A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y and Z Special characters and Numerics

This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


See Protocol 1.

See Protocol 2.

See Platform for Privacy Preferences.

P3P compact policy
A list of three or four-letter codes that communicate the privacy policy of a web page to the browser. The codes indicate what type of information is collected by a cookie and to whom the information is distributed. See also Platform for Privacy Preferences.

See platform as a service.

See process anchor block.

See private automatic branch exchange.


  1. See privileged attribute certificate.
  2. See privilege attribute certificate.

In SNA, a technique by which the receiving system controls the rate of transmission of the sending system to prevent overrun. See also flow control.

pacing group
See pacing window.

pacing response
In SNA, an indicator that signifies the readiness of a receiving component to accept another pacing group. The indicator is carried in a response header (RH) for session-level pacing and in a transmission header (TH) for virtual route pacing. See also response header.

pacing window

  1. The requests that can be transmitted on the normal flow in one direction on a session before a session-level pacing response is received, indicating that the receiver is ready to accept the next group of requests.
  2. The path information units (PIUs) that can be transmitted on a virtual route before a virtual-route pacing response is received, indicating that the virtual route receiver is ready to receive more PIUs on the route.


  1. To store data in a compact form in such a way that the original form can be recovered.
  2. A component (SPACK or VPACK) that fits in the 9295 Multiple Digital Trunk Processor, or one of four XPACKs on the DTXA.
  3. To collect picked items into shipping cartons for transportation to the customer.
  4. A collection of components that extends existing capabilities.


  1. Any element in project work breakdown structure (WBS) that consists of lower-level elements, for example a deliverable or summary task with all its tasks.
  2. To assemble components into modules and modules into enterprise applications.
  3. A function that allows an application programmer to collect all the parts of an application together for distribution.
  4. A set of tasks that a person is allowed to perform.
  5. A subset of a project that is created to make metadata available to users. Different packages can be created so different user groups can create the reports they need.
  6. A file that contains a collection of object instances, which typically define the configuration of a web service. Generally, a package is created with a backup or export utility.
  7. A product or component that is specifically designed for installation by IBM Installation Manager.
  8. A combination of a product and rate plan that is offered by service providers for wireless devices and services.
  9. An installable unit of a software product. Software product packages are separately installable units that can operate independently from other packages of that software product.
  10. A control-structure database object produced during program preparation that can contain both executable forms of static SQL statements or XQuery expressions and placement holders for executable forms of dynamic SQL statements.
  11. A subset of a model, which can be the whole model, to be made available to the Cognos server. See also metric package.
  12. A collection of related classes and interfaces that provides access protection and namespace management.
  13. The wrapper around the document content that defines the format used to transmit a document over the Internet, for example, RNIF, AS1, and AS2.
  14. A container that organizes artifacts into groups.
  15. In Java programming, a group of types. Packages are declared with the package keyword. (Sun)
  16. A file that is comprised of projects, case data, or both that is created by one operator in Interviewer for transfer to another operator so that they can import it into their copy of Interviewer.
  17. A collection of attributes, notifications, operations, or behaviors that are treated as a single module in the specification of a managed object class. Packages can be mandatory or conditional when referenced in a definition of a managed object class.
  18. A shipping unit that may be tracked by a shipping carrier.
  19. In PL/SQL programming, a collection of database objects that is defined by using a CREATE PACKAGE statement and represented as a module. See also module.
  20. A collection of catalog entries that has a SKU and may be ordered as a single item. See also bundle, stock keeping unit.
  21. In Ada language, a type of program unit that groups logically related entities, such as types, objects of those types, and subprograms with parameters of those types.

package cache
A cache that stores package, statement, and section information required for the execution of dynamic and static SQL statements. This cache improves overall system performance by reducing invocations of the SQL compiler and the need to access the system catalogs. See also statement cache.

package group

  1. See integrated package.
  2. A group of one or more packages that are designed to work together and can be installed to one directory.

package list
An ordered list of package names that can be used to extend an application plan.

package name
The name of an object that is created by the BIND, PRECOMPILE, or REBIND command. The object is a bound version of a database request module (DBRM). The name consists of a location name, a collection ID, a package ID, and a version ID.

package statistics
Statistical details about a profiled application that are grouped by package. See also instance statistics.

package template
A template created from a project component such as a deliverable, work product or summary task.

packaging record
A record that describes the organization of the message, including its header or envelope, which contains metadata identifying the messages, and its body or payload, which contains the business content of the message. A packaging record includes details about protocol-specific security, as well as envelope fields like a MIME content type or an XML namespace.

Packaging Utility
A function of IBM Installation Manager that licensed administrators use to create customized, installable packages of other IBM applications for use by other licensed users in the administrator's organization.

packaging utility
A utility that copies packages to a repository for posting.

pack and hold (PH)
A strategy that attempts to level load picking/packing workload by picking/packing orders early. The items are prepared for shipment and held in a staging area up to the customer order ship dates, at which time they may be shipped.

packed decimal
A storage format that represents either two decimal digits or a sign and one decimal digit in each byte.

packed decimal format
Representation of a decimal value in which each byte within a field represents two numeric digits except the far right byte, which contains one digit in bits 0 through 3 and the sign in bits 4 through 7. For all other bytes, bits 0 through 3 represent one digit; bits 4 through 7 represent one digit. See also zoned decimal format.

packed decimal item
In COBOL, a numeric data item that is represented internally in packed decimal format.

packed field
A field that contains data in the packed decimal format.

packed key
A key field in packed decimal format.

packed support information
A type of log file that is sent to the technical support team.


  1. In data communication, a sequence of binary digits, including data and control signals, that are transmitted and switched as a composite whole. See also frame.
  2. The field structure and format defined in the CCITT X.25 Recommendation.
  3. A unit of data transmitted over a network. Large chunks of information are broken up into packets before they are sent across the Internet.

packet assembler/disassembler (PAD)

  1. In X.25 communications, equipment used for connecting asynchronous (start/stop) devices to an X.25 network.
  2. A functional unit that enables data terminal equipment (DTE) not equipped for packet switching to use a packet-switched network.

packet capture
The process of intercepting and logging network traffic.

packet capture appliance
A stand-alone appliance that intercepts and logs traffic data.

packet capture information
The traffic data information that is collected by a capture device.

packet filter
A filter that blocks traffic based on a specific IP address or type of application (such as email, FTP, or Web) which is specified by port number.

packet header
In X.25 communications, control information at the start of the packet; the contents of the packet depend on the packet type.

packet level

  1. A part of X.25 communications that defines the protocol for building logical connections between two DTEs and for moving data on these connections. See also data link level, physical level.
  2. The packet format and control procedures for exchange of packets containing control information and user data between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).

packet level interface
In packet mode operation, the level of the interface between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) associated with the exchange of data and signals contained in packets.

packet major node
In VTAM, a set of minor nodes representing resources, such as switched virtual circuits and permanent virtual circuits, attached through an X.25 port. See also major node.

packet mode host
Any non-SNA, X.25 host system.

packet mode operation
See packet switching.

packet mode terminal
Data terminal equipment that can control, format, transmit, and receive packets.

packet modulo
The highest sequence number the packet level uses before resetting the count and beginning the count again.

packet rule
A function that helps keep a network's security from being compromised. Packet rules (formerly called IP packet security) use methods such as filtering and network address translation.

packet sequence number
A number in a packet header by which the packet level protocol can determine whether packets have been lost. It also provides the count for the acknowledgment response.

packet sequencing
A process of ensuring that packets are delivered to the receiving data terminal equipment (DTE) in the same sequence in which they were transmitted by the sending DTE.

packet size
In X.25 communications, the length of the user data in a data packet.

packet-switched data network (PSDN)

  1. An interconnecting set of switching nodes that enables subscribers to exchange data using standard protocol and packet-switching technology. This type of network carries messages divided into packets over circuits that are shared by many network users.
  2. A communications network that uses packets to send data.

packet-switched data transmission service
A user service that transmits and, if necessary, assembles and disassembles data in the form of packets. See also circuit-switched data transmission service.

packet switching
The act of sending and routing packets of data from source to destination based on information contained in their header record. See also cellular digital packet data, circuit, circuit switching, X.25.

packet switching data network (PSDN)

  1. An interconnecting set of switching nodes that enables subscribers to exchange data using standard protocol and packet-switching technology. This type of network carries messages divided into packets over circuits that are shared by many network users.
  2. A communications network that uses packets to send data.

packet window

  1. The maximum number of consecutive data packets that are allowed to flow between a data terminal equipment (DTE) and a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) before an acknowledgment is received for a given logical channel.
  2. A specified number of packets that can be sent by the DTE before it receives an acknowledgment from the receiving station.

In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, the grouping of child objects within a parent container object. If the child objects are closely packed, the common distance between their borders is minimal; if they are loosely packed, the common distance border-to-border is maximized.

packing list
A hard copy that lists the contents of a shipment to a customer.

packing slip
A printed document containing a list of all the products in a given release. Typically, this document also contains the ship-to address, shipping carrier information, and sometimes pricing information. See also release.

pack station
An area in a warehouse where packing occurs.

pack type
A container, such as a case or pallet. Each pack type is associated with various pieces of information that are required for converting customer-specific product codes to EPC format.

See packet assembler/disassembler.


  1. A device used to introduce transmission loss into a circuit. It can be inserted to introduce loss or match impedances.
  2. To fill unused positions in a field with dummy data, usually zeros or blanks.

pad character
A character used to fill empty space. For example, in a database application, a field that is ten characters in length that has the word "file" in it contains four text characters and six pad characters

See Petroleum Administration Defense District.

Bytes inserted in the data stream to maintain alignment of the protocol requests on natural boundaries. Padding increases the ease of portability to some machine architectures.

padding character
In COBOL, an alphanumeric character used to fill the unused character positions in a physical record.

padding oracle attack
In cryptography, an attack that uses error messages to discover plaintext data. Exposure of the padding information can occur during the decryption of the ciphertext.

See Payment Application Data Security Standard.

See process access group.


  1. In DB2 for IBM i, a block of storage within a table or an index.
  2. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows and DB2 for z/OS, a unit of storage within a table space, an index space, or virtual memory. In a table space, a page can contain one or more rows of a table. In an LOB table space, an LOB value can span more than one page, but no more than one LOB value is stored on a page.
  3. In Informix, the physical unit of disk storage and basic unit of memory storage that the database server uses to read from and write to a database. Page size is fixed for a particular operating system and platform.
  4. A defined unit of space on a storage medium or within a database volume.
  5. A unit of storage equal to 512 bytes in complex instruction set computer (CISC) systems, and 4096 bytes in reduced instruction set computer (RISC) systems. A page can be moved between auxiliary storage and main storage.
  6. The information that can be displayed at one time on the screen of a display device or in a window.
  7. A fixed-length block of instructions, data, or both instructions and data that can be transferred between active physical memory and external page storage.
  8. In a graphical interface, a predefined display image that typically provides fields and controls that help users accomplish tasks.
  9. In the graphical data display manager (GDDM) function, the picture or chart. All specified graphics are added to the current page. An output statement always sends the current page to the device.
  10. To move information up or down on the display.
  11. A node in a portal that can contain content in addition to labels and other pages. Pages can contain child nodes, column containers, row containers, and portlets.
  12. In a portal environment, the interface element that contains one or more portlets.
  13. Part of an AFP document that is enclosed by a pair of Begin Page and End Page structured fields.
  14. To transfer instructions, data, or both between active physical memory and external page storage.

pageable link pack area (PLPA)
An area of virtual storage containing supervisor call (SVC) routines, access methods, and other read-only system and user programs that can be shared among users of the system. See also extended pageable link pack area, modified link pack area, pageable region.

pageable region
In MVS, a subdivision of the pageable dynamic area that is allocated to a job step or a system task that can be paged during execution. See also pageable link pack area.

page allocation map (PAM)
A map containing information used by the storage domain to manage each of its five dynamic storage areas (DSAs).

page-at-a-time printer
See page printer.

page bar
The area in the console used to close or switch between open pages or launch actions for a particular page.

page body
In COBOL, that part of the logical page in which lines can be written, spaced, or both.

page category
The hierarchy of categories that groups website pages. The lowest-level category is defined in the page view tag. Parent level categories are defined by administrators using the category definition file (CDF).

page chaining
A facility available under full-function BMS. The terminal operator invokes a transaction that communicates with the terminal in the normal way. This invoked transaction might, in turn, build pages that are (if the SEND PAGE command in the invoked transaction specified RETAIN or RELEASE) chained to the pages built by the original transaction. The operator can then retrieve pages for either transaction, for example, for comparison.

page cluster
A type of memory buffer that is constructed from a full memory page (normally 4096 bytes).

page control area (PCA)
A 4-byte area placed by BMS at the end of the device-dependent data stream returned to the application.

page counter
In architecture, bytes in an IPDS Acknowledge Reply that specify the number of pages that have passed a particular point in a logical paper path.

page data
The data that makes up a page to be printed.

page data set
A data set in external page storage in which pages are stored.

page definition
An Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) resource that defines the rules for transforming line data and XML data into Mixed Object Document Content Architecture-Presentation (MO:DCA-P) data and text controls.

page device
A device that prints a formatted page that has graphics and text merged. See also line device.

page dimension
A dimension that is not one of the two dimensions of the view being displayed, but for which a member has been selected to define the specific view requested for display. All page dimensions must have a specific member chosen in order to define the appropriate view for display.

page display
A view of a multidimensional slice.

page down
To move to the information below the information currently shown on the display. See also page up.

page ejection
The point at which the printer finishes printing on one form and moves to the top of the next form.

page environment
The size of the page or overlay, the control data to be used in composed-text blocks, and the page segments or fonts to be used.

page fault
A program interruption that occurs when an active page refers to a page that is not in memory.

page format
See data map.

page-format table
In NetSpool prior to OS/390 V2R8, a table that defines page-formatting values.

page frame

  1. A 512-byte block of main storage on a 512-byte boundary.
  2. In real storage, a storage location having the size of a page.
  3. A 4096-contiguous-byte portion of real memory that is used to hold a virtual-memory page.

page frame table
A table, contained in real memory, that contains the real memory locations of all currently defined pages.

page group
In architecture, a named group of sequential pages. A page group is delimited by a Begin Named Page Group structured field and an End Named Page Group structured field. A page group can contain nested page groups. All pages in the page group inherit the attributes and processing characteristics that are assigned to the page group.

The process of moving a page from auxiliary storage to main storage.

page layout
In AFP Utilities, a printout format of a page in the printout format definition (PFD). By using the print format utility, the user can design the page layout by placing and repeating a predefined record layout with constant data.

Page Layout tool
A Management Center feature that is used to manage layouts for store pages. A layout can be assigned to a page, such as the home page or a category page, and scheduled for a specific time period.

page list
An assembly property that specifies the location to forward a request, but automatically tailors that location, depending on the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) type of the servlet.

A technique for loading program objects into virtual storage. The pages of a program object are brought into central storage when a page fault occurs.

page map

  1. See page definition.
  2. A metadata structure that is used to locate column values within a storage object.

page mode
The mode of operation in which a page printer can accept an entire page of data at a time from a host processor to be printed on an all-points-addressable (APA) output medium. A page can consist of text, images, overlays, and page segments. See also compatibility mode.

page mode environment checkpointing
A process that preserves the information needed to resume page-mode printing.

page mode printer
An Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) printer that can print page-mode data.

page navigation
A browser feature that enables users to navigate backwards and forwards in a browser.

page origin
See logical page origin.

The process of moving a page from main storage to auxiliary storage.

page overflow
A condition that occurs when the next BMS map or block of text does not fit on the current page of the target terminal.

page overlay
An electronic overlay that can be invoked for printing and positioned at any point on the page by an Invoke Page Overlay structured field in the print data. See also medium overlay.

page perforation
The perforation that defines the page of a form. The perforation may or may not be at a fold in the form. A form may have several pages between each fold. See also fold perforation.

page pool
The area in the shared memory segment from which buffers are allocated for data that is read from or written to disk. Page pool size is one of the file manager startup configuration parameters.

page position
A control in the copy group to assign the top-left boundary point of the logical page on a sheet for a data set. The page position is determined from the media origin.

page printer

  1. A device that prints one page at a time.
  2. In AFP support, any of a class of printers that accepts composed pages, constructed of composed text and images, among other things. See also line printer.

Page Printer Communication Component (PPCC)
The access method that provides the SNA communication interface between printers and PSF.

Page Printer Formatting Aid
An IBM licensed program with which to create and store form definitions and page definitions, which are resource objects used for print-job management. These stored objects are used to format printed output.

Page Printer Formatting Aid/370
An IBM licensed program with which to create and store form definitions and page definitions, which are resource objects used for print-job management. These stored objects are used to format printed output.

Page Printer Formatting Aid/6000 (PPFA)
An IBM licensed program with which to create and store form definitions and page definitions, which are resource objects used for print-job management. These stored objects are used to format printed output.

page render time
The time it takes to display a web page on a browser.

page segment
An AFP resource object containing text, image, graphics, or bar code data that can be positioned on any addressable point on a page or an electronic overlay. See also segment.

page-segment command set
In IPDS architecture, a collection of commands used to load, deactivate, and include page segments.

page-segment state
In architecture, an operating state that makes page-segment data available to a product. For example, a printer enters page-segment state from home state when it receives an IPDS Begin Page Segment command.

page set

  1. A table space or index space that consists of a collection of VSAM data sets. See also table space.
  2. In Report Studio, a set of one or more designed pages which repeat in the report output for each instance of a chosen query item. See also set.
  3. A VSAM data set used when WebSphere MQ for z/OS moves data (for example, queues and messages) from buffers in main storage to permanent backing storage (DASD).

page set recovery pending (PSRCP)
A restrictive state of an index space in which the entire page set must be recovered. Recovery of a logical part is prohibited.

page space
A system data set that contains pages of virtual storage. The pages are stored in and retrieved from the page space by the auxiliary storage manager.

pages per minute (PPM)

pages per side
See multiple up.

page state
In IPDS architecture, an operating state that makes page data available to a product. For example, a printer enters page state from home state when it receives an IPDS Begin Page command.

page template
In Page Designer, a page that is used as a starting point to define consistent styles and layout for any new HTML or JavaServer Pages (JSP) page within a website.

page turning

page up
To move to the information above the information currently shown on the display. See also page down.

To number pages.


  1. Retrieval of a large number of records from the database, one page at a time.
  2. The process of adjusting text to fit within page margins.


  1. The process of transferring instructions, data, or pages between real storage and external page storage.
  2. A technique in which blocks of data, or pages, are moved back and forth between main storage and auxiliary storage. Paging is the implementation of the virtual storage concept.
  3. A data storage method that makes use of spare disk space by increasing the available memory.

paging behavior
In capacity planning, the paging characteristics for the transaction. Users can define paging characteristics for any transaction.

paging coefficient
In capacity planning, a number that indicates the amount of paging performed by a transaction in a workload. The higher the number, the more page faults generated. This number is not the number of page faults, but a representation of the total amount of paging.

paging device
A disk device used to store pages of memory that are not currently in real memory.

paging exponent
In capacity planning, a value used to determine the effects of pool size changes. The greater the paging exponent, the greater the change to synchronous reads (page faults) as memory size changes.

paging service partition
A Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition that provides access to the paging space devices for the shared memory partitions.

paging space

  1. Disk storage for information that is resident in virtual memory but is not currently being accessed.
  2. Area of nonvolatile storage used to hold portions of the shared memory partition's logical memory that are not resident in the shared memory pool.

paging space device
A physical or logical device that is used by the Virtual I/O Server to provide the paging space for a shared memory partition.

In computer graphics, to shade an area of a display image.

paired column
In a cross-domain analysis or cross-table analysis, the column of data that has been matched to the base column.

paired data
In Business Graphics Utility and the GDDM function, data that is specified so that every X value has only one Y value associated with it. See also nonpaired data.

pair set
In NetDA/2, a set of node pairs between which routes are to be generated.

pair set expression
In NetDA/2, a user specification that defines a set of node pairs.

pairwise comparison
The process of comparing two elements according to a qualitative criterion to determine which element best matches the criterion.


  1. See product activity log.
  2. See phase alternation line.


  1. The location for building customized components and parenting them with other components. Subsequently, components can be reused by copying and moving them to other interfaces.
  2. A range of graphically displayed choices, such as colors or collections of tools, that can be selected in an application.

A distributed print system developed by MIT's Project Athena with participation from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), International Business Machines (IBM), and Hewlett-Packard (HP). It is a reference implementation for the OSI Document Printing Application (DPA) standard (ISO/IEC 10175).

An industry standard sized wooden, plastic, or metal platform to facilitate the movement of materials. Cartons are stacked on the pallet allowing movement via pallet jacks or forklift trucks.

pallet jack
A manually controlled MHE (material handling equipment) used to move pallets along the floor. Pallet jacks can lift a pallet only a few inches off the floor in contrast to a forklift that may lift a pallet overhead.


  1. See page allocation map.
  2. See Protocol Analysis Module.
  3. See Pluggable Authentication Module.

To move a display, such as a diagram or map, within a GUI window or pane. The purpose of panning is to control which portion of the diagram or map is visible.

See primary account number.

A separate area in a split window. A window can be split into two or more panes.

A formatted display of information on a screen that can also include entry fields.

panel assembly
The hardware parts making up the operator panel, control panel, or indicator panels.

Panel Definition Markup Language (PDML)
A tag language that defines a language for describing user interface elements and layouts. PDML is based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). PDML files are used with the Graphical Toolbox components within the IBM Toolbox for Java licensed program to simplify the construction of user interfaces within Java.

panel format
In query management, the format of the data in an externalized query or procedure file.

panel group
An object that contains a collection of any of the following: display formats, print formats, or help information. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *PNLGRP.

A condition in which the kernel stops executing correctly and hangs, stops, or crashes, usually as a result of an unrecoverable error.


  1. The action of progressively translating an entire display image to give the visual impression of lateral movement of the image.
  2. In computer graphics, the viewing of an image that is too large to fit on a single screen by moving from one part of the image to another.


  1. See Password Authentication Protocol.
  2. See policy administration point.

paper break
A separation, either at a perforation or from a tear, of continuous-forms paper.

paper curl
In a printer, the curve or bend of the paper. In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, some curl can be removed by using the decurl assembly on the burster-trimmer-stacker.

paper jam
A condition in which forms have not fed properly during printing and have become wedged in the paper path (feeding or printing mechanism), thus preventing the correct forward movement of the forms.

paper line
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the transport assembly. When the feature is installed and in use, it includes the burster-trimmer-stacker.

paper origin
The left corner of the edge of a form that is fed through a printer. See also media origin.

paper path
See forms path.

paper registration
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the position of the sheet-length perforations relative to reference points on the input ramp and the fuser station. The relationship between printed output and the preprinted form of a forms overlay image.

See pen and paper interviewing.

See participant adapter parameter list.

In the Procedure Division of a COBOL program, a name followed by a period and a space and by zero, one, or more sentences. In the Identification and Environment Divisions, a header followed by zero, one, or more statements.

paragraph header
In COBOL, a reserved word, followed by a period and a space that indicates the beginning of a paragraph in the Identification and Environment Divisions.

paragraph name
In COBOL, a user-defined word that identifies and begins a paragraph in the Procedure Division.

paragraph unit
In DCF, an element that has the same structure as a paragraph. In a general document, the paragraph units are: paragraph, note, and paragraph continuation.

Pertaining to concurrent or simultaneous operation of two or more devices or to concurrent performance of two or more activities in a single device. See also serial.

parallel access volume (PAV)
In ESS, a function that enables z/OS systems to make multiple concurrent accesses to a single volume from a single host. See also I/O Priority Queuing, multiple allegiance.

parallel activity
An activity that is being executed at the same time as another, within the same process instance. During the time that the two activities are both running, they are said to be executing in parallel.

parallel approval
A feature that allows all approvers within a level to approve the contract at the same time.

parallel bridges
A pair of bridges that are connected to the same LAN segment, which create redundant paths to the segment.

parallel channel
A channel having a System/360 and System/370 channel-to-control-unit I/O interface that uses bus-and-tag cables as a transmission medium. See also ESCON channel.

parallel complex
A cluster of machines that work together to handle multiple transactions and applications.

parallel database query (PDQ)
SQL queries made in parallel rather than sequential order. The tasks that a query requires are distributed across several processors. This type of distribution enhances database performance.

parallel data field (PDF)
A character buffer used in an NCP line trace record.

parallel device
A device that can perform two or more concurrent activities.

parallel DL/I
A facility that permits all database calls to be processed in each message processing region or batch message processing region.

parallel engine
The component of the InfoSphere Information Server engine that runs parallel jobs. See also node.

parallel function
In the context of MVS multitasking and the C Multitasking Facility, those portions of a program that can run independently of the main task program and each other. Subtasks run the parallel functions.

parallel garbage collection
A type of garbage collection that uses several threads simultaneously.

parallel gateway
A gateway that creates parallel paths without checking conditions.

parallel group
A set of consecutive operations that execute in parallel and that have the same number of parallel tasks.

parallel I/O processing

  1. The process of reading from or writing to two or more I/O devices at the same time to reduce response time.
  2. A form of I/O processing in which DB2 for z/OS initiates multiple concurrent requests for a single user query and performs I/O processing concurrently (in parallel) on multiple data partitions.


  1. The ability to perform multiple database operations at the same time.
  2. The state of a computer program in which parts of the program can be concurrently executed.

parallelism assistant
In sysplex query parallelism, a DB2 subsystem that helps to process parts of a parallel query that originates on another DB2 subsystem in the data sharing group.

parallelism coordinator
In sysplex query parallelism, the DB2 subsystem from which the parallel query originates.

parallelizable routine
A routine that can be executed within a parallel database query statement.

The process of solving problems with multiple computers or computers made up of multiple processors, using a variety of architectures.

To convert a serial program for parallel execution.

parallel job

  1. A job that is run as multiple concurrent steps. A top-level job is submitted to the job scheduler and after submission is divided into subordinate jobs that run at the same time.
  2. A job that is compiled and run on the parallel engine and that supports parallel processing system features, including data pipelining, partitioning, and distributed execution. See also job.

parallel job manager
A facility and framework that submits and manages transactional batch jobs that run as a coordinated collection of independent parallel subordinate jobs.

parallel link
Two or more links between adjacent subarea nodes.

Parallel Operating Environment (POE)
An execution environment that supports the development and running of parallel applications across multiple operating-system images.

parallel operations
Operations that are not dependent on one another and that can, therefore, run at the same time

parallel port
An access point through which a computer transmits or receives data that consists of several bits sent simultaneously on separate wires.

parallel processing
The use of one processor to execute more than one task at the same time or the use of more than one processor to execute a task or tasks.

parallel processing platform
A parallel-processing platform is a set of independent computers that operate in parallel and communicate over a high-speed network, bus, or interconnect. See also symmetric multiprocessing system.

parallel session

  1. In SNA, two or more concurrently active sessions between the same two logical units. Each session can have different session parameters.
  2. A single intersystem link that can carry multiple independent sessions. Parallel sessions are supported by CICS intersystem communication (ISC).
  3. Two or more concurrently active sessions between the same two network addressable units using different pairs of network addresses or local-form session identifiers. Each session can have independent session parameters.

parallel sharding
The process of sharding data by splitting it vertically to preprocess certain common XML files, and horizontally to preprocess smaller chunks of rows.

parallel subroutine
In the context of MVS multitasking and the Fortran Multitasking Facility, those portions of a program that can run independently of the main task program and each other. The parallel subroutines run in MVS subtasks.

Parallel Sysplex

  1. A set of z/OS systems that communicate and cooperate with each other through multisystem hardware components and software services to process customer workloads.
  2. A sysplex that uses one or more coupling facilities.

Parallel Sysplex aggregation
A licensing agreement in which software licenses that are in a qualified Parallel Sysplex (QPS) are added together and priced as a single entity.

Parallel Sysplex license charge (PSLC)

parallel task
The execution unit that is dynamically created to process a query in parallel. A parallel task is implemented by a z/OS service request block. See also originating task.

parallel transformation
The application of transformation rules for creating a physical application from a logical application in order to enable data parallelism in a streams processing application. See also logical application, physical application.

parallel transmission
The act of transmitting all bits of a character simultaneously.

parallel transmission group
Multiple transmission groups that are between adjacent nodes, with each group having a distinct transmission group number.

parameter (parm)

  1. A value or reference passed to a function, command, or program that serves as input or controls actions. The value is supplied by a user or by another program or process. See also configuration file, input parameter, job stream, keyword, operand, routine signature.
  2. In UML modeling, a specific argument that passes information between behavioral features of models, such as operations.
  3. Information about rate policy, rate units, currencies, contractor classification, rate types, and markup components.
  4. An entity that enables job instance-specific values to be substituted in job and job stream scripts, either from values in the database or at run time. Parameters cannot be used when scripting extended agent jobs.

parameter block
A block of memory that contains specific parameters for an ioctl operation.

parameter declaration
The description of a value that a function receives. A parameter declaration determines the storage class and the data type of the value. See also argument declaration.

parameter file
An ASCII file used to set configuration parameters.

parameterized cursor
A cursor with a result set defined by a set of user-specified parameters and a query that references the parameters. When the cursor is opened, the parameter values and the query are used to generate the cursor result set. See also cursor.

parameterized data type
A data type that can be defined with a specific length, scale, or precision. For example, string and decimal data types are parameterized.

parameterized query
A query with conditions in which one or more parameters are defined. The parameter values are set by the user. See also condition.

parameterized stub
See data-driven stub.

parameter list
A list of values that provide a means of associating addressability of data defined in a called program with data in the calling program. It contains parameter names and the order in which they are to be associated in the calling and called program.

parameter manager domain
Major component of CICS providing a facility to inform CICS domains of system parameters during CICS initialization. These parameters are specified in the system initialization table (SIT), as temporary override parameters read from the SYSIN data stream or specified interactively at the system console. It also provides an operator correction facility for incorrectly specified system initialization parameter keywords early in CICS initialization.

parameter mapping
An interface map that is one level deeper than operation mappings because it maps the parameters in the source operation to the parameters in the target operation. There are five types of parameter mappings: move, map, extract, Java, and assign.

parameter marker
In the statement string of a dynamic SQL statement, a placeholder that represents a value that will be provided by the application program. The value of a parameter marker is provided on the EXECUTE or OPEN statement associated with the dynamic SQL statement. A parameter marker can be used where a host variable might be used if the statement string were a static SQL statement. A parameter marker is either a question mark (?) or a colon followed by a name (:name). See also host variable, typed parameter marker, untyped parameter marker.

parameter name
An identifier that names a parameter that can be referenced in a procedure or user-defined function.

In NetDA/2, the set of restrictions that affect only the output of a network design. A change in a parameter value does not change the input to the network design. See also constraint.

parameter set
A set of job parameters. See also job parameter, value set.

parameter tampering
An attack technique used to change information in a site’s URL parameters. Hackers use parameter tampering to conduct fraud.

parametric diagram
A diagram of the mathematical relationships among the parts of a system that are being designed.

parametric search
A search that looks for objects that contain a numeric value or attribute (such as dates, integers, or other numeric data types) within a specified range.

A carton or package that can be tracked with a waybill number.


  1. In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, a graphical object that controls one or more smaller graphical objects attached to it. The smaller graphical objects are called children, and they are automatically deleted when their parent is deleted.
  2. Pertaining to a secured resource, either a file or library, whose user list is shared with one or more files or libraries.
  3. In a hierarchy or auto-level hierarchy, a member that has one or more child members at the level immediately below.
  4. A process that has spawned a child process using the fork primitive. See also child, child.
  5. In Ada language, the associated specification of a package body or subprogram body. The parent of a subunit is the body in which it was declared.

parent activity

  1. An activity that starts another activity, its child.
  2. An activity whose processing results in the launching of a child activity. For example, a procedure becomes a parent activity as it opens a cursor, which becomes the child activity. See also child activity.

parent category
A category that contains other categories in a hierarchy. See also child category.

parent-child schema
A schema that has a single table per dimension with each row in the table representing a member from the dimension, together with its parent. The table may or may not have a column that identifies the level of each member. A variant of this schema uses one table for all dimensions and has an additional column to identify the dimension. See also metadata schema.

parent class
A class from which another class inherits instance methods, attributes, and instance variables. See also abstract class.

parent device
A hierarchical location term that indicates what a device connects to. For example, the parent device of an SCSI disk might be an SCSI adapter.

parent directory
The directory one level above the current directory. An object's parent directory is the directory that contains the names and controlling information for the object. If the object is named in more than one directory, it has multiple parent directories.

parent document
A document whose values are inherited by another document (the child document).

parent enclave
The enclave that issues a call to system services or language constructs to create a nested (or child) enclave. See also child enclave, nested enclave.

parent expression
A list of columns in the parent table that relate to corresponding columns in the child table. See also child expression.

parent file
The file in a constraint relationship that contains the parent or primary key. See also dependent file.

parent folder
In CDE, a folder that contains subfolders and files. When discussing command-line activities, this may be called the parent directory.

parent key

  1. A primary key or unique key that is used in a referential constraint. The values of a parent key determine the valid values of the foreign key in the constraint.
  2. A field or set of fields in a database file that must be unique, ascending, and may or may not contain null values. The parent key may be the same as the primary or unique key.

parent lock
For explicit hierarchical locking, a lock that is held on a resource that might have child locks that are lower in the hierarchy. A parent lock is usually the table space lock or the partition intent lock. See also child lock.

parent method call
A technique in which an overriding method calls the method procedure of its parent class as part of its own implementation.

parent node
The node that contains the current node. See also child node.

parent order
For subscriptions or recurring orders a parent order contains one or more child orders. For example, a parent order is the subscription to the magazine itself, while the child order is one of the monthly issues. See also child order.

parent process

  1. A process that contains a subprocess.
  2. A process that is created to carry out a request or set of requests. The parent process, in turn, can create child processes to process requests for the parent.

parent process ID (PPID)
An attribute of a new process identifying the parent of the process. The parent process ID of a process is the process ID of its creator for the lifetime of the creator. After the creator's lifetime has ended, the parent process ID is the process ID of an implementation-dependent system process.

parent resource
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, a resource that has one or more child resources below it in a hierarchy.

parent resource group
A resource group on which a child resource group depends for certain application services. A child resource group is acquired on any node in the cluster only after the parent resource group has been activated. See also child resource group, dependent resource groups.

parent row
A row that has at least one dependent row. See also dependent row.

parent segment
In a database, a segment that has one or more dependent segments (its children) hierarchically below it.

parent software
In the software knowledge base, the product that contains a version, or the version that contains a release, or the release that contains a variation. See also software hierarchy, software knowledge base, variation, version.

parent table
A table that is a parent in at least one referential constraint. See also child table, dependent foreign key table, dependent table.

parent table space
A table space that contains a parent table. A table space containing a dependent of that table is a dependent table space. See also dependent.

parent UR
A unit of recovery (UR) in a cascaded transaction with one or more child URs cascaded from it.

parent window
In some operating systems, the window that controls the size and locations of its children. If a window has children, it is a parent window.

The state of being either even-numbered or odd-numbered. See also parity bit.

parity bit
A binary digit added to a group of binary digits to make the sum of all the digits either always odd (odd parity) or always even (even parity). See also parity.

parity check
A test to determine whether the number of ones or zeros in an array of binary digits is odd or even.

parity error
A transmission error that occurs when the received data does not have the parity expected by the receiving system. This error is usually caused by the sending and receiving systems having different parity settings.

parity RAID
A collective term used to refer to Berkeley Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) Levels 3, 4, and 5.

parity update footprint
A nonvolatile entry that indicates whether the RAID parity is out of synchronization with its associated data, for example, while performing a write operation to the RAID array.

park slot
A phone number that is reserved in a dial plan for storing or "parking" calls that are put on hold.

See parameter.

All of the members in the SYS1.PARMLIB partitioned data set that contain parameters setting the limits and controlling the behavior of z/OS.

A person charged with a criminal offense who will serve the remainder of an incarceration sentence in the community under the supervision of a parole officer.

parole officer
An officer who supervises offenders once they have been released from prison on the condition of serving the remainder of their sentence in the community.


  1. To analyze data according to a set of rules in order to understand and validate the content and structure of that data, the elements that it is composed of, and the relationships among those elements.
  2. To process an SQL statement to return the result set of columns as written in the SQL statement. See also prepare.
  3. To break down a string of information, such as a command or file, into its constituent parts.

parsed name
A name whose syntactic structure (that is, name phrases, name fields, titles, and qualifiers) has been defined and represented as output from the parsing process.


  1. A module used to break down a document into its component parts and to construct a document from its component parts.
  2. A program that interprets user input and determines what to do with the input.
  3. A program that interprets documents that are added to the enterprise search data store. The parser extracts information from the documents and prepares them for indexing, search, and retrieval.

parser driver
In enterprise search, a service that feeds the parser service with documents. There is one parser driver for each collection. A collection’s parser driver service corresponds to the collection's parser in the enterprise search administration console.

parser service
The enterprise search service that handles all document parsing and text analysis processing across document collections. At least one parser service is running at all times.

A process that analyzes a sentence or phrase by dividing the strings into tokens before trying to determine the meaning of the strings. See also lexical analysis, semantics, token, tokenization.

parsing order
A log source definition in which the user can define the order of importance for log sources that share a common IP address or host name.


