans that efficiently use space across time. The analysis compares demand to the supply across time to determine if business needs match the space or portfolio inventory.

supply chain
A value chain that supports procurement and sourcing of goods. See also value chain business model.

supply chain security
The protection of products, facilities, equipment, information, and personnel from theft, damage, or terrorism and the prevention of the introduction of unauthorized material, people, or weapons of mass destruction/effect into the supply chain.

supply data
An aggregation of the usage of space by space class and organization within a given floor.

In system development, to provide the necessary resources for the correct operation of a functional unit.

Support Assistant
See IBM Support Assistant.

support catcher
See catcher.

supported currency
A currency that an online store is capable of displaying and handling. See also preferred currency, shopping currency.

Support Element (SE)

  1. An internal control element of a processor that assists in many of the processor operational functions.
  2. A hardware unit that provides communications, monitoring, and diagnostic functions to a central processor complex (CPC).

supporting data
Data that belongs to a supporting resource in the work list record. A supporting resource is a child of the primary resource. For example, the supporting resources in a work order include asset, location, task, and labor.

supporting document
An additional optional document that a company chooses to submit along with the mandatory content. See also exhibit.

suppressible text

  1. Text that is to be ignored in certain copy operations.
  2. Text that can be specified for suppression. To suppress text, the suppression name must be specified in a copy group in the form definition. See also text suppression.


  1. In architecture, a method used to prevent presentation of specified data. Examples of suppression are the processing of text data without placing characters on a physical medium and the electronic equivalent of the spot carbon, which prevents selected data from being presented on certain copies of a presentation space or a physical medium.
  2. In AFP support, a page-and-form-definition function that is used to identify fields in a print record that are not printed on selected pages of a document.

suppression local ID
A value assigned in the Map Suppression coded field to a suppression named in a Line Descriptor (LND) or Record Descriptor (RCD) structured field. This value is contained in the Begin and End Suppression text controls.

suppression number
An identification number from 1 to 127 generated by the Map Suppression structured field and assigned to text designated for suppression in the data map transmission subcase.

suppress option
A customization option that restricts access to selected information in the cube by concealing a category within a dimension view. Within any cube that includes the view, the immediate descendants of the suppressed category link directly to its immediate ancestor category. In the cube, users see only the immediate ancestors and immediate descendants of the suppressed category.

surface characteristics
The style traits of a written document: readability, sentence openers, word length and usage, verb type, and sentence length and structure.

surface chart
In the GDDM function, a chart similar to a line chart, except that no markers appear, and the areas between successive lines are shaded.

surface form
The form of a word or multiword unit as it is found in surface text.

surface graph
In Performance Tools, a graph similar to a line graph, except that no markers appear, and the areas between successive lines are shaded.

surface of revolution
A 3D definition that causes an object to revolve around a user-defined axis through a user-defined angle, effectively creating a surface.

surface text
Any unprocessed text used for input.

A name that is added to a given name and identifies an individual as part of a group of people, such as a family, tribe, or caste. See also given name, personal name, personal name.

surrogate bid
A bid that is placed by a buyer on behalf of a supplier.

surrogate ID
See surrogate identifier.

surrogate identifier (surrogate ID)
An artificial identifier used to replace the natural member identifier of a dimension. Whereas the natural member identifier may be text-based, the surrogate identifier is always an integer. Natural member identifiers may have meaning, such as a product code, however, surrogate identifiers do not.

surrogate key

  1. An artificially created unique identifier column for rows in those tables that have no such natural key column.
  2. See surrogate identifier.

surrogate owner
A VTAM node that provides APPN network services for a resource connected over a LEN link.

surrogate pair
A coded representation for a single character that consists of a sequence of two 16-bit code units, in which the first value of the pair is a high-surrogate code unit in the range U+D800 through U+DBFF, and the second value is a low-surrogate code unit in the range U+DC00 through U+DFFF. Surrogate pairs provide an extension mechanism for encoding an additional 1,048,576 characters without using any 32-bit code units.

surrogate TCTTE
In CICS transaction routing, a TCTTE in the transaction-owning region that is used to represent the terminal that invoked, or was acquired by, the transaction. See also surrogate terminal.

surrogate terminal
A terminal whose terminal definition is shipped from a terminal owning region (TOR). See also surrogate TCTTE.

surrogate user
A user who has the authority to start work on behalf of another user, without knowing the password of the other user.

surveillance mechanism
A way for IMS in the alternate to determine that the active is processing satisfactorily.

surveyor tool
A tool that displays the chronological sequence of activities in a security incident in a visualizer.

The data cleansing process of evaluating a group of related records and creating one representative record. See also data deduplication, deduplication, representative record.