  1. In VisualAge RPG, a self-contained software object consisting of a set of external features that allow the part to interact with other parts. The parts on the VRPG palette can be used a templates to create controls.
  2. See object.

partial call
A two-party call in which one of the two parties is a virtual party; this can be viewed as a transient stage of the telephone call.

partial declustering
The storage of table data on a named subset of database partitions (database partition group), rather than on all database partitions for the database.

partial-file recall mode
A recall mode that causes the hierarchical storage management (HSM) function to read just a portion of a migrated file from storage, as requested by the application accessing the file.

partially bound binding handle
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a server binding handle that contains an incomplete server address lacking an endpoint. See also endpoint map service.

partially meshed network
A network in which some, but not all, routing and switching points are directly connected to every other routing or switching point. See also fully meshed network.

partially qualified data set name
A data set name in which not all qualifiers are spelled out. Asterisks (*) and percent signs (%) are used in place of the undefined qualifiers.

partial page
A page that does not contain all the intended data. Partial pages can be printed after an error is sensed.

partial repository
A partial set of information about queue managers in a cluster. A partial repository is maintained by all cluster queue managers that do not host a full repository. See also full repository.

partial validation
A second pass of entry. Selected responses, which are configured by the author, from initial entry are entered again by an operator.


  1. In identity management, an individual, a role, a group, or a JavaScript script that has the authority to respond to a request that is part of a workflow.
  2. An entity other than the commit initiator that takes part in the commit process.
  3. An individual who has an interest in the project but does not perform an active role, for example, a sponsor or a stakeholder.
  4. In Enterprise Replication, the data (database, table, and columns) to replicate and the database servers to which the data replicates.
  5. A member of a portal place who can visit and use the place. By default, all portal users are participants in public places. See also place designer, place manager.
  6. An application that either initiates a transaction or receives a request on behalf of a transaction.
  7. A user or group assigned to process work at one or more steps in a workflow.
  8. An entity that is outside a given business process. In Sterling B2B Integrator, a participant is recognized only when it is used in an operation activity.
  9. A person who has the capability to participate in, or attend, a meeting or event.
  10. An organization that is involved in a supply chain that facilitates commerce. Each participant is considered an organization with a defined role.
  11. A business entity (such as a company, company division, or a customer) or a business role (such as a buyer or a seller) that controls or is responsible for a business process.

participant adapter parameter list (PAPL)
An area in DRA storage used for communication between CICS and DRA. The PAPL holds CICS request codes and DRA return codes.

participant management
A mechanism used to establish hub or enterprise workflow processes and business rules.

participant record
A record that provides participant information such as respondent ID, time zone, and so on.

participating mode
In Fibre Channel technology, a mode in which a loop port (L_port) in a loop has a valid arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA) and can arbitrate, send frames, and retransmit received transmissions. See also loop port, nonparticipating mode.


  1. Part of a display used as the viewport, its associated window, and its display data buffer when in partitioned state.
  2. A logical division of storage on a fixed disk. See also subcapacity, virtualization.
  3. The division of a single calculated result into sub-results. Partitions are used to define how the results of the calculation will be displayed. For example, if the partitioning is by payee ID, the calculation results will show the calculated amount for each payee.
  4. In VSE, a division of the virtual address area that is available for program execution.
  5. A set of operator invocations that are fused together into a processing element. See also fuse, operator invocation.
  6. In a window, a logical set of tuples based on an expression. See also window.
  7. A group of cells in a decision table that are in the same condition column and have a common cell immediately to the left.
  8. A subset of a HALDB that has the capacity of a non-HALDB database and that can be administered independently.
  9. A subset of the active cluster nodes that result from a network failure. Members of a partition maintain connectivity with each other.
  10. See database partition.
  11. To divide a data set into separate subsets or samples for the training, testing, and validation stages of model building.
  12. In basic N_UP printing, the division of the medium presentation space into a specified number of equal-sized areas in a manner determined by the current physical medium.
  13. A subset of the data grid that is hosted across multiple shard containers.
  14. In BMS, an addressable subset of a display device's internal resources, consisting of a fixed part of the device's screen, and a fixed part of its internal storage. See also presentation space, viewport.
  15. In FD:OCA, a conceptual subdivision of a string of data fields. A partition can be further divided into subpartitions. See also partitioning.
  16. On a personal computer hard disk, one of four possible storage areas of variable size; one may be accessed by DOS and each of the others may be assigned to another operating system.
  17. A portion of a page set. Each partition corresponds to a single, independently extendable data set. Partitions can be extended to a maximum size of 1, 2, or 4 gigabytes, depending on the number of partitions in the partitioned page set. All partitions of a given page set have the same maximum size.
  18. To divide a type into subtypes that are mutually exclusive.
  19. A replicated part of a home database that contains modules that can be edited or viewed in any Rational DOORS database and then returned to the home database.
  20. A named fragment of a table or index.

partition-by-growth table space
A table space whose size can grow to accommodate data growth. DB2 for z/OS manages partition-by-growth table spaces by automatically adding new data sets when the database needs more space to satisfy an insert operation. See also range-partitioned table space, universal table space.

partition-compatible join
A join where all of the rows that are joined are in the same database partition. See also collocated join.

partition definition
A specification of the modules to be included in a partition file. It defines the access that is allowed to each module in the partition, and the access that is allowed to the attributes and views in each of those modules.

partition descriptor (PD)
An entry in the partition descriptor block (PDB) for a partition in a partition set

partition descriptor block (PDB)
A collection of partition descriptor entries representing a partition set. An intermediate text block (ITB) for the PDB is created by the MFS Language Utility. This PDB ITB is used in creating a part of the device output format (DOF).

partition dump
An unformatted dump of the entire CICS partition. It is produced by CICS from within the partition without operating system assistance. See also dump.

partitioned cluster
A cluster that is experiencing node isolation. See also node isolation.

partitioned concatenation
The allocation of partitioned data sets (PDSs), partitioned data sets extended (PDSEs), UNIX file directories, or any combination of these such that the basic partitioned access method (BPAM) retrieves them as a single data set. See also data set concatenation.

partitioned database environment
A database installation that supports distribution of the data across database partitions.

partitioned data set (PDS)
A data set on direct access storage that is divided into partitions, called members, each of which can contain a program, part of a program, or data. See also sequential data set.

partitioned data set extended (PDSE)
A data set that contains an indexed directory and members that are similar to the directory and members of partitioned data sets (PDSs). See also library.

partitioned emulation programming (PEP)
A function of a network control program that enables a communication controller to operate some telecommunication lines in network control mode while simultaneously operating others in emulation mode.

partitioned emulation programming extension (PEP extension)
A function of a network control program that enables a communication controller to operate some telecommunication lines in network control mode while simultaneously operating others in emulation mode.

partitioned HDAM (PHDAM)
A partitioned hierarchical direct access method (HDAM) database organization, which is one type of high availability large database (HALDB).

partitioned HIDAM (PHIDAM)
A partitioned Hierarchical Indexed Direct Access Method database organization, one type of High Availability Large Database.

partitioned index
An index that is physically partitioned. Both partitioning indexes and secondary indexes can be partitioned. See also index partition, nonpartitioned index, partitioned table.

partitioned page set
A partitioned table space or an index space. Header pages, space map pages, data pages, and index pages reference data only within the scope of the partition.

partitioned secondary index (PSINDEX)
A partitioned secondary index database organization, one type of High Availability Large Database (HALDB).

partitioned server
A single computer configured to run an unlimited number of instances of the Domino server program. Using partitioned servers reduces hardware expenses and minimizes server administration.

partitioned table
A table whose rows are physically stored in data partitions according to a table-partitioning key. See also nonpartitioned table, partitioned index.

partitioned table space
A table space that is subdivided into parts (based on index key range), each of which can be processed independently by utilities.

partitioned type
A type whose subtypes are distinguishable or mutually exclusive.


  1. Dividing the resources in a tape library (tape drives and tape volumes) among multiple systems, sysplexes, or both, for their exclusive use. Each partition can be viewed as a logical library with each logical library (TCDBplex) represented by one tape configuration database (TCDB).
  2. The process of forming multiple physical partitions from one processor complex.
  3. A technique whereby infrequently used columns can be stored in separate, but linked, tables.
  4. In FD:OCA, a conceptual division of a string of data fields into substrings. Each substring is called a partition. See also partition.
  5. See fragmentation.
  6. In AFP architecture, a method used to place parts of a control into two or more segments or structured fields. Partitioning can cause difficulties for a receiver if one of the segments or structured fields is not received or is received out of order.
  7. The process of distributing a file across the nodes in a node group using a hash algorithm.
  8. The logical division of a hard disk that is created to have separate hard disk drives for file management, multiple users, or other purposes.

partitioning agent
The process that distributes data to the database partitions. See also load agent, pre-partitioning agent.

partitioning index
An index in which the leftmost columns are the partitioning columns of the table. The index can be partitioned or nonpartitioned.

partitioning key
See distribution key.

partitioning map
See distribution map.

partition set

  1. All of the partitions which are defined in the partition descriptor block.
  2. In BMS, a group of partitions designed to share the same screen. CICS must load the whole partition set onto a terminal before it can communicate with any of the partitions.

partition specification table (PST)
An IMS control block that contains information about a dependent region.


  1. An organization with which shippers or carriers can share available capacity.
  2. An organization that supplies products to sponsors. See also community.
  3. See trading partner.
  4. In distributed processing, any one of the separate communicating parts of an application. In CICS intercommunication, a transaction communicating with a remote transaction or system. A CICS program using the SAA communications interface requires a local PARTNER resource definition for its remote partner.
  5. In data communications, the remote application program or the remote computer.

partner group
In WebSphere Commerce, a designation for business partners that assigns them a set of entitlements and privileges. For example, a manufacturer can assign resellers a designation of Gold, Silver, or Bronze, based on their success in selling the product line, or their volume of sales.

Partner Interface Process
In RosettaNet, a specification that defines business processes between trading partners.

partner logical unit (partner LU)
In SNA, the remote participant in a session. See also local logical unit, remote logical unit.

partner LU
See partner logical unit.

partner-LU verification
For logical unit (LU) 6.2, a three-flow exchange between two LUs with each LU using an LU-LU password and the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. The three-flow exchange is the LU-LU verification.

partner node
The other node that is in the I/O group to which this node belongs.

partner organization
Any business, group, or organization that exchanges documents with the owner organization.

partner queue manager
See remote queue manager.

In Metro Mirror or Global Mirror operations, the relationship between two clustered systems. In a clustered-system partnership, one system is defined as the local system and the other system as the remote system.

partner site
A website operated by a business partner, such as a distributor or a supplier.

partner systems
In an IMS multisystem environment, two IMS online systems that are connected by an MSC link.

partner TP
See partner transaction program.

partner transaction program (partner TP)
The transaction program engaged in an APPC conversation with a local transaction program. See also local transaction program.

part of speech (POS)
A gloss representing a category of words which have a specific syntactic function, for example: a verb is a part of speech.

part-of-speech disambiguation
The process of determining the intended part of speech of a word when the word has several possible part of speech values.

part reference
An object that is used by a configuration to reference other related configuration objects.

parts catalog
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of parts defined by the user. Parts in the catalog can be moved to and from the parts palette.

parts distribution center (PDC)
A location or warehouse from which items used in manufacturing of products are promoted, sold, and shipped or delivered to individual customers, usually in a specified region or area.

parts palette
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of views and models used in building additional parts for an application. Application programmers can add parts to the palette for use in defining applications or other parts.


  1. A legal, functional, or physical entity that is involved, at any point, in a supply chain.
  2. In telephony, an addressable end point of a telephone call.

party lock
A property of a contract that indicates that the users from one contract party can change the contract language while users of the other contract party are prohibited from changing it.

See program automatic storage area.

A high-level, general-purpose programming language. Programs written in Pascal are block-structured, consisting of independent routines.


  1. One cycle of processing a body of data.
  2. The status of a test when the actual results match the expected result.
  3. A test is deemed to pass if its actual result matches its expected result. (ISTQB)

pass by reference
In programming languages, one of the basic argument passing semantics where the address of the object is passed. Any changes made by the callee to the argument value will be reflected in the calling routine at the time the change is made.

pass by value
In programming languages, one of the basic argument-passing semantics in which the value of the object is passed. Any changes made by the callee to the argument value will not be reflected in the calling routine.

A numeric string used as a password.

In enterprise beans, the process of transferring an enterprise bean from memory to auxiliary storage. (Sun) See also activation.

passive attack
In computer security, an assault on a network that is difficult to detect and involves an intruder who taps into or traces communications. Sniffing is an example of a passive attack.

passive authentication
A configuration option that automatically logs users into a system when they log on to a network using a directory service, such as Active Directory.

passive capture
A record of all conversations between a visitor's web browser and the web application through the recording of all traffic to and from the web server or servers hosting the application.

passive gateway
A gateway that does not exchange routing information. Its routing information is contained indefinitely in the routing tables and is included in any routing information that is transmitted. See also active gateway.

passive grab
In Enhanced X-Windows, the grabbing of a key or button in a window, without pressing the key or button. See also active grab, grab.

passive mode
In testing, a mode where the execution of a test is controlled remotely by a script or a batch file rather than a human.

passive open
In TCP/IP, the state of a connection that is prepared to provide a service on demand. See also active open.

A sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data. A passphrase is similar to a password in usage, but is generally longer for added security.

Session-based information, stored and encrypted in Content Manager memory, regarding authenticated users. A passport is created the first time a user accesses Cognos 8, and it is retained until a session ends, either when the user logs off or after a specified period of inactivity.

pass through
To gain access to another network.

See display station pass-through.

pass-through function
The ability to pass data through a program transparently, without alteration.

pass-through mode

  1. The mode through which VM display station users interactively access a VM system, including the one to which the terminal is attached.
  2. A mode through which SQL statements can be submitted directly to a data source.

pass-through server

pass-through session
A DB2 session used to submit SQL statements directly to a database management system (DBMS) using the SQL dialect associated with that data source.

pass-through simulation
In TPNS, the role that TPNS performs of a packet switching network to allow communication between real data terminal equipment (DTEs)

pass-through virtual circuit
In TPNS, a virtual circuit on which TPNS performs the role of a packet switching network, and does not simulate either of the data terminal equipment (DTEs).

passthru domain
A Domino domain that is used as a means to connect to another domain.

In RACF secured sign-on, a dynamically generated, random, one-time-use, password substitute that a workstation or other client can use to sign on to the host rather than sending a RACF password across the network.

In computer and network security, a specific string of characters used by a program, computer operator, or user to access the system and the information stored within it. See also authentication, compound password, simple password.

password aging
A security feature by which the superuser can specify how often users must change their passwords.

password alias
A plaintext password that references the encrypted password that protects the file.

password authentication
See basic authentication.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
A type of authentication where the user name and password are transmitted in an unencrypted form. This is a more basic form of authentication than Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). See also Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.

password complexity policy
A policy that specifies the minimum and maximum length of the password, the minimum number of numeric and alphabetic characters, and whether to allow mixed uppercase and lowercase characters.

password digest
The concatenation of a unique random string that identifies the password plus the creation time of the security token plus the password.

password envelope
See envelope.

password generation
A process that creates and stores a new password in an encrypted password file when the old password expires. Automatic generation of a password prevents password prompting.

password level
Within DST, a property that specifies whether Data Encryption Standard (DES) or Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) encryption is used when storing passwords. The default level is DES.

password map
The map that is created between an encrypted password to a password alias. The map is stored in a password map file.

password mask
A template for passwords that defines the placement of characters and character types that can used when creating and/or modifying a password.

password phrase
A string consisting of mixed-case letters, numbers, and special characters, including blanks, that is used to control access to data and systems.

password phrase envelope
See envelope.

password policy
A policy that governs frequency of password change and password strength. See also application policy.

password protection
In APPC, the support that uses protected passwords to keep user passwords secure.

password security

  1. The process of requiring a user to enter a password to log in to a system.
  2. The use of system definition macros and security maintenance utility control statements to restrict the use of IMS resources (databases, application programs, physical and logical terminals, transactions, and commands) to a person or persons who can supply the correct password.

password server
A server that allows clients to change their password on the key distribution center (KDC) remotely. The password server typically runs on the same machine as the KDC.

password stashing
Saving a password that is encrypted in a file or on a hard disk drive. The keydb password must reside in a file to use secure sockets layer (SSL).

password substitution
In advanced program-to-program communication (APPC), the use of an encrypted form of a user's password in a session-activation request.

password synchronization
An process that, when specified, automatically updates associated user IDs in a peer user ID association when a password is changed. See also automatic password direction.

password use control level
A level of control of compliance with the terms of the acquisition of a license-enabled product. See also customer-managed use control, vendor-managed use control.


  1. A parametric bicubic surface.
  2. A piece of code added to vendor software in order to fix a problem, as an immediate solution that is provided to users between two releases. Typically, patches can be downloaded over the Internet from vendors websites.

patch cable
A length of cable with data connectors at both ends; it is normally used to interconnect two sections of building cable at a distribution panel or to connect a product to the building cable.

patch PSC element
In DCF, a PSC element that is used temporarily to modify the normal output.


  1. In SNA, the set of data links, data link control layers, and path control layers that a path information unit travels through when sent from the transmission control layer of one half-session to the transmission control layer of another half-session.
  2. In VTAM, the intervening nodes and lines connected a terminal and an application program in the host processor.
  3. An object that defines a one-to-one relationship between a source and a destination. Using the path, the source accesses the destination. Data can flow from the source to the destination, and back. An example of a source is a data mover (such as a network-attached storage [NAS] file server), and an example of a destination is a tape drive.
  4. The part of the URL which points to the location of an Internet resource.
  5. In DL/I, the chain of segments within a record that leads to the currently-retrieved segment. The formal path contains only one segment occurrence from each level, from the root down to the segment for which the path exists.
  6. In VSAM, a named logical entity that is composed of one or more clusters and provides access to the records of a base cluster either directly or through an alternate index.
  7. In the NetView/PC program, a complete line in a configuration that contains all of the resources in the service point command service (SPCS) query link configuration request list.
  8. The route through a file system to a specific file. See also explicit route, route extension, virtual route.
  9. A route that the flow can take through the activities in a process. There may be several alternative paths.
  10. In a network environment, the route between any two nodes.
  11. In OSI, a description of how a local line or line set can be used for outbound communications.
  12. The series of transport network components (path control and data link control) that are traversed by the information exchanged between two network accessible units.
  13. A route on a chart between two entities. A path may include intermediate entities.

path assignment
In OSI, the permanent assignment of a DTE at an adjacent node to a path. This restricts the path to particular lines to be used for connections to or through that adjacent node.

path block
In the NetView/PC program, a block of storage that contains the link connection component (LCC) information for all LCCs in one path.

path call
A type of DL/I call that enables a hierarchical path of segments to be inserted or retrieved with one call.

path code page
A list of the path name components of the files that are exported to and mounted on a specified Network File System (NFS) client or netgroup.

path control (PC)
In SNA, a transport function for routing message units between network accessible units in the network.

path control layer
In SNA, the layer that routes all messages to data links and half-sessions.

path control network
See transport network.

path cost
In link-state routing protocols, the sum of the link costs along the path between two nodes or networks.

path entry
A catalog entry that contains information about a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) path and that points to the path's related objects.

path expression
An XQuery expression that navigates through a node hierarchy by a series of steps to select nodes for further processing. See also node test, step.

path filtering
The process of filtering out or including pages according to set criteria.

path group

  1. A collection of equivalent paths. Storage devices may have one - n path groups.
  2. In ESA/390 architecture, a set of channel paths that are defined to a control unit as being associated with a single logical partition (LPAR). The channel paths are in a group state and are online with the host. See also logical partition.

path group identifier
The ESA/390 term for the identifier that uniquely identifies a given logical partition (LPAR). The path-group identifier is used in communication between the LPAR program and a device. It associates the path-group identifier with one or more channel paths, thereby defining these paths to the control unit as being associated with the same LPAR.

path information unit (PIU)

  1. In z/OS Communications Server, data sent by the host according to the definition of the VPACING parameter that determines how many messages can be sent in a session to the z/OS Communications Server application by another SNA logical unit without requiring that an acknowledgment be sent.
  2. In SNA, the smallest amount of data that the system sends out on a communications line, consisting of a transmission header followed by a basic information unit or a basic information unit segment.

The number of instructions executed for a particular function.

path list
The structure, or the corresponding parameter, containing the full path name for a file.

path manager
A function that controls network job entry (NJE) sign-on and sign-off, monitors all other nodes and connections in the network, and determines the best path to reach those nodes.

path name

  1. The name of an object in the integrated file system. Protected objects have one or more path names.
  2. A name that specifies all directories leading to a file plus the file name itself.

path name resolution
The process of resolving a path name to a particular file in a file hierarchy. There may be multiple path names that resolve to the same file. X/Open.

path segment
In the NetView/PC program, the portion of a path between two resources that is listed consecutively in the service point command service (SPCS) query link configuration request list.

path selection
The selection of a transmission path through a fabric. Switches use the Fibre Channel shortest path first (FSPF) protocol.

path set
In OSI, a set of paths grouped by the similarity of their requirements. OSI Communications Subsystem requires that each line be assigned to a line set. If the line is to be used for outbound communications, then its associated line set must be assigned to a path set. A line that is not assigned to a path set (through a line set) can be used only for inbound communications.

path set sequencing
In OSI, the process of defining the sequence in which lines are to be selected for outbound connections.

path statement
In NetDA/2, a route statement that is used for subarea routing. Existing VTAM and NCP path statements can be included in a network design, or new path statements can be generated.

path test
A test that enables a network operator to determine whether a path is available between two logical units (LUs) that are currently in session.

path traversal
An attack technique that alters a document or resource location requested in a URL and forces access to files, directories, and commands that reside outside the web document root directory.

path traversal attack
An attack that uses special character sequences to exploit a URL and gain access to restricted files, directories, and commands that are located in the web document root directory or the CGI root directory.

patient-centric care
A cross-segment healthcare model in which the patient assumes an accountability and responsibility for their own health records and health education. The model focuses on preventive health, and reduces costs across the system through improved efficiency.

A name element that is derived from the name of a person's father or other male ancestor. Both family names and given names function as patronymic names in different parts of the world.


  1. A model of physical or virtual assets that is used as a template for a solution. A pattern specifies components, links, and policies that follow architecture and design best practices and is used for repeatable deployment of applications, databases, and other resources. A pattern is deployed as a single virtual environment that includes hardware and the workloads that run on it and all related components, links, and policies. See also virtual application pattern, virtual system pattern.
  2. A method of describing text to be identified, using one or more regular expressions.
  3. A sequence of characters used either with regular expression notation or for path name expansion, as a means of selecting various characters strings or path names, respectively. The syntaxes of the two patterns are similar, but not identical.
  4. The sequence of class labels assigned to the values in a data record which can be used to identify a subset of records that might be standardized the same way. See also class, condition, standardization rule, value.
  5. A reusable solution that encapsulates a tested approach to solving a common architecture, design, or deployment task in a particular context. See also micropattern.
  6. A process that is used to group data into manageable pieces.
  7. In REXX, the parts of a parsing template that allow a string to be split by literal pattern or positional pattern. Parentheses may be supplied to create a variable pattern.

pattern-action language
The language that defines standardization rules. See also standardization rule.

pattern attribute
In architecture, a characteristic that specifies the appearance of a pattern.

pattern matching
The specification of a pattern of characters for search purposes.

pattern-matching character
See wildcard character.

pattern set
In GOCA, an attribute used to access a symbol set or coded font. See also symbol set.

pattern storage

  1. In printers, storage that contains the fonts and images used for printing the character data, overlays, and segments contained in the page buffer.
  2. In PSF, an area of storage that holds the raster patterns for fonts and images.

pattern strings
Groups of regular expressions that are composed of special pattern-matching characters. Pattern strings can be used in addresses to specify lines and, in some subcommands, portions of a line.

pattern symbol
In architecture, the geometric construct that is used repetitively to generate a pattern; for example, dots, squares, and triangles.

paused mode
The mode of operation in which all host commands that require movement of cartridges are queued until the library is returned to automated mode. Paused mode allows the operator to enter the enclosure area while the robot is not operating to correct a problem, add cartridges to the bulk input station, or remove cartridges from the bulk output station.

See parallel access volume.


  1. The tongue of a ratchet.
  2. A pivoted tongue or sliding bolt adapted to fall into notches on a machine to permit motion in only one direction.

A bailment or deposit of personal property to a creditor to secure repayment for a debt or an engagement.

pawner flag
A visual cue in a pawn summary table that indicated suspicious activity at a pawnbroker.


  1. The organization that is being paid for delivering a shipment. Typically, the payee is the carrier but it could also be a third-party logistics provider.
  2. An individual who is being compensated or is approving the compensation results.


  1. In a RosettaNet business message, the service content plus any file attachments. The payload is packaged together with the headers to form a complete RosettaNet Business Message.
  2. The body of a message that holds content.

payload data

  1. Application data contained in an IP flow, excluding header and administrative information.
  2. User content that is stored from a data transfer. Data includes overhead and user information.

In WebSphere Commerce Payments, a merchant's request of a financial institution to approve all or part of an order. In many cases, all the money authorized for collection by an order will be collected in a single payment. Some payment systems allow the money authorized in one order (that is, one set of payment instructions) to be collected in multiple payments, depending on the business model.

payment action
In WebSphere Commerce, a financial operation that is associated with a payment instruction. For example, approve (authorize), reverse approval, deposit (capture), reverse deposit, refund, and validate are payment actions.

payment action rule
See payment rule.

Payment Application Data Security Standard (PA-DSS)
A program that helps software vendors and others develop secure payment applications that do not store prohibited data, ensuring that their payment applications support compliance with the PCI DSS.

payment back-end system
The payment service provider, payment processor, or proxy for an external payment system.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
A worldwide information security standard assembled by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC). The standard was created to help organizations that process card payments to prevent credit card fraud through increased controls around data and its exposure to compromise. The standard applies to all organizations which hold, process, or pass cardholder information from any card branded with the logo of one of the card brands.

payment definition
A mechanism to configure credit card types and allow vendors to support payments through credit cards.

payment instruction
In WebSphere Commerce, the instance of a payment method with the details necessary to perform payment actions. For example, if a payment method name is CardBrandX, then the payment instruction consists of CardBrandX, plus the cardholder name, billing address, account number, and expiration date.

payment method
The means by which payments are made for an order. For example, payment methods may include various brands of credit cards, electronic checks, lines of credit, and gift certificates.

payment plug-in
A self-contained software component that serves as a proxy for a payment back-end system. Payment plug-ins are responsible for payment protocol and protocol data validation.

Payment Plug-in Controller
In WebSphere Commerce, the software layer that coordinates and delegates payment requests to the payment plug-ins. The Payment Plug-in Controller interacts with WebSphere Commerce Payments through the WCPayments plug-in.

payment protocol
In WebSphere Commerce, the conventions that govern the exchange of data between payment cassettes or plug-ins and the backend financial systems (payment service provider or payment processor). For example, VisaNet and Paymentech have different payment protocols.

payment rule
In WebSphere Commerce, a set of configurable parameters that define payment actions to be executed by the event-driven payments subcomponent during business events.

payment server
In e-commerce, the electronic equivalent of a cash register that organizes and accepts payment for the goods and services selected for purchase. A payment server uses other components, such as a payment gateway and a payment management system, to complete the financial transactions.

payment status
The current standing of the payment process. For example, the values could be "Awaiting Authorization", "Authorized", "Paid", and so forth.

payment subsystem
In WebSphere Commerce, the software that handles payment processing.

payment term
The payment conditions of a sale, such as the time period that a buyer has to pay the amount that is due, or the interest rate that is applied to outstanding balances.

payment type
The various types of payments that a customer uses to pay for an order. For example, check, credit card, store value card, and so forth.

The organization that pays for the freight delivery. Typically, the payor is the shipper organization that subscribes to Sterling TMS.

pay rate
The applicable rate that includes the markup rate and skill surcharge if any.

See petabyte.

See protected buffer pool.

See private branch exchange.


  1. See personal computer.
  2. See photoconductor.
  3. See path control.


  1. See page control area.
  2. See principal components analysis.

PC agent
Software installed on a client PC that enables management operations to execute on the PC.

See purchasing card.

A proprietary transfer protocol of Tivoli Provisioning Manager for OS Deployment that delivers non-identical sets of files to several target computers using multicast. Contrast with MCAST and unicast. See also MCAST.


  1. See program communication block.
  2. See promotion control block.

PCB mask
A data structure in an application program in which IMS puts the status of the application program's DL/I calls. See also status code.

See power control compartment.

PC double-byte encoding scheme
See IBM PC double-byte encoding scheme.

PC drum
In printers, a hollow cylinder that is covered with photoconductive material.


  1. See programmable command format.
  2. See primary control field.

PC file
A file stored on a personal computer.

PC gap
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, an opening in the drum surface of about two inches through which the photoconductor is fed.

See physical channel ID.


  1. See Peripheral Component Interconnect.
  2. See presentation control information.

PCI bridge
A device that connects one or more subordinate PCI buses to a primary PCI bus. The PCI bus that is closest to the system processor is the primary PCI bus, and the subordinate buses are secondary PCI buses.

PCI bridge set
A set of PCI card positions.

See procedure correlation identifier.

See Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard.

See PCI Express.

PCI Express (PCIe)
A local serial interface that provides a high-speed data path between the processor and attached devices. Unlike previous PCI implementations that used a parallel bus architecture, PCI Express uses point-to-point serial links called lanes. See also Peripheral Component Interconnect.

PCI host bridge (PHB)
A device that merges data from PCI bridges for delivery to the system processor.

PCI severity level
The level of risk that a vulnerability poses to the payment card industry.

See Peripheral Component Interconnect-X.

A file format that is an adaptation of the Integration Exchange Format (IXF), which was specifically designed to enable the exchange of relational database structures and data. The PC/IXF file architecture maintains the independence of both the exporting and the importing database systems.

See printer control language.

PCM fault condition
A fault, such as power supply failure, or loss of incoming signal, in T1 or E1 equipment. (ITU-T G.732 and G.733.)

PC-mixed character set
A character set that contains a mixture of single-byte character set (SBCS) PC code pages and double-byte character set (DBCS) PC code pages.

See Program Call Markup Language.

A PC adapter that plays MPEG1-encoded digital video with stereo audio directly from the hard disk, the CD-ROM, or the network in real time.

See personal-computer NFS daemon.

See program control program.

See peak cell rate.

See Perl-compatible regular expression.

See print contrast signal.

PC session
An operating session that uses DOS and other IBM programs on a personal computer attached as a 5250 work station to a server.

PC single-byte encoding scheme
See IBM PC single-byte encoding scheme.

See program control table.

See picture exchange file.

See partition descriptor.

See personal digital assistant.

See partition descriptor block.


  1. See primary domain controller.
  2. See parts distribution center.

See physical device.


  1. See Portable Document Format.
  2. See parallel data field.
  3. See Program Development Facility.

PDF subsystem
The IPDS to PDF Transform function of IBM Infoprint Server for iSeries. One or more PDF files are generated from an Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IPDS), Advanced Function Presentation (AFP), or SNA character string (SCS) spooled file and then sent as email, spooled for printing, or stored in the integrated file system as a stream file. A mapping program can be used to implement intelligent routing of the PDF subsystem output. See also intelligent routing, mapping object, mapping program.

See primary delay interval.

See PSB directory.

See Programming Development Manager.

See Panel Definition Markup Language.

See public data network.

See policy decision point.

See parallel database query.

PDQ priority
A measure of priority that determines the amount of resources that a database server allocates to process a query in parallel. These resources include memory, threads (such as scan threads), and sort space.


  1. See preliminary design review.
  2. See physical data resource.

See partitioned data set.

PDS directory
A set of records in a partitioned data set (PDS) that is used to relate member names to their locations within the data set.

See partitioned data set extended.


  1. See portable data terminal.
  2. See project development team.
  3. See policy distribution target.

PDT architect lead
Responsible for defining the project architecture, ensuring its integration with other systems and ensuring compliance with the e-business Architecture Blueprint and BT-CIO standards and guidelines.


  1. See protocol data unit.
  2. See Power Distribution Unit.

See presentation data value.

PDV report
In OSI, an output file produced by the Abstract Syntax Checker that shows the names of the PDVs in the input module and the data structures that comprise them.


  1. See processing element.
  2. See IBM product engineering.

peacock layout
A layout where complex groups of linked entities are arranged to show the structure of associations. It is most suitable for charts with many linked entities. See also layout.

peak cell rate (PCR)
The maximum rate at which an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) endsystem can transmit cells into the network over the user-to-network interface (UNI). See also maximum burst size, sustainable cell rate.

peak memory
The maximal memory used to process an OPL problem. See also local memory.

peak rate

  1. The maximum rate encountered over a given period of time.
  2. The maximum speed at which a device could operate under ideal conditions, if its designer were choosing the workload.

See processing engine archive.


  1. A general term for the corresponding node or entity with which one communicates.
  2. In network architecture, any functional unit that is in the same layer as another functional unit.

peer access point
A means by which core groups can communicate with other cells.

peer application entity
In OSI, the corresponding application entity with which a local application entity communicates.

peer domain

  1. A type of cluster domain that consists of two or more peer cluster domain nodes organized in such a way as to have one online (master) node, and one or more online or offline (standby) nodes. In a failover scenario, the peer domain cluster redistributes the workload from the failed master node to a standby node, to increase the availability. See also cluster domain node.
  2. A set of nodes configured for high availability. Such a domain has no distinguished or master node. All nodes are aware of all other nodes, and administrative commands can be issued from any node in the domain. All nodes also have a consistent view of the domain membership. See also management domain.

peer entity
In OSI, an entity within the same layer.

peer network
A network in which every resource is self-contained and controls its own resources.

peer requirement
A requirement that is at the same hierarchical level as another requirement. Two requirements are peer requirements when they are children of the same parent. All requirements at the root level are peer requirements of one another.

peer services
In the IBM Realtime Interface Co-Processor device-driver application programming interface (API), the bus master services that are available through the IBM Realtime Interface Co-Processor Portmaster Adapter/A. These services transfer device-driver functions, such as the PeerClose function, between application programs running on the base operating system and application programs running on the IBM Realtime Interface Co-Processor adapter.

peer state
In high availability disaster recovery, the state during which log pages are shipped from the in-memory log write buffer of the primary database to the standby database. See also asynchronous mode, near synchronous mode, remote catchup pending state, super asynchronous mode.

peer system
In a RACF data sharing group, any system to which RACF propagates a command entered by the system operator or administrator. See also coordinator system.

Pertaining to a form of distributed processing, in which the front-end and back-end of a conversation switch control between themselves. It is communication between equals.

peer-to-peer network
A network that does not have a dedicated server. Computers with access privileges can share files and peripheral devices with all other computers on the network.

Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC)
A remote-copy service that provides a synchronous copy of a volume or disk for disaster recovery, device migration, and workload migration. See also PPRC Extended Distance, remote copy, synchronous PPRC.

peer-to-peer replication
A replication configuration between logical tables in which updates to any table are replicated to the other tables and convergence is maintained. Peer-to-peer replication can involve two or more servers. See also multitier replication, update-anywhere replication.

Peer-to-Peer Virtual Tape Server (PtP VTS)
A virtual tape server (VTS) configuration in which copies of data in newly created or updated tape volumes are automatically created or updated in each of two interconnected VTSs. This dual-volume copy functionality improves data availability and data recovery, while being transparent to user applications and host processor resources.

Peer-to-Peer VTS data (PtP DATA)
A function that allows an installation or application to obtain operational mode settings and device-related information from the Peer-to-Peer Virtual Tape Server (PtP VTS) library.

Peer-to-Peer VTS mode control (PtP MC)
The function that allows an installation or application to change current operating modes of the library.

An open source implementation of CIMOM that is maintained by the Open Group.

See picture element.

pel density
A measurement of presentation granularity: the number of pels per unit of linear measurement, usually stated in pels per inch.

pel size
The dimensions of a toned area at a picture element.


  1. See print-error marker.
  2. See privacy enhanced mail.

PEM encoded
Pertaining to a Base64 encoded certificate. See also Base64, DER encoded.

PEM requester
Any APPC device or node capable of initiating a conversation with the architected sign-on transaction.

PEM server
Any APPC LU that supports the receive side of APPC PEM; that is, it can attach, but not initiate, the signon transaction.

pen and paper interviewing (PAPI)
An interviewing method in which the interviewer, equipped with a paper questionnaire to record the respondent's answers, interviews the respondent in person.

A state between online and offline in which an object is making a transition from online to offline or from offline to online. The pend state is initiated when a pend event is sent by an online object or when an add event is sent by an offline object. See also un-pend.


  1. The initial state of a defined volume pair before it becomes a duplex pair. During this state, the contents of the primary volume are copied to the secondary volume.
  2. Pertaining to a submitted request that is awaiting processing.

pending active session
In VTAM, the state of an LU-LU session recorded by the system services control point (SSCP) when it finds both logical units (LUs) available and has sent a CINIT request to the primary logical unit (PLU) of the requested session. See also active.

pending application description
An application description that is incomplete and not ready for use in planning or scheduling. See also active application description.

pending event
An unscheduled event that occurs as a result of a connect request from a CICS adapter.

pending invitation
An invitation that has not been used to complete registration and has not expired.

pending occurrence
The dummy occurrence created by the daily planning process to honor a dependency that has been resolved in the long-term plan, but cannot be resolved in the current plan because the input arrival time of the predecessor is not within the current plan end time.

pending page queue (PPQ)
A list of pages that has been processed by PSF but has not been released from JES or stacked by the printer.

pending pick
The quantity of the SKU reserved for orders, but not yet picked.

pending predecessor
A predecessor dependency to an occurrence that is defined in the long-term plan, but not yet included in the current plan.

pending requirement
A newly created requirement in a document or a view that has not yet been saved in the database.

pending ship
The quantity of the SKU reserved and picked for orders, but not yet shipped.

pending state
A condition of a server program in which it has received a request for an action (start, stop, or suspend) but has not yet performed that action.

pending tag number
A tag number for a newly created requirement in a document. See also requirement tag.

penetration test
A method of evaluating the security of a web application by simulating an attack by a hacker.

people assignment criterion
A property that defines the members of each of the role groups.

people awareness
The collaboration feature that provides access to people from various contexts. People awareness lets you see references to people and contact people by name through the Sametime online status indicator. Throughout the portal, wherever you see the name of a person, you can view the online status of the person, send email, initiate a chat, or share an application via an electronic meeting. See also person link.

people record
A record that contains information about a person, including person type, contact, location, security, and software license information.

People's Republic of China (PRC)
The official name for the country known as China.


  1. See policy enforcement point.
  2. See partitioned emulation programming.
  3. See program entry procedure.
  4. See program error program.

PEP extension
See partitioned emulation programming extension.

percent adjustment
An option that allows for either the increase or decrease of the percent adjustment for the price list line or all the price list lines.

percentage adjustment
The percentage of change to be applied under the pricing rule.

percentage-based pricing
A pricing scheme whereby the price of a product is based on a percentage of the price of another line (base contract line). Percentage-based pricing is often used with maintenance agreements.

percent complete
The extent of completion of a specific project activity, expressed as a percentage of the estimated total effort of duration for the activity, and entered by a team member or project manager, according to their judgment.

percent duration complete
In duration-based projects, the extent of the completion of a project activity, expressed as a percentage of the estimated total duration for the activity.

percent effort complete
In effort-based projects, the extent of completion of a specific project activity, expressed as a percentage of the estimated effort or work for the activity.

To decline to handle an exception. The unchanged exception is passed on to the next exception handler.

In error recovery, the passing along a preestablished path of control from a recovery routine to a higher-level recovery routine.

A linear series of unconnected cuts in continuous-forms paper. The interval between cuts is a tie. The perforation defines either a fold or page boundary. Continuous-forms, fan-folded paper is always folded on the perforations.


  1. A measure of a system's ability to perform its functions, including response time, throughput, and number of transactions per second.
  2. The measurement of a Watson system in terms of accuracy, precision, and recall in answering questions or discovering relationships.

performance analysis
The use of one or more performance tools to investigate the reasons for performance improvement or deterioration.

performance analyzer
A feature that tests queries before they run to determine how they were implemented and the estimated run time.

performance and accounting management
The process of quantifying, measuring, reporting, and controlling the responsiveness, availability, utilization, and costs of an information system.

performance class
A description of an objective or commitment of performance. It consists of a performance class name, boundary definitions, response time definition, response time ranges, and response time percentage objectives. Sessions can be assigned performance classes.

performance class data
Detailed transaction-level monitoring data, which includes task identification information, resource request counts, CPU and dispatch times, and time spent waiting for I/O. Monitoring of performance (that is, the collection of performance class data) is activated by the MNPER system initialization parameter. See also monitoring record.

performance counter
A utility that provides a way for software to monitor and measure processor performance.

performance data
Information about the operation of a system or a network of systems that can be used to understand response times and throughputs and to predict the effects of certain system operational changes or programming changes.

performance data section
One of the CICS data sections in a CICS monitoring record. It consists of a string of field connectors followed by one or more performance data records.

performance error
See temporary error.

performance evaluation

  1. The determination of how well a specific system is meeting or may be expected to meet specific processing requirements at specific interfaces. Performance evaluation, by determining such factors as throughput rate, turnaround time, and constrained resources, can provide important inputs and data for the performance improvement process.
  2. A module that evaluates the strengths and the weaknesses of the suppliers based on their past performance to create an objective and a comprehensive supplier performance report.

performance event
A category of event indicating that a limit condition has occurred.

performance group
A group of file systems sharing system resources that can affect file system performance.

performance improvement
The increase of the average throughput rate and operational capability, or the reduction of turnaround time.

performance index
A number that indicates whether the performance goal for a service class was achieved, exceeded, or missed.

performance indicator
See measure.

performance management
The discipline that encompasses capacity planning, collecting performance data, and tuning resources.

Performance Management Agent (PM Agent)
A function of the operating system that takes data collected by Collection Services, reduces the data, and sends that data to IBM for analysis. This was formerly called Performance Management for eServer iSeries.

Performance Management for System i5 (PM for System i5)
An IBM offering that takes customer system data and sends that data to IBM for analysis. IBM then returns capacity planning and performance analysis reports and graphs.

performance measurements
Metrics which provide a single source of information on IBM's transformation initiatives and their impact on IBM's business results.

performance monitor

  1. A function of the operating system that observes system and device activity, and records these observations in a database file.
  2. A set of software tools used to track minute-by-minute statistics on clients, cubes, and servers.

Performance Monitoring
A feature that provides error and performance information to the administrator and end user for use in storage management.

Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI)
A set of packages and libraries assigned to gather, deliver, process, and display performance data.

performance monitor interface (PMI)
In VTAM, an interface that enables the collection of information about VTAM's performance and resource utilization, which, in turn, allows for an early diagnosis of problems and more efficient tuning and debugging of VTAM.

performance policy
A description of the performance objectives and importance of a workload.

performance snapshot
Performance data for a set of database objects that is retrieved from the database manager at a point in time.

performance test
A test that runs a defined workload on the system and captures performance indicators.

performance test controller
A process that deploys probe and test configuration and orchestrates the performance during test execution.

performance threshold
The established response time for transactions. See also threshold.

Performance Tools for i5/OS
The IBM licensed program that allows a user to display, report, graph, and analyze performance data.

performance trace
A WebSphere MQ trace option where the trace data is to be used for performance analysis and tuning.

performance variable
A statistic derived from performance data obtained from the database manager. The expression for this variable can be defined by the user.

per-hop behavior
A description of an external and observable forwarding treatment. Routers use the per-hop behavior code points to give network traffic a certain priority. A per-hop behavior is applied to each Internet Protocol (IP) packet when differentiated services is designated. The six bits of the differentiated services code-point field designate the per-hop behavior.

perimeter server
Communication management software that can be installed in a DMZ and manages communication flows between a perimeter network and Sterling B2B Integrator TCP-based transport adapters.

perimeter service
A service that supports multihoming and secure perimeter network traversing for Sterling B2B Integrator communication protocols.


  1. A component of a schedule that divides the timeline into named intervals, such as peak, off-peak, and no service.
  2. The symbol ".". The term dot is used for the same symbol when referring to a web address or file extension. This character is named <period> in the portable character set. See also dot.
  3. A date interval that reported values are saved in. An example of a period is December 2000.
  4. In a table, an interval of time that is defined by two datetime columns. A period contains a begin column and an end column. See also begin column, end column.
  5. A time period defined in the Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS calendar.

period locking
The process of restricting access to finished periods. An option exists to lock the period entirely, or to restrict data entry only.

peripheral border node
A border node that interconnects adjacent APPN networks having different network identifiers in order to support LU-LU sessions that have one partner LU in its native network. See also extended border node.

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
A local bus that provides a high-speed data path between the processor and attached devices. See also PCI Express, Peripheral Component Interconnect-X.

Peripheral Component Interconnect-X (PCI-X)
An enhancement to the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) architecture. PCI-X enhances the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) standard by doubling the throughput capability and providing additional adapter-performance options while maintaining backward compatibility with PCI adapters. See also Peripheral Component Interconnect.

peripheral device
The equipment that can communicate directly with a particular processing unit.

peripheral host node
A node that provides an application programming interface (API) for running application programs but does not provide SSCP functions and is not aware of the network configuration. The peripheral host node does not provide subarea node services. It has boundary function provided by its adjacent subarea.

peripheral link
In SNA, a link that connects a peripheral node to a subarea link. See also route extension.

peripheral node
In SNA, a location that uses local addresses for routing and, therefore, is not affected by changes in network addresses. A peripheral node requires boundary function assistance from an adjacent subarea node.

peripheral path control
The function in a peripheral node that routes message units between units with local addresses and provides the paths between them.

peripheral subnetwork boundary
A connection over a subnetwork boundary that is between a border and a network node with no border node function.

A scripting language that was originally designed as a tool for writing programs in the UNIX environment but has evolved to include the power and flexibility of a high-level programming language such as C. Perl is an open-source language.

Perl-compatible regular expression (PCRE)
A regular expression C library that is much richer than classic regular expression libraries. See also regular expression.

A basic property of transaction processing systems whereby the modifications made to data by a committed transaction must be permanent. Subsequent transactions requesting the data modified by a previous transaction must always see the new data. These changes must be preservable even in the event of a system failure.

permanent data set
A user-named data set that is normally retained for a longer period than the duration of a job or interactive session. See also temporary data set.

permanent dynamic queue
A dynamic queue that is deleted when it is closed only if deletion is explicitly requested. Permanent dynamic queues are recovered if the queue manager fails, so they can contain persistent messages. See also temporary dynamic queue.

permanent error

  1. An error that cannot be eliminated by retrying an operation.
  2. An error--for example, a hardware component failure--that can be corrected only by external intervention. See also temporary error, transient error.

permanent event
In OSI, an event that indicates the occurrence of an irrecoverable error--one that makes a resource unavailable or causes OSI Communications Subsystem to stop. Permanent events are logged and generate a message to the operator. See also transient event.

permanent license key
A license key that IBM issues when clients purchase an application that requires such a key. See also trial license.

permanent link
A connection below a multiplexer that can exist without having an open controlling stream associated with it.

permanently maintained path
In OSI, a CLNS path to an adjacent node that is maintained until OSI Communications Subsystem is restarted.

permanent object
An object, such as a database files or program, that stays in the system until a user with the required authority deletes it.

permanent pen
An editing feature in Notes documents that allows users to edit documents in a second font.

permanent record
A record that has been identified as having sufficient historical or other value to warrant continued preservation by the organization beyond the time normally required for administrative, legal, or fiscal purposes.

permanent storage
A storage device whose contents cannot be modified.

permanent table space
A table space that can store any persistent data. See also large table space, regular table space.

permanent virtual channel (PVC)
In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a predefined connection between two users that is similar to a leased line. Call setup and disconnection are unnecessary for a PVC. See also switched virtual channel.

permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
A virtual circuit that has a logical channel permanently assigned to it at each data terminal equipment (DTE). A call establishment protocol is not required. The permanent virtual circuit establishes the identity of the called party within the network services contract.

per-member database configuration parameter
A database configuration parameter that can have its value applied only to a single member.

permissible object
A Sterling Control Center building block to which restricted roles can be assigned. Permissible objects have both use and visibility (private or public) aspects controlled by user roles.


  1. The ability to access a protected object, such as a file or directory. The number and meaning of permissions for an object are defined by the access control list.
  2. The authority granted to users to give them access to an application's features and functions.
  3. The ability to perform an action against an object. The meaning of permissions is defined by the access policy.
  4. The ability to perform a specific action, or access a feature or object.
  5. An entitlement or privilege that governs how a user interacts with the repository, specified by role, not the individual user.
  6. Authorization to perform activities, such as reading and writing local files, creating network connections, and loading native code. See also administrative domain.

permission bit
In z/OS UNIX, part of security controls for directories and files stored in the z/OS UNIX file system. Permission bits are used to grant read, write, search (just directories), or execute (just files) access to owners, or file or directory owning groups.

permission code
A 3-digit octal code or a nine-letter alphabetic code that indicates the access permission for a UNIX file. The access permissions are read, write, and execute. See also access permission.

permission field
One of the 3-character fields within the permissions column of a UNIX directory listing. The permission field indicates the read, write, and run permissions for the file or directory owner and for the group. It is used by file systems to control access.

permission group

  1. A named set of permissions that are required for a certain role.
  2. A set of access permissions applicable to one or more access collections.

permission inheritance
An option that automatically assigns an asset subgroup the same permission settings as the asset group above it in the group hierarchy.

permit packet
A packet that is used to transmit permits over a virtual circuit at the interface between a data terminal equipment (DTE) and a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).

perpetual echo
A denial-of-service attack on the UDP echo port 7. If the source port and target port are set to port 7, the request is echoed back and forth.

perpetual inventory
Continuous updating of inventory quantity data on every item, real-time, as each transaction that reduces or increases the inventory level is executed (as opposed to collecting all of the transactions at the end of a shift and updating the inventory data on all items once).

per-seat license
A type of license that is issued to a single user on a system.

To be maintained across session boundaries, typically in nonvolatile storage such as a database system or a directory.


  1. A characteristic of data that is maintained across session boundaries, or of an object that continues to exist after the execution of the program or process that created it, typically in nonvolatile storage such as a database system.
  2. In Java EE, the protocol for transferring the state of an entity bean between its instance variables and an underlying database. (Sun)

persistence level
A level that determines the degree of detail written to the database as a business process runs. Decreasing the persistence level increases the business process performance at the cost of full tracking for each step of the business process.

persistence service
A service that provides private application programming interface (API) support to store and accesses executable resources.

Pertaining to data that is maintained across session boundaries, usually in nonvolatile storage such as a database system or a directory.

persistent column
A data field that an object uses to write data to a database table after processing. See also nonpersistent column.

persistent command text
The command text that is saved when a started task is begun and that is used to restart the job through automatic restart management.

persistent cookie
A cookie that is stored on a user’s computer until it expires or until the user deletes the cookie. Persistent cookies are used to collect identifying information about the user, such as web surfing behavior or user preferences for a specific website.

persistent data
Data that retains its value across multiple runs of transactional applications, regardless of system failures or restarts.

persistent data store
A nonvolatile storage for event data, such as a database system, that is maintained across session boundaries and that continues to exist after the execution of the program or process that created it.

persistent environment
An environment that once created by the user may be used repeatedly without incurring the overhead of initialization and termination for each call. The environment remains available until explicitly terminated by the user.

persistent identifier (PID)
An identifier that uniquely identifies an object, regardless of where it is stored. The PID consists of both an item ID and a location.

persistent JCL
A set of saved job control statements that was used for the original job. The persistent JCL can be used again if the job is restarted.

persistent LU-LU session
See persistent session.

persistent message
A message that survives a restart of the queue manager. See also nonpersistent message.

persistent node IP label
An IP alias that can be assigned to a service interface on a specified node. By assigning a persistent node IP label to a node on a network, a user has a node-bound address on a cluster network that can be used to access a specific node in the cluster for administrative purposes.

persistent object
An object whose state can be preserved beyond the ending of the process that created it. Typically, persistent objects are stored in files.

persistent search
See attribute alert generator.

persistent segment
A segment whose pages have permanent locations on disk, rather than temporary slots in the paging space.

persistent session

  1. A session that remains active even though there is no activity on the session for a specified period of time.
  2. An LU-LU session that z/OS Communications Server retains after the failure of a z/OS Communications Server application program. Following the application program's recovery, the application program restores or terminates the session. See also multinode persistent session.

persistent verification (PV)

  1. A VTAM security option for conversation-level security between two logical units (LUs) that provides a way of reducing the number of password transmissions by eliminating the need to provide a user ID and password on each attach (allocate) during multiple conversations between a user and a partner LU. The user is verified during the sign-on process and remains verified until the user has been signed off the partner LU.
  2. An application security mechanism that maintains lists of verified user IDs and passwords so that they do not need to be resubmitted with each access request to secure resources.

An individual authenticated by the portal and having a person record in one or more corporate directories. Persons can be members of places, public groups within the organization corporate directory, or personal groups that a user defines.

personal certificate
The digital certificate that a client or server gives to other clients or servers as a means of authentication. A personal certificate is usually obtained from a certificate authority.

personal computer (PC)
A computer primarily intended for stand-alone use by an individual.

personal-computer NFS daemon (PCNFSD)
A daemon that manages user authentication and print spooling.

personal contract folder
A contract folder that is only visible to the internal user who created it.

personal digital assistant (PDA)
An electronic replacement for date books. PDAs typically feature touchscreens and are controlled by a stylus. They have been largely replaced by smartphones.

personal greeting
In voice mail, a greeting recorded by a subscriber. See also system greeting.

personal group

  1. A distribution list for calendar invitations and email that is created by a user for personal use.
  2. In Sametime Connect, a group of people designated by the user as a group. A user can choose individuals from the public Directory (public group) and create personal groups, which are then stored locally. Users can add and remove people from a personal group, whereas the membership of the public group is defined by the owner of the public Directory.

personal health information (PHI)
Any information in a medical record or designated record set that can be used to identify an individual and that was created, used, or disclosed in the course of providing a healthcare service such as diagnosis or treatment.

personal health record (PHR)
An electronic, universally available, lifelong resource of health information that is used by individuals to make health decisions. People own and manage their information in the PHR, which comes from healthcare providers and the individual. See also electronic health record.

personal identification number (PIN)

  1. In Cryptographic Support, a unique number assigned by an organization to an individual and used as proof of identity. PINs are commonly assigned by financial institutions to their customers.
  2. For BlackBerry devices, a unique alphanumeric sequence that defines each BlackBerry device at the time of manufacturing. See also pin.

The process of enabling information to be targeted to specific users based on business rules and user profile information. See also customization.

personalization engine
An application that can generate product recommendations and special offers to customers based on information collected during visits to e-commerce sites.

personalized attributes
In the RFQ trading mechanism, a list of attributes created by a selling organization that a buyer must use when sending an RFQ to that organization. In addition to the predefined attributes provided by the seller, buyers can specify unique attributes in designated attribute fields.

personally identifiable information (PII)
In a privacy management environment, data elements that are associated with a specific individual and that can be accessed and used in such a way that the identity of the individual who submitted the PII is known. PII can be a single point of data, such as political party affiliation, or several points of data that are combined, such as names, email addresses, and phone numbers. To maintain their privacy, individuals who submit PII to an organization want to limit the propagation of that PII to other individuals within the organization or to other organizations. Some PII data might be privacy-sensitive. The use of privacy-sensitive PII might be governed by privacy legislation or an organization's privacy policy.

personal name
A combination of given names, surnames, or both that identifies a person. See also given name, surname.

personal settings
A choice that allows a user to display or change the characteristics or properties of an object. For example, a user can customize the interface by specifying how the menu bar, status area, and information area are displayed.

Personal System Communications Adapter (PSCA)
An adapter card that connects a microchannel-based personal computer (or processor) to a System/370 or System/390 parallel channel.

personal work manager
A web service or Open Client application used to locate and open items in active workflows.

person details
A comprehensive display of the most complete sets of data that is available on a specific person.

Person document
A document in a Domino directory that contains information about a user, such as name and address.

person link
A reference to a person name or a group name that appears with the Sametime online status indicator. The reference lets you view the online status the person, send an email, start a chat, or share an application using an electronic meeting, among other actions shown on the person link menu. See also people awareness.

person record
A document that contains personal information about a worker and other general information such as workflow and purchasing information. See also labor record.

person search
A query form that is used to search for persons or person details.

person summary
he resultant sortable list of records that match a person search.


  1. A group of views that show various aspects of the resources in the workbench.
  2. A set of views and features in the Eclipse IDE that offer the user to see and work with different parts of their projects.

perspective projection
A technique used to achieve realism when drawing primitives. In a perspective projection, the lines of projection meet at the viewpoint; thus, the size of a primitive varies inversely with its distance from the source projection. The farther a primitive or part of a primitive is from the viewer, the smaller it will be drawn. This effect, known as perspective foreshortening, is similar to the effect achieved by photography and by the human visual system. See also orthographic projection.

The process of changing a parameter value or function slightly to see whether the change eliminates numerical difficulties that may have stalled the algorithm. Changes are limited to some neighborhood of the initial values.

pervasive device
A generally small and often wireless device that allows users to access information on demand from many locations. Mobile pervasive devices include personal digital assistants, smartcards, digital wireless telephones, handheld computers, and digital watches. Fixed devices such as point of sale terminals, bank machines, home entertainment centers, and airport check-in terminals can also be considered pervasive devices when they can be used to deliver a range of network-based information.

pessimistic locking
A locking strategy whereby a lock is held between the time that a row is selected and the time that a searched update or delete operation is attempted on that row. See also currently committed, optimistic locking.

Two to the fiftieth power.

petabyte (PB)
For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the 50th power or approximately a thousand terabytes. For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1 000 000 000 000 000 bytes.

Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD)
A standard district that is used to track fuel prices for a region of the United States. The PADD fuel prices are based on a U.S. Department of Energy index and are used to calculate fuel accessorial charges.

Petroleum Industry Data Exchange (PIDX)
A standards committee for the American Petroleum Institute that develops global energy business standards for the oil and natural gas industry and its trading partners.

A protocol for supporting three-dimensional graphics.

See Predictive Failure Analysis.

See priority flow control.

See printout format definition.

See program function key.

PF key
See program function key.

See program fault management.

See physical file system.

See print format utility.

See presentation graphics feature.

See process group ID.

See Pragmatic General Multicast.

See Pretty Good Privacy.

See presentation graphics routines.

See pack and hold.

phantom address (phantom AL_PA)
An arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA) value that is assigned to a device that is not physically in the loop.

phantom AL_PA
See phantom address.

phantom device
A device that is not physically in an arbitrated loop but is logically included through the use of a phantom address.

phantom hyphen
See soft hyphen.

phantom read
A read request in which two identical queries run, and the collection of rows returned by the second query is different from the first query.

phantom row

  1. A table row that can be read by application processes that are executing with any isolation level except repeatable read. When an application process issues the same query multiple times within a single unit of work, additional rows can appear between queries because of the data being inserted and committed by application processes that are running concurrently.
  2. A row of a table that is initially modified or inserted during a transaction but is subsequently rolled back.


  1. A period of time that is used to plan, schedule, and perform maintenance tasks. See also quality status.
  2. In PSF/VSE, the smallest complete unit that can be referred to in a library.
  3. A distinct part of a process in which related operations are performed.
  4. A distinct period of a release lifecycle during which a team completes a specific set of activities that are related to an application.
  5. A process that includes the Explore stage followed by the Test stage of a scan. See also multiphase scan.

phase alternation line (PAL)
The television broadcast standard for European video outside of France and the countries of the former Soviet Union. See also NTSC format.

phase encoding
A magnetic recording method in which each storage cell is divided into two regions that are magnetized in opposite directions; the sequence of the magnetic direction indicates whether the binary character represented is 0 or 1.

Phase II negotiation
A negotiation that establishes Security Associations (SAs) that protect your data exchanges. A Phase II negotiation is governed by data policies.

Phase I negotiation
A negotiation that establishes the protection suite for the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) messages themselves. A Phase I negotiation determines how to protect a Phase II negotiation. A Phase I negotiation is governed by key policies.

phase limit
The maximum number of phases allowed in a scan. The limit is configurable.

See PCI host bridge.

See partitioned HDAM.

See personal health information.

See partitioned HIDAM.

A person who engages in a type of email fraud called phishing. See also phishing.

The act of tricking a user into providing personal or financial information by falsely claiming to be a legitimate entity. See also phisher.

phone locking
The act of limiting a handset to a specific service provider's network. For example, AT&T subsidizes the cost of a handset, and does not allow that handset to be used on Verizon's network. See also Global System for Mobile Communications, Subscriber Identity Module card.

phone recognition
Communicating with a computer using voice using a telephone, over a telephone line. The computer application recognizes what is said and takes appropriate action.

Relating to spoken language or speech sounds.

phonetic language
A written language in which separate symbols represent vowels and consonants. Examples of phonetic languages are English, Greek, and Russian. Contrast with ideographic language. See also ideographic language.

phonetic matching function
A method of indexing names and words that are spelled differently but are pronounced the same.

phonetic spelling (phs)
A transcription that shows the pronunciation of words.

phonological contraction
A form of compounding where a number of elements are pronounced as one, for example: 'wanna' is a phonological contraction of 'want to'.

See phototypesetter.

photoconductor (PC)
A light-sensitive material that transfers images to paper.

photoconductor gap
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, an opening on the drum surface through which the photoconductor is wrapped from the supply spool inside the drum, around the drum, and back through the opening on the drum surface to the takeup spool. The gap is sealed after the photoconductor is in place.

photo lineup
A presentation of photographs that are shown to a victim or witness of a crime. A photo lineup is used to identify potential suspects.

A printer or typesetting machine that creates graphic images and text by projecting light on a light-sensitive paper or film.

See PHP Hypertext Preprocessor.

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)
A widely used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.

See personal health record.


  1. One or more words that together form a unit that is to be searched for in the content of a document.
  2. An ordered set of one or more consecutive COBOL character strings that forms part of a clause or a Procedure Division statement.

phrase template
A pattern for the verbalization of a business element.

See phonetic spelling.

physical application
An application that was submitted to the runtime system. See also logical application, parallel transformation.

physical architecture
The embodiment of the physical arrangement of nodes in a system, the artifacts that are stored on each node, and the components and other elements that the artifacts implement. Nodes represent hardware devices such as computers, sensors, and printers, as well as other devices that support the runtime environment of a system. Communication paths and deploy relationships model the connections in the system.

physical asset
A physical data model element or an implemented data resource.

physical channel ID (PCHID)
A number assigned by a machine to a physical channel location.

physical child
In a database, a segment type that is dependent on a segment type defined at the next higher level in the database hierarchy. All segment types in a database, except the root, are physical children since each is dependent on at least the root.

physical circuit
A circuit established without multiplexing. See also data circuit, virtual circuit.

physical connection

  1. A connection that establishes an electrical circuit.
  2. See connection.

physical consistency
The state of a page that is not in a partially changed state.

physical count
The task of counting all items in storage at one time to verify the accuracy of system inventory records. Physical count is usually performed once or twice a year. All warehouse operations are shut down until the process is complete.

physical database
An ordered set of physical database records. See also logical database.

physical database record
In databases, a physical set of hierarchically related segments of one or more segment types. See also database record.

physical database record occurrence
An instance of a root segment and the hierarchical arrangement of all its dependent segment occurrences.

physical data block
A string of data elements or a group of records that is received, recorded, processed, or transmitted as a unit.

physical data model

  1. In DB2 data warehousing, a metadata model that represents the tables and other objects in a database.
  2. The data model that represents the design schema for the information assets by using the relational model approach. The physical data model is typically generated from the logical data model by using the same modeling tools, although it can be reverse engineered from an existing database. A physical data model can be implemented many times. The physical data model contains design tables, design stored procedures, and physical domains.

physical data resource (PDR)
See implemented data resource.

physical data structure
A hierarchy representing segment types and the hierarchic arrangement of those segment types in a physical database.

physical device (PDev)
An I/O device that is assigned to a logical partition and that is used directly.

physical disk I/O
In Performance Tools, a disk operation for reading or writing data.

physical file

  1. A database file that describes how data is to be presented or received from a program and how data is actually stored in the database. A physical file contains one record format and one or more members. See also logical file.
  2. An indexed file containing data for which one or more alternative indexes have been created.
  3. A file that is stored in one or more storage pools, consisting of either a single logical file, or a group of logical files that are packaged together as an aggregate. See also aggregate, logical file, physical occupancy.

physical file member
A named subset of the data records in a physical file.

physical file system (PFS)
The part of the operating system that handles the actual storage and manipulation of data on a storage medium.

physical format
The physical representation of a message within the bit stream. The supported physical formats are Custom Wire Format, XML Wire Format, and Tagged/Delimited String Format.

physical index
A component of a user-defined index over XML data. A physical index contains generated columns, which are keys that support the logical index, and it also contains the indexed document values. See also logical index.

physical interface
A device for a given system, such as an I/O adapter for a token-ring network or an Ethernet network, that provides the physical connection to a network.

physical kit

  1. A product that is a single item and that cannot be disintegrated into components. A physical kit is considered a finished product at the time of dispatch. For example, a cellular phone with its battery and handset is a preconfigured physical kit.
  2. A combination of multiple components that are not individually defined as catalog items. The item availability is only verified for the parent item, and not for the child items.

physical kit item
A single item that is not divided into components. It is considered a finished product at a node or at the time of dispatch.

physical layer

  1. The lowest layer of network design as specified by the ISO Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model. This layer is responsible for interfacing with the medium, detecting and generating signals on the medium, and converting and processing signals received from the medium and from the data link layer.
  2. The OSI layer that provides the mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural means to start, maintain, and deactivate physical connections for transmissions between data-link entities.

physical level
In X.25, a standard that defines the electrical, physical, functional, and procedural methods used to control the physical connection between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). See also data link level, packet level.

physical library
In relationship to a virtual tape server (VTS), a hardware enclosure consisting of one or more VTS libraries with each VTS being identified to the host as a separate library. Restrictions by the library manager may be set on an individual library basis or on a physical library basis, as is the case with import.

physical line
In NCP, the physical connection between NCP and an adjacent device or local area network (LAN). A single physical line, such as token-ring or frame-relay, can support multiple logical lines. See also logical line.

physical link
The actual hardware connection between two systems. See also logical link.

physical lock (P-lock)
A type of lock that DB2 acquires to provide consistency of data that is cached in different DB2 subsystems. Physical locks are used only in data sharing environments. See also logical lock.

physical log
A log that stores unmodified copies (before-image) of pages in shared memory. The pages in the physical log can be any database server page except a blobspace blobpage.

physical logging
The process of writing log records from the log buffers to the system log. See also logical logging.

physically complete
The state in which the concurrent copy process is completed and the output data set has been created.

physically partitioned mode
The state of a processor complex when its hardware resources are divided into multiple configurations.

physical map
A set of instructions telling BMS how to format a display for a given device. BMS does this by imbedding control characters in the data stream.

physical medium
A physical entity on which information is presented; for example, a sheet of paper, a roll of paper, microfilm, an envelope, label, or display screen. See also medium presentation space.

physical metadata layer
In the operational metadata model, a layer that contains metadata information from the data source. It also contains query subjects that represent the imported tables and relationships between them.

physical network
A network of machines linked by physical network cabling, modems, or other hardware. A physical network can contain one or several logical networks.

physical occupancy
The amount of space that is used by physical files in a storage pool. This space includes the unused space that is created when logical files are deleted from aggregates. See also logical file, logical occupancy, physical file.

physical output device
A physical device that stores, prints, or displays data, such as a terminal, disk file, line printer, or nonimpact printer.

physical page

  1. In printing, a single surface (front or back) of a form.
  2. In MFS, all or part of a logical page that is defined to be entered (input) or displayed (output) at one time.
  3. In COBOL, a device-dependent concept defined by the action taken by a printer when a new page is requested.

physical paging
An MFS facility that permits data from a logical page to be displayed in several physical pages on the device.

physical parent
In a database, a segment type that has a dependent segment type defined at the next lower level in the physical database hierarchy.

physical partition

  1. Part of a central processing complex (CPC) that operates as a CPC in its own right, with its own copy of the operating system.
  2. A set of hardware resources, formed by partitioning, that can support a single operating system.
  3. The smallest unit of disk-space allocation for a logical volume. The physical partition is contiguous space on a physical volume. A fixed-size portion of a physical volume. One or more physical partitions constitute the underlying physical storage medium for a logical partition.

physical path
A single path through the I/O interconnection fabric that attaches two units. For Copy Services, this is the path from a host adapter on one ESS (through cabling and switches) to a host adapter on another ESS.

physical planner
The person in an organization who plans the environmental, electrical, and space requirements for the facility.

physical platform
An IBM Director managed object that represents a single physical chassis or server that has been discovered through the use of the Service Location Protocol (SLP).

physical point of attachment (PPA)
The point at which a system attaches itself to a physical communications medium.

physical printable area
In architecture, a bounded area defined on a side of a sheet within which printing can take place. The physical printable area is an attribute of sheet size and printer capabilities, and cannot be altered by the host. The physical printable area is mapped to the medium presentation space, and is used in user printable area and valid printable area calculations. See also user printable area, valid printable area.

physical record
Metadata describing a physical object, such as paper, tapes, or CDs.

physical recovery
Restoring a facility to its status at the time of failure.

physical relationship
In a database, the description of the relationship that exists between two or more physical segments.

physical resource
In OSI, any resource of a computer available to do work, such as the processor, main storage, or a line. See also logical resource.

physical security
The protective measures that restrict access to a site, provide stability through hardware redundancy, and ensure network restoration in case of an outage or disaster.

physical segment
In a database, the smallest unit of accessible data.

physical sensor
A hardware sensor that is used for monitoring and is usually assigned to the zone it is physically located in.

physical sensor installer
A person who installs Presence Zones and trains users.

physical sequential
See sequential data set.

physical services header (PSH)
An X.25 protocol used by IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) data terminal equipment (DTE). Physical services header provides address services for physically connected systems or devices. The System i family does not support PSH. See also enhanced logical link control, Qualified Logical Link Control.

physical storage
With respect to data, the actual space on a storage device that is to contain data. See also logical storage.

physical terminal (PTERM)
A hardware device attached to the computer and supported by the DC feature as a terminal. A physical terminal usually has one or more logical terminals associated with it.

physical twins
In a database, all occurrences of a single physical child segment type that have the same (single occurrence) physical parent segment type. See also logical twins, twin segments.

physical unit (PU)

  1. The component that manages and monitors the resources (such as attached links and adjacent link stations) associated with a node, as requested by an SSCP via an SSCP-PU session. An SSCP activates a session with the physical unit in order to indirectly manage, through the PU, resources of the node such as attached links. This term applies to type 2.0, type 4, and type 5 nodes only.
  2. In SNA, one of three types of network addressable units (NAUs). A PU exists in each node of an SNA network to manage and monitor, at the request of a system services control point logical unit (SSCP-LU) session, the resources (such as attached links and adjacent link stations) of a node. See also control point.

physical unit service
In SNA, the components within a physical unit that provide configuration services and maintenance services for SSCP-PU sessions.

physical unit type (PU type)
In SNA, the classification of a physical unit according to the type of node in which it resides. The physical unit type is the same as its node type; that is, a type 1 physical unit resides in a type 1 node, and so on.

physical view
A view of the physical resources and their location, grouped by environments.

physical volume (PV)

  1. The portion of a single unit of storage accessible to a single read/write mechanism, for example, a drum, a disk pack, or part of a disk storage module.
  2. A volume that has a one-to-one association with physical tape media and is used directly by z/OS applications. Physical volumes may reside in an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) or be kept on shelf storage either at vault sites or within the data center where they can be mounted on stand-alone tape drives.

physical volume pool
A set of stacked volumes on a virtual tape server (VTS) that groups physical volumes with common characteristics.

physical volume status
A relationship between a volume and the storage management subsystem (SMS) that indicates whether a volume is managed by SMS, whether all of its data sets have an associated storage class, and whether all of its data sets are cataloged in an integrated catalog facility (ICF) catalog. A volume can be in one of three states: fully converted, partially converted, or unconverted. See also volume status.

See program isolation.

A unit of about 1/6 inch used in measuring typographical material.


  1. To retrieve an item from a location in a warehouse and set it aside to be packaged for shipping.
  2. In architecture, a match between the pick window and a graphics primitive during correlation.

Pertaining to SKUs that are available for picking, packing, and shipping.

pickable segment
In architecture, a segment whose graphics primitives are eligible to be picked during correlation.

pick batch
A group of releases that are managed as a unit in a fulfillment center.

picked container
A container that is filled with products that are gathered in preparation for shipping.

picket fence bar code
See horizontal bar code.

pick identifier
In architecture, an identifier put at a particular position in a drawing order sequence so that the position of a pick in the picture chain can be easily recognized.

In computer graphics, a method for finding out what primitives are being drawn near the cursor on the display screen.

picking region
A rectangular volume around the cursor that is sensitive to picking events. If a drawing primitive draws within this volume, a pick event is reported. The width and height of the region can be set by the user. If the z-buffer is enabled, the depth of the region is the entire z-buffer.

pick list

  1. A listing of line items to be picked to satisfy a customer order. This printable list is used to locate and select the necessary items to fulfill an order.
  2. A list of cell values available to a user when entering data into a cell.
  3. A data category that has a limited number of permissible values, which are often presented in a drop-down list in the user interface.

pick location
The location from where inventory is gathered in preparation for shipping.

pick location assignment (PLA)
The assignment of the warehouse location or locations to the demand placed. PLA is defined at a shipment group level and can be shared across multiple shipment groups.

A picking method that combines the picking and packing tasks through picking an item from a location and placing it directly into the shipping container for the customer of that order.

pick packer
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that picks products from fulfillment centers and packs the products for shipping to customers. The pick packer also manages pick tickets and packing slips which are used to confirm shipment of products during order fulfillment. See also logistics manager.

pick ticket

  1. A printed document containing a list of all the products required to fulfill the releases in a given pick batch. This document is used by pickers to gather the products that must be packaged and shipped for all of the releases included in the pick batch.
  2. A sheet containing the list of items that need to be pulled from inventory to fill an order.

A picking strategy that assigns picking locations for an order in a way to empty as many locations as possible.

A method of picking that is sequenced by a system of controlled lights that guide the warehouse operator through the pick sequence.

pick window
In architecture, a region of a graphics presentation space that is used for correlation. A pick window has specified characteristics; for example, position in a graphics presentation space, size.

See Platform for Internet Content Selection.

See icon.