In linking and traceability, pertaining to a status when two artifacts might not satisfy the meaning of the link between them. The contents of the artifacts must be reviewed to verify that they satisfy the link. See also invalid, valid, validity summary.

suspect relationship state
A state applied to a traceability or hierarchical relationship when a change occurs to one or both of the requirements in the relationship. A suspect relationship state indicates that, because of the modification to one or both requirements, the relationship may require modification as well. See also change-managed relationship, traceability matrix.


  1. To remove an object from its workflow and define the suspension criteria needed to activate it. Later activating the object enables it to continue processing.
  2. In cross-site mirroring, to temporarily stop geographic mirroring. If the mirror copy contained usable data when suspended, the mirror copy still contains usable, though possibly outdated, data.
  3. To temporarily remove a change set from a repository workspace.
  4. To pause a process instance.

Pertaining to a case-level status that is used to classify an interview that has not yet had all of the respondents’ answers entered as data. This status differs from the concept of the survey itself being incomplete in terms of the volume of responses or responses to specific questions.

suspended account
A user account that has been temporarily disabled so that a user can no longer use any service.  

suspended state

  1. In cross-site mirroring, the configuration state of the mirror copy that does not attempt to perform geographic mirroring when the independent disk pool is available. The mirror copy state is suspended when it is not resuming or active.
  2. A state in which only one of the devices in a dual-copy or remote-copy volume pair is being updated as a result of a permanent error condition or an authorized user command. All writes to the remaining functional device are logged. Suspended state allows for automatic resynchronization of both volumes when the volume pair is reset to the active duplex state.
  3. A state in which the resource is temporarily not receiving a request. A start action request returns the resource to the state it was in prior to being suspended.

suspense account
An account that is used to store short-term funds or securities until a decision is made about their allocation.

suspicion profile
A profile that identifies a set of link types, artifact types, and attributes to watch for changes. When artifacts that match the profile criteria are changed, the linked artifacts are marked with a suspicion indicator.

suspicious activity report (SAR)
A report that contains detailed information regarding transactions that appear to be suspicious.

An approach to business that considers the environmental and societal impact of activities.

sustainable cell rate (SCR)
The maximum average rate at which an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) endsystem can transmit cells into the network. The "on" and "off" cycles of transmission are averaged to determine the sustainable cell rate. See also maximum burst size, peak cell rate.

sustained data rate
The maximum rate at which a device can supply data without pause or interruption.

See system under test.

See schedule variance.

See shared virtual area.

See service bundle.


  1. See switched virtual circuit.
  2. See supervisor call.
  3. See switched virtual channel.
  4. See stored value card.

SVC dump
A dump that is issued when a z/OS or a DB2 functional recovery routine detects an error.

SVC interruption
An interruption caused by the execution of a supervisor call (SVC) instruction, causing control to be passed to the supervisor.

See System Verification Test.


  1. See special weight.
  2. See software.

See scheduler work area.

Cotton attached to the end of a small stick. Used to clean dirt particles or lint from an area.


  1. In a system with virtual storage, to write the main storage image of a job to auxiliary storage and read the image of another job into processor storage.
  2. A disk partition that is used for the temporary storage of entities too large to fit in random access memory (RAM).

swap data set
A data set dedicated to the swapping operation.

When using the REXX REVERSE function, pertaining to a process that exchanges the values in the input string by reversing their positions.


  1. A process that interchanges the contents of an area of real storage with the contents of an area in auxiliary storage.
  2. See paging.

An option to enter into a specified swap agreement, such as an interest rate swap.

SWDF repository
A repository that is used for storing and providing access to published documents over the web.

In AFP support, the movement around an arc from the center point of the arc.

sweep process
A daemon process that can be scheduled to run at appropriate times in the business day. These processes are run locally on the server to complete typical records management business operations.

See Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication.

SWIFT address
See bank identifier code.

SWIFTAlliance Gateway (SAG)
A SWIFT interface product extending SWIFTNet Link by additional services such as profile-based processing, and offering a WebSphere MQ interface.

SWIFT Correspondents File
The file containing the bank identifier code (BIC), together with the name, postal address, and zip code of each financial institution in the BIC Directory.

SWIFT financial message
A message in one of the SWIFT categories 1 to 9 that you can send or receive via the SWIFT network.

SWIFT header
The leading part of a message that contains the sender and receiver of the message, the message priority, and the type of message.

SWIFT input message
A SWIFT message with an input header to be sent to the SWIFT network. See also SWIFT output message.

SWIFT link
The MERVA ESA component used to link to the SWIFT network.

SWIFTNet FileAct
A SWIFT interactive communication service supporting exchange of files between two applications.

A SWIFT service providing FIN access using the Secure IP Network (SIPN) instead of the SWIFT Transport Network (STN). See also FIN.

SWIFTNet FIN batching
The transporting of more than one FIN message within a single InterAct message.

SWIFTNet InterAct
A SWIFT interactive communication service supporting exchange of request and response messages between two applications.