A pixmap used for displaying AIX Common Desktop Environment icons, background patterns, and controls.

picture chain
See segment chain.

picture element (pel, pixel)

  1. The smallest printable or displayable unit that can be displayed. A common measurement of device resolution is picture elements per inch.
  2. An element of a raster pattern about which a toned area on a photoconductor can appear.

picture exchange file (PCX)
A file that contains a graphic in the PCX graphics file format.

picture space
In the GDDM function, the area of the page that contains the graphics.

picture string
A character string used to specify the date and time.


  1. See process identification number.
  2. See process ID.
  3. See product identifier.
  4. See persistent identifier.

See Printer Inventory Definition Utility.

See Petroleum Industry Data Exchange.

A data set of a nonpartitioned page set.

piecewise linear curve
A list of coordinate pairs in the parameter space for the Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surface. These points are connected with straight lines to form a path.

piecewise linear function
A nonlinear function that can be represented by a sequence of segments of linear functions.

pie chart
A circle graph used for comparing the parts of a whole to the whole. The area of the circle represents the whole, and the areas of the sectors of the circle represent the parts.

See program interface.


  1. The process of combining receipts and error messages with a user message unit or within a user message unit.
  2. When data is sent between two NCPs or between an NCP and a link-attached station, the process of combining a PIU and an acknowledgment for a PIU that was previously sent.

pig role
In agile development, the key participants in scrum development. This includes the product owner, the scrum master, and the team. See also chicken role, scrum.


  1. See program integrated information.
  2. See Program Integrated Information.
  3. See personally identifiable information.

pilot test
A pre-deployment test of new functions with limited use, limited data, and limited scope, to determine that the functions and their related processes and procedures work properly.

See product information management.

See personal identification number.


  1. Part of an electrical connection.
  2. To highlight or prioritize an important item in a community.
  3. An area of memory reserved for certain functions.
  4. One of the connectors in an adapter plug.
  5. For BlackBerry devices, to send a PIN-to-PIN message. See also personal identification number.
  6. To attach an object, such as a file or a bookmarklet, to a profile.

A display that consists of traffic-lighted pins placed on a background image. A pinboard is used to provide a map with pins associated with each of the regions, states, or areas in the databases.

To change the amount of space between two (or more) fingers on a touchscreen. Pinching can refer to either a pinch in or pinch out gesture. See also gesture, multi-touch, pinch in, pinch out.

pinch closed
See also gesture, pinch.

PIN check length
In Cryptographic Support, the number of digits from the personal identification number that are verified.

pinch in
To decrease the space between two fingers on a touchscreen. Typically, pinching in results in zooming out. See also gesture, pinch.

pinch out
To increase the space between two fingers on a touchscreen. Typically, pinching out results in zooming in. See also gesture, pinch.


  1. A job that tracks the availability of assets and that is performed by an agent. Several ping jobs can be used to monitor the availability of any computer or subset of computers in the network.
  2. A utility used to test a path from one host computer to another across an IP-based network.
  3. The command that sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo-request packet to a gateway, router, or host with the expectation of receiving a reply.

ping command
A command that sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo-request packet to a gateway, router, or host with the expectation of receiving a reply.

ping-of-death attack
An attack that involves sending a ping packet that is larger than the maximum IP packet size of 65536 bytes, which can overload a system.

pinnable state
A state from an AccessProfile widget that can be combined to the main AccessProfile to reuse the AccessProfile widget function.

pinned data
Data that is held in cached storage control, due to a permanent error condition, until it can be destaged to a direct access storage device (DASD) or until it is explicitly discarded by a host command. Pinned data exists only when using fast write, dual copy, or remote copy functions.

pinned memory
A page in memory that is always available for the applications that are in physical memory.

PIN-to-PIN message
Unique to the BlackBerry OS and BBX mobile operating systems, to send an instant messages as an email from one PIN to another on the BlackBerry network.

PIN-to-PIN messaging
Unique to the BlackBerry OS and BBX mobile operating systems, PIN-to-PIN messaging sends instant messages as emails from one PIN to another on the BlackBerry network.

PIN translation
In Cryptographic Support, the conversion of a personal identification number (PIN) encrypted under an input PIN-protection key to encryption under an output PIN-protection key.

PIN-validation key
In Cryptographic Support, a key-encrypting key used to encrypt the validation data in the process of creating a customer's personal identification number (PIN).

A system used in the People's Republic of China to phonetically render Chinese ideograms in a Latin alphabet.


  1. See program initialization parameter.
  2. See policy information point.
  3. See prepare in progress.
  4. See problem isolation procedure.

PIP data area
A 2000-byte data area that is associated with each prestart job. The PIP data area is used to hold program initialization parameters that are passed on the program start request to the prestart job.


  1. In UNIX-based operating systems, a connective symbol used between two commands on a command line, indicating that the output from the preceding command is to be used as the input for the following command.
  2. To direct the data so that the output from one process becomes the input to another process. The standard output of one command can be connected to the standard input of another with the pipe operator. Two commands connected in this way constitute a pipeline.
  3. An interprocess communication mechanism that connects an output file descriptor to an input file descriptor. Usually the standard output of one process is connected to the standard input of another, forming a pipeline.
  4. A one-way communication path between a sending process and a receiving process.


  1. In printers, the hardware path between the channel station or received-page station and the stacker.
  2. A graphical representation of the application version, gate, and environment status of a release.
  3. To start execution of an instruction sequence before the previous instruction sequence is completed to increase processing speed.
  4. A series of transactions and statuses that guide document types, such as Sales Order and Purchase Order, through a related process.
  5. A serial arrangement of processors or a serial arrangement of registers within a processor. Each processor or register performs part of a task and passes results to the next processor; several parts of different tasks can be performed at the same time.
  6. A component that ingests structured UMF data and performs name standardization, data quality management, address hygiene, and entity resolution. The pipeline also generates alerts, based on the system configurations. See also address hygiene, data quality management, entity resolution, name standardization, pipeline node.
  7. A message processing procedure that consists of one or more programs known as stages.
  8. A direct, one-way connection between two or more processes.
  9. A sequence of message handler programs and, optionally, header-processing programs, that are run to handle a web service request. See also pipeline configuration file.
  10. To perform processes in series.

pipeline configuration file
An XML document that specifies the configuration of either a service requester pipeline or a service provider pipeline that handles a web service request. See also pipeline.

pipeline determination
A graphical configuration tool designed to set up conditions for which pipelines will be used in the business process workflow. For example, an organization uses pipeline determination to configure a condition that determines whether order lines contain hazardous materials, and then sends the order line down the correct pipeline.

pipeline node
The physical machine that contains one or more running pipeline processes. See also pipeline.

A feature that allows the output of a program as it is displayed on the screen to be used as input to another program without reentering the data on the keyboard.

In optical recording, a microscopic hole that is in the information layer of a videodisc surface made by the recording laser beam. Recorded information is contained in the pits.


  1. The number of characters printed per inch.
  2. A unit of measurement for the width of type (or a printed character), based on the number of characters that can be set (or printed) in one linear inch; for example, 10-pitch has 10 characters per inch. Uniformly spaced fonts are measured in pitch. See also point.

See path information unit.


  1. A method of rearranging data in a data set to reveal patterns in the data.
  2. An element in the tableau representation of a linear problem that is used in an iteration of the simplex algorithm and held constant while certain other elements in the table are set to zero. This makes it possible to determine whether a variable should enter the basis.
  3. To treat multiple table columns as though they were a single column with multiple values. The specified table columns rotate through 90 degrees to form rows. See also rotate.

pivot grid
An area of the screen that is used to view and interact with the XBRL instance data.

pivot table

  1. A data array in which the various elements can be moved along the X and Y axes to produce a different aggregate view.
  2. A data summarization tool that can automatically sort, count, and total data stored in tables and display the summarized data. Pivot tables are useful to quickly create crosstabs to display the joint distribution of two or more variables. Typically, with a pivot table the user sets up and changes the summary's structure by dragging and dropping fields graphically.
  3. A table characterized by having one metric as a column dimension and all the rest of the metrics represented as row dimensions.

See picture element.

pixel map (pixmap)

  1. In the X Window System, a data type to which icons, originally created as bitmaps, are converted.
  2. A three-dimensional array of bits. A pixel map can be thought of as a two-dimensional array of pixels, with each pixel being a value from zero to 2 to the power N -1, where N is the depth of the pixel map.

pixel value
In Enhanced X-Windows, the number of bit planes used in a particular window or pixmap. For a window, a pixel value indexes a color map and derives an actual color to be displayed. A pixel is an N-bit value, where N is the number of bit planes (the depth) used in a particular window or pixmap.

See pixel map.

See public key algorithm.

See Public Key Cryptography Standards.

See public key infrastructure.

PKI bridge
A MobileFirst Server concept that enables the User Certificate Authentication framework to communicate with a PKI.

See pick location assignment.

A virtual location that is visible in the portal where individuals and groups meet to collaborate. In a portal, each user has a personal place for private work, and individuals and groups have access to a variety of shared places, which can be either public places or restricted places. See also Lotus QuickPlace place.

place designer
A member of a place who can edit place layout and bookmarks. See also participant, place manager.


  1. A redacted version of an item that is displayed to the user in situations where displaying the full item is not possible or not permitted. See also cloaked item, signpost message.
  2. The symbol, consisting of a single period in a REXX parsing template, that can be replaced by a value while running a REXX program. A placeholder has the same effect as a variable name, except that no variable is set.
  3. An object, component or file that only exists to mark the position of an intended entity.
  4. A variable that is replaced with a value.

place manager
A member of a place who can edit place membership, layout, and bookmarks. See also participant, place designer.

place member
A individual or group who has joined or been granted access to a place. Place members have three levels of access to a place: manager, designer, and participant.

place operation
In AFP Utilities, an operation that defines a page segment or a record layout in an AFP resource.

plain old Java object (POJO)
An ordinary Java object, as distinguished from a special Java object, such as an enterprise bean or an entity bean.

plain text

  1. See cleartext.
  2. In cryptography, any message that is not encrypted.


  1. The means of scheduling jobs. Objects in the database become instances in the plan. See also ad hoc job, explorer view, forecast plan, graph view, impact view.
  2. A feature that is offered by service providers for various telecom services.
  3. The packaging construct by which APIs are made available to consumers. A plan makes available a collection of resources or operations from one or more APIs, and is published to communities of application developers.

plan allocation
The process of allocating DB2 for z/OS resources to a plan in preparation to execute it.

A hardware part that has (in one or more planes) logic paths, low-voltage distribution paths, or grounding paths of a section of a machine.

plan component
The autonomic manager component that structures the actions needed to achieve goals. See also autonomic manager.


  1. A bitmap, or bit plane, in a pixmap or in a window that is viewed as a stack of bitmaps.
  2. In FD:OCA, a two-dimensional subarray consisting of all elements that have an identical position within a given dimension of a regular three-dimensional array.

plan member
The bound copy of a database request module (DBRM) that is identified in the member clause.

plan name
The name of an application plan.

planned accessorial
An accessorial charge that is assigned to shipments automatically. When a planned accessorial is assigned to a contract, the accessorial charge is applied to every shipment that uses the contract.

planned arrival window
A time window for a carrier to deliver the freight at a destination.

planned departure window
A time window for a carrier to pick up the freight at an origin.

planned downtime
Time when equipment is scheduled to be down and available for maintenance work. The calendar of an asset is used to calculate downtime.

planned maintenance
See preventive maintenance.

planned remote takeover
In an RSR environment, a remote takeover initiated by the IMS operator as part of shutting down the IMSs at the active site in order to transfer the active IMS workload to the remote site. See also remote takeover.

planned start time
The time that IBM Workload Scheduler estimates a job instance will start. This estimate is based on start times of previous instances of the job. See also actual start time, earliest start time, latest start time, scheduled time.

planned takeover
In XRF, a planned shutdown of the active system, and takeover by the alternate system, for maintenance or operational reasons.

A person who enters data in the Contributor application in the web client.

planning coordinator
The person in an organization who is responsible for coordinating all the planning and installation activities for a print.

planning drawing
A drawing that is based on a request for changes to a current floor plan, building plan, or set of spaces.

planning environment
A time-based approved portfolio or space plan that is the planning data for implementations or forward looking metrics. An approved scenario updates the planning environment to reflect the new or updated plan.

planning period
A data element that defines a set of named time intervals. These periods are aligned with fiscal periods to establish a time-based dimension for all planning data.

plan phase
Business transformation operations process (BTOP) phase which develops project plan, commits schedules and resources (fINAL pROJECT pRoposal, IPMT and PDT contract), and releases funds for next two phases.

plan snapshot
A record of the schedule, state, and content, including any subplans, of a plan at a particular time.

plan status
The status of a shipment during the tendering process, such as unplanned, tendered, or covered. See also shipment status.


  1. A facility that operates as a manufacturer or supplier of products.
  2. A physical location where goods are manufactured.

See license plate.


  1. The combination of an operating system and hardware that makes up the operating environment in which a program runs.
  2. Any base of software technologies on which applications or services can be provided; for example, the Eclipse platform.

platform as a service (PaaS)
The delivery of a computing platform, including applications, optimized middleware, development tools, and Java and Web 2.0 runtime environments, in a cloud-based environment.

Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)
A specification that enables Internet users to filter the material they encounter when they surf the web. Users can accept or reject the material according to its ratings. This specification enables parents, businesses, schools, or discerning individuals to block access to inappropriate and objectionable material.

Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification that enables websites to define their privacy practices in a standard format. For more information, see the P3P project website (http://www.w3.org/P3P/). See also P3P compact policy.

platform management
The subset of systems management focused on hardware and virtualization management.

A technique in which a history of all or part of a program is recorded. The recording allows the user to regenerate the input and output in either the forward or backward direction. This technique is used in debugging.

playback policy
A policy that consists of instructions to play back a recorded transaction and collect performance data. See also record and playback.

playback sequence
A series of characters or function keys assigned to a single function key to be used instead of typing the sequence each time.

See private loop direct attach.

See product line engineering.

A space used for environmental air; for example, the space above a suspended ceiling.

plenum cable
A cable that is listed by the Underwriters Laboratory (UL) as having adequate fire resistance and low smoke-producing characteristics for installation without conduit in ducts, plenums, and other spaces used for environmental air, as permitted by National Electrical Code Articles 725-2(b) and 800-3(d).

A Printing Systems Manager (PSM) attribute that is used for defining the capability of a printer to support different placements of output images on a medium. For example, the plex attribute could specify whether the printer is to support simplex or tumble mode.

A procedure-oriented language designed for solving complex scientific problems or for running complicated business applications.

PL/I for System i
An IBM PRPQ that is a high-level language available on the server. The PL/I for System i PRPQ is capable of handling a large variety of data structures and easily allows variation of precision in numeric computation.

An array of pointers with a suite of operations for adding and removing elements in various ways.

See physical lock.

See port login.

To represent graphically on a medium.

A device that uses one or more pens to draw images with lines on paper or other media.

See pageable link pack area.


  1. See priority level resource.
  2. See program library release.

See Procedural Language SQL.

See program list table.

See primary logical unit.

Plug and Play
An Intel standard for the design of PC expansion boards. It enables computers to recognize new peripheral devices without additional configuration steps.

Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM)
A programming interface that enables third-party security methods to be used. PAM enables multiple types of authentication, such as Kerberos and the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithm, to be used without changing login services.

pluggable localization pack
An installable localization pack that can be used by the program along with existing localization packs.


  1. A dynamically loadable library that a DB2 database management system uses to carry out user-written actions that involve the database.
  2. A stage that is used to connect to data sources but that does not support parallel processing capabilities. See also connector.
  3. A separately installable software module that adds function to an existing program, application, or interface.

plug-in support
A part of the server that adds client/server function and tools to the System i Navigator tree and enhances existing System i Navigator functions.

A layer of paper.


  1. See preventive maintenance record.
  2. See project manager.

See Policy Management for Autonomic Computing.

PM Agent
See Performance Management Agent.

PM alert
A message that indicates that a preventive maintenance work order is about to become due for an asset or location. See also preventive maintenance record.

See Print Management Facility.

PMF export format
An external representation of PMF internal font components. For example, character sets do not contain the actual character shapes, but reference character groups that do.

PM for System i5
See Performance Management for System i5.


  1. See project management institute.
  2. See Performance Monitoring Infrastructure.
  3. See performance monitor interface.

See protocol-specific MPTN manager.

See Predictive Model Markup Language.

pmode document
See processing mode document.

See preventive maintenance package.

See problem management record.

PM schedule
See preventive maintenance schedule.

See programmable operator message exchange.

See primary node.

See purchase order.


  1. A digital recording of a radio broadcast or similar program, made available on the Internet for downloading to a personal audio player. See also streaming.
  2. To publish audio files, typically in MP3 or WMA format, along with news feeds so that listeners can download them and listen to them on their computer or portable digital audio player. See also streaming.


  1. See Proof of Entitlement.
  2. See Parallel Operating Environment.

See program operator interface.


  1. In GOCA, a parameter that specifies the position within the drawing order coordinate space. See also pitch.
  2. A unit of measurement used mainly for describing type sizes. Each pica has 12 points, and an inch has approximately 72 points. See also point size.
  3. The numeric value that is assigned to an attribute based on the value of the attribute and the interval in which the value is included.
  4. In printing, in the didot point system, a unit of 0.0147 inch. There are 12 didot points to the cicero. Before present technology (circa mid-1970s), a point was not so precise: in the Monotype system, a point was 0.0138 inches (72 points = 0.996 inches); in the Linotype system, a point was 0.014 inches (72 points = 1.008 inches).
  5. The second byte of a DBCS code, which uniquely identifies double-byte characters in the same ward. See also ward.

point and shoot utility
A utility that allows the user to select specific rows from a start table to be used in a process request.

point asset
An asset whose length or measure is not integral to its maintenance, such as an airplane or a train car. See also linear asset.

point difference
The upper limit in a given interval for an attribute that is ultimately used to determine reason code assignment. Typically, this limit is used for linear and logistic models where the interaction of variables is controlled.


  1. The symbol shown on a display or window that a user can move with a pointing device, such as a mouse.
  2. A data element or variable that holds the address of a data object or a function. See also scalar.

pointer alignment
The COBOL compiler's process of positioning pointer items within a group item to offsets that are multiples of 16 bytes from the beginning of the record.

pointer class
A class that implements pointers.

pointer data item
In the COBOL program, a data item in which address values can be stored. Pointer data items can be compared for equality or moved to other pointer data items.

pointer grabbing
An active grab of the pointer by a client so that button and motion events are sent to that client rather than the client to which the events would normally have been sent.

pointer to member
An identifier that is used to access the address of nonstatic members of a C++ class.

pointer type
A data type that defines variables containing addresses and, sometimes, other information about variables.


  1. The action of lining up the mouse pointer so that the pointer lies on top of something.
  2. The action of positioning the pointing cursor on a displayed object.

pointing device
An instrument, such as a mouse, used to move a pointer on the display.

point-in-time copy
The instantaneous copy that the FlashCopy service makes of the source volume. See also FlashCopy service.

point-in-time recovery
A process whereby a set of data can be recovered from a time in the past and rolled forward to the target time.

point-in-time table
In SQL replication, a type of replication target table whose content matches all or part of a source table, with an added column that identifies the approximate time when a particular row was inserted or updated at the source system.

point of consistency
A time when all of the recoverable data that a program accesses is consistent. The point of consistency occurs when updates, insertions, and deletions are either committed to a physical database or rolled back. See also commit point, roll back.

point of contact server
In the context of a federation, a proxy or application server that is the first entity to process a request for access to a resource.

point of presence (PoP)

  1. A physical location that stores servers and routers in a network cloud.
  2. A system that has been identified as a contact point for another subnetwork for the purposes of collecting topology information.

Pertaining to a system that has been identified as a contact point for another subnetwork for the purposes of collecting topology information.

point of recovery
In WebSphere MQ for z/OS, a set of backup copies of WebSphere MQ for z/OS page sets and the corresponding log data sets required to recover these page sets. These backup copies provide a potential restart point in the event of page set loss (for example, page set I/O error).

point-of-sale (POS)
In retail communications and Point-of-Sale Utility, pertaining to a method of providing information to support sales and of collecting the resulting sales information from retail devices located in stores.

point-of-sale device
In retail communications and Point-of-Sale Utility, a device that, together with the store controller, provides retail transaction, data collection, credit authorization, price information, and other inquiry and data entry functions.

point-of-sale system
In retail communications and Point-of-Sale Utility, a retail environment system consisting of a store controller and one or more point-of-sale devices.

Point-of-Sale Utility
The IBM licensed program that provides connectivity between the system and retail controllers. In addition, the licensed program provides file conversion capabilities through the retail file conversion system.

point size
The height of a font in points. See also point.

point-to-multipoint network
A network in which there are many hosts directly attached within the scope of a single network ID.


  1. Pertaining to a style of messaging application in which the sending application knows the destination of the message.
  2. Pertaining to data transmission between two locations without the use of any intermediate display station or computer.
  3. A Fibre Channel topology that employs direct links between each pair of communicating entities. See also switched fabric.

point-to-point communication
A communication operation that involves exactly two processes or tasks. One process initiates the communication through a send operation. The partner process issues a receive operation to accept the data being sent.

point-to-point connection
A network configuration in which a connection or transmission channel is established between two, and only two, circuits.

point-to-point line
A communications line that connects a single remote station to a computer. See also multipoint line.

point-to-point link
In networking, a direct communication link between two nodes in a network.

point-to-point network

  1. An arrangement where two devices share the same transmission line at the same time. See also multipoint line, multipoint network.
  2. A network arrangement made up of point-to-point links.

point-to-point profile
A set of data that is used to establish a point-to-point link.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
A data-link protocol for communication between two computers that use a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by telephone line to a server.

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
A network protocol used to connect one or more computers to the Internet through a shared modem. The protocol is based on the common standards PPP and Ethernet.

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
A protocol that allows for the encapsulation of data packets for one network protocol in packets used by another protocol. As a result, TCP/IP data can be transmitted over a non-TCP/IP network, which allows for secure communications over virtual private networks.

point-to-point virtual Ethernet
A virtual Ethernet network that is used for communication between a System i product and an integrated Windows server.

point-to-point wiring
A method of wiring a network by which wires are run between terminals or components of the network using the shortest route.

poison message
In a queue, an incorrectly formatted message that the receiving application cannot process. The message can be repeatedly delivered to the input queue and repeatedly backed out by the application.

poison reverse
A technique for minimizing the time to achieve network convergence. After a connection disappears, the router advertising the connection retains the routing table entry for several update periods and specifies an infinite cost in its broadcasts.

See plain old Java object.

In social media, to send a notification to a friend.

In QoS, the process of discarding packets (by a dropper) within a traffic stream according to the state of a corresponding meter that enforces a traffic profile.


  1. A piece of configuration that controls some aspect of processing in the gateway during the handling of an API invocation. Policies are the building blocks of assembly flows and provide the means to configure capability, such as security, logging, caching, routing of requests to target services, and transformation of data from one format to another. Policies can be configured in the context of an API or in the context of a plan.
  2. The set of characteristics that defines the behavior of a runtime artifact. See also business glossary, information governance policy.
  3. See information governance rule.
  4. A set of rules and actions that are required to be performed when certain events or status conditions occur in an environment.
  5. A list of file-placement and service-class rules that define characteristics and placement of files. Several policies can be defined within the configuration, but only one policy set is active at one time. See also file-management policy, file-placement policy, file-placement rule.
  6. A document that sets forth high-level statements of how changes, releases, or other processes are to be managed, organized, and performed.
  7. In QoS, the combination of rules and services. The rules define the criteria for traffic treatment, network resource access, and use.
  8. In the Backup, Recovery, and Media Services licensed program, a named or otherwise identifiable set of controls used by Backup, Recovery, and Media Services to manage and control specific operations. A policy is an overriding value that is carried in tables for use as a default in processing backup, recovery, archive, and media management operations.
  9. A set of considerations that influence the behavior of a managed resource or a user. See also policy expression.

policy activator
A service that runs a specified policy at intervals that the user defines.

policy administration point (PAP)
A capability that provides enterprise service-oriented architecture (SOA) policy administration capabilities, such as policy creation, modification, storage, and distribution.

policy assertion
A requirement, preference, or capability of a managed resource. See also Web Services Policy Framework.

Policy-based Management
A core capability of the IBM Autonomic Computing Initiative that addresses the need to simplify the management of products and complex systems. See also Policy Management for Autonomic Computing.

policy collection
An unconstrained group of policies.

policy collection analysis
The process of examining the properties of the policies in a policy collection and determining the relationships that exist between the policies in a policy collection.

policy-controlled mediation
A mediation that has dynamic properties that are controlled by mediation policies.

policy decision point (PDP)
A capability that decides, based on environmental conditions, which predefined policies in the environment should be enforced. For example, a policy decision point might use a requester identity to determine whether to limit access to a resource.

policy definition tool
An interface that is used to create, deploy, and otherwise manage policies.

policy distribution target (PDT)
A policy decision component from which a policy decision point can access a policy.

policy document
An XML document that contains the policies that have the same scope.

policy domain

  1. A grouping of policy users with one or more policy sets, which manage data or storage resources for the users. The users are client nodes that are associated with the policy domain. See also active policy set, domain.
  2. For System Storage Archive Manager collections, a grouping of rules for the management of security, retention, and storage.

Policy Editor
The Policy Management for Autonomic Computing graphical user interface (GUI) that is used to create, deploy, and otherwise manage policies. The Policy Editor is implemented using the Integrated Solutions Console.

policy editor storage
A component in a policy-enabled system that stores policies and notifies autonomic managers when one or more policies are marked for deployment or are removed.

policy enforcement point (PEP)
A capability that enforces policy decisions maybe by a policy decision point. For example, a policy enforcement point would permit or deny a requester access to a resource depending on what the policy decision point determined is the correct action.

policy engine

  1. A feature that automates the tasks that the user specifies in the policy scripting language.
  2. A component of Tivoli Intelligent Orchestrator that collects data and makes decisions on when to deploy servers based on defined thresholds.

policy evaluation engine
The component of a autonomic manager that selects policies, evaluates policies, and returns the decisions that are contained within policies. Because different autonomic managers can have different policy evaluation engines, more than one policy evaluation engine can exist within a policy-enabled system.

policy evaluation set
A group of policies that are assembled by an autonomic manager in response to a request for a decision or for some information (such as captions) from the policies.

policy expression
A representation of a policy. See also policy.

policy form
See policy grammar.

policy governor
An API object in Rational Asset Manager that manages a set of policies.

policy grammar
The detailed specifications for the syntax of a policy.

policy group
All or a subset of policies within a given scope.

policy handle
The unique identifier of a policy document.

policy information point (PIP)
A policy decision component that provides additional information about a request.

policy logger
The service that writes messages to the policy log.

Policy Management for Autonomic Computing (PMAC)
The core technology of the IBM Autonomic Computing initiative that provides a standard policy definition and management infrastructure, which enables self-management capabilities and dynamic configuration of systems in an on demand environment. See also Policy-based Management.

policy manager
A decision management user role who is responsible for enforcing decisions through the creation and maintenance of rules.

policy privilege class
A privilege class that gives an administrator the authority to manage policy objects, register client nodes, and schedule client operations for client nodes. Authority can be restricted to certain policy domains. See also privilege class.

policy region
A group of managed resources that share one or more common policies and which model the management or organizational structure of a network computing environment. Administrators use policy regions to group similar resources, to define access to the resources, to control the resources, and to associate rules for governing the resources.

policy rule

  1. A declarative, IF-THEN statement containing the precondition, which can consist of multiple Boolean clauses, and the decision for a policy.
  2. A programming statement within a policy that defines a specific action to be performed.
  3. A rule in a processing policy that consists of a matching rule and a processing rule.

policy set

  1. A collection of assertions about how services are defined, which can be used to simplify security configurations.
  2. A group of rules in a policy domain. The rules specify how data or storage resources are automatically managed for client nodes in the policy domain. Rules can be contained in management classes. See also active policy set, management class.
  3. The collection of policies within a policy group that share the same decision name. See also decision name.

policy setting
A document added to a policy that specifies standard client behavior for a set of features, for example, security or mail features. 

policy signature
The set of decision inputs and decision outputs that are specific to a decision name. Policy signatures are used by decision points.

policy specification
Information stored as an attribute of an object in the content store that defines what users and groups are authorized to use the object, and in what capacity.

policy subregion
In a Tivoli environment, a policy region created or residing in another policy region. When a policy subregion is created, it initially uses the resource and policy properties of the parent policy region. The Tivoli administrator can later change or customize these properties to reflect the specific needs and differences of the subregion.

policy template
A predefined policy form that helps users define a policy by providing the fixed policy elements that cannot be changed and the variable policy elements that can be changed.

policy validation
The process of ensuring that each individual policy is valid. In Policy Management for Autonomic Computing, each policy is checked to ensure that it is syntactically correct and that it references only valid sensors and effectors.


  1. To run a polling sequence.
  2. A feature that allows a meeting moderator to send a question to the meeting participants. The moderator can view the results of the poll and show the results to everyone else in the meeting.
  3. To repeatedly request data from a server.
  4. In Managed System Services, to query devices to determine operational status and to collect system data.
  5. To determine if any remote device on a communications line is ready to send data.
  6. In data communications, an interrogation that determines whether a station is ready to transmit information.

polled methodology
An internal process that uses a time interval to establish when to query the queue manager for data.

A protocol handler that polls the remote database, queue, or server to retrieve messages.


  1. A feature that allows the meeting moderator to send a question to the meeting participants. The moderator can view the results of the poll and show the results to everyone else in the meeting.
  2. Interrogation of devices for such purposes as avoiding contention, determining operational status, or determining readiness to send or receive data.
  3. The process whereby stations are invited, one at a time, to transmit.

polling interval

  1. The frequency at which data is collected from the device resources such as CPU and memory.
  2. The time between the start of each polling session for this system.
  3. The period that elapses between the automatic refresh of the data displayed on a map.

polling list
A list of addresses that the host system uses to control the polling of control units or devices on a BSC or SDLC multipoint line. A general polling list contains the addresses of the control units only; a specific polling list contains the addresses of the devices, which include the addresses of the control units.

In the GDDM function, a curve based on a sequence of lines. A polyfillet is a curved line that is tangent to the end points of the first and last lines and tangent to the midpoints of all other lines.

In the GDDM function, a sequence of adjoining straight lines that enclose an area.


  1. A continuous set of lines that are created sequentially.
  2. In computer graphics, a sequence of adjoining lines.
  3. A shape that consists of only straight lines.

polyline chart
A line chart in which the multiple lines can display an additional marker for each data pointchart.

In computer graphics, a sequence of markers that includes specific attributes such as color, style, width, height, pattern, and origin.

An object-oriented programming characteristic that allows a method to perform differently, depending on the class that implements it. Polymorphism allows a subclass to override an inherited method without affecting the method of the parent class. Polymorphism also enables a client to access two or more implementations of an object from a single interface.


  1. See storage pool.
  2. The graphical representation of a participant in a collaboration.
  3. A collection of communications devices.
  4. A division of main or auxiliary storage.
  5. A grouping of storage space that consists of volumes, logical unit numbers (LUNs), or addresses that share a common set of administrative characteristics.
  6. In DFSMSrmm, a group of shelf locations in the removable media library whose rack numbers share a common prefix. The shelf locations are logically grouped for easier access to volumes.
  7. A group of resources with similar characteristics and attributes.

pool database faults
In Performance Tools, the total number of interruptions to jobs that were required to transfer data into the pool to permit the program to process the database data.

pool database pages
In Performance Tools, the total number of pages of database data transferred from auxiliary storage to the pool to permit the program to run.

pool domain
A hierarchical classification for resource pools.

pooled distribution
A shipment consolidation strategy where smaller shipments destined for the same geographic region are pooled together to form a single truckload (TL) or less than truckload (LTL) shipment to a pool point. From the pool point, individual shipments are made to their respective destinations. This strategy results in reduced overall transportation costs.

pool nondatabase faults
In Performance Tools, the total number of interruptions to jobs (not necessarily assigned to this pool) that were required to transfer data into the pool to permit the machine interface instruction to access the nondatabase data.

pool nondatabase pages
In Performance Tools, the total number of pages of nondatabase data transferred from auxiliary storage to the pool to permit the program to run.

pool pair
Two storage pools that are required to balance workload. Each storage pool is controlled by a separate node.

pool point
A distribution facility that is used to efficiently route orders and shipments from their origin to their final destination. See also cross-dock facility, dray leg, inbound pool point, outbound pool point.

pool storage group
A type of storage group that contains system-managed direct access storage device (DASD) volumes. Pool storage groups allow groups of volumes to be managed as a single entity. See also storage group.

pool thread
A thread which is used by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for transactions and commands that do not use an entry thread or a command thread. See also command thread, entry thread.

See point of presence.


  1. To remove an item from the top of a pushdown list. See also push.
  2. The removal of a module that is immediately below the stream head.
  3. In architecture, a method used to retrieve a value from a segment call stack.

See Post Office Protocol.

See Post Office Protocol Version 3.

In Enhanced X-Windows, an action referring to a type of widget that closes when a pointer button is released.

popular ranking
A type of ranking that raises a document's existing ranking based on the document's popularity.

pop-up menu
A menu that opens as the result of some user action (typically, clicking the right mouse button) and that contains choices appropriate for the selected object in its current context.

See power-on reset.


  1. A hardware interface to which an I/O device is attached for the purpose of sending and receiving data.
  2. A specific communications end point within a host. A port is identified by a port number.
  3. The point of connection of an operator to a stream. Input ports consume one or more streams, whereas output ports produce a stream.
  4. In the Internet suite of protocols, a specific logical connector between the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and a higher level protocol or application.
  5. A name and number that correspond to a specific service provided by a IP based application.
  6. An access point for data entry or exit.
  7. A distinct interaction point between a class and its environment or between the behaviour of a class and its internal parts.
  8. An end point for communication between applications, generally referring to a logical connection. A port provides queues for sending and receiving data. Each port has a port number for identification. See also node.
  9. To modify a computer program that runs on a given system to enable it to run on a different system.
  10. An abstraction that is used by transport protocols to distinguish among multiple destinations within a host machine.
  11. The physical entity within a host, system, or storage system that performs the data communication (transmitting and receiving) over the Fibre Channel.
  12. In time-slot management, one end of a 64 kbps unidirectional stream which can be attached to the SCBus.
  13. As defined in a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document, a single endpoint that is defined as a combination of a binding and a network address.


  1. The ability of a program to run on more than one type of computer system without modification.
  2. The ability of a programming language to compile successfully on different operating systems without requiring changes to the source code.
  3. The ability of equipment to be transported manually.
  4. The ability to use Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data sets with different operating systems. Volumes whose data sets are cataloged in a user catalog can be removed from storage devices of one system, moved to another system, and mounted on storage devices of that system. Individual data sets can be transported between operating systems using access method services (AMS).

Portable Application Solutions Environment
A feature of the i5/OS operating system that provides the ability to run certain UNIX applications. Programs that run in i5/OS PASE have direct access to PowerPC instructions and access to i5/OS services such as file system support and sockets support.

portable character set
A set of characters, specified in POSIX 1003.2, section 4, that must be supported by conforming implementations.

portable data set
A data set that can be transported between systems using access method services (AMS).

portable data terminal (PDT)
A small system data terminal that can travel with the warehouse operator throughout the warehouse. The operator can access the system, update records, and so on, from anywhere in the warehouse without the need to continuously return to a terminal station.

Portable Document Format (PDF)
A standard specified by Adobe Systems, Incorporated, for the electronic distribution of documents. PDF files are compact; can be distributed globally via email, the web, intranets, or CD-ROM; and can be viewed with the Acrobat Reader.

portable file name character set
The set of characters from which portable file names must be constructed to be portable across implementations conforming to the ISO POSIX-1 standard and to ISO/IEC 9945.

Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)
An IEEE family of standards designed to provide portability between operating systems that are based on UNIX. POSIX describes a wide spectrum of operating-system components ranging from C language and shell interfaces to system administration.

Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments
See Portable Operating System Interface.

A single, secure point of access to diverse information, applications, and people that can be customized and personalized.

Portal Administration
The place where portal administrators set and maintain basic collaboration permissions, place records, place membership records, and server settings for companion products for advanced collaboration.

portal farm
A series of identically configured, stand-alone portal server instances that offer a way to maintain a highly scalable and highly available server environment.

port destination
The specialization of a service integration bus destination. Each port destination represents a particular message format and transport protocol that you can use to pass messages to an externally-hosted service.


  1. A container for the tasks that apply to each role that the user is assigned. The portfolio is the primary way in which a user's work is organized in the interface.
  2. The complete inventory of an organization's programs and projects, or both.

portfolio plan
A plan that contains the overall plan summary data, such as the scope of planning, data rollups, common setup data, comparison goals and targets, and acts as a means to compare and evaluate scenario alternatives.

port group

  1. A logical name used to group one or more ports (network devices or interfaces) of the same network type that can be used to reach a given end-user destination. For example, if multiple ATM adapters in the IBM Content Manager VideoCharger Server complex are connected to the same ATM networks, these adapters can be configured under the same port group. The controller selects ports as necessary to balance the load.
  2. A group of ports identified by the common carrier with a single DTE address. The network directs incoming calls to the first available port, using a sequential search (rotary) technique.

A reusable component that is part of a web application that provides specific information or services to be presented in the context of a portal.

portlet API
The set of interfaces and methods that are used by Java programs running within the portal server environment to obtain services.

portlet application
A collection of related portlets that can share resources with one another.

portlet container
A column or row that is used to arrange the layout of a portlet or other container on a page.

portlet framework
The set of classes and interfaces that support Java programs running within the portal server environment.

portlet mode
A form assumed by a portlet to provide a distinctive interface for users to perform different tasks. Portlet modes can include view, edit, and help.

port listener
A mechanism that allows the product to validate certain tests by listening to out-of-bound connections.

port login (PLOGI)
The port-to-port login process by which initiators establish sessions with targets. See also fabric login.

A program that maps client programs to the port numbers of server programs. A portmapper is used with remote procedure call (RPC) programs.

port number

  1. The part of a socket address that identifies a port within a host.
  2. In Internet communications, the identifier for a logical connector between an application entity and the transport service.

port of entry
The name and type of device from which a user signs on. CICS recognizes only TERMINALs and CONSOLEs.


  1. Pertaining to a display or hardcopy with greater length than width.
  2. The arrangement of text on a page so that it is oriented for normal reading when its length is greater than its width.
  3. In architecture, a presentation orientation in which the Xm-axis is parallel to the short sides of a rectangular physical medium.

portrait format
See portrait orientation.

portrait page presentation
The position of a printed sheet that has its short edges as the top and bottom and its long edges as the sides. See also landscape page presentation.

portrait position
The position of a printed form with its short edges as the top and bottom and its long edges as the sides. See also landscape position.

portrait upside-down
A page orientation in which the top of the printed image is at the trailing edge of the paper as it emerges from the printer.

port scan
Software that searches systems in a network for open ports. A port scan is used by administrators to check the security of a network, and by hackers or crackers to gain entry to the network.

port set

  1. In time-slot management, a collection of ports that can be connected using a single CA_TDM_Connect() API call to a complementary collection of ports. An example of a port set is the transmit-receive pair corresponding to one telephony channel on a Digital Trunk Quad Adapter (DTQA).
  2. A set of ports on a remote target that are connected to the same switching fabric.

port type
An element in a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document that comprises a set of abstract operations, each of which refers to input and output messages that are supported by the web service. See also interface.


  1. See point-of-sale.
  2. See part of speech.

A number that is specified for each class in the class descriptor table that identifies a set of flags that control RACF processing options.


  1. Any location in a string that may be occupied by an element and that is identified by a serial number.
  2. Within an attribute, the ordinal position of one value relative to another.
  3. Within a string, the ordinal position of one element of a string relative to another.

positional data format
A fixed data format that uses characteristics of a file such as delimiters or record length.

positional file
See application file.

positional operand
An operand in a language statement that has a fixed position. See also definition statement, keyword, keyword operand.

positional parameter

  1. A parameter that must appear in a specified location, relative to other parameters. See also keyword parameter.
  2. A variable within a shell program. Positional parameters are assigned from the shell's arguments when the shell is invoked

positional pattern
In REXX, a pattern that causes parsing to occur on the basis of location within the input string. A positional pattern takes the form of a signed or unsigned whole number.

positional segment
A segment that contains fixed-length fields.

position class
An entity that similar to a job title and belongs to a high level job category.

position group
A high level job category that facilitates the organization of position classes.

The state of the coordinates of a device within a specific site.

positioning information
The geographical coordinate data that is used to determine the location of a work order and add a position marker to the map.

positioning metric
A set of values specified in data stream commands to effect the positioning of objects such as text characters, rules, and graphics.

positive acknowledgment reply
In IPDS architecture, a reply to an IPDS command that has its ARQ flag on and in which no exception is reported. See also negative acknowledgment reply.

positive response
In SNA, a reply indicating that a request arrived and was successfully received and processed. See also negative response, response header.

positive semidefinite matrix
A matrix that represents a problem with quadratic terms. If the quadratic term gives rise to a matrix that is positive semidefinite, CPLEX can solve the problem (all other aspects of the problem being feasible).

positive virtual sensor
A virtual sensor for which site attributes for area are found.

positive zone
A zone where it is possible to locate a WiFi enabled device.

See Portable Operating System Interface.

POSIX open system environment (POSIX OSE)
The open system environment in which the standards included are not in conflict with ISO/IEC and consist of: International Standards and Profiles, developed by ISO, IEC, or CCITT; Regional Standards and Profiles, developed by a group recognized as an official body by a regional governmental entity, such as the European Community; and National Information Technology Standards and Profiles, developed by a national standards body recognized as such by ISO, IEC, or CCITT, as appropriate.

See POSIX open system environment.

POSIX process
As defined by POSIX, an address space with one or more threads executing within that address space, and the required system resources for those threads.

POSIX signal
A mechanism by which a process may be notified of, or affected by, an event occurring in the system. Examples of such events include hardware exceptions and specific actions by processes. POSIX signal is also used to refer to the event itself.


  1. See power-on self-test.
  2. In HTTP, a parameter on the METHOD attribute of the FORM tag that specifies that a browser will send form data to a server in an HTTP transaction separate from that of the associated URL.


  1. In the AIX operating system, the action required to make a pop-up or pull-down menu appear. This action is normally a click or a button press on one of the mouse buttons.
  2. To add information in a record to keep that record current.
  3. To note the occurrence of an event.

Postal, Telephone, and Telegraph (PTT)
An agency that regulates and administers the telephone and postal systems in certain countries.

postal code
A series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.

A sequence of binary characters recorded at the end of each block of data, on phase-encoded magnetic tape, for synchronization when reading backward.

postboot script
A script that runs on a node after the operating system kernel is started.


  1. Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled after the execution of a test or test procedure. (ISTQB) See also precondition.
  2. A constraint that must be true at the completion of an operation.

A process that indicates that an instance of a report was loaded to the OnDemand base system.

One or more commands specified by the system administrator that run after the cluster manager runs a particular event script. Post-events are usually site-specific scripts integrated into the system when it is installed.

post-execution attachment
A contract attachment that is included with a contract after it is executed.

An operator that is appended to the assigned value of an attribute. For example, the Screen Size attribute can have a value of 26 inches. The numeral 26 is the number attribute value, and inches is the postfix.

post function
A feature provided to define a task that gets automatically triggered based on certain results.

The open source relational database version of the Postgres object database program from the University of California, Berkeley.

posting gateway partner
A third party that Kenexa has partnered with who provides services for posting to Internet job boards.

postinstallation script
A script that runs on a node after the node is booted.

In Tivoli NetView, a daemon that directs network management information between multiple application programs and agents that are running concurrently. The postmaster determines the route by using specified addresses or a routing table that is configured in the object registration service.

Post Office Protocol (POP)
A protocol that is used for exchanging network mail and accessing mailboxes. This protocol downloads email locally.

Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3)
An application protocol that runs over TCP/IP and is used to retrieve electronic mail from a mail server.

postoperation exit program
A user-written program that is given control after operation of a system function.

postponed abort UR
A unit of recovery that was inflight or in-abort, was interrupted by system failure or cancellation, and did not complete backout during restart.

The strategy of waiting as long as feasible before executing tasks that change standard product into a customer specific product (i.e. applying special tickets or labels). Postponing this product change reduces the risks associated from changes in customer demand or requirements.

post-provision script template
A script template that defines an executable script that is run after the execution of a server template.

A page description language developed by Adobe Systems, Incorporated, that describes how text and graphics are presented on printers and display devices.

PostScript image file
In DCF, any file containing encapsulated PostScript that is imbedded in a DCF document by means of the .PO [PostScript] control word. PostScript image files can include any combination of images or text.

PostScript transform exit
A program that you can install and use to transform PostScript jobs so that they can be printed on 240-pel or 300-pel advanced function printers.

post-session rule
A rule that is executed after the translation object is completely processed and has no permanent scope.

The XRF phase, immediately following takeover, when the new active system does not have an alternate system.

Post Telephone and Telegraph Administration (PTT)
An organization, usually a government department, that provides data communication services in countries or regions other than the USA. Examples of PTTs are the Bundespost in Germany and the Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Public Corporation in Japan.

The inclination of a letter with respect to a vertical axis. The inclination may be upright (as in roman) or slanted upward to the right (as in italic or cursive).

power control compartment (PCC)
The rack component that logically controls the application of alternating current power to the units in the rack.

power cord
The electrical connection between the AC power source and the computer.

See cube.

Power Distribution Unit (PDU)
A device that is used to distribute electrical power to datacenter equipment.

power down
A CL command to turn the power off and bring an orderly end to system operation.

Power Family
A family of IBM systems distinguished by their object-oriented architecture, integrated relational database, and high-level machine interface. Power Systems solutions support the IBM i, i5/OS, Operating System/400, AIX, and Linux operating systems. See also IBM i.

PowerHA SystemMirror configuration database
See Object Data Manager.

Power IFL
See Power Integrated Facility for Linux.

Power IFL processor core
A licensed processor core that is enabled by feature code ELJ1 on IBM Power Systems servers. Each Power IFL processor core feature enables one processor core. Only the Linux operating system can be run on Power IFL processor cores.

Power Integrated Facility for Linux (Power IFL)
An optional lower cost per processor core activation for Linux-only workloads on IBM Power Systems servers.

power-on light
The light on the operator panel that indicates that the DC power in the system is functioning.

power-on reset (POR)

  1. A key sequence that restarts the operating system (or other program) without turning off the electrical power of the system.
  2. See initial microprogram load.

power-on self-test (POST)
A series of internal diagnostic tests activated each time the system power is turned on.

A computer architecture that is based on the third generation of RISC processors. PowerPC was developed jointly by Apple, Motorola, and IBM.

PowerPC AS
The processors that implement the 64-bit PowerPC architecture with extensions to support commercial applications for multiple users.

PowerSC real-time compliance
A real-time mechanism for monitoring security compliance violations against security compliance policies that are applied to a system and notifying system administrators.

power sequence cable
A signal cable that connects the secondary racks to each other and to the primary rack in a system with more than one rack, and allow complete control of the power from the primary rack.

power source
The minimum acceptable rating of the electrical circuit providing power to a computer system, measured in volt amps (kVA).

power supply
See power supply unit.

power supply unit (PSU)
A component that supplies power to other components in a system.

power system control network (PSCN)
The power subsystem of the System z servers that is controlled by a fully redundant dual-Ethernet communications network. This network provides communication to all field-replaceable units (FRUs) and hierarchical control through a mirrored system of control cards and IP addresses. The PSCN provides a means for subsystems to communicate and control the dynamic parameters of system operation. The PSCN also supports error reporting, failure data collection and recovery detection, and correction of both the internal hardware and firmware of the System z servers.

Power Systems environment
A specific user configuration on a Power Systems server, including the user's default job description, user profile, library list, and current library.

power unit
See tractor.

power user
A person who has special privileges to perform object management tasks, such as creating and updating objects.

PowerVM Active Memory Sharing
A technology that enables logical partitions to share the memory in the shared memory pool.

See physical partition.

See physical point of attachment.

See Page Printer Communication Component.

See presentation-layer protocol data unit.

See Page Printer Formatting Aid/6000.

Page Printer Formatting Aid/370.

See program-to-program interface.

See parent process ID.

See pages per minute.

See primary program operator application program.

See Point-to-Point Protocol.

PPP filter identifier
A filter identifier that allows you to apply filter rules to an interface that has been defined in a point-to-point profile. The PPP filter identifier also links the filter rules to groups of users in a point-to-point profile. Because the point-to-point profile is associated with a specific IP address, the filter identifier implicitly defines the interface to which the rules apply.

See Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet.

See pending page queue.

See Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy.

PPRC Extended Distance (PPRC-XD)
An optional feature for the ESS that maintains a fuzzy copy of a logical volume (LVOL) on the same ESS or on another TESS. PPRC-XD ensures that all modifications that any attached host performs on the primary LVOL are also performed on the secondary LVOL at a later time. The original order of update is not strictly maintained. See also Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy, synchronous PPRC.

See PPRC Extended Distance.

See primary power supply.

See primary POI task.

See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol.

See purchase requisition.

See primary rate access.

practical distance
The mileage type that factors weight restrictions, road quality, and metropolitan areas when calculating distances.

practice volume
A volume that can be used to test disaster-recovery actions while maintaining disaster-recovery capability.


  1. A standardized form of comment which has meaning to a compiler. A pragma usually conveys non-essential information, often intended to help the compiler to optimize the program. See also directive.
  2. A preprocessor directive that is not specified by the ISO standard. Pragmas often control actions of the compiler and linker. A pragma always begins with a number sign (#).

Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM)
A reliable multicast transport protocol that provides a reliable sequence of packets to multiple recipients simultaneously.

The relationships of characters or groups of characters to their interpretation and use. (I) (A)

See People's Republic of China.


  1. In MIME messages, the area after the headers.
  2. A sequence of binary characters recorded at the beginning of each block of data, on a phase-encoded magnetic tape, for the purpose of synchronization when reading forward.

preamble header
In a RosettaNet business message, an XML document that identifies the name and version of the standard with which the business message is compliant.

pre-assigned order
An inbound order that has already been assigned to an order that was placed by a customer prior to having received the inventory.

Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)
An industry standard target/server interface that allows networked computers that are not yet loaded with an operating system to be configured and booted remotely. PXE is based on Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

prebuilt kit
A collection of catalog entries that has a code and is ordered as a single item. See also bundle, kit.

prebuilt kit component
An item that is sold as part of a prebuilt kit.

pre-calculated data
Data in output member cells that is computed prior to, and in anticipation of, ad-hoc requests. Pre-calculation usually results in faster response to queries at the expense of storage space. Data that is not pre-calculated must be calculated at query time. See also derived data.

The priority system for grouping different types of operators with their operands.


  1. An attribute of a timestamp that describes the total number of decimal digits in the fractional seconds part of the value.
  2. An information retrieval measurement that specifies the proportion of relevant data to all retrieved data. Precision is a positive predictive value. Information retrieval is best measured by using both precision and recall. See also recall.
  3. In information analysis, a measurement of the ability to distinguish between nearly equal values.
  4. The degree of discrimination with which a quantity is stated. For example, a three-digit numeral discriminates among 1000 possibilities.
  5. The number of straight line segments used to approximate one segment of a spline.
  6. A scoring process in entity resolution that is used to determine whether two compared attributes in an entity represent the same attribute. For example, name precision determines whether two compared names represent the same name. See also entity resolution.
  7. In GL, the number of digits that are printed or displayed.
  8. A measure of the ability to distinguish between nearly equal values.
  9. A value that a user defines to indicate how much tolerance a computation involving floating-point arithmetic should allow, that is, how exact it should be.
  10. An attribute of a number that describes the total number of binary or decimal digits.

precision event listener
A service that listens to the application for incoming messages and triggers policies based on the message data.

To process programs that contain SQL statements before they are compiled. SQL statements are replaced with statements that will be recognized by the host language compiler. The output from a precompile process includes source code that can be submitted to the compiler and used in the bind process.

A tool that converts the source program into a language that can be understood by the machine so that the program can then be compiled, linked, and run.


  1. Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled before the component or system can be executed with a particular test or test procedure. (ISTQB) See also postcondition.
  2. A group of rule statements in which the user defines global variables for a decision table or decision tree and conditions that must be met before any rows or branches in the decision table or tree can be executed.
  3. A definition of what must be true when a task or process starts.

Pre-configuration Test tool
A Notes application that runs a series of tests to determine if the servers in an on-premises environment are set up correctly to connect to SmartCloud Notes servers. 

preconfigured bundle
A bundle of configurable items that is based on a predefined configuration.

preconfigured product
A configurable product that has one or more options already configured for it.

pre-consolidated data
See pre-calculated data.


  1. An activity in a dependency relationship that logically precedes another.
  2. A job or job stream that must complete successfully before successor jobs or job streams can be started. See also successor.

predefined business process
A business process that is ready to use upon installation of Sterling B2B Integrator.

Predefined Connection object class
Specifies the kind of connections that can be made to a device and where.

predefined database
In the AIX operating system, a database that contains configuration data for all possible devices supported by the system.

predefined date event trigger
An external event trigger with a required date field.

Predefined Devices object class
Represents each device type, as determined by class, subclass, and type. The Predefined Devices Object Class contains basic information about the devices, such as device method names and how to access the information contained in the other object classes.

predefined dynamic kit
A preconfigured dynamic kit that shoppers can add directly to the shopping cart without additional configuration. For example, if a dynamic kit consists of multiple computers, monitors, and keyboards, the associated predefined dynamic kit is the configured computer system. Dynamic kits support multiple predefined dynamic kits.

predefined dynamic node group
A node group whose members all have a certain attribute set to a certain value.

predefined Greex rule
A predefined advanced XML condition used for the evaluation of validation rules that do not have any custom Greex input defined.

predefined macro
In C/C++, an identifier predefined by the compiler, which will be expanded by the preprocessor during compilation.

predefined message
A message with a description that is created and stored in a message file before it is sent by the program. See also immediate message.

predefined prompt dependency
A prompt dependency that is defined in the database and can be associated to any job or job stream. See also prompt dependency.

predefined set
A set of members defined inside an OLAP data source as a list or by an expression. Predefined sets can be used in analysis and report authoring. See also custom set, set.

predefined value
A fixed value defined by IBM that has a special use in the control language and is reserved in the operating system. A predefined value usually has an asterisk (*) as the first character in the value.

predefined workspace
A workspace that is included in the software that is optimized to show specific aspects of the collected data, such as agentless data.


  1. The part of a node test that attempts to identify a node in a path.
  2. An expression used as part of a filter, consisting of a data item, an operator, and a value. A predicate is used to restrict the occasions when an event is emitted.
  3. An element of a search condition that expresses or implies a comparison operation.
  4. A Boolean logic term denoting a logical expression that determines the state of a variable.

predicate lock
A lock held on index keys that qualifies for a predicate. In a predicate lock, exclusive predicates consist of a single key value, and shared predicates consist of a query rectangle and a scan operation such as inclusion or overlap.

Predictable Resource Location
An attack technique used to uncover hidden website content and functionality. The attack searches for content in standard locations that is not intended for public viewing, such as temporary files, backup files, configuration files or sample files.

predictable write
A write operation that can perform a cache operation without knowledge of the existing format on the medium. All write operations on fixed-block architecture (FBA) direct access storage devices (DASDs) are predictable. On count-key-data (CKD) DASD devices, a write operation is predictable if it performs a format write operation for the first data record on the track.

predictive algorithm
An algorithm that calculates the number of records to dial. This number might be larger than the number of available interviewers.

predictive analytics
A business process and a set of related technologies that are concerned with the prediction of future possibilities and trends. Predictive analytics applies such diverse disciplines as probability, statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to business problems to find the best action for a given situation. See also data mining.

Predictive Failure Analysis (PFA)

  1. A component of z/OS that detects abnormal behavior before it results in a soft failure.
  2. A scheduled evaluation of system data that detects and signals parametric degradation which might lead to functional failures.

Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML)
An XML-based language defined by the Data Mining Group that provides a way for companies to define predictive models and share models between compliant vendors' applications.

predictive text (T9)
An input method on multi-tap keyboards (9 keys) that predicts the word based on every possible letter combination. For example, pressing "228" predicts the word "cat." See also multi-tap.

predominant use
The use to which the greatest portion of real property asset (land, building, or structure) is currently put.

preemptive shutdown
In WebSphere MQ, a shutdown of a queue manager that does not wait for connected applications to disconnect, or for current MQI calls to complete. See also immediate shutdown, quiesced shutdown.

One or more commands specified by the system administrator that run before the cluster manager runs a particular event script. Pre-events are usually site-specific scripts integrated into the system after it is installed.

pre-execution attachment
A contract attachment that is included with a contract before it is executed.

pre-execution setup
The portion of setup performed by the main device scheduler (MDS) before a job begins execution.

A parameter that a user can set through the application menu.

preference profile
A set of console user preferences that can be assigned to roles. A preference profile contains settings that determine the state of the navigation area and the views available for members of the role.

preferred binary encoding
In OSI, the format in which an NSAP address or network entity title is passed in the network protocol.

preferred candidate
A candidate who has met the thresholds set for assessments and correctly answered the required job questions.

preferred computer
The primary computer used by an application running under Microsoft Cluster Server control. After a failover to another computer, MSCS monitors the preferred computer until it is repaired, and as soon as it is running correctly again, moves the application back to it.

preferred currency
The currency indicated by a customer as the one in which he or she would prefer to see prices. The preferred currency is indicated in the customer profile. See also shopping currency, supported currency.

preferred fleet
A trucking fleet that is owned by a traditional one-way carrier and used by a shipper to deliver individual shipments. See also dedicated fleet, private fleet.

preferred language
The language indicated by a customer as being the one in which he or she would like to conduct transactions. The preferred language is indicated either in the customer profile or by use of the langId parameter, which is available from the URL-based controller commands. See also shopping language.

preferred primary cluster caching facility
The cluster caching facility that the cluster manager attempts to start as the primary cluster caching facility when a DB2 pureScale instance is started. See also cluster caching facility, primary cluster caching facility.

preferred replay member
In a DB2 pureScale environment, the member that is preferred for replaying logs on an HADR standby database.

preferred substitution association
An association of items that provides the ability to recognize that an ordered item is to be substituted by a preferred item prior to fulfilling the order for the original item. The preferred substitute is almost identical to the original item.

preferred substitution item
An existing item that is associated with an item in a category so that all the items in the assigned category are associated to the existing item as a preferred substitution.

preferred transport class
In OSI, a transport class that an application entity initially requests during association establishment. See also alternative transport class.

To read data ahead of, and in anticipation of, its use.


  1. A unique identifier that defines the functional area that a tag belongs to. The prefix is defined in the JSTL Namespace. For example, prefix=”c” means that all tags that start with c: are part of the core functional area tag library. The c in c: is the prefix of the tag.
  2. An affix that appears at the beginning of a name. For example, in the family name "de Rosa," the affix "de" is a prefix.
  3. A code at the beginning of a message or record.

prefixed save area (PSA)
An element of MVS virtual storage which contains processor-dependent status information.

Specifying at system initialization that you want CICS to prefix the resource names that it passes to RACF for authorization with the RACF user ID under which the CICS region is running.

To prepare a VSAM linear data set for DB2 use, by writing specific data patterns.

pregenerated system
A CICS system distributed in a form that has already undergone the system generation process.

A process by which an environment or library is initialized once and can then be used repeatedly to avoid the inefficiency of initializing the environment or library each time it is needed.

Pertaining to software that is installed by the manufacturer and ready for use.

preliminary bid
A bid that is either rolled over from an RFQ or RFP or entered by the buyer on behalf of the supplier prior to actual bidding. Suppliers can accept or reject the preliminary bids for regular items and modify the discount bid values while accepting the reverse auction invitation.

preliminary design review (PDR)
The review performed by the system engineer (SE) during plan phase.

A utility that preprocesses an object for certain programs. See also binder.

To load the root addressable portion and independent overflow portion of a VSO DEDB area into a data space when the area is opened.

preloaded system
A system that is shipped with the licensed programs and program temporary fixes (PTFs) already installed on the disk.

premigrated file
A file that has been copied to server storage, but has not been replaced with a stub file on the local file system. An identical copy of the file resides both on the local file system and in server storage. Premigrated files occur on UNIX and Linux file systems to which space management has been added. See also file state, migrated file.

premigrated files database
A database that contains information about each file that has been premigrated to server storage.

The process of copying files that are eligible for migration to server storage, but leaving the original file intact on the local file system.

premigration percentage
A space management setting that controls whether the next eligible candidates in a file system are premigrated following threshold or demand migration.

prenegotiation phase
An optional phase of link activation that occurs after physical connection of the link has been established. During this phase, polling might occur to determine whether the adjacent link station is active. During this phase, prenegotiation XID3s are also exchanged to allow each node to verify the identity of the adjacent node. See also connect phase, contact phase.

To open a DEDB area after the first checkpoint following IMS control region initialization or during /START AREA command processing. If an area is not preopened, it will be opened during the first read request for the area.

preoperation exit program
A user-written program that is given control before operation of a system function.

prepaid and add payment method
A payment method in which the shipper pays for the freight charges and then passes on the cost to the consignee.

prepaid payment method
A payment method in which the shipper pays for the freight charges.


  1. To send an SQL query to the database, to verify that it is syntactically correct, and return the result set columns. See also parse.
  2. To convert an SQL statement from text form to an executable form. See also program preparation.
  3. To convert an SQL statement or XQuery expression from text form to an executable form, by submitting it to the SQL and XQuery compiler.

prepared (PRP)
Pertaining to a logical unit of work state that indicates that the current logical unit of work is in doubt. The prepared state only occurs at nodes that are not a last agent.

prepared SQL statement
A named object that is the executable form of an SQL statement that was processed by the PREPARE statement.

prepared statement
An SQL statement that is generated by the PREPARE statement from a character string or from a variable that contains a character string.

prepared XQuery expression
A named object that is the executable form of an XQuery expression that was processed by the PREPARE statement.

prepare in progress (PIP)
The prepare in progress logical unit of work (LUW) state indicates that the current LUW is preparing its resources to commit. A failure during PIP state results in a rollback.

prepare phase
The first phase of a two-phase commit process in which all participants are requested to prepare for commit.

prepare script
A file containing SQL statements that describe the DataBlade module.

pre-partitioning agent
The process that reads data and distributes it to the partitioning agent. See also load agent, partitioning agent.

preprinted form
A sheet of paper (form) containing a preprinted design of constant data on which variable data can be printed. See also forms overlay.

preprocessing exit program
An exit program that performs preprocessing when an operation is requested against an exit point. An example of a preprocessing exit program is the Preprocessing Exit Program for Add.


  1. In emulation, a program that converts data from the format of an emulated system to the format accepted by an emulator.
  2. A routine that processes source code before the code is compiled, resulting in altered source code.
  3. A routine that performs initial processing and translation of source code or data prior to compiling the source code or processing the data in another program such as an emulator.

preprocessor directive
In the C and C++ languages, a statement that begins with the symbol # and is interpreted by the preprocessor during compilation.

preprocessor statement
In the C and C++ languages, a statement that begins with the symbol # and contains instructions that the preprocessor can interpret.

preproduction library
A collection of app testing features that collect in-depth details about issues and problems with an app. The testing features identify the device and user who is experiencing bugs so that developers can obtain logs and other information to correct problems. See also preproduction mode.

preproduction mode
An operating state where internal testers use all data-collection features to provide detailed information regarding an app's behavior and performance. See also preproduction library.

preproduction plan
A high-level plan of system activity containing job streams and dependencies. It is created automatically when the production plan is created for the first time. It is extended if the production plan is extended.

pre-provision script template
A script template that defines an executable script that is run before the execution of a server template.

A component or service that is needed before a component can be installed. In other words, the components, resources, or services listed as prerequisites of a component must be installed before the component can be installed.

prerequisite fix
A temporary solution to or a bypass of a problem that is necessary to provide a complete solution to correct a problem. The system requires that you apply the prerequisite fix either before the PTF that needs it or with the PTF that needs it. See also corequisite fix, distribution requisite fix.

prerequisite task
An activity that must be performed before a work order task can be started.

preruntime array
In RPG, an array that is loaded at the same time as the program, before the program actually begins to run. See also compile-time array, runtime array.

preruntime table
In RPG, a table that is loaded at the same time as the source program, before the program actually begins to run. See also runtime table.

prescriptive analytics
A set of mathematical techniques that computationally synthesize data to make predictions and then suggest decision options to take advantage of the predictions and improve business performance.

presence awareness
See online status.

presence detector
A device that, when fixed to a computer, detects when a person moves away from it. This device eliminates manually locking the computer upon leaving it for a short time.

To send a contract to another party by online presentation or email presentation.

presentation address

  1. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an unambiguous name that is used to identify a set of access points.
  2. In OSI, an address that uniquely identifies an application entity. The presentation address consists of one or more NSAP addresses, a TSAP selector, an SSAP selector, and a PSAP selector.

presentation context
In OSI, the combination of an abstract syntax with a transfer syntax that specifies how to transfer and interpret defined data values between nodes.

presentation control
In Business Graphics Utility, an option that allows parts of a chart to be included or excluded when produced.

presentation control information (PCI)
The invisible set of controls that determine the presentation attributes of information such as color, intensity, loudness, and window size. See also machine-readable information.

presentation data value (PDV)
In OSI, a complete unit of information that is meaningful to an application entity.

presentation device
A device, such as a printer, that produces character shapes, graphic pictures, images, or bar code symbols on a physical medium.

presentation formatter
A CGI program that defines the forms used to select and present assets to clients.

presentation graphics feature (PGF)
In the Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor, a feature used with the Graphical Data Display Manager to generate online graphs in the NetView Performance Monitor graphic subsystem.

presentation graphics routines (PGR)
A group of routines within the operating system that allows business charts to be defined and displayed procedurally through function routines.

presentation layer
In OSI architecture, the layer that provides services that enable functional units in the application layer to select a common syntax in order to define data and operations to be performed on the data.

presentation-layer protocol data unit (PPDU)
In OSI, a protocol data unit in the presentation layer.(I)

presentation-layer service access point (PSAP)
In OSI, a service access point in the presentation layer.

presentation-layer service data unit (PSDU)
In OSI, a unit of data transferred between the application layer and the presentation layer.

presentation logic
The part of a distributed application that is concerned with the user interface of the application. See also business logic.

presentation position
In architecture, an addressable position that is coincident with a character reference point.

presentation service access point
The address of an OSI communications partner that identifies an application in a computer.

presentation services
In printing, a software component that communicates with a printer using a printer data stream, such as the IPDS data stream, to print pages, download and manage print resources, and handle exceptions.

presentation services command processor (PSCP)
A facility that processes requests from a user terminal and formats displays to be presented at the user terminal.

presentation shape
The shape of a character that is to be presented to the user. See also base shape, shape determination.

presentation space

  1. A portion of the device's buffer storage, allocated to a partition, that contains only display data that CICS sends to that partition. See also partition.
  2. An array that contains the data and attributes associated with a window.
  3. The display space on a display device.
  4. A conceptual two-dimensional surface in storage on which data for a portion of the display surface is represented.
  5. In the context of the Emulator High-Level Language Application Programming Interface (EHLLAPI), the area in computer memory that corresponds to the user's screen image.
  6. The display data buffer associated with a partition. The size of the presentation space is defined as equal to, or larger than, the size of the viewport. When the presentation space is equal to the viewport size, all the data in the presentation space is displayed. When the presentation space is larger than the viewport, the user must move the scrolling window within the presentation space to display the data within the viewport. See also scrolling window, viewport.
  7. The space that contains the device-independent definition of a picture.

presentation space ID (PSID)
An identifier to indicate which host emulator session is to be used for an EHLLAPI function.

presentation space orientation
In architecture, the number of degrees and minutes a presentation space is rotated in a specified coordinate system. For example, the orientation of printing on a physical medium, relative to the Xm-axis of the Xm,Ym coordinate system.

presentation text
See composed text.

presentation text object
In architecture, an object that contains presentation text data.

Presentation Text Object Content Architecture (PTOCA)
An architecture that provides a collection of constructs used to interchange and present presentation text data, such as printing text data on a page, page segment, or overlay.

The moderator or another participant who can present data to people in the conference as well as see chats and hand raises.

Present Working Directory (PWD)
The directory that is currently active in a transaction.

preservation installation
An installation method used when a previous version of BOS is installed on your system and you want to preserve the user data in the root volume group. However, this method overwrites the /usr, /tmp, /var,and /(root) file systems, so any user data in these directories is lost. System configuration must be done after doing a preservation installation.

pre-session extended rule
A rule that defines variables that have global scope. Pre-session rules are processed before the translation object is processed, and apply to every extended rule defined in the map.

preset destination mode
An optional mode of terminal operation that allows the destination of terminal input to be fixed as a specific transaction code or logical terminal.

preset terminal security
When a CICS region is started, the signing on of selected terminals as users whose user IDs are the terminal identifiers. Persons using these terminals have the authorizations given to the terminals.

To purposefully touch a touchscreen display for longer than a tap, but shorter than a hold. Typically, apps use press gestures to bring up extra menus. See also gesture.

prestart job
A batch job that starts running before the remote program sends a program start request.

prestatic paging
A phase of the IPL sequence that takes place prior to static paging, where normal Licensed Internal Code functions cannot access data from any disk (neither load-source nor non-load-source disk units). See also full paging, limited paging, static paging.

presumed trust
A type of identity assertion where trust is presumed and additional trust validation is not performed. Use this mode only in an environment where trust is established with some other mechanism.

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
An electronic transfer protocol that allows for the private exchange of files or mail using public key encryption.

preventive maintenance
Proactive maintenance that is performed on a regular basis, which is designed to maintain assets, locations, or building systems in a higher functions manner and avoid larger and more costly maintenance.

preventive maintenance package (PMP)
A maintenance level update for a system. A PMP includes updates for the Base Operating System (BOS) and for each optional software product that is installed on a system.

preventive maintenance record (PM)
A template for scheduled preventive maintenance work. PMs can contain job plan and corresponding safety plan information that the system copies to work orders. See also PM alert.

preventive maintenance schedule (PM schedule)
A schedule that provides criteria for when preventive maintenance will occur. The maintenance can be time-based, such as a monthly inspection, or reading-based, such as investigative maintenance in response to a high temperature reading.

preventive service planning bucket (PSP bucket)
A group of files containing information that becomes available after the product documents are printed.

preverification testing
The process of checking translation packages before the official shipment to translation.

preview card
A window that is displayed when a user clicks a marker on either a geospatial map or a location map, or when a user clicks a row on the List tab. The window displays information about the associated data item.

preview map
A visual cue tool that allows the user to identify areas of interest on a map and view particular areas in more detail.

preview pane
A pane that lets users read the content of the document that is selected in the view pane. If Notes is set to preview document links, users can also view documents linked to the selected document.

previous hop data
A set of information that identifies the remote sender of a request to attach a task and creates a trail to be followed back into the previous system. This process enables data gathering and monitoring to continue in the region that sent the request. Previous hop data is created for a task when it has been initiated by a task in another CICS system.

previous release
The last required release of the system (such as Release 1.0) prior to the current release (such as Release 2.0), including any modification levels (such as Release 1.0 Modification Level 1 or Modification Level 2) that were not required.

previous system
The system that sent the TELNET or pass-through request that brought the user to the current system.

See private header.


  1. See primary rate ISDN.
  2. See primary rate interface.

price equation
A mathematical statement used in a price rule to calculate and output a price.

price list
A list of prices defined for a set of items. Each price list is applicable to a particular customer, a group of customers, or products for a particular duration.

price list assignment
A list that an enterprise user can assign to customers of the corresponding enterprise. Depending on the business requirements, an enterprise user can assign the price list to a set of customers who fulfill certain criteria.

price list line
A line in a price list that associates a product with a list price.

price match
The action taken by a Customer Service Representative when a customer claims that an ordered item is available at a lesser price from a different retailer.

price program
A price list or collection of price lists that are used to offer different pricing to different customers at different times.

price rule
A set of instructions that WebSphere Commerce follows to determine prices for catalog entries.

A means of measuring which variable should enter, or which should leave, a basis. Pricing is a tactic in the simplex method by which each variable is evaluated for its potential to improve the value of the objective function.

pricing date
The date on which the quote is created.

pricing factor
A positive percentage value that may be less than or equal to 1.00, to affect a price decrease or increase, respectively. The results of a pricing method price are multiplied by this pricing factor to arrive at the renewal price.

pricing manager
A user, assigned to the Seller, Sales Manager, or Account Representative role, who uses the Management Center Pricing tool.

pricing method
A method of deriving the renewal price of a product from other values.

pricing metric
A measurement that defines how capacity is counted and applied against the customer's entitlement.

pricing organization
An organization that stores and maintains pricing data. The master price list and pricing rules are defined and maintained by a pricing organization.

pricing organization user
A user that can perform pricing administration tasks such as creating a price list, managing a price list, and so on. A pricing organization user with have read-only access to certain catalog administration tasks such as modifying the details of an item, and no access to certain catalog administration tasks such as creating an item.

pricing rule
A rule that is used to perform pricing adjustments to an order. Depending on how a pricing rule is configured, the result can be a discount or surcharge applied to the order price.

pricing rule ID
A unique identifier that is used to identify the pricing rule. The pricing rule ID must be unique for the pricing organization.

pricing scheme
The basis of a price of a product in a line.

pricing unit of measure
The way products are measured for pricing purposes.

primal problem
In operations research, particularly in the discipline of mathematical programming (MP), a standard way of stating a linear programming (LP) problem as a maximization of an objective function subject to a matrix of linear constraints over variables with bounds. Every feasible solution of the primal problem yields a bound on the optimal solution of the dual. If the primal problem has an optimal solution, then so does the dual.