A SWIFT mandatory software product to access all SWIFTNet services.

See SWIFTNet public key infrastructure.

SWIFTNet public key infrastructure (SWIFTNet PKI)
SWIFT's mandatory security software and hardware installed with SWIFTNet Link. See also public key infrastructure.

SWIFTNet service
A SWIFT IP-based communication service that runs on the SIPN.

SWIFTNet service application
An application that uses SWIFTNet services. Financial organizations such as Continuous Linked Settlement (CLS) or the Global Straight Through Processing Association (GSTPA) offer such applications to financial institutions.

SWIFT network
Refers to the SWIFT network of the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (S.W.I.F.T.).

SWIFT output message
A SWIFT message with an output header coming from the SWIFT network. See also SWIFT input message.

SWIFT system message
A SWIFT general purpose application (GPA) message or a financial application (FIN) message in SWIFT category 0.

SWIFT transport network
A SWIFT network providing FIN and IFT service based on X.25 technology.


  1. A visually separated row within a process flow diagram that groups all the activities in the process that are performed by a particular combination of roles, resources, organization units, or locations.
  2. See pool.

To dynamically change profiles to a new service level of a product release. See also master installation.

Swing Set
A collection of GUI components that runs consistently on any operating system that supports the Java virtual machine (JVM). Because they are written entirely in the Java programming language, these components provide functionality above and beyond that provided by native-platform equivalents. See also Abstract Window Toolkit, Standard Widget Toolkit.

To rapidly move your finger horizontally or vertically on a touchscreen. Typically, apps use swipe gestures to switch between menus. See also gesture.


  1. A device that provides connections between telephone lines and trunks.
  2. A network infrastructure component to which multiple nodes attach. Unlike a hub, a switch typically has internal bandwidth that is a multiple of link bandwidth and the ability to rapidly switch a node connection from one to another. A typical switch can accommodate several simultaneous full-link bandwidth transmissions between different pairs of nodes.
  3. A command-line option.
  4. A half-duplex or full-duplex device that detects which devices are attached at each port and passes only frames addressed to those devices on that port. A switch has a small collision domain.
  5. A graphical element that can be set to one of two possible states, for example, "On" and "Off."

switchable entity
The physical resource containing the independent disk pools that can be switched between systems in a cluster. This can be a expansion unit containing disk units in a multiple system environment. This could also be an IOP containing disk units in an LPAR environment. See also device cluster resource group.

switchable hardware group
See device cluster resource group.

In a remote journal network, pertaining to the processing that is performed by a hot-backup application to allow the primary system to reassume its role from a previously promoted backup system.

switch back
In a remote journal network, to direct clustering functions to allow the primary system to reassume its role from a previously promoted backup system.

switch capsule
A group of frames consisting of a switched frame and its companion non-switched frames.

switched connection

  1. A connection that is established by dialing. See also nonswitched connection.
  2. A mode of operating a data link in which a circuit or channel is established to switching facilities as, for example, in a public switched network.

switched fabric

  1. A Fibre Channel topology that provides the underlying structure to interconnect multiple nodes and provides the necessary switching functions to support communication among multiple nodes. See also arbitrated loop, point-to-point.
  2. The physical or logical mapping of the location of networking components or nodes within a network. Common network topologies include bus, ring, star, and tree.

switched line
In data communications, a connection between computers or devices that is established by dialing. See also nonswitched line.

switched major node
In VTAM, a major node whose minor nodes are physical units and logical units attached by switched SDLC links.

switched network
Any network in which connections are established by closing switches, for example, by dialing.

switched network backup (SNBU)
A modem feature that allows a nonswitched line to be used alternatively as a switched line or allows a switched line to be used as a nonswitched line depending on the characteristics of the modem.

switched virtual channel (SVC)
In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a temporary connection between two users that is established when one user calls another. Although this is similar in concept to one person's calling another person on the telephone, the signaling techniques are different. See also permanent virtual channel.

switched virtual circuit (SVC)

  1. In OSI, a temporary association between two DTEs that is initiated when one DTE makes a call request to the network.
  2. A virtual circuit that is requested by a virtual call. It is released when the virtual circuit is cleared.

switch expression
The controlling expression of a switch statement.

switching fabric interface
An internal interface that is responsible for network connectivity among all SPUs and the host computer. The SFI monitors and reports the status of all SPU cards, power supplies, and fans.

switch leaf
See leaf.

switch module
The BladeCenter component that provides network connectivity for the BladeCenter chassis and blade servers. It also provides interconnectivity between the management module and blade servers.