  1. Pertaining to an irreducible unit of data, such as a single constant, variable, or array element.
  2. Pertaining to an object that is in the object storage hierarchy and can be retrieved. The last time the object was used or its actual or expected frequency of use is not of consequence in this process.

primary account number (PAN)
The primary identifier for a payment method, according to the payment type group it belongs to. For example, the primary account number of a credit card is the credit card number.

primary address space
The address space whose segment table is used to fetch instructions. All data that is used by a VTAM macroinstruction request must be addressable in the primary address space.

primary administrative server
The administrative server that runs on the same engine as the master metadata server and processes all administrative requests that are initiated from the SAN File System console and those requests initiated from the administrative command-line interface (ACLI) that is logged into the master metadata server.

primary application program
In VTAM, an application program that acts as the primary end of an LU-LU session.

primary authentication factor
The IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On password or directory server credentials.

primary authorization ID
The authorization identifier used to identify an application process to DB2 for z/OS. See also secondary authorization ID.

primary axis
In the GDDM function, the axis used to plot data in a business chart. See also secondary axis.

primary blog
In the case of a user with multiple blogs, the blog that users are directed to if they view the blog owner's business card and click the Blogs link.

primary cluster caching facility
The cluster caching facility that is currently handling requests from the members in an instance. See also cluster caching facility, preferred primary cluster caching facility, secondary cluster caching facility.

primary control field (PCF)
A field in an NCP line trace record that indicates the state of the line at a given point in time.

primary Copy Services server
One of two Copy Services servers in a Copy Services server group. The primary Copy Services server is the active Copy Services server until it fails; it is then replaced by the backup Copy Services server. See also backup Copy Services server, Copy Services client, Copy Services server, Copy Services server group.

primary database
In high availability disaster recovery, the main database, which is accessed by applications. Applications apply updates to the primary database, and those updates are propagated on the standby database by using log shipping.

primary data set
When referring to a data set collection, the first data set allocated. For individual data sets being stacked, the primary data set precedes the data set being stacked and is allocated closest to it. See also master primary data set.

primary data set group
In a database, the first or only data set group defined. The root segment type always resides in the primary data set group. See also data set group, secondary data set group.

primary delay interval (PDI)
The interval that must elapse between the apparent loss of surveillance signal from the alternate system and any reaction by the active system. This interval is set by the PDI system initialization parameter.

primary device
One device of a dual-copy or remote-copy volume pair. All channel commands to the copy logical volume (LVOL) are directed to the primary device. The data on the primary device is duplicated on the secondary device. See also secondary device.

primary directory server
The on-premises server that the SmartCloud Notes service attempts to use first for directory synchronization. 

primary disk pool
An independent disk pool that defines a collection of directories and libraries and may have other secondary disk pools associated with it. A primary disk pool also defines a database for itself and other disk pools that may be added in its disk pool group.

primary document
A document that the services in a business process act on or in relation to. A primary document is usually the document passed to a business process by the initiating adapter.

primary domain
The domain that is defined by the DNS domain database file on a primary name server.

primary domain controller (PDC)
See domain controller.

primary end of a session
The end of a session that uses primary protocols. The primary end establishes the session. For an LU-LU session, the primary end of the session is the primary logical unit. See also half-session, secondary end of a session.

primary entry point
The location that receives control when the module is invoked by its primary, or member, name. alternate entry point. The location, other than the primary entry point, that can receive control from, or be referenced by, another module. See also alternate entry point.

primary expression

  1. Any of the following types of expressions: a) identifiers, b) parenthesized expressions, c) function calls, d) array element specifications, e) structure member specifications, or f) union member specifications.
  2. Literals, names, and names qualified by the :: (scope resolution) operator.
  3. The basic primitive structure of the XQuery language. Primary expressions include literals, variable references, context item expressions, constructors, and function calls. A primary expression can also be created by enclosing any expression in parentheses, which can help to control the precedence of operators.

primary file

  1. In the DDS for a join logical file, the first physical file specified on the JFILE keyword. See also secondary file.
  2. In RPG, if specified, the first file from which RPG reads a record. In multifile processing, the primary file is used to determine whether the MR indicator is set on. See also full procedural file.
  3. For certain types of join operations using Query, the first of all files that are joined in a query definition. The data from this file is used in every record formed by a join specification.

primary focal point

  1. A focal point that is understood to be the preferred source of management services support for a particular category.
  2. A network node that receives alerts from nodes that the user has defined in a sphere of control. See also default focal point.

primary folder
In System Manager, the folder into which the documentation of the corresponding development folder is stored if dynamic naming is not allowed for the option or if no override folder name is specified at install time.

primary GPFS cluster configuration server
In a GPFS cluster, the node chosen to maintain the GPFS cluster configuration data.

primary group

  1. A basic group that has authority to access and configure settings on a network entity.
  2. A group profile whose authority to an object is stored with that object. Primary group authority may provide better performance than private group authority.
  3. In concurrent groups, the group that is assigned to all files that a user creates.

primary group authority
The authority that the primary group has to the object. See also owner authority, private authority, public authority.

primary group buffer pool
For a duplexed group buffer pool, the structure that is used to maintain the coherency of cached data. This structure is used for page registration and cross-invalidation. The z/OS equivalent is old structure. See also secondary group buffer pool.

primary group layout
The allocation of the graphic characters of group 1 to the keys of a particular keyboard, defined by a national standard or established by common usage in a particular country or group of countries (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also primary layer.

primary HA host
The main computer that is connected to the HA cluster.

primary half-session
In SNA, the half-session that sends the session activation request. See also primary logical unit, secondary half-session.

primary Hardware Management Console (primary HMC)
The System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) through which data personnel create and manage an ensemble. This HMC owns configuration and policy information that the zManager uses to monitor, manage, and adjust resources for all members of this ensemble. See also alternate Hardware Management Console, Hardware Management Console.

primary HMC
See primary Hardware Management Console.

primary index

  1. In VSAM, the set of primary keys that provide the standard path for access to the data set.
  2. An index that enforces the uniqueness of a primary key.

primary instance
The online instance of a replicated resource group. The node that has a resource group in the online state activates all the resources in the resource group. See also replicated resource group.

primary key

  1. In each record of a VSAM KSDS, an identifying field. The key of each record is a field in a predefined position within the record. Each key must be unique in the data set.
  2. An object that uniquely identifies an entity bean of a particular type.
  3. In a relational database, a key that uniquely identifies one row of a database table. See also constraint, foreign key, unique key.

primary-key constraint
A constraint that specifies that each entry in a column or set of columns contains a unique non-null value.

primary key prefix
A two-digit prefix for a colony. It can be any number from 10û99 (except 19 and 20). The first two digits of the Primary Key are used to identify a colony through the Colony Prefix.

primary language
The national language installed on the system as the default language used to display and print information. The primary language is also used to service the system. See also secondary language.

primary layer
The layer in which a keyboard operates when powered on (see IBM Corporate Standard C-S 2-0161-008: Keyboard National Requirements). See also alternate layer, primary group layout.

primary library
In System Manager, for a code load, the library in which the code load is stored if dynamic naming is not allowed for the option or no override library names are specified at install time. For language loads, the library in which the language load is stored if the language load identification matches the primary language of the system and either dynamic naming is not allowed for the option or no override library names are specified at install time.

primary link
The optical connection between a local optical link card and a remote bus adapter card.

primary location
The storage location designated as the dedicated location for an SKU, usually in the active pick area.

primary log
A set of one or more log files that are used to record changes to a database and for which storage is allocated in advance. See also secondary log.

primary log file
A set of one or more log files that is used to record changes to a database. Storage for these files is allocated in advance.

primary logical unit (PLU)
In SNA, the logical unit that contains the primary half-session for a particular logical unit-to-logical unit (LU-to-LU) session. See also primary half-session, secondary logical unit.

primary mail hub server
The on-premises server that the SmartCloud Notes service attempts to use first to route mail to on-premises servers. 

primary name
The name contained in the primary directory entry for a library memory, which is used for creating, copying, and deleting the member. A library member always has one primary name and possibly one or more aliases.

primary name server
A name server that always loads domain information from its own domain database file.

primary node

  1. A device that runs a workload. See also standby node.
  2. A cluster node that currently has the principle copy of a cluster resource. All replications of a resilient resource originate from the primary copy of the resource.
  3. The Sterling Connect:Direct node that executes the process.
  4. See home node.

primary NSD server
A node designated to perform Network Shared Disk (NSD) disk-access functions. Nodes not directly attached to a disk access it using the primary NSD server.

primary officer
The police officer most involved in an event.

primary optical link
A connection between the system and an expansion unit. The hardware that creates this link is the local optical link card, the remote bus adapter, and the optical cables that connect the two.

primary organization
See owner organization.

primary part
An EGL part whose name is the same as the source file in which the part resides. The primary parts are data table, form group, library, page handler, program, and UI record.

primary participant
The first user to whom documents are submitted for approval.

primary partition
A logical partition that provides certain general functions on which all logical partitions are dependent. The primary partition is the only partition that is active in a system that has a single partition. All partition management functions are performed from this partition. If this partition is powered off or restarted, for example, the entire system is powered off or restarted.

primary path

  1. The channel that an operation first uses. See also alternate path.
  2. In CCP, one of two paths defined for information flow to and from the physical units attached to the network by means of an IBM 3710 Network Controller. The primary path is the path that is normally used.

primary POI task (PPT)
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, the subtask that processes all unsolicited messages that are received from the VTAM program operator interface (POI) and delivers them to the controlling operator or to the command processor. The PPT also processes (a) the initial command that is specified to execute when Tivoli NetView for OS/390 is initialized and (b) timer request commands that are scheduled to execute under the PPT.

primary power supply (PPS)
A power supply that attaches to the customer's ac input power; generates and distributes 390 V dc; and controls and monitors associated power functions.

primary predicate
A predicate associated with a capture point. A primary predicate is used to avoid a performance impact from too many events being considered as candidates for capture.

primary processing unit
In a multiple processing-unit environment, the processing unit assigned to perform level functions for backup and dump.

primary program operator application program (PPO)
A program operator application program that is authorized to receive unsolicited messages. When the PPO is active, all unsolicited messages go to the PPO. Conversely, when the PPO is inactive, unsolicited messages go to the system console. There can be only one PPO in any domain. See also secondary program operator application program.

primary quote
A quote that is most likely to be accepted by the customer and get converted to an order.

primary RACF database
The RACF database designated in a data set name table that contains the RACF profiles used for authorization checking. The primary RACF database can consist of up to 90 data sets. See also backup RACF database.

primary rate access (PRA)
See primary rate interface.

primary rate interface (PRI)
An ISDN interface normally used by large sites, providing 30 (E1) or 23 (T1) B-channels of 64 kbits per second and one D-channel for signaling. This is often known as 30B+D or 23B+D. See also basic rate interface.

primary rate ISDN (PRI)
See primary rate interface.

primary reintegration
The process in which the original primary database can rejoin a high availability disaster recovery pair after a failover. The original primary database can rejoin only as the new secondary database in the HADR pair.

primary replica
The replica designated to be the only recipient of updates by the Administration Process. By updating a primary replica and then replicating that database to other replicas on other servers, you avoid creating replication conflicts.

primary request
In an IMS multisystem environment, a message entered into a terminal before it is processed. See also response, secondary request.

primary role
A role that is assigned by default to the contract creator and designates responsibility for negotiation activities.

primary route
In NCP frame relay, the internal PVC segment that is between the two primary frame handler subports in a subport set.

primary selection
In AIXwindows, the text selected in a widget. The primary selection has a value retrieved by the XmTextGetSelection function.

primary server

  1. A database server that communicates with the database, client, web server, and other secondary servers.
  2. A database server participating in a high-availability configuration. A primary server permits read and write access from client applications and owns the logical logs that are sent to secondary servers.
  3. The server on which all resources that are to be deployed exactly once per instance or once per organization unit (OU) are deployed.

primary session

  1. The session between a class 1 terminal and the active IMS.
  2. An extended recovery facility (XRF) session between the active application subsystem and a terminal user.

primary site

  1. A physical or virtual site that is made up of hardware, network, and storage resources. Typically, production operations run at the primary site. Data can be replicated to a secondary site for disaster recovery and failover operations. See also secondary site.
  2. The highest priority site for a resource group. A resource group might have a backup site (secondary site). See also replicated resource group.

primary slow poll
A technique used by primary link stations to reduce nonproductive polling of a secondary link station.

primary space allocation
The amount of space requested by a user for a data set when it is created. See also secondary space allocation.

primary station

  1. On a point-to-point channel, the station that gains control of the channel first. On a multipoint channel, the station controlling communications.
  2. In high-level data link control (HDLC), the part of a data station that supports the primary control functions of the data link, generates commands for transmission, and interprets received responses.
  3. In SNA, the station on an SDLC data link that is responsible for the control of the data link. There must be only one primary station on a data link. All traffic over the data link is between the primary station and a secondary station. Specific responsibilities assigned to the primary station include initialization of control signal interchange, organization of data flow, and actions to perform error control and error recovery functions. See also secondary station.

primary storage
A direct access storage device (DASD) volume available to users for data allocation. The volumes in primary storage are called primary volumes. See also DASD volume, migration level 1, migration level 2, primary volume, storage hierarchy.

primary storage pool
A named set of volumes that the server uses to store backup versions of files, archive copies of files, and files migrated from client nodes. See also copy storage pool, server storage, storage pool, storage pool volume.

primary structure
A coupling facility list structure that contains shared queues or shared resources. See also overflow structure.

primary subsystem
The subsystem that is made active when the system is initialized.

primary system

  1. The controlling remote system in a push-to-client environment.
  2. In a remote journal network, the System i system where the original database resides.

primary system console
A workstation that is attached to the first input/output processor that is capable of supporting workstations. If Operations Console has been configured, a personal computer (either at a local location or a remote location) becomes the primary system console.

primary system controller
A system that controls the management and dispatching of processing requests within the Gentran Server for Windows system, manages the audit functionality, maintains status information for the system and controls all other system components.

primary system name
In SNADS, the system name of the highest logical unit in the network. See also secondary system name.

primary task
The task under which most dynamic support programs (DSPs) execute.

primary thread
See initial thread.

primary user name
For authenticated users. the name that is used to determine which system resources the users are authorized to access.

primary vital-record specification
The first retention and movement policy that DFSMSrmm matches to a data set and volume used for disaster recovery and vital record purposes. See also secondary vital-record specification, vital record specification.

primary volume

  1. In a stand-alone Metro Mirror or Global Mirror relationship, the target of write operations issued by the host application. See also relationship.
  2. A volume that is mirrored for backup on a remote storage system.
  3. A volume managed by DFSMShsm containing data sets that are directly accessible to the user. See also primary storage.

primary window
The window in which the main interaction between the user and an object takes place.

primary write
A type of update that records changes to the checkpoint data set. See also final write, intermediate write.

prime index
In z/OS Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the index component of a key-sequenced data set (KSDS).

prime key
In z/OS Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), one or more bytes within a data record used to identify the data record or control its use. A prime key must be unique.

prime record key
In COBOL, a key whose contents uniquely identify a record within an indexed file.

The displaying by the Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF) of a data entry panel already containing the values that were in effect the last time the program was used.


  1. A simple and fundamental data structure, API, algorithm, or system service that serves as a building block for more complex solutions, applications, or environments.
  2. A drawing command that is made up of the smallest possible parts and is the basis for more complex scenes. Examples of primitives include arc, line, circle, polygon, and charstr.
  3. A message processing node that cannot be further subdivided. See also subflow node.
  4. The figures created by drawing commands.
  5. A message sent from one process to another.
  6. See operation.

primitive analysis engine
An analysis engine that is composed of a single annotator, but does not contain component analysis engines. See also analysis engine.

primitive operator
An operator that is implemented in the C++ or Java language and that includes an operator model that describes the syntax and semantics of the operator. See also custom operator, generic operator, non-generic operator, operator, operator model, streams processing application.

primitive type

  1. In Java, a category of data type that describes a variable that contains a single value of the appropriate size and format for its type: a number, a character, or a Boolean value. Examples of primitive types include byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean. See also boxing.
  2. A predefined basic data type without any substructure, such as an integer or a string.

primitive widget
In Enhanced X-Windows, a widget that instantiates its own children of a known class and does not expect external clients to do so. Primitive widgets do not have general geometry management methods. Primitive widgets that instantiate children are responsible for all operations requiring downward traversal below themselves.

primordial pool
Storage capacity that is unallocated on a storage device. Storage pools are created by allocating storage capacity from primordial pools.

An entity that can communicate securely with another entity. A principal is identified by its associated security context, which defines its access rights. See also credential.

principal components analysis (PCA)
A method of data reduction that summarizes the total variance in a large number of related fields. This method works by using a small number of derived fields. See also factor analysis.

principal development library
In System Manager, a development library into which a load object (*PRDLOD) is created.

principal facility
The terminal or logical unit that is connected to a transaction at its initiation. See also alternate facility.

principal HADR standby database
In an HADR multiple standby system, the standby database that allows any synchronization mode. Only one principal HADR standby database can be defined in a multiple standby system. See also auxiliary HADR standby database, standby database.

principal library
In System Manager, the library that contains the load object (*PRDLOD).

principal name

  1. In the Kerberos protocol, the name by which the Kerberos principal is identified. The principal name usually consists of either a) a user name and a realm name or b) a service name, host name, and a realm name. See also Kerberos principal.
  2. The name by which a principal is known to the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) security services.

principal password
In Kerberos, the password that corresponds to the principal name. This password is used to authenticate services and users to each other.

principal primary library
In System Manager, a primary library into which the objects that were created in the principal development library are stored when no overriding library name is specified at installation time.

principal standby database
See principal HADR standby database.

printable area
The area on a sheet of paper where print can be placed.

print band
An interchangeable metal band that contains the print characters used by some printers.

print bar
See type bar.

print buffer
An area of writable control storage where data to be printed are stored until ready.

print chain
A revolving carrier on which the type slugs of an impact printer are mounted on a chain.

print contrast signal (PCS)

  1. In architecture, a measurement of the ratio of the reflectivities between the bars and spaces of a bar code symbol, commonly expressed as a percent.
  2. In optical character recognition, a measure of the contrast between a printed character and the paper on which the character is printed. (A)

print control character
A control character for print operations such as line spacing, page ejection, or carriage return.

print control object
In architecture, a resource object that contains layout, finishing, and resource mapping information used to present a document on physical media. Examples of print control objects are form maps and medium maps.

print data file
In VM, a data file, usually created by an application program, that contains the actual information to be printed and some of the data that controls the format of the printing. The three kinds of print data files are composed text, line format, and mixed format. See also print data set.

print data set
A data set created by an application program that contains the actual information to be printed and, optionally, some of the data that controls the format of the printing. The types of print data sets are composed text, line format, and mixed format. See also auxiliary data set, print data file, print file.

print data stream
The data stream that is created by PSF and transmitted to the printer.

print descriptor
An object used to manage printing that is created and maintained by the PrintManager program. Print descriptors describe where a print job is printed, how a print job is processed, and how output appears. The print descriptors contain capabilities and defaults of options used for printing. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *PDG.

print descriptor group
An object used to store print descriptors so they can be managed effectively on a system. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *PDG.

print direction
A combination of the inline direction and the baseline direction.

A device that prints system output, such as text and graphics, on paper or other media.

printer control
In CDE, the Front Panel control used to start the Printer software application. Dropping a file on the control displays a dialog box you can use to print the file to the default printer.

printer control language (PCL)

printer definition
An object in the Printer Inventory that contains information about a printer or set of printers that share the same characteristics. A printer definition contains information that is used to print files.

printer/display layout
A specification on which the user can design the format for a report either printed or displayed.

printer error
An error that occurs in the printer from attempts to print in a manner that is not valid.

printer file

  1. A device file that determines what attributes printed output will have. A particular printer may or may not support all of the attributes specified in a printer file.
  2. A device file created by the user to support a printer device.

printer ID
The identification code assigned to printers.

Printer Inventory
In Infoprint Server, a set of files that contain information about printers. The Printer Inventory includes such objects as printer definitions, functional subsystem (FSS) definitions, and job selection rules for IP PrintWay.

Printer Inventory Definition Utility (PIDU)
In Infoprint Server, a utility program that creates objects in the Printer Inventory.

printer output
A file that holds output data that is waiting to be processed for printing.

printer-parameter member
In PSF/VSE, the member of a phase library containing user-specified print parameters to print a job on a page printer. The printer-parameter macroinstruction, provided with PSF/VSE, stores the user-specified parameters as a member of a phase library.

printer-resident font
A font (or symbol set) that resides in a printer. Printer-resident fonts are identified by the APTRMARK utility of PSF/VSE or by the resident font resource table APTRFTBL.

print error
An error that results from print instructions that are not correct in the data stream.

print-error marker (PEM)
Small, black, rectangular marks that indicate incorrectly placed data in the valid printable area.

printer session

  1. A 3270 Host Connection Program 2.1 and 1.3.3 for AIX (HCON) mode of operation during interaction with a host computer that emulates a 3286/87 printer.
  2. A PC program that allows a personal printer to emulate a host system printer.

printer spooling
In CICS, a facility that provides support for writing data to print spools. Only printed output is supported by CICS.

printer writer
A system program that writes spooled files to a printer.

print file
A file that is created for the purpose of printing data. A print file includes information to be printed and, optionally, some of the data. See also print data set.

print file document
A Printing Systems Manager (PSM) object that represents text or data to be printed by a job. See also print resource document.

print format utility (PFU)
In AFP Utilities, a utility that allows a user to print a database file member in various formats without writing any programs.

printhead resolution
The number of pels that can be printed in an inch, both horizontally and vertically.

print history
A table that displays a record of print objects.

printing baseline
See baseline.

printing device
Any printer or other device that prints, such as a typewriter-like device or a plotter.

Printing Systems Manager (PSM)
An IBM licensed program that applies print administration and management technology to a cross-platform, client/server print system. PSM provides a set of (a) printing functions for submitting and controlling print jobs and (b) systems management and operator functions to control print spoolers and print supervisors. PSM is based on the Palladium distributed print system.

Print Interface
A component of Infoprint Server that accepts input from remote TCP/IP workstations or from UNIX System Services printing commands. It creates output data sets on the JES spool.

print job
One or more documents submitted in the same job to be printed on the same printer.

print labeling
A controlled method of placing identification labels on each page of PSF printed output.

print line

  1. In printing, a single line of text.
  2. In the formatting of line data, refers to the output generated by one data record.
  3. In a display image, a horizontal line at the top or bottom of a string of characters.

Print Management Facility (PMF)
An interactive menu-driven program that is used to create and modify resources (fonts, form definitions, page definitions, and page segments) for use on IBM page printers.

The collective name for a set of IBM programs or operating system functions that provide cross-system print management for an entire organization.

print mode
In printers, the operational mode in which information is received from the attached controlling computer system and printed output is produced. See also diagnostic mode, test mode.

print option
A specification for printing a document.

Information from the computer produced by a printer.

printout format definition (PFD)
In AFP Utilities, a file member that contains information about the record layout, page layout, record selection, and database file name. A PFD is used to print the records of a database file member in various formats.

print position

  1. Any location on a medium where a character can be printed. See also addressable point.
  2. In printers, the physical positions of the characters constituting a print line relative to the form.

print processor
A set of ODF programs that perform the tasks of fetching report text from the OnDemand base system, formatting it as specified in the PPT row, and outputting it to the appropriate device with the appropriate delivery information. Parameters for formatting and outputting are maintained by using the DM, BM, and B3 panels. Delivery information is maintained by using the UM panel.

print quality

  1. The measure of the quality of printed output relative to existing standards and in comparison with jobs printed previously.
  2. In bar codes, the measure of compliance of a bar code symbol to the requirements of dimensional tolerance, edge roughness, spots, voids, reflectivity, PCS, and quiet zones defined within a bar code symbology.

print queue
A list of print jobs waiting to be printed.

print resource document
A Printing Systems Manager (PSM) object that represents a resource, such as a graphic or font, that is used by a job to print a print file document. See also print file document.

print resources
Fonts, form definitions, overlays, and page segments that are needed to print jobs.

print server
In CDE, a host computer to which one or more printers are connected, or the UNIX process that manages those printers.

Print Services Access Facility (PSAF)
An IBM licensed program that is a menu-driven, print parameter selection program for page printers controlled by PSF. PSF can create form definitions and page definitions and can submit print jobs to page printers driven by PSF.

Print Services Facility

  1. A feature of i5/OS that provides AFP system management and IPDS print management to IPDS printers that are connected to System i systems.
  2. An IBM licensed program that manages and controls the input data stream and output data stream required by supported IBM page printers.

print share
An output queue that is shared with PC clients on the network.

print spooler
A program that controls the printing of data from different applications. It temporarily stores information in separate files until they are printed.

print surface
The side of a form that receives the printed image.

print text
An option that allows the user to specify a line of text at the bottom of a list.

print train
See print chain.

print translation object
A translation object that organizes and formats the printout of EDI documents that are received from or sent to trading partners.. The print translation object enables users to view the EDI document in an easily readable format.

print unit
In IPDS architecture, a group of pages bounded by XOH-DGB commands and subject to the group operation "keep group together as a print unit." A print unit is commonly referred to as a "print job."

See IP PrintWay.

print window
Synonym for printable area.

print workstation
A workstation that prints output and usually reports status to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS automatically.

prior information notice
A notice that alerts the market the intent to award a contract or framework and thereby initiate early supplier discussions.


  1. A way of determining the order in which jobs and job streams start.
  2. A property that determines the order in which business rules are executed in an application.
  3. A rank assigned to a task that determines its precedence in receiving system resources.
  4. In software development, a rank assigned to requirements or work items to determine the order in which they are worked on.

priority aging
A scheduling function used to ensure that waiting jobs will be selected to run before those jobs that have just entered the system.

priority flow control (PFC)
A link-level flow control mechanism, IEEE standard 802.1Qbb. PFC operates on individual priorities. Instead of pausing all traffic on a link, PFC is used to selectively pause traffic according to its class.

priority level resource (PLR)
A marked resource known to PSF and deleted according to a modified deletion algorithm. When resources according to reasonable resource loaded value, PSF deletes all non-PLR resources before deleting any PLR resources. A frequently used resource can be marked as PLR with the Resource Exit; this improves its chances of being retained at the data set end.

priority matrix
A data structure that is used to define and compute internal priorities for tickets by combining values entered for impact and urgency.

priority number
A number that establishes the relative priority of printer requests.

priority queue
In SNADS, a queue that contains distribution queue entries for distributions with a service level of fast, status, or data high. When send times and queue depths are satisfied for both the priority and normal queues, the priority queue is serviced first. See also normal queue.

priority value
A number maintained by the scheduler for each process that indicates the priority of that process. The smaller the priority value of the process, the higher its priority.

A knowledge base that stores linguistic frames in association with their frequency of occurrence; used in the IBM Watson system to store knowledge about "is a" relationships.

In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a protection level that encrypts RPC argument values in secure RPC communications.

privacy enhanced mail (PEM)
A standard for secure email on the Internet.

privacy seal
A logo indicating that the organization displaying it on their website meets certain industry standards for online privacy practices.

privacy set
A collection of elements that can be used to do special monitoring.

Pertaining to a member of a class that is accessible only to member functions and friends of that class.

private area
In CICS Transaction Server, an element of MVS virtual storage below the 16 MB line. It contains the local system queue area (LSQA), scheduler work area, subpools 229 and 230, a 16 KB system region area, and a private user region for running programs and storing data.

private authority
The authority specifically given to a user for an object that overrides any other authorities, such as the authority of a user's group profile or an authorization list. See also owner authority, primary group authority, public authority.

private automatic branch exchange (PABX)
An automatic private switching system that services an organization and is usually located on a customer's premises. Often used synonymously with private branch exchange.

private branch exchange (PBX)
A switching system located on a customer's premises that consolidates the number of inside lines (extensions) into a smaller number of outside lines (trunks). Many PBXs also provide advanced voice and data communications features.

private buffer pool
An area of local storage, used for VSO DEDB data, that can provide lookaside capability for shared VSO areas.

private business object

  1. In XSD, a business object attribute that defines an anonymous complex type instead of referencing a named complex type.
  2. A business object that is contained within other business objects. Private business objects are visible only to the containing business object, thereby making them private. See also business object.

private cloud
A cloud computing environment in which access is limited to members of an enterprise and partner networks.

private connection
A connection known only to the two nodes making the connection.

private device
A device that supports arbitrated loop protocol and can interpret 8-bit addresses, but cannot log into the fabric.

private fleet
A trucking fleet that is owned by a shipper for transporting its own freight. In Sterling TMS, a private fleet is set up as a separate carrier organization. See also dedicated fleet, preferred fleet.

private folder
A folder that users design and save for their own use with a Notes database.

private header (PRH)
A record that marks the beginning of a private data interchange and, together with a private trailer, creates the private interchange envelope.

private IP address
An Internet Protocol (IP) address used to communicate on a private network.

private key

  1. In computer security, the secret half of a cryptographic key pair that is used with a public key algorithm. The private key is known only to its owner. Private keys are typically used to digitally sign data and to decrypt data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key. See also public key.
  2. In secure communication, an algorithmic pattern used to encrypt messages that only the corresponding public key can decrypt. The private key is also used to decrypt messages that were encrypted by the corresponding public key. The private key is kept on the user system and is protected by a password. See also key, public key.

private key authentication
See public key cryptography.

private key cryptography
A cryptographic algorithm that uses a single private key to encrypt and decrypt a transferred message. The private key is shared between the sender and the recipient. See also public key cryptography.

private library
A user-owned library that is separate and distinct from the system library.

private loop
A Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) with no fabric attachment.

private loop direct attach (PLDA)
A subset of the Fibre Channel standards for the operation of peripheral devices.

privately defined object
See locally defined object.

privately managed context
A work context that can be switched from one task to another. A privately-managed context is generally used by a work manager, such as the Information Management System (IMS).

private management domain (PRMD)
In OSI X.400, a private company or noncommercial organization that handles a management domain.

private methods and instance data
In object-oriented programming, methods and instance data that are only accessible to the implementation of the same class.

private MIB
In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), a MIB module that is located under the private branch of the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and that is specified exclusively by a specific enterprise (a corporation or university, for example).

private network
A network established and operated by a private organization or corporation for users within that organization or corporation. See also public network.

private NL_port
A node loop port (NL_port) that communicates only with other private NL_ports in the same loop and does not log into the fabric.

private object

  1. In DCE X/Open Object Management (XOM), an object that is represented in an unspecified fashion.
  2. In the DCE X/Open Directory Service (XDS), an object management (OM) object created in the workspace using the OM functions.

private partition
In VSE, a partition allocated for the execution of a specific program or application program. Storage in a private partition is not addressable by programs running in other virtual address spaces.

private process
A process that is strictly internal to a specific organization.

private service
A service that is visible only to members of a specified Bluemix organization.

private service bundle
A service bundle that is not explicitly mentioned in the customization definition document (CDD), but that is included in a service bundle set and provides resources required by another service bundle. In a customization definition report, private service bundles are listed, and their names are followed by the string [private].

private sort
A sort that takes place in the agent private memory of a database agent. See also agent private memory.

private storage pool
A storage pool containing a specified amount of storage that can be used by only one subsystem. See also shared storage pool.

private trailer (PRT)
A record that marks the end of a private data interchange and, together with a private header, creates the private interchange envelope.

private view
A view that users design and save for their own use with a Notes database.

private volume
A tape volume that has been assigned the private use attribute by the software. If a cartridge resides in a tape library, it is assigned to the private category.


  1. The right to use or change the contents of a database, table, table fragment, or column.
  2. In SQL, a capability given to a user by the processing of a GRANT statement.
  3. See permission.
  4. The capability of performing a specific function, sometimes on a specific object. See also authority level, authorization, supervisor.
  5. The right to access a specific database object in a specific way. A privilege is controlled by users with access control (ACCESSCTRL) or security administrator (SECADM) authority or by users who have the privilege and the ability to grant it to others. Privileges can include rights to create, delete, and retrieve data from tables.

privilege attribute certificate (PAC)
A digital document that contains a principal's authentication and authorization attributes and a principal's capabilities.

privilege class
A level of authority that is granted to an administrator. The privilege class determines which administrative tasks the administrator can perform. See also authority, node privilege class, operator privilege class, policy privilege class, storage privilege class, system privilege class.

privileged attribute certificate (PAC)
A privileged document that contains such information as the client's name and the groups to which it belongs. Its format is dependent on the underlying security mechanism.

privileged credential
A pre-built account in an operating system or application that distinguishes a user with security, administrative, or system authorities.

privileged instructions
System control instructions that can only run in the processor's privileged, or supervisor, state. Privileged instructions generally manipulate virtual machines or the memory manager and are not used ordinarily by application programmers.

privileged state
A hardware protection state in which the processor can run privileged instructions. See also unprivileged state.

privileged user

  1. In Informix, a user who was granted one or more administrator roles.
  2. A user logged into an account with root user authority.

privilege escalation
The process of referring to scans that were run using different user privileges, in order to test whether privileged resources are accessible to users with insufficient access permissions.

privilege set

  1. A collection of privileges for working with system components and functions. The administrator assigns privilege sets to users (user IDs) and user groups.
  2. For the predefined SYSADM ID, the set of all possible privileges. For any other authorization identifier, the set of all privileges that are recorded for that identifier in the DB2 for z/OS catalog.

privilege ticket
In DCE Security, a ticket that contains a privilege attribute certificate in addition to the information contained in a simple ticket.


  1. See program resolution monitor.
  2. See protected-resource manager.

See private management domain.

A measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. Probability values range from 0 to 1; 0 implies that the event never occurs, and 1 implies that the event always occurs. A probability of 0.5 indicates that the event has an even chance of occurring or not occurring.

probation officer
See parole officer.


  1. A data collection job that itemizes and creates an inventory of assets, such as computers, controllers, disk drives, file systems, and logical units.
  2. Program code that collects troubleshooting information in the event of an error condition. This information is sent to First Failure Support Technology (FFST) or otherwise used in problem solving.
  3. A type of message that determines if a message with certain characteristics can be delivered to a specific recipient. This type of message is treated like a user message by the message transfer agent (MTA), except that it is never delivered to the recipient.
  4. A reusable set of Java code fragments and supporting attributes for collecting detailed runtime information about objects, arguments, and exceptions. See also Probekit.
  5. A process to measure information from part of the system and expose the information as one or more counters.
  6. A monitor that tests a transaction and then detects and reports any errors that were generated during that test.

probe ID
A 4-byte hexadecimal value that identifies a probe. The unique probe ID is used to localize a problem.

A scriptable framework for doing byte-code insertion to probe the workings of a target program. See also probe.

A technique that examines the logical implications of fixing each binary variable to 0 or 1. It is performed after preprocessing and before the solution of the root relaxation.

Unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents.

problem analysis
The process of finding the cause of a problem. For example, a program error, device error, or user error.

problem determination
The process of determining the source of a problem. Sources of a problem can include a program component, machine failure, telecommunication facilities, user or contractor-installed programs or equipment, or environmental failure such as a power loss, or user error.

problem determination procedure
A prescribed sequence of steps aimed at recovery from, or circumvention of, problem conditions.

problem isolation procedure (PIP)
Written information used by service representatives to repair IBM equipment. A PIP contains yes/no questions and procedures that direct the user to the failing part of the equipment.

problem line
A quote line that has failed validation.

problem log
A record of problems and of the status of the analysis of those problems.

problem management
In System Manager, the discipline that manages the detection, analysis, correction, and tracking of problems occurring in an information system environment.

problem management focal point
The management services responsible for the problem analysis and diagnosis for a sphere of control. An alert focal point is a subset of a problem management focal point.

problem management record (PMR)
The number in the IBM support mechanism that represents a service incident with a customer.

problem state
A state during which the processing unit cannot handle input, output, and other privileged instructions. See also supervisor state.

Procedural Language SQL (PL/SQL)
The Oracle implementation of a language that provides procedural constructs for implementing control flow logic around traditional SQL queries and operations. See also SQL Procedural Language.

procedural programming
In RPG, a programming technique in which the input and output operations are controlled by programmer-specified operation codes instead of by the program cycle.


  1. A routine that does not return any value. See also declaration statement, user-defined procedure.
  2. In the Integrated Language Environment (ILE) model, a set of self-contained high-level language (HLL) statements that performs a particular task and returns to the caller. Individual languages have different names for this concept of a procedure. In C, a procedure is called a function.
  3. In COBOL, one or more successive paragraphs or sections, within the Procedure Division, that direct the computer to perform some action or series of related actions.
  4. In a programming language, a block, with or without formal parameters, that is initiated by means of a procedure call.
  5. A sequenced set of statements that may be used at one or more points in one or more computer programs, and that usually has one or more input parameters and yields one or more output parameters.
  6. A routine that can be invoked using the SQL CALL statement to perform operations that can include both host language statements and SQL statements. See also built-in procedure, external procedure, routine, SQL procedure, user-defined procedure.

procedure address
The location of a particular program procedure in the AIXwindows Toolkit.

procedure body
The implementation of the logic of a procedure. See also routine body.

procedure call

  1. In programming languages, a language construct for invoking execution of a procedure.
  2. A call made to a procedure within a module in a bound program. See also program call.

procedure correlation identifier (PCID)
An identifier generated by an SNA control point (CP) to (a) correlate search, activation, and deactivation requests and responses related to a specific session between logical units (LUs), and (b) identify this session for such purposes as problem determination, accounting, and performance monitoring. The PCID and the network-qualified name of the CP generating the PCID constitute the fully qualified procedure correlation identifier (FQPCID), which is unique across the network in which it is used.

procedure declaration
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Remote Procedure Call (RPC), the syntax for an operation, including its name, the data type of any value it returns, and the number, order, and data types of any parameters.

Procedure Division
One of the four main parts of a COBOL program. The Procedure Division contains instructions for solving a problem. The Procedure Division may contain imperative statements, conditional statements, paragraphs, procedures and sections.

procedure group
A set of programs that are called or linked together.

procedure language statement
In query management, a query command that is used in query procedures.

procedure library (PROCLIB)
A program library in direct access storage with job definitions. The reader/interpreter can be directed to read and interpret a particular job definition by an execute statement in the input stream.

procedure name
In COBOL, a paragraph name or a section name in the Procedure Division.

procedure order profiling data
A portion of observability that is stored with a program that is produced by Integrated Language Environment (ILE) application profiling. The data lists the order in which the program's procedures were packaged and also indicates how the procedures should be packaged in the future if the program is rebuilt in some way. For example, if procedure A calls procedure B very often, then it is advantageous to package procedures A and B close together.

procedure overloading
See routine overloading.

procedure pointer call
A high-level language call mechanism for specifying the address of a procedure to be called. The procedure pointer call provides a way to call a procedure dynamically. For example, by manipulating arrays or tables of procedure names or addresses, the application programmer can dynamically route a procedure call to different procedures. See also static procedure call.

procedure window
In certain printers, a window accessed from the menu bar a push button. Procedure windows request information, thereby enabling you to perform procedures on the printer.

procedure with logic
Any QMF procedure beginning with a REXX comment. In a procedure with logic, it is possible to perform conditional logic, make calculations, build strings, and pass commands back to the TSO environment. See also linear procedure.


  1. The sequence of documents or messages to be exchanged between the Community Managers and participants to run a business transaction.
  2. An instance of a program running on a system and the resources that it uses.
  3. A progressively continuing procedure consisting of a series of controlled activities that are systematically directed toward a particular result or end.
  4. An object that contains a user-created script of TurboIntegrator functions and commands to programmatically import data as well as create and modify TM1 objects, such as cubes and dimensions. A process can be run manually or contained in a chore to run at a scheduled time.
  5. A series of statements and parameters used to initiate Sterling Connect:Direct activity, such as copying files and running jobs.
  6. In Business Transaction Services (BTS), a collection of one or more activities. A process is the largest unit that CICS business transaction services can work with, and has a unique name by which it can be referenced and invoked. Typically, a process is an instance of a business transaction.
  7. See job.
  8. Automated tasks that run on agents. See generic processes, component processes, and application processes. See also application process, component process, generic process.
  9. A separately executable unit of work.
  10. In System Manager, a combination of systems management applications that accomplishes one or more customer tasks or a part of a task. A process can contain other processes.
  11. A sequence or flow of activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work. In BPMN, a process is depicted as a graph of flow elements, which are a set of activities, events, gateways, and sequence flow paths that adhere to BPMN execution semantics.
  12. A series of related activities aimed at achieving a set of objectives in a measurable, usually repeatable manner. A process can specify any of the roles, responsibilities, tools, and management controls required to reliably deliver its outputs.
  13. For Common Programming APIs ToolKit, the collection of all i5/OS jobs sharing an activation group.
  14. An address space and single thread of control that executes within that address space, and its required system resources. A process is created by another process issuing the fork() function. The process that issues the fork() function is known as the parent process, and the new process created by the fork() function is known as the child process.
  15. In the Application Lab, a sequence of steps.

process access group (PAG)
A group of job-related objects that may be paged in and out of storage in a single operation when a job (process) enters or leaves a long wait.

process accounting
An analysis of the way that each process uses the processing unit, memory, and I/O resources.

process anchor block (PAB)
In VTAM, a process scheduling services dispatch point.

process application
A container in the Process Center repository for process models and supporting implementations. A process application typically includes business process definitions (BPDs), the services to handle implementation of activities and integration with other systems, and any other items that are required to run the processes. Each process application can include one or more tracks.

process assembly
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the assembly that includes the air system, charge corona, cleaner, developer, drum, forms overlay, laser, operator panel, paper input ramp and splicer, and transfer station.

process asset
A mapping component, a mapping specification, or potentially other similar assets, such as a job, rule, or parameter.

process attribute value
In AIX Workload Management, process attribute values include user ID, group ID, and application pathname.

process branching
A protocol that evaluates one or more rules to reach a decision and then specifies which activity to execute as a result of that decision.

process case
A possible path through a process, identified by a unique set of process decision outcomes and possibly determined by attributes and values of incoming data.

Process Center Console
An interface to the Process Center repository where administrators can create and manage process applications, manage user access to library items, install snapshots on test or production servers, and perform other tasks.

process checklist
A list of milestones that must be achieved during a release.

process class
A parameter that is used to control the order in which processes are executed based on relative ranking.

process concurrency
The degree to which a given process has multiple dispatchable threads at all times.

process container
A data-container associated with a process. Process containers can be read by all the activities that make up the process. Note that they are not the same as the root activity's containers.

process control information
Map component settings that can be changed at run time by specifying overrides at the command line, in a command file, or by configuring the Launcher.

process controller
A system that regulates the management and dispatching of processing requests within the system. It allows the system translation load to be distributed for fast and efficient throughput. Systems In a single workstation system, all three controllers (communications controller, process controller, and the primary system controller) reside on the same machine.

process control PIP
For RosettaNet, a Partner Interface Process (PIP) that is used to communicate process states outside the context of the process instance with which it is associated. For example, PIP 0A1 (Notification of Failure or NoF) is a process control PIP that is used to communicate an exception condition that occurs outside the normal message choreography of the subject PIP.

process data
Data that is accumulated in an XML document about a business process during the life of the process. Activities in the process add elements to the process data and use components of the process data to complete configured processing tasks.

process database
A database that is used by processes to store artifacts related to their operations.

process definition
A specification of the runtime characteristics of an application server process.

process definition object
A WebSphere MQ object that contains the definition of a WebSphere MQ application. For example, a queue manager uses the definition when it works with trigger messages.

process diagram
A diagram that represents the flow of work for a process. The objects within a process diagram include tasks, processes, connections, business items, resources, and decisions.

process element

  1. In MO:DCA, a document component that is defined by a structured field and that facilitates a form of document processing that does not affect the presentation of the document. Examples of process elements are Tag Logical Elements (TLEs) that specify document attributes and Link Logical Elements (LLEs) that specify linkages between document components.
  2. An element that defines an activity and is the basic element of a business process model.

process flow
The representation of interdependencies between activities in a structured format.

process group
A collection of processes in a system that is identified by a process group ID.

process group ID (PGID)
The unique identifier representing a process group during its lifetime. A process group ID is a positive integer that is not reused by the system until the process group lifetime ends.

process group lifetime
A period of time that begins when a process group is created and ends when the last remaining process in the group leaves the group because either it is the end of the last process' lifetime or the last remaining process is calling the setsid() or setpgid() functions. X/Open. ISO.1.

process ID

  1. See process identification number.
  2. The unique identifier that represents a process. A process ID is a positive integer and is not reused until the process lifetime ends.

process identification number (PID, process ID)
A unique number assigned to a process by the operating system. The number is used internally by processes to communicate.

The action of performing operations and calculations on data.

processing action
A defined activity in a processing rule that is performed against messages. See also action.

processing element (PE)
An individual execution program that includes the operators and stream that are defined in a data flow graph or subgraph of a streams processing application.

processing engine archive (PEAR)
A .pear zip archive file that includes a Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) analysis engine and all of the resources required to use it for custom analysis in enterprise search.

processing instruction
An embedded directive within an XML instance document that is passed to an application when the document is parsed. The processing instruction node is one of the kinds of nodes that are defined in the XQuery and XPath data model. See also node kind.

processing intent
The attribute defined in the PSB which specifies the program's database access privileges such as insert, delete, and replace.

processing limit
A transaction attribute that defines how many messages the application program is allowed to process during one program execution.

processing mode document (pmode document)
An ebMS XML document that contains one or more processing mode elements.

processing node
The logical nodes in the system where jobs are run. The configuration file can define one processing node for each physical node in the system or multiple processing nodes for each physical node. See also compute node, conductor node.

processing policy
A collection of policy rules that define message processing through a service.

processing rule
The portion of a policy rule in a processing policy that identifies the processing actions to perform against messages.

processing thread
A connection between an application program and the CICSPlex SM API. A program can establish multiple processing threads, but each one is considered a unique API user; no resources can be shared across the boundary of a thread.

processing time

  1. The time that is required to handle a single order after it is delivered to a stop in a route. The processing time is used to calculate the departure and arrival of shipments that are built using a route itinerary template. See also on-premises time.
  2. The time it takes for an item to be received by a warehouse and made ready for shipment (inbound processing) as well as shipping it from the warehouse (outbound processing).
  3. For a thread or an agent performing work in a monitored time interval, the amount of elapsed time minus the amount of wait time. See also elapsed time, wait time.

processing unit

  1. See processor.
  2. A functional unit within a computer that is responsible for a certain aspect of processing.

process initiative
A set of process programs or projects to achieve a process transformation/change in support of a business/transformation initiative.

process instance
A manifestation of a modeled process that is created in a simulated or real environment.

process library
In the Application Lab, a collection of processes, arranged by folders.

process lifetime
The period of time that begins when a process is created and ends when the process ID is returned to the system. X/Open. ISO.1. After a process is created with a fork() function, it is considered active. Its thread of control and address space exist until it terminates. It then enters an inactive state where certain resources may be returned to the system, although some resources, such as the process ID, are still in use. When another process executes a wait() or waitpid() function for an inactive process, the remaining resources are returned to the system. The last resource to be returned to the system is the process ID. At this time, the lifetime of the process ends.

process lock
A function that allows the calling process to lock or unlock both its text and data segments into memory.

Process Manager
In WebSphere Voice Server, the process that manages the interaction of all telephony system processes, for example, starting and stopping text-to-speech or speech recognition sessions.

process manager
A system of managing the execution of a process. A process manager operates the defined and agreed process, ensuring that it interfaces with all other relevant processes, target setting, process audits, effectiveness and efficiency reviews, and managing the process improvement cycle.

process mode
The mode of operation in which data is processed by output devices.

process model
A representation of a real-time business process. A business process model is composed of the individual steps or activities that make up the process, contains the conditions that dictate when the steps or activities occur, and identifies the resources that are required to run the business process.

process modeling
The process of setting up the order management workflow of orders, inventory changes, returns, payment authorizations, or many other system events.

process module
A program unit that contains a set of process templates that support administrative tasks.

process node
A node that performs operations on individual data records and fields.

process object
The logical representation of a Java process. A process object is identified both by name and a process ID number (PID), and appears in the Monitors view along with the associated agents whenever a Java process is launched or attached to.


  1. A Java function that accepts arguments as input. It operates on the value of the component to which it is connected when it is rendered, or to subcomponents being assembled into the component for rendering.
  2. A device for processing data from programmed instructions. It may be part of another unit.
  3. One or more integrated circuits that process coded instructions and perform a task.
  4. In a computer, the part that interprets and executes instructions. Two typical components of a processor are a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit.

Processor Active light
The light on the control panel that comes on when the processing unit is running.

processor affinity
The degree to which a thread is likely to be dispatched to the same physical processor on which it last ran.

processor complex
The maximum set of hardware resources that support a single operating system.

processor core
A single processing unit on a chip with multiple processing units.

processor day
The measurement of the capacity of a physical processor on a server during a contiguous 24-hour period.

Processor Resource/Systems Manager (PR/SM)
A feature that allows a processor to use several MVS images simultaneously and provides logical partitioning capability.

processor status word
See program status word.

processor storage
See central storage.

processor value unit (PVU)
A unit of measure that is assigned to each processor core for software licensing purposes. PVUs vary according to chip architecture. See also core, full-capacity, subcapacity.

process owner
A user who is the responsible party for a metric. Responsibility is assigned at a specific drill down level.

process table
A kernel data structure that contains relevant information about all processes in the system.

process template
A structured collection of activities and tasks that can be reused for specific process workflows. Process templates can be edited, created, cloned, and removed. Users typically apply and modify a process template when they design a workflow for a specific process.

process type
The category to which a process belongs. All the activities in a process inherit the same process-type attribute. Categorizing processes makes it easier to find a particular process or activity - the BTS browsing commands allow filtering by process-type.

process type pipeline
A workflow process that consists of a series of transactions and statuses that guide documents, such as orders and purchase orders, through the fulfillment process.

See procedure library.

The entire process or function associated with the buying of goods and services to support business operations.

procurement buyer
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that uses the account belonging to the buyer organization to make purchases from the seller and sends pending orders to the procurement system for approval.

procurement buyer administrator
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that registers and approves users as procurement buyers (buy-side). The procurement buyer administrator manages the various users and creates and administers the suborganizations within the buying organization.

procurement card
See purchasing card.

procurement order
A type of chained order derived for the purpose of inventory replenishment at the shipping location.

procurement purchase order
A type of procurement order for which a purchase order is derived for the purpose of replenishing inventory by purchasing it from a node or supplier that is not owned by the seller organization.

procurement structure
A structure that defines the process of acquisition of goods or services made by a company.

procurement transfer order
A type of procurement order for which a transfer order is derived for the purpose of replenishing inventory by moving it from another node owned by the seller organization to the shipping node location. See also transfer order.

PRO data model
See Public Record Office data model.


  1. An entity that transmits data to another entity. For example, a join thread that receives data from a scan thread is considered a consumer; in this case the scan thread is considered a producer.
  2. An application that creates and sends messages. See also message producer, publisher.
  3. An individual or organization who sells the products of an insurance carrier.

producer definition
A set of interfaces that are defined for the producer portal. The producer definition can include the producer service description, the producer portal URL, and the security setup. See also consumer portal, producer portal.

producer portal
A portal that provides portlets as a service so that other portals, called consumer portals, can use the portlets and make the portlets available to their users. See also consumer portal, producer definition.


  1. Something produced that is marketed or sold. A product is formed from a particular configuration of component parts, which can be software applications, physical parts, or services. A complex product might contain multiple systems. A system might be made up of multiple products. See also product line, system, variant.
  2. A wireless device used for communication such as a cell phone, a calling card, or a tablet.
  3. In System Manager, a program or application that is identified as a product to the i5/OS operating system by a product identifier and a product definition.
  4. A single item or a family of similar items sold to a customer. See also stock keeping unit.
  5. A catalog entity that can be viewed as a group of items that share attributes. All items that are related to a particular product exhibit the same set of attributes and are distinguished by their attribute values.
  6. A separately sold software application that might contain other products that are sold separately. A product has its own product identifier (PID).

product activation kit
A permanent license for a product and the application for installing the license.

product activity log (PAL)
A log of system data, Licensed Internal Code data, software components, subsystem information, and I/O device data.

product availability object
A system object used to store information about products and licensed programs. The system-recognized identifier is *PRDAVL.

product backlog
See backlog.

product class
An item's classification, such as first quality, second quality, or finished good. Products in different product classes might require different methods of handling and storage

product code
The three-character code that uniquely identifies a warehouse enablement pack and keeps the data and schema of one warehouse enablement pack separate from other warehouse enablement packs.

product comparison metaphor
A metaphor that allows customers to compare the similarities and differences between products.

product definition
In System Manager, an object that contains the information about a product. The object type is *PRDDFN. A product definition is identified as belonging to a product (PRDID) and a release (RLS). A given product and release can have only one product definition.

product exploration metaphor
A metaphor in which customers initiate a parametric search of the product data. This metaphor is intended for customers who are familiar with the features of a given category of products.

product family
See product line.

product ID
See product identifier.

product identifier (PID, product ID)
A unique value that identifies an IBM software product. Every mainframe and distributed IBM software product has a PID.

product information management (PIM)
The process of collecting, adding, updating, and maintaining product information in a central repository in order to provide consistent, accurate, and current product information to other systems or outputs, such as websites or catalogs.

In OSI, a part of the formal notation used to specify ASN.1, in which allowed sequences of items are associated with a name that can be used to refer to those sequences in the definition of new sets of allowed sequences.

production copy
In cross-site mirroring, the independent disk pool to which all production operations are directed. All disk write operations are directed here first and are then replicated to the mirror copy of the independent disk pool. The production copy always has current data.

production database
A database in which Sterling Control Center records the information gathered from the monitored servers for historical purposes (for example, ad hoc select statistics and user reports).

production environment
An environment that includes instances of the enterprise system and the mobile application platform. Mobile apps are distributed to devices in an enterprise on a product environment.

production library

  1. A subset of the preproduction library of app testing features that customers use. Customers' mobile devices report issues and problems anonymously. These features also collect fewer details in logs, session data, and crash reports. See also production mode.
  2. A library containing objects needed for normal processing. See also test library.

production line
A facility within a plant for manufacturing products.

production mode

  1. One of two modes in which the IBM Watson system can be run. The system can be run in production mode after it has been adapted to a domain, trained, and tested, and is ready to respond to user queries. See also customization mode.
  2. An operating state where customers use a limited set of data-collection features to provide information regarding an app's behavior and performance. See also production library.

production move
The transfer of production of a product to a different plant.

production period
The time frame covered by the production plan. See also final job stream, production plan.

production plan
A plan that contains all job scheduling activity planned for a period. The plan is created or extended by the Jnextplan job or by planman. It is stored in the Symphony file, and consists of all the jobs, job streams, and dependency objects that are scheduled to run for that period, including any jobs or job streams carried forward from the previous plan. See also final job stream, production period.

production readiness review (PRR)
The review performed by the system engineer (SE) during qualify phase.

production-ready data
Data that is ready to be published from a staging server or an authoring server to a production server. See also authoring server, commit, production server, quick publish, staging server, task group, workspace task group approver.

production server
A WebSphere Commerce Server containing the set of data and files accessed by customers. See also authoring server, production-ready data, quick publish, staging server.

production stack
The TCP/IP modules involved in most of the network operations on the System i platform.

production system

  1. A WebSphere Voice Response system that is used to respond to or make 'live' calls. A production system can also be used to develop new applications. See also development system.
  2. A system on which application programs that are already developed and tested run on a regular basis.

production timetable
The definition of the planned schedules for a transportation system.

product item
A physical item defined in the master catalog that can be ordered and shipped or delivered to a customer.

product line
A group of closely related products that are variants of each other. Products that make up a product line are often produced from a common base or architecture. See also product, system, variant, variation point.

product line engineering (PLE)
A method for designing and developing a line of products that are based on common components with variations in features and functions to provide a diverse product line efficiently at a reduced development cost.

product load

  1. The smallest logical collection of objects that can make a product option.
  2. In System Manager, an object that contains the control information about an option. The object type is *PRODLOD. A product load is identified by the product identifier (PRDID), release (RLS), option (OPTION), and load identifier (LODID) parameters.

product locale
The code or setting that specifies which language, regional settings, or both to use for parts of the product interface, such as menu commands.

product management
The process of tracking and controlling inventory of products or items across an organizational network.

product manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that is responsible for determining the best way to display, price, and sell products in the online store. The product manager role is equivalent to a merchandising manager.

product message file
In System Manager, a file containing one or more product descriptions.

product option
In System Manager, a group of one or more loads, one of which must be a code load.

product page
A web page that displays detailed information about a product in an online store.

product recommendation
A sales and marketing technique in which catalog inventory is suggested to customers based on their profile or on independent criteria.

product-sensitive programming interface (PSPI)
A special interface that is intended to be used only for a specialized task, such as diagnosis, modification, monitoring, repairing, tailoring, or tuning.

product set
The operating systems, subsystems, or products that can be installed, maintained, and migrated as a group. See also software instance.

product-set identification (PSID)
In SNA, a technique for identifying the hardware and software products that implement a network component.

product sourcing
See sourcing.

product support plan bucket (PSP bucket)
Storage for the instructions and the program temporary fixed (PTFs) required to migrate to a new software release.

product tagger
A batch utility that assigns information to software products so that the software can be identified.

Professional Office Systems (PROFS)
See OfficeVision Series.

A ranking of the ability or experience of a resource to operate within a certain competency or to perform a particular skill.


  1. An object that contains information about the characteristics of the user's session.
  2. In the Remote System Explorer, a container for a particular user's filter, connection, IBM i command, and user-defined action information. A profile can also be used to partition data if the number of remote server connections is high.
  3. In security, a description of the characteristics of an entity to which access is controlled.
  4. Data that describes the characteristics of a user, group, resource, program, device, or remote location. See also data set profile, discrete profile, general resource profile, generic profile, user profile.
  5. A combination protocols and bindings that are used together to create a federation and enable single sign-on.
  6. In social software, a user account where all of the user's information is displayed.
  7. A description of the control available to a particular network operator.
  8. A set of requirements (description, competency, responsibilities, experience, and so on) common across one or more positions.
  9. In Sterling Order Management, a set of data that lists significant features of items that are sold in stores.
  10. A file containing customized settings for a system or user.
  11. An XML-formatted file that contains a set of runtime properties for a given domain of activity, such as user or TCP/IP.
  12. The internal resume of an employee that can include education, experience, languages, mobility, and performance goals.
  13. In CICS, a set of options specified in a resource definition that can be invoked by a transaction definition. Profiles control the interactions between the transaction and terminals or logical units.
  14. A named group of configuration information that can be distributed from a configuration manager when a managed server subscribes. Configuration information can include registered administrator IDs, policies, client schedules, client option sets, administrative schedules, storage manager command scripts, server definitions, and server group definitions. See also configuration manager, enterprise configuration, managed server.
  15. A set of attributes, such as skills and competencies that serves as a template for project profiles.
  16. A container for application-specific information about a particular type of resource. A Tivoli application specifies the template for its profiles, which includes information about the resources that the Tivoli application can manage.
  17. A set of parameters that vary the way an application behaves. A profile feeds values into builders based on user identity or other contextual information, such as language. Using profiles, different variations of an application or portlet can be automatically generated (from the same model) for different users, customers, or situations.
  18. A set of behaviors, privileges, or capabilities that determine how database objects interact with resources.

profile association
On a configuration manager, the defined relationship between a profile and an object such as a policy domain. Profile associations define the configuration information that is distributed to a managed server when it subscribes to the profile.

profile-directed feedback
A two-stage compilation process that first compiles and runs a program to analyze its behavior and then recompiles the program to optimize its execution. The results of the analysis stage are saved in a profile data file that is input to the second, optimization stage.

profile element

  1. In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a record in an RPC profile that maps an RPC interface identifier to a profile member (a server entry, group, or profile in a name service database).
  2. An element or monitoring task belonging to a user profile. The element defines what is to be monitored and when.

In VM, a special EXEC procedure with a filename of PROFILE. The procedure is normally executed immediately after CMS is loaded into a virtual machine. It contains CP and CMS commands that are to be issued at the start of every terminal session.

profile handle
A value created by the system from the Get Profile Handle API that is used to identify a valid user ID and password. This value is used as input to switch the controlling user profile in a job to another user profile without changing the name of the job.

profile list
A list of profiles indexed by class (for general resources) or by the high-level qualifier (for data set profiles) and built in storage by RACF routines.

profile manager

  1. See computer group.
  2. In a Tivoli environment, a container for profiles that links the profiles to a set of resources, called subscribers. Tivoli administrators use profile managers to organize and distribute profiles. A profile manager can operate in the dataless mode or database mode.

profile modeling
The ability for a user or an installation to copy information (such as universal access authority or access lists) from an existing resource profile when defining a new resource profile.

profile record
A record that links a trading partner's delivery channel and packaging record to a business process.

profile segment
An analysis of visitors using selected criteria. The analysis can span sessions through the specification of a segment date range and a report date range. For example, users can analyze the pages that were viewed in April by visitors who came at least twice in March.

profile set
A collection of profiles. For example, a profile set called Country would contain profiles for several countries where business is conducted (France, Spain, Germany, or USA, for example). One profile set can be applied to more than one model.


  1. The display of non-aggregated respondent data, that is, a list of the responses given to questions by individual respondents.
  2. A performance analysis process that is based on statistics for the resources that are used by a program or application.

profiling agent
An agent that does a performance analysis of, and profiles an application.

profiling filter
A mechanism for specifying which information about an application will be analyzed.

profit margin
The ratio of profitability. It indicates how much a company actually gets to keep in terms of earnings from every dollar it earns through sales. Profit margin is displayed as a percentage, for example, a 20% profit margin means the company has a net income of $0.20 for each dollar it earns through sales.

pro forma invoice

  1. See accrual invoice.
  2. A draft invoice that is created upon shipment creation that charges and taxes can be persisted against.

See Professional Office Systems.

PROFS bridge
See VM/MVS bridge.

prog ID
See program identifier.


  1. To design, write, and test computer programs.
  2. A file containing a set of instructions that conform to a particular programming language syntax.
  3. A large transformation consisting of multiple projects crossing organizational boundaries. Individual projects are managed by their own PDT and IPMT, but are interlocked with the program PDT and IPMT.
  4. A single, compilable collection of executable statements in a programming language.
  5. In the Integrated Language Environment (ILE) model, the executable object that results from binding modules together.
  6. A prepared sequence of instructions to the system to accomplish a defined task. In POSIX.2, a program encompasses applications written in the shell command language, complex utility input languages, and high-level languages (HLLs).
  7. A sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and run without a user's intervention.
  8. A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. Programs usually include an element of ongoing activity.

program access to data sets
A RACF function that enables an authorized user or group of users to access one or more data sets at a specified access authority only while running a specified RACF-controlled program. See also program control.

program assertion
A mathematical statement used in attempts to verify program corrections. In the graphics operating system, the assert subroutine tests program assertions.

program automatic storage area (PASA)
A system object that contains call level information for each program on the call stack. The PASA can also contain space (allocated when the program object is called) for program variables.

program call

  1. A call made to an ILE program or to an OPM program. See also procedure call.
  2. A call to an IBM i program or service program procedure.

Program Call Markup Language (PCML)
A tag language that is used to describe the input and output parameters for programs running on System i models. PCML is based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). PCML files are used with the ProgramCallDocument class in the IBM Toolbox for Java to automate parameter handling and calls of ILE programs from Java.

program CCSID
In Enhanced ASCII, a 16-bit value that identifies the current character set of text strings within a program. See also automatic conversion, file tag.

program check
A condition that occurs when programming errors are detected by a processor during execution.

program communication block (PCB)
A control block that contains pointers to Information Management System (IMS) databases. See also program specification block.

program compression
An operation performed by program control to relieve space in the DSA during a short-on-storage condition. The list of program definitions is searched to identify programs that have been dynamically loaded and are currently not in use. If a program is not in use, the space it occupied is reclaimed. See also short-on-storage.

program control

  1. An RACF function with which an installation can control who runs RACF-controlled programs. See also program access to data sets.
  2. A CICS facility that handles the flow of control among application programs.

program control data
In PL/I, data used to affect how a program runs. Program control data is any data that is not string or arithmetic data.

program-controlled interruption
An interruption that occurs when an I/O channel obtains a channel command word with the program-controlled interruption flag on.

program control program (PCP)
The CICS program that manages CICS application programs.

program control table (PCT)
A CICS table defining the transactions that can be processed by the system. Each transaction is paired with the name of the program that CICS runs when the transaction is called.

program counter
See instruction address register.

program cycle
In RPG, the series of operations performed by the computer for each record read.

program data
Application-specific data that can be associated with a call transfer from Callpath to DirectTalk, or in the opposite direction. This is equivalent to Callpath program data, but DirectTalk imposes the restriction that the data must be a printable ASCII character string, with a maximum length of 512 bytes.

program-described data
Data contained in a file for which the fields in the records are described in the program that processes the file. See also externally described file.

program-described file
A file for which the fields in the records are described only in the programs that process the file. To the operating system, the record appears as a character string. See also externally described file.

Program Development Facility (PDF)
An IBM licensed program used with the Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF) to provide a work environment for the development of programs and the use of functions, such as edit and browse.

program device
A symbolic device that a program uses instead of a real device (identified by the device name). When the program uses a program device, the system redirects the operation to the appropriate real device.

program device override
The attributes specified at run time that change the attributes of the program device.

program directory
A document supplied with all z/OS platform products that explains how to install the product.

program entry procedure (PEP)
A procedure provided by the compiler that is the entry point for an ILE program on a dynamic program call. See also user entry procedure.

program error program (PEP)
A user-replaceable program containing code to obtain program addressability, access the COMMAREA, and return control to the CICS abnormal condition program (DFHACP) through an EXEC CICS RETURN command.

program fault management (PFM)
A subsystem of NCS that allows a user to set up cleanup routines when an application does not successfully complete.

program fetch
A program that prepares programs for execution by loading them at specific storage locations and readjusting each relocatable address constant.

program function key

  1. See function key.
  2. A key on a computer that can be programmed to perform a particular operation.

program ID
A 1- to 8-character string entered from a finance device and associated with a server finance transaction program. Lists of valid program IDs and their associated application programs are maintained in program tables.

program identification entry
In COBOL, an entry in the PROGRAM-ID paragraph of the Identification Division that contains clauses that specify the program-name and assign selected program attributes to the program.

program identifier (prog ID)
A property that specifies the COM whose code executes when the event occurs.

program initialization parameter (PIP)
The initial parameter value or values passed to a target program as input or used to set up the process environment.

Program Integrated Information (PII)
User-visible text that is contained within a software program and is integral to the execution of that program. This includes user interface text and messages.

program integrated information (PII)
User-visible text that is contained within a software program and is integral to the execution of that program. This includes user interface text and messages.

program interface (PIF)
In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, an interface that lets user-written programs issue various requests to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS.

program interruption
The interruption of the execution of a program due to some event such as an operation exception, an exponent-overflow exception, or an addressing exception.

program isolation (PI)
A DL/I or IMS facility that separates all the activity of an application program from any other active application program until that application program indicates, via a synchronization point, that the data it has modified or created is consistent and complete.

program isolation lock manager
A facility for local locking in systems for which no internal resource lock manager (IRLM) has been defined. Otherwise, the IRLM is used for all lock management, including local lock management.

program level

  1. Pertaining to an operation that is performed for an entire program. See also command-level.
  2. The version of a program that is composed of the following levels: the version number, the release number, the modification number, and the fix number.

program library
A type of partitioned data set extended (PDSE) that contains program objects only. A program library is a PDSE from which programs are loaded into memory for execution by the operating system.

program library release (PLR)

program list table (PLT)
A CICS control table that contains a list of programs that can run as a group during CICS startup or shutdown and can be enabled and disabled as a group by a single CEMT transaction.

program loading
The use of MVS load under an MVS subtask to load programs into CICS storage.

programmable command format (PCF)
A type of WebSphere MQ message used by the following applications: user administration applications, to put PCF commands onto the system command input queue of a specified queue manager, user administration applications, to get the results of a PCF command from a specified queue manager, and a queue manager, as a notification that an event has occurred. See also WebSphere MQ script commands.

programmable operator facility (PROP)
A VM facility that allows remote control of a virtual machine by intercepting messages directed for that machine and taking preprogrammed action.

programmable operator message exchange (PMX)
The interface that gives the NetView operator the ability to communicate with the programmable operator facility.

programmable store system (PSS)

programmable terminal
A user workstation that has computational capabilities.

programmable workstation
A workstation that has some degree of processing capability and allows the user to change its functions.

program management

  1. The task of preparing programs for execution, storing the load modules or program objects in program libraries, and executing them on the operating system.
  2. The functions within the system that establish the necessary activation and invocation for a program so that it can run when it is called.

program manager
A member of the Marketing team who owns the marketing message for the product offering and the demo plan.

program manager domain
A CICS domain that provides support for the following: program control functions; transaction ABEND and condition handling; related functions such as invoking user-replaceable modules, global user exits, and task-related user exits; autoinstallation for programs, map sets, and partition sets.

program mask
In bits 20 through 23 of the program status word (PSW), a 4-bit structure that controls whether each of the fixed-point overflow, decimal overflow, exponent-overflow, and significance exceptions should cause a program interruption. The bits of the program mask can be manipulated to enable or disable the occurrence of a program interruption.

programmatic customization
The process of adding algorithms into the processing pipeline and into the post-processors in the final merging and ranking phase. New algorithms are inserted as UIMA annotators and might replace existing annotators.

programmatic emulator
An emulator that uses a Java or visual snippet to automatically specify response values for an emulated component or reference at run time. See also emulator, manual emulator.

programmatic login
A type of form login that supports application presentation site-specific login forms for the purpose of authentication.

programmatic security

  1. A collection of methods used by applications when declarative security is not sufficient to express the security model of the application.
  2. Security model using Java enterprise-bean client applications that require the user to provide identifying information. The application must collect that information and authenticate the user.

programmed function key
On a workstation, a key that can perform various functions selected by the user or determined by an application program.

programmer subsystem
An IBM-supplied interactive subsystem used to code programs on a display station. The system object name is QPGMR.

programmer user profile
The system-supplied user profile that has the authority necessary for system and application programmers and the special authorities of save system authority and job control authority. Named QPGMR.

program message queue
An object used to hold messages that are sent between program calls of a routing step. The program message queue is part of the job message queue.

Programming Development Manager (PDM)
An application that is used in a 5250 emulator to query an IBM i host and perform actions against objects. See also 5250 display.

programming interface for customers
The supported method through which customer programs request software services. The programming interface consists of a set of callable services provided with a product.

programming request for price quotation (PRPQ)

  1. A customer request for a price quotation for a licensed program to be designed especially for a particular group of customers or an application. Documentation for the program is provided only to those customers who order the PRPQ. See also request for price quotation.
  2. A customer request for a price quotation on alterations or additions to the functional capabilities of system control programming or licensed programs. The PRPQ may be used in conjunction with computing system RPQs to solve unique data processing problems. See also computing system RPQ.

programming RPQ
See programming request for price quotation.

programming variable
A location in memory that can contain a value or a reference, depending on its type.

program module
The output of the binder. A collective term for program object and load module.

program module attribute
A characteristic of a program module that is stored in directory entry of a program module. The program module attribute controls the loading rebinding and other processing of the module.

program name
A user-defined word that identifies a COBOL source program.

program number
The seven-digit code (in the format xxxx-xxx) used by IBM to identify each program product.

program object

  1. All or part of a computer program in a form suitable for loading into virtual storage for execution. Program objects are stored in partitioned data set extended (PDSE) program libraries and have fewer restrictions than load modules. Program objects are produced by the binder.
  2. One of two machine object classifications. It includes those objects used in programs that get their definition from an object definition table. Program objects are used as the parameter or values of machine instructions. See also system object.

program offering
A licensed program.

program operator
An application program that is authorized to issue operator commands and receive operator awareness messages. See also solicited message, unsolicited message.

program operator interface (POI)
A VTAM function that allows programs to perform VTAM operator functions.

program preparation
The process of producing a program. The process includes precompilation, compilation, and bind. See also prepare.

program profiling
A technique that is used to optimize a program.

program resolution monitor (PRM)
In the original program model (OPM), a program that translates the intermediate representation of a program into the machine language for use by the computer. The program resolution monitor is used by the programming language compilers to complete the translation of a source program into machine language instructions.

program specification block (PSB)
In DL/I and IMS, a control block that describes the databases and logical message destinations that are used by an application program. A PSB consists of one or more program communication blocks (PCBs). See also program communication block.

program specification block generation (PSBGEN)
The process by which a PSB is created.

program static storage area (PSSA)
A system object that contains static variable data for programs on the call stack. The PSSA contains space for program variables that is activated when the program object is activated. The PSSA is contained in the process access group (PAG).

program status word (PSW)
An area in storage used to indicate the order in which instructions are executed, and to hold and indicate the status of the computer system.

program structure view
A display of the nodes in the Application Diagram which represent programs and service programs. For ILE programs and service programs the nodes contain a list of the bound modules. The connections in a Program Structure Diagram represent binding relationships between objects.

program table
A list of the i5/OS finance applications for use in an i5/OS finance job. Each table entry consists of a program ID and the program name and library associated with that ID. Program IDs received in data streams from finance devices are located in the program table to determine the i5/OS application that should be called.

program temporary fix (PTF)
For System i, System p, and System z products, a package containing individual or multiple fixes that is made available to all licensed customers. A PTF resolves defects and might provide enhancements. See also fix pack.

program-to-program interface (PPI)
A facility that allows user programs to send data buffers to or receive data buffers from other user programs.

program-to-program message switch
An IMS output message sent by one application program to another application program. See also message switch.

program unit

  1. A group of statements that is considered as a whole. Typically an OPL script file loaded by the application is treated as a program unit.
  2. See compilation unit.
  3. In Ada programming, a discrete unit that performs a specific task or set of tasks. Program units are subroutines and calling programs that are assembled separately and then linked to make a complete program.

program update tape (PUT)
A code release to Transaction Processing Facility customers containing maintenance (program fixes) and new function. See also Transaction Processing Facility.

program variable
A named changeable value that can exist only within programs. Its value cannot be obtained or used when the program that contains it is no longer running.

progressive disclosure
The user interface design methodology that limits the amount of information that is presented to the user to what is necessary or required at any given time, so that the user has less information with which to initially interact but can access additional information.

progressive inspection program
A maintenance program that is based on a fixed schedule and regulatory requirement

progressive streaming
A method of retrieving a LOB or an XML value from a database server in the most optimal manner by using Dynamic Data Format. See also Dynamic Data Format.