  1. A cluster event where the primary database server or application server switches over to a backup system due to the manual intervention from the cluster management interface.
  2. The change from the active multi-instance queue manager instance to a standby instance. A switchover results from an operator intentionally stopping the active multi-instance queue manager instance.
  3. In a remote journal network, pertaining to the processing that is performed by a hot-backup application to logically promote a backup system to assume the role of a primary system.

switch over
In a remote journal network, to direct clustering functions to change all uses of a cluster resource to a backup node that becomes the new primary access point of the resource.

switchover order
The defined relationship among the primary and backup nodes in a recovery domain.

switch port
A port on a switch. Switch ports can be expansion ports (E_ports), fabric ports (F_ports), or fabric loop ports (FL_ports).

switch profile
In IBM MQ for z/OS, a RACF profile used when IBM MQ starts up or when a refresh security command is issued. Each switch profile that IBM MQ detects turns off checking for the specified resource.

switch statement
A C or C++ language statement that causes control to be transferred to one of several statements depending on the value of an expression.

switch table
The table used by the file system to locate the entry points of a character device.

See Standard Widget Toolkit.

syllable hyphen

  1. A hyphen used to divide a word at the end of a line; it may be removed when a program adjusts lines. See also required hyphen.
  2. See soft hyphen.

Symbian OS
A shared source, proprietary mobile operating system that is currently maintained by Accenture. At the height of its popularity, Symbian OS was used primarily by Nokia and Sony. See also mobile operating system.

symbiotic cognitive system
A mutually beneficial partnership between computers and humans to enable better complex data-driven decision-making.


  1. A string of characters that represent a financial instrument and might also identify where the instrument is traded. One instrument can be represented by different strings in different symbologies. See also order book.
  2. A representation of something by reason of relationship, association, or convention. (A)
  3. Any combination of alphabetic or numeric characters (A-Z, a-z, or 0-9) and the characters @, #, $, ., !, ?, and _.
  4. In MVS, a group of 1 - 8 characters, including alphanumeric characters and the three characters: #, @, $. The symbol begins with either an alphabetic character or one of the three characters (#,@,$).
  5. A graphic representation of a concept that has meaning in a specific context. (T)

symbolic address
In UNIX-based operating systems, a character representing a specific line in a text file. Used by the ed and vi editors.

The process by which symbols that are excluded during app compilation are inserted into stack traces to make the traces readable for testers and developers.

symbolic checkpoint
A checkpoint in a batch, BMP, or JBP application that indicates to IMS that the program has reached a commit point and that establishes a place in the program from which the application can be restarted. See also extended restart.

symbolic debugger
A tool that aids in the debugging of programs written in certain high-level languages. See also source debugger.

symbolic description map
A symbolic description map is a source language data structure that the assembler or compiler uses to resolve source program references to fields in the map.

symbolic destination
A destination identifier specifying a symbolic name that represents a destination. See also destination identifier, explicit destination.

symbolic destination name
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a name by which an application entity identifies to OSI Communications Subsystem the peer application entity with which it is to communicate. OSI Communications Subsystem uses the symbolic destination name to determine (a) the presentation address of the peer application entity, and (b) the application mode to be used on the association.

symbolic feedback code
The symbolic representation of the first 8 bytes of the 12-byte condition token. In a condition handling routine, a symbolic feedback code is substituted for the hexadecimal coding of the condition token.

symbolic link
A type of file that contains a pointer to another file or directory.

symbolic name

  1. A unique name used to identify an entity such as a field, file, data structure, or label.
  2. A string composed of characters from the ISO 646 code set that is used in locales to represent a character.

symbolic pointer
The concatenation of the keys in the sequence fields of all segments that must be retrieved to reach the desired segment including the sequence field key of the desired segment.

symbol length
In bar codes, the distance between the outside edges of the quiet zones of a bar code symbol.

symbol resolution
In ILE, the process the binder uses to match unresolved imports from the set of modules to be bound by copy with the set of exports provided by the specified modules and service programs.

symbol set

  1. In Business Graphics Utility, a supplied character set used for text strings on charts; for example, headings, legend text, labels, and notes.
  2. In PSF, a type of font that resides in a printer but has fewer attributes than can be specified for resident coded fonts.
  3. In architecture, a coded font that is usually simpler in structure than a fully described font. Symbol sets are used where typographic quality is not required. Examples of devices that might not provide typographic quality are dot-matrix printers and displays. See also marker set, pattern set.

symbol substitution
In DCF, during formatting, the replacement of a symbol with a character string that SCRIPT/VS can interpret as a value (numeric, character string, or control word) or as another symbol.

symbol table
A list of symbol names and their associated values, usually in an object or executable file, which gives the names of external symbols and their addresses.

symmetric algorithm
An algorithm where the encryption key can be calculated from the decryption key and vice versa. In most symmetric algorithms, the encryption key and the decryption key are the same.

symmetrical multiprocessing (SMP)
A system in which functionally identical multiple processors are used in parallel, providing simple and efficient load balancing.

symmetrical multiprocessor system (SMP, SMP