  1. A specific organization of rules and other elements that facilitates the authoring and management of a logical grouping of rules.
  2. A framework for holding the data and metadata that refers to an XBRL instance document.
  3. A unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost, and resources.
  4. An object that contains configuration information, activities, and policies required to manage a development effort.
  5. A container that differentiates search applications by the specific sources, search collections, displays, and other components it uses.
  6. An object that includes a database, documents, document types, requirements and their attributes, requirement types, requirement traceability, discussions, and user and group security.
  7. In Metric Designer, a group of extracts. Each extract contains the metadata that is used to populate the Metric Studio data store or to create applications.
  8. A collection of multiple tasks and milestones.
  9. A survey and all of its associated files and actions.
  10. In Metric Studio, a task or set of tasks undertaken by a team and monitored on a scorecard. A project tracks dates, resources, and status.
  11. A planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within a certain cost and other limitations.
  12. In InfoSphere Streams Studio, a logical container for the artifacts of toolkits and streams processing applications.
  13. The development environment for various components, such as applications, adapters, configuration files, custom Java code, and libraries.
  14. A group of files that are related to a data mining task. Projects can include items such as data streams, graphs, models, reports, and objects from other sources such as a document or slide show presentation.
  15. A self-contained data set in a data file that can be opened in the application, containing data on multiple scenarios.
  16. A container that organizes and provides security for objects that are supplied, created, or maintained for data integration, data profiling, quality monitoring, and so on.
  17. In Eclipse, a unit of organization used to group folders or packages. Projects are used for building, version management, sharing, and organizing resources.
  18. A temporary endeavor or initiative created and managed to achieve an organization's objectives.
  19. In Framework Manager, a set of models, packages, and related information for administration, and for sharing model information.
  20. The association of a model and a set of data files.
  21. An executable definition of work that is made up of steps. Its behavior is controlled through project properties and has an associated selector that determines what server (or servers) it can be run on. A project can be assigned its own environment.
  22. An organized collection used to group folders or packages. Projects are used for building, version management, sharing, and organizing resources related to a single work effort. See also library, module.

project area
An area in the repository where information about one or more software projects is stored.

project artifact
A project-related document, such as a presentation, spreadsheet, text file, and graphic.

project calendar
A calendar selected from the base calendars and associated to a project during project creation. The project calendar is the reference for all time-based aspects of the project, including the schedule, timesheets, and resource allocation. The project calendar includes all the information of the base calendar, and it can be further customized to meet project-specific requirements, such as adding additional non-working days. See also base calendar.

project database
The requirements database. The project database stores all requirements in the project, including those created in requirement documents.

project definition file
In zIDE, a host-based project configuration file that lists the subprojects contained by a host-based project.

project development team (PDT)

  1. A technical and business team commissioned by a sponsoring IPMT to execute the solution development cycle for a new offering. See also Integrated Portfolio Management Team.
  2. A multi-functional team with the responsibility for responding to an IPMT-provided set of prioritized customer requirements. The PDT is responsible for defining, developing, qualifying, marketing, delivering and supporting an offering over its life cycle. The PDT may include worldwide representatives from business planning, production, marketing, service, development, programming, project management and others as appropriate. The PDT interacts with the IPMT primarily through the structured Decision Checkpoint (DCP) activities.

projected coordinate system
In DB2 Spatial Extender, a reference system that defines locations on a planar surface.

project facet
A specific unit of function that can be added to a project when that functionality is required. When a facet is added to a project, it can add natures, builders, classpath entries, and resources to a project, depending on the characteristics of the particular project. See also facet.

project health
The efficiency of a project as reflected through defects, changes, build quality, and work distribution.

project instance file
In zIDE, a host-based project configuration file that defines the set of projects to be downloaded when a user connects to the remote system.

A mapping from a set to a subset of it.

project management
The planning, organizing, monitoring, and controlling of all aspects of the project in a continuous process to achieve its objectives.

project management institute (PMI)

project manager

  1. A type of Rational DOORS user who can perform a limited set of management tasks.
  2. The role with overall responsibility for the project. The project manager needs to ensure tasks are scheduled, allocated and completed in accordance with project schedules, budgets and quantity requirements.

project prefix
An identifier used for requirements in cross-project traceability.

project release plan
An artifact that shows plan items and additional unstructured information for a team or project area and all related child team areas and iterations.

project snapshot
A subset of a baseline that identifies artifacts that have been approved or assigned to a milestone or other meaningful event.

project versioning
The component that interacts with a CVS or Rational ClearCase server to share and create version projects and project data.

project VOB (PVOB)
A versioned object base (VOB) that stores Unified Change Management (UCM) objects, such as projects, streams, activities, and change sets.

project WAR file
A web archive (WAR) file that contains the configurations for the MobileFirst runtime environment and is deployed on an application server.

A user-written definition of an application program, record, or table. A prolog is used for documentation.

promotable lock
A lock that can be changed from a shared lock to an exclusive lock. See also update lock.


  1. In application development, to move a part up one level in the project hierarchy.
  2. To pay to have content show up at the top of search results.
  3. In ILE, to convert an unhandled exception into a new exception with a different meaning. The new exception is passed on to the next exception handler.
  4. To copy replication definitions for subscription sets or registered sources from one database to another database, without registering the sources again or creating the subscription sets again.
  5. To change a condition to a different one using a condition handler. A condition handler routine promotes a condition because the error needs to be handled in a way other than that suggested by the original condition.
  6. To move an object forward to a later state or version, for example, to promote a minor version into a major version and set its status to "released." Promotion sets the previous status of the major version to "superseded."
  7. To add a logical data unit to cache memory.

promoted property
A property of a mediation module made visible by the solution integrator to the runtime administrator, so that its value can be changed at run time.


  1. The process of one host taking over level functions for another. See also demotion, level function.
  2. In JavaBeans technology, the process of making features of a contained bean available to be used for making connections. For example, if a bean consisting of three push buttons on a panel is placed in a frame, the features of the push buttons have to be promoted to make them available from within the frame.
  3. The process of creating an authorized configuration item from an actual configuration item.
  4. A mechanism for moving binaries, source code, source code data, build maps, output, Partitioned Data Sets (PDS) on z/OS or libraries on IBM i, and other build artifacts up the development-test-production hierarchy on a z/OS or IBM i system.
  5. Business logic that offers incentives to customers when certain conditions have been satisfied.

promotion context
A transient object that only exists when the promotion engine is called to evaluate whether promotions are applicable to an order. It captures the state of the promotion engine during the process.

promotion control block (PCB)
A shadow object of the promotion context that provides a controlled change management environment for the promotion context.

promotion engine
A promotion architecture that uses XML-based promotion definitions and enables customer-specific extension.

promotion group
A logical container that holds promotions of similar natures.

promotion policy
Business logic that governs how multiple promotions should be applied to a single order.

promotion scope
A template containing a mapping of classifications between actual configuration items (CIs) and the corresponding authorized CIs, used to promote an actual CI in order to create an authorized CI.

Promotions tool
A Management Center feature that creates and manages promotions for marketing campaigns.


  1. A component of an action that indicates that user input is required for a field before making a transition to an output screen.
  2. A program that uses logic to determine dynamically the voice segments to be played as a voice prompt.
  3. A message or a displayed symbol that requests information or user action. The user must respond to allow the program to proceed.
  4. A report element that asks for parameter values before the report is run.

prompt dependency
A dependency where an operator must respond affirmatively to a prompt so that the dependent job or job stream can run. See also ad hoc prompt dependency, predefined prompt dependency.

prompt directory
A list of all the prompts used in a particular voice application. Used by the state table to play the requested voice prompts.

prompted query
A menu-driven query controlled by user-provided parameters.

prompt facility
An optional facility for notifying a terminal operator that a current page of output is the last page of a message.

PRO number
A tracking number assigned by a carrier used to track a shipment (usually for Less than Truckload (LTL) shipments) through the carrier's transportation process. See also tracking number.

The possible phonetic representations of a word. A word can have multiple pronunciations; for example, "the" has at least two pronunciations, "thee" and "thuh".

pronunciation dictionary
A file that contains the phonetic representation of all the words, phrases, and sentences for an application's grammars.

pronunciation pool
A WebSphere Voice Server resource that contains the set of all pronunciations.

Proof of Entitlement (POE)
A document that validates the licensed programs that a customer has purchased.

See programmable operator facility.

propagate function
A function used in a column map that assigns a value to a destination column, and then propagates that value to all related tables.


  1. The point at which the properties of a type are inherited by its subtypes.
  2. A process in which order attributes are applied to the shipment that contains the orders. Propagation is also used to assign shipment attributes to the orders in the shipment.
  3. In architecture, a method used to retain a segment's properties through other segments that it calls.
  4. A process in which groups of configuration parameters are updated and take effect at different rates.

properties pane
Within a studio, a pane that provides an overview of the properties for selected data. The properties pane can also be used to make several changes and apply them at the same time, instead of repeating several different commands.


  1. A characteristic of an entity that consists of a parameter and its value and that is used by the application, such as the configuration properties in the common.properties file, or by the application object that can accept property settings.
  2. A characteristic or attribute that describes a unit of information.
  3. A descriptive element used as the basic entity for rule creation. Properties are associated with models, option classes, and option items.
  4. Public information (that is, information available to any client) that is associated with a window.
  5. In the Common Information Model (CIM), an attribute that is used to characterize instances of a class.
  6. A characteristic of an object that describes the object. A property can be changed. Properties describe an object name, type, value, or behavior, among other things. See also custom property, property tag, property template.
  7. A container for a single piece of information about an item.

property broker
A WebSphere Portal interface that negotiates the relationship between cooperative source and target portlets and delivers data to the target in the form of the corresponding portlet action. See also cooperative portlets.

property details
A comprehensive display of the most complete sets of data that is available about a specific property.

property group

  1. A piece of information about an item that comprises related properties. For example, a distinguishing feature of a person comprises information about the type, appearance, and location of the distinguishing feature.
  2. In zIDE, a named set of build properties that can be used to define and save multiple build configurations for a project, subproject, or file.

property map
A property available through the Workflow tab on the properties sheet for an event subscription. This identifies the workflow data fields designated as launch step parameters in the workflow definition.

property page
See tabbed page.

property search
A query form that is used to search for property details.

property semantic type
A semantic type that can be assigned to a property type, a property in a data record, or an attribute class. See also semantic type.

property set
In the CICS Front End Programming Interface (FEPI), the definition of the characteristics of a pool.

property summary
he resultant sortable list of records that match a property search.

property tag
A shorthand way to identify a component by a keyword. See also property.

property template
A template for creating one or more custom properties that can be assigned to one or more classes. See also property, template.

property type
A descriptor of the characteristics of a property, including the type of information it can contain.

Relationship of the width of a letter to its height.

Pertaining to an area of a chart in which the horizontal distances between items have a linear relationship with the time differences between them.

proportionally spaced font
A font in which the character increment for each graphic character varies. Proportionally spaced fonts provide the appearance of even spacing between presented characters and eliminate excess blank space around narrow characters, such as the letter i. See also fixed-space font, uniformly spaced font.

proportional spacing

  1. The spacing of characters according to their relative width.
  2. The spacing of characters in a printed line so that each character is allotted a space based on the character's width defined in a given font. See also monospacing.

Proportional Spacing Machine font (PSM font)
A font originating with the electric typewriter and having character increment values that are integer multiples of the narrowest character width.


  1. A document generated from a quote that is typically presented to a customer. A proposal contains the details of a quote such as the line items, quote total, adjustments, and so on.
  2. An item that suggests a change to an object in a module.
  3. A collection of protocols that the initiating and responding key servers use to establish a dynamic virtual private network (VPN) connection between two endpoints.

proposed abstract syntax list
In OSI, a list of abstract syntaxes that an application entity specifies as acceptable when initiating an association.

proprietary standard
An EDI standard that is developed for a specific company or industry.

A process that distributes the overall or individual resources of an account and the cost of those resources across multiple accounts at a specified percentage.

proration table
An ASCII text file that defines the identifier values and rate codes that are used in the proration process.

Pertaining to a class member that is accessible to the class itself, subclasses, and all classes in the same package.

protected buffer pool (PBUF)
An area in the common storage and auxiliary space that has been divided into buffers.

protected column
In label-based access control, a column to which access is limited with a security label.

protected conversation
A conversation that supports the two-phase commit process for the synchronization of changes.

protected cube
A cube where members of different user classes have access to specific categories, measures, or dimensions, depending on their access privileges.

protected field
A field on a display in which a user cannot add, change, or delete data.

protected file
A file that cannot be changed by an override file command.

protected logical unit of work (protected LUW)
The logical unit of work that is used in a protected conversation.

protected logical unit of work identifier (protected LUWID)
The logical unit of work identifier that is used in a protected conversation.

protected LUW
See protected logical unit of work.

protected LUWID
See protected logical unit of work identifier.

protected methods and instance data
In object-oriented programming, methods and instance data that are only accessible to the implementations of the same or derived classes, or from friend classes.

protected password
In APPC, a string of bytes that is substituted for a user password. The protected password is sent instead of the user password and can be used to verify the identity of the user but only under specific and controlled circumstances. The LU type 6.2 architecture refers to the protected password as a password substitute.

protected resource

  1. A resource that is updated in a synchronized manner during resource recovery processing.
  2. A resource that is updated only in accordance with the two-phase commit process.
  3. A resource for which there is either a RACF profile or a RACF option which is controlling access.

protected-resource manager (PRM)
See protection manager.

protected row
In label-based access control, a row to which access is limited with a security label.

protected site
See primary site.

protected state
A lifecycle state requiring a Request for Change (RFC) in order to move a CI into or out of that state, or to modify any aspect of the CI while it is in the protected state.

protected storage

  1. The part of the auxiliary storage pool (ASP) that is reserved for the creation of permanent objects, such as libraries and files, when checksum protection is in effect.
  2. All auxiliary storage in an auxiliary storage pool (ASP) when mirrored protection is in effect.

protected table
In label-based access control, a table that contains at least one row or one column to which access is limited with a security label.

protected user ID
See protected user identifier.

protected user identifier (protected user ID)
A user ID that cannot enter the system by any means that requires a password or password phrase, and cannot be revoked by incorrect password and password phrase attempts.

protected volume
In iSeries, a disk storage device that is protected from data loss by the use of a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID). An iSeries host does not mirror a volume configured as a protected volume, while it does mirror all volumes configured as unprotected volumes. The ESS, however, can be configured to indicate that an iSeries volume is protected or unprotected and provide it with RAID protection in either case.

protect function
A function that is used to prevent data from being typed into a cell. Data can still be transferred into a protected cell through a D-link.

An arrangement for restricting access to or use of all or part of a computer system.

protection domain
A group of access permissions to interfaces, VLans or IP addresses that are used to define policies for multiple network segments that are monitored by a single appliance.

protection interface
An access point on a network appliance that is used to monitor, inspect, and block network traffic as it passes through the appliance.

protection key
An indicator that appears in the current program status word whenever an associated task has control of the system. This indicator must match the storage keys of all main storage blocks that the task is to use.

protection level
A predefined set of security settings for different types of network use.

protection manager
A system component, associated with one or more protected resources, that interacts with sync point services to carry out two-phase commit protocols. A protection manager implements the parts of the protocol that are specific to a particular resource type. Two types of protection managers are defined: conversational resource protection managers and local (nonconversational) resource protection managers. Together, these resource protection managers are referred to as protected-resource managers.

protection setup
In Internet communications, a group of protection subdirectives that work together to define how the server should control access to the resources being protected.

protect mode
In DFSMSrmm, the state in which all volume requests are validated.


  1. A set of rules controlling the communication and transfer of data between two or more devices or systems in a communication network. See also bracket protocol, link protocol.
  2. In OSI, a specification of the format and relative timing of information exchanged between peer entities within a layer.

Protocol 1 (P1)
The message transfer protocol used to relay X.400 messages between message transfer agents (MTAs).

Protocol 2 (P2)
The message protocol used between user agents to convey the syntax and structure of an X.400 message and to specify what a recipient user agent does with the message.

Protocol Analysis Module (PAM)
A deep-pack inspection engine that stores handling specifications for a comprehensive list of vulnerability checks. PAM interprets the vulnerability checks, processes the results as security events, and then sends the security events to the appliance in X-Press Updates.

protocol binding
A binding that enables the enterprise service bus to process messages independently of the communication protocol.

protocol boundary
The signals and rules governing interactions between two components within a node.

protocol code
A code that identifies the different protocols that organizations use to communicate with one another.

protocol connector
A dedicated transmission process that sends and receives messages using a specific protocol.

protocol converter
A general term for a device that changes one type of coded data to another type of coded data for processing.

protocol converter non-SNA equipment
A protocol converter that does not provide logical link control. The user provides any protocols above the X.25 packet level.

protocol data unit

  1. In OSI, a unit of data exchanged between peer entities.
  2. A unit of data that is specified in a protocol of a given layer, and that consists of protocol control information of this layer, and possibly user data of this layer.
  3. A unit of data exchanged between peer systems.

protocol family
See address family.

protocol gateway
A type of firewall that protects computers in a business network from access by users outside that network.

protocol handler
A service that receives and sends messages in specific communication protocols, such as HTTP and HTTPs. The protocol handler calls data handlers to extract the data that is contained in the messages.

protocol inspector
A specialized inspector that is designed to extract forensic data from network protocols such as HTTP or FTP.

protocol-level RAS granularity
The level of RAS granularity at which RAS attribute values are assigned on a protocol-wide basis. RAS attribute values defined at the protocol-level are assigned to all requests for a particular protocol, such as the HTTP protocol or IIOP protocol. See also RAS granularity.

protocol port
A unique host identifier used by transport protocols to specify a destination within a host.

protocol sequence vector
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a data structure that contains an array-size count and an array of pointers to RPC protocol-sequence strings.

protocol server
A computer or device on a network that is dedicated to the management of communications protocol resources.

protocol-specific MPTN manager (PMM)
A component of the MPTN architecture that performs management, routing, and binding functions that are performed differently for the different transport providers.

protocol stack
A set of network protocol layers and software that work together to process protocol.

protocol suite
A set of protocols that cooperate to handle the transmission tasks for a communication system.

A function declaration or definition that includes both the return type of the function and the types of its parameters.

prototype file
The first file in a new file system that contains tokens. These include the name of the bootstrap program, the size of the created file system, and the specifications of the root file.

prototype profile
In a Tivoli environment, a model profile from which a Tivoli administrator can create other like profiles, often by cloning the existing profile.

One of the system development approaches that enables users and developers to study and confirm system requirements and design at an earlier stage of development by producing mockups, demonstrations, or software that significantly resembles the proposed system, but is not yet fully developed.

The lineage of an output tuple; that is, how that output tuple was generated by the extractor. A provenance explains the origin and flow of the output tuple.

provided service
A service offered in addition to the delivery of a purchased product, such as installation or disposal of old equipment.

provided service calendar
A business calendar that specifically defines the working hours, called shifts, for any given day in which provided services can be completed.

provided service delivery method
The manner in which a provided service is completed for a customer.

A COM component with an OLE DB interface that exposes case data to the consumer by representing the data as a virtual table, which is populated by using data from a database or a proprietary data file. Data is exposed to the Provider by using a case data source component (CDSC).

provider application
In the context of OSLC, an application that makes its resource data available to the consumer application through containers that are called service providers.

provider organization
An organization that is responsible for fulfilling provided services requests.

provider organization code
An identifier for an organization that is responsible for fulfilling provided services requests.

provider record
A record that identifies the provider application and contains definitions for one or more OSLC interactions between a consumer application and the provider application.

provider registry
A registry services directory of domain-specific services that are exposed by products.

provider registry endpoint
A predefined HTTP endpoint that is used for discovery of service providers in the OSLC provider through the provider registry. See also endpoint.


  1. To add a subscription for a service to a user account, most often in the context of SmartCloud Notes.
  2. To provide, deploy, and track a service, component, application, or resource. See also deprovision.


  1. The process of making computing resources available to users.
  2. The process of configuring servers, software, networks, and storage resources.

provisioning API
An interface that allows IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On to integrate with user provisioning systems.

provisioning bridge
An automatic IMS Server credential distribution process with third party provisioning systems that uses API libraries with a SOAP connection.

provisioning group
A group of related computers. An administrator can create provisioning groups to organize systems into meaningful categories, and to facilitate deployment of software to multiple computers.

provisioning policy
A policy that defines the access to various managed resources, such as applications or operating systems. Access is granted to all users, users with a specific role, or users who are not members of a specific role.

provisioning service
A reserved application that is set up for a specific business requirement and is made available to a user. Users with restricted access in the data center model can subscribe to provisioning services that they require.

provisioning system
A system that provides identity lifecycle management for application users in enterprises and manages their credentials.

provisioning task
An action that runs a deployment job on one or more target computers. A deployment job can include one or more job items that correspond to provisioning workflows.

provisioning template
A configuration used to provision compute nodes. A provisioning template includes an image profile, a hardware profile, and a network profile.

proxiable ticket
A ticket that allows a key distribution center (KDC) server to issue a service ticket for a specific task or tasks on a network or for an IP address that is different from the address in the original ticket granting ticket (TGT).

The general radius of location, defined in terms of immediate, near, or far.

proximity search

  1. A text search that returns a result when two search patterns occur within a specified distance from each other.
  2. A search that seeks to locate either vacancies or candidates based on their location. For example, a candidate who does not wish to relocate or travel far to work may search for vacancies in a 5-mile radius of where they live.


  1. An application gateway from one network to another for a specific network application such as Telnet or FTP, for example, where a firewall proxy Telnet server performs authentication of the user and then lets the traffic flow through the proxy as if it were not there. Function is performed in the firewall and not in the client workstation, causing more load in the firewall.
  2. An application programming interface that forwards requests to a user-defined backend resource and relays responses back to the calling application.

proxy agent
A process or entity that is both an agent to its manager and a manager for one or more objects. It satisfies requests from its manager by relaying those requests and translating them for the objects that it manages.

proxy bid
A bid that is placed by the system on behalf of a supplier, and is re-submitted until it becomes the winning bid or reaches the cut-off value entered by the supplier.

proxy cluster
A group of proxy servers that distributes HTTP requests across the cluster.

proxy gateway
A firewall that prevents users outside a private network from accessing computers within the private network.

proxy object
A simple object that represents a complex one or provides a placeholder for another object to control access to it. A proxy object receives method calls on behalf of another object

proxy peer access point
A means of identifying the communication settings for a peer access point that cannot be accessed directly.

proxy server

  1. A server that receives requests intended for another server and that acts on behalf of the client (as the client's proxy) to obtain the requested service. A proxy server is often used when the client and the server are incompatible for direct connection. For example, the client is unable to meet the security authentication requirements of the server but should be permitted some services.
  2. A server that acts as an intermediary for HTTP Web requests that are hosted by an application or a web server. A proxy server acts as a surrogate for the content servers in the enterprise.

proxy store
A store that represents a business partner's operational assets and handles the business logic that allows a WebSphere Commerce site to interact with an external business partner. A proxy store does not include a storefront and cannot be accessed by users. See also distributor proxy store.

See prepared.

See programming request for price quotation.

See production readiness review.

See Processor Resource/Systems Manager.

See private trailer.

To reduce the size of a model to improve the way in which the model can generalize to other data sets.


  1. In data replication, the process of removing obsolete data from objects such as control tables, staging tables, or queues.
  2. In GL, eliminating the drawing of parts of the display list because a bounding box test shows that they are not visible.

See prefixed save area.

See Print Services Access Facility.

See presentation-layer service access point.

PSAP selector
In OSI, an external identifier for a service access point at the Presentation Layer. The PSAP selector is part of a presentation address.

See program specification block.

PSB directory (PDIR)
A list or directory of program specification blocks (PSBs) that define the use of databases by application programs for DL/I. It contains one entry for each PSB to be used during CICS execution, and is loaded during initialization.

See program specification block generation.

See Personal System Communications Adapter.

See power system control network.

See presentation services command processor.


  1. See packet switching data network.
  2. See packet-switched data network.

See presentation-layer service data unit.

The IBM server family that uses IBM's POWER architecture designed for AIX and Linux operating systems.

An attribute that cannot have a value, and is used to indicate a binary state, such as yes/no or on/off. For example, the attribute local might be present for some resources and absent for others, indicating whether the resource is local. Pseudo attributes are especially useful for implementing access rights, such as read, update, or delete. See also real attribute.

pseudo-CL variable
In REXX, a variable used in CL commands, whose name conforms to the CL programming rules for variables but actually refers to a REXX variable. The name must begin with an ampersand, but it is stripped off when determining the name of the actual REXX variable that is to be used. Pseudo-CL variables must be valid REXX variable names and valid CL variable names.

A set of instructions that has a logical structure but does not follow the syntax of any particular programming language.

In Enhanced X-Windows, a class of color map in which a pixel value indexes the color map entry to produce independent red, green, and blue values. The color map is viewed as an array of triples (RGB values) that can be changed dynamically, and is mutually exclusive to the direct color map class.

In BTS, property of a task can be reattached ("reactivated") when a predefined event occurs, in order to take the next in a set of processing steps. See also activation.

A cost for binary (0-1) variables. A pseudocost offers the same facilities in branch and bound or branch and cut for binary variables as cost does for continuous variables. See also cost function.

Pertaining to a key that is marked as deleted but has not yet been physically removed from the index page. See also pseudoempty.

A software-based device; for example, a pty device.

Pertaining to an index page on which all the keys are marked as pseudo deleted. See also pseudodeleted.

pseudo-front-end system
An IMS in a multisystem environment in which all terminals are handled and a small number of time-consuming transactions are routed to a transaction processing system. See also front-end system, transaction processing system.

pseudogeneration data group
A collection of data sets, using the same data-set name pattern, that are managed like a generation data group.

A host connection that is not explicitly defined to the ESS and that has access to at least one volume that is configured on the ESS. For example, the FiconNet pseudo-host icon represents the FICON protocol. See also access-any mode, EsconNet, FiconNet.

In the Integration Flow Designer, dotted lines manually drawn in a system definition diagram that visually represent a data flow relationship between two map components that has not yet been determined precisely.

pseudomap component
An Integration Flow Designer object that is a placeholder for an executable map that has not yet been implemented.

A node that represents an untracked part of a transaction where information about a remote note is provided by a Data Collector plug-in, but that remote node is not itself tracked.

pseudooptical library
A set of shelf-resident optical volumes associated with stand-alone, operator-accessible, or both stand-alone and operator-accessible optical disk drives. See also real optical library.

pseudorandom number
A number that is obtained by some defined arithmetic process, but is effectively a random number for the purpose for which it is required.

pseudorecovery token
A token consisting of eight decimal characters, which can be used in place of the recovery token in certain circumstances. For example, a pseudorecovery token is displayed when the status of an application thread is in-doubt. It is made shorter so that it is easier to note and enter, for example, in certain DBCTL commands. See also recovery token.

An external dummy section used to provide global addressability to dynamically allocated control blocks, data areas, and other resources.

pseudoterminal (pty)
A special file in the /dev directory that effectively functions as a keyboard and a display device for software that uses the Berkeley line discipline. A pseudo terminal consists of a pair of character devices: a) the slave device (/dev/pts), and b) the master device (/dev/ptc).

In COBOL, a sequence of character-strings and/or separators bounded by, but not including, pseudo-text delimiters. Pseudo-text is used in the COPY REPLACING statement for replacing text strings.

pseudotext delimiter
In COBOL, two equal signs (==) side by side used to define the beginning and end of pseudo-text.

See Print Services Facility.

PSF Direct
A function of Infoprint Manager for Windows or Infoprint Manager for AIX that enables another PSF program to print remotely.

PSF writer

  1. In PSF/VSE, the program that writes spooled output files from an output queue to an external device, such as a printer.
  2. In PSF/VSE, the program that receives output data from the host system.

See physical services header.


  1. See presentation space ID.
  2. See product-set identification.

See partitioned secondary index.

See Parallel Sysplex license charge.

See Printing Systems Manager.

PSM font
See Proportional Spacing Machine font.

PSP bucket

  1. See preventive service planning bucket.
  2. See product support plan bucket.

See product-sensitive programming interface.

See page set recovery pending.

See programmable store system.

See program static storage area.


  1. See partition specification table.
  2. See pattern storage.

See public switched telephone network.

See power supply unit.

See program status word.

See physical terminal.

See program temporary fix.

PTF group
A single, orderable PTF (program temporary fix or simply, fix) that provides a logical set of PTFs for a specific function such as database or Java. PTF groups are dynamically updated when new PTFs for the same function become available.

PTF media
The diskette, tape, or CD-ROM on which the user receives program temporary fixes (PTFs).

A shortened name for the i5/OS threads API set that is based on a subset of the POSIX standard.

See Presentation Text Object Content Architecture.

See Peer-to-Peer VTS data.

See Peer-to-Peer VTS mode control.

See Peer-to-Peer Virtual Tape Server.


  1. See Post Telephone and Telegraph Administration.
  2. See Postal, Telephone, and Telegraph.

See pseudoterminal.

See physical unit.


  1. In object-oriented programming, pertaining to a class member that is accessible to all classes.
  2. In the Java programming language, pertains to a method or variable that can be accessed by elements residing in other classes. (Sun)

public access
The access privilege in a database access control list (ACL) that includes Depositor access and No Access and that allows reading, writing, and copying public documents.

public activity
An activity that can be accessed by anyone who has access to the Activities server.

Public Address Book
See Domino directory.

public alias
An alias defined in the SYSPUBLIC schema that can always be referenced by its unqualified name without any impact from the current default schema name. See also alias.

In event publishing, an object that identifies what changes are published from a source table to a user application. The Q Capture program publishes changes from a source table and puts those changes on a send queue in XML or delimited format. See also Q subscription, replication source.

public authority

  1. The authority for an object granted to all users.
  2. The authority given to users who do not have any specific (private) authority to an object, who are not on the authorization list (if one is specified for the object), and whose group profile has no specific authority to the object. See also owner authority, primary group authority, private authority.

public blog
A blog that was created for a public community.

public certificate
A certificate that is issued by a public internet certificate authority (CA).

public cloud
A cloud computing environment in which access to standardized resources owned and managed by a service provider is permitted to subscribers on a pay-per-use basis.

public content
Content displayed by the Things in Common app that community users have in common with each other.

public data network (PDN)

  1. A network operated by a government or private organization to provide computer communications to the public, usually for a fee. With a PDN, a small organization can create a WAN without incurring the equipment costs of long-distance circuits.
  2. A communications common carrier network that provides data communications services over switched or nonswitched lines.

public device
A device that supports arbitrated loop protocol, can interpret 8-bit addresses, and can log into the fabric.

public directory
In UNIX-based operating systems, a directory that can be used by anyone on the system. Typically /tmp and /usr/tmp are public directories used for temporary file storage. The UUCP system provides a public directory named /usr/spool/uucppublic, where users from remote systems can deposit files.

public group
In Netezza, a default database group to which all database user accounts are added.

public interface

  1. The names of procedures and data items, exported from an ILE service program, that can be accessed by Integrated Language Environment (ILE) programs or other service programs.
  2. The network interface connected to the public network.

public IP address
An Internet Protocol (IP) address used to communicate on a public network.

public key

  1. The non-secret half of a cryptographic key pair that is used with a public key algorithm. The public key is made available to everyone. Public keys are typically used to verify digital signatures and to encrypt data that can be decrypted only with the corresponding private key. See also private key, public key infrastructure.
  2. In secure communication, an algorithmic pattern used to decrypt messages that were encrypted by the corresponding private key. A public key is also used to encrypt messages that can be decrypted only by the corresponding private key. Users broadcast their public keys to everyone with whom they must exchange encrypted messages. See also key, private key.
  3. An encryption key associated with a Notes ID that is used to verify an electronic signature, encrypt a message, or identify an authenticating user. A public key is part of each user ID, and a copy of the key is stored in the Domino Directory. Certificates on IDs ensure that public keys are valid.

public key algorithm (PKA)
An algorithm designed so that the key used for encryption is different from the key used for decryption. The decryption key cannot be derived, at least not in any reasonable amount of time, from the encryption key.

public key certificate
A unique electronic stamp stored in a Notes or Domino ID file that associates a name with a public key. Certificates permit users and servers to access specific Domino servers. An ID can have many certificates.

public key cryptography
A cryptography system that uses two keys: a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. The public and private keys are related in such a way that only the public key can be used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them. See also private key cryptography.

Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS)
A set of industry-standard protocols used for secure information exchange on the Internet. Domino Certificate Authority and Server Certificate Administration applications can accept certificates in PKCS format.

public key exponent
One of the two components of an RSA public key. By convention, it is normally set to either a value of 3 or 65537. The combination of the public key exponent and the modulus (the other component of a public key) is mathematically derived with the corresponding RSA private key.

public key infrastructure (PKI)
A system of digital certificates, certification authorities, and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in a network transaction. See also public key, SWIFTNet public key infrastructure.

public level control
A level of control that allows the administrator to apply default security and resource settings to profiles that do not have specific user or group level settings defined.

public loop
A Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) with an attachment to a fabric.

public methods and instance data
In object oriented programming, methods and instance data that are accessible to all classes.

public network

  1. Generically, a network operated by common carriers or telecommunications administrators for the provision of circuit-switched, packet-switched, and nonswitched lines to the public. See also private network.
  2. See public data network.

public NL_port
A node loop port (NL_port) that logs into the fabric, can function within either a public or a private loop, and can communicate with either private or public NL_ports.

public node
Any node that does not run Monitor system components or servers. For example, client applications run on public nodes.

public place
A shared place that is open to all portal users. The person who creates the place (and who automatically becomes the place manager) designates it as a public place during place creation.

public-private key cryptography
See public key cryptography.

public process
The interactions between a private business process and another process or participant.

Public Record Office data model (PRO data model)
A data model that fulfills the Public Record Office requirements for electronic record management.

public standard
An EDI standard that is developed for use across one or more industries.

public switched telephone network (PSTN)
The traditional international telephone system based on copper wires carrying analog voice data.

public synonym
See public alias.

public URI
The root URI that is used to access the OSLC provider application.

public VLAN
The virtual local area network (VLAN) that connects the cluster nodes and management server to the site network. Applications are accessed and run on cluster nodes over the public VLAN. The public VLAN can be connected to nodes through a second Ethernet adapter in each node, or by routing to each node through the Ethernet switch.


  1. To send a rule to a server for storage and management.
  2. To send data to the Emptoris Strategic Supply Management platform for mastering.
  3. To make data available to another application or system. See also subscribe.
  4. To make a project, tasks and templates visible to the required resources.
  5. To make information about a specified topic available to a queue manager in a publish/subscribe system.
  6. In Cognos Business Intelligence, to expose information to the Cognos server so that the data can be used to create reports and other content.
  7. To create a read-only copy of a document in an object store. Publishing makes the publication document available to a different audience and may translate the content to a different format.
  8. To bind a reference to the home of an enterprise bean in a namespace.
  9. To make analysis results, rules, and other entities visible to a broader audience outside the scope of a project.
  10. To make a new portlet or web application available for use.
  11. In UDDI, to advertise a web service so that other businesses can find it and bind with it. Service providers publish the availability of their services through a registry.
  12. To make a website public, for example by putting files in a path known to the HTTP server.
  13. In Connections Docs, to make files available to persons who have only reader access, not editing access.
  14. To electronically introduce item data or data change publications to one or more trading partners, either directly or through a data pool, for the purpose of synchronizing data.
  15. In testing, to make a stub, test, or test results available to the required processes or team members.
  16. In Cognos Planning, to copy the data from Contributor or Analyst to a data store, typically so that the data can be used for reporting purposes.
  17. In Connections Docs, to make files available to persons who have only reader access, not editing access.

publish container
A data store container created specifically to receive published data.

published application
An application installed on Citrix XenApp server that can be accessed from Citrix ICA Clients.

published desktop
A Citrix XenApp feature where users have remote access to a full Windows desktop from any device, anywhere, at any time.

published glossary
The business glossary that includes the set of categories and terms that have been approved and published as part of a configured workflow. See also development glossary.

published module object
A database object defined in a module that can be referenced from outside the module. See also module object.

published offering
An offering with a complete and valid schedule, component, and service level objective information. It can be used to create a service level agreement.


  1. An application that makes information about a specified topic available to a broker in a publish/subscribe system. See also producer.
  2. In Connections Docs, to make files available to persons who have only reader access, not editing access.

publishing handler
A Content Platform Engine component that uses the publishing framework to produce HTML and PDF files.

publishing queue map
In event publishing, an object that contains the settings for how a Q Capture program processes transactions and identifies the WebSphere MQ queue that is used to send transactional data. See also event publishing, queue map, replication queue map.

publishing style template
A set of translation and formatting rules applied when a document is published. See also template.

A type of messaging interaction in which information, provided by publishing applications, is delivered by an infrastructure to all subscribing applications that registered to receive that type of information.

publish/subscribe cluster
A set of queue managers that are fully interconnected and that form part of a multi-queue manager network for publish/subscribe applications.

publish template
A template that determines the properties, format (such as HTML), and storage location of the publication document. The template also determines whether the publication document is replaced or versioned when it is republished. See also template.

A device used to select a particular location on a tablet.


  1. A network operation that initiates an action by requesting the action from a resource. See also push.
  2. To retrieve data from a remote data source.

pull configuration
In SQL replication, a configuration in which the Apply program runs on the target server. The Apply program pulls updates from the source server to apply them to the target. See also push configuration.

pull destination
A physical or virtual reference point from which an organization retrieves a pull response or to which a pull request is sent.

pull-down menu

  1. In a character-based interface, a menu that emerges in a downward direction from a point or line at or near the top of the screen; for example, a menu that appears when the user selects a particular display element or points to a line in another menu by using a device such as a mouse.
  2. See menu.
  3. In AIXwindows, a type of MenuPane widget that gives the appearance of being pulled down from a MenuBar widget as the result of a user action, usually, clicking a mouse button.

pull list
A list of scratch volumes to be obtained for use from the library.

pull request
A message sent to a destination requesting a message. The connection settings for the request include security settings, receipt information, and error message delivery settings.

pull response
A response to a push request from one organization to another. The pull response is matched to a specific pull request and made available at the pull destination specified in the push request.

pulse code modulation
Variation of a digital signal to represent information.

punch code
A code that defines the response character location on a printed survey.

A group of tasks that must be completed before a project is considered to be finished.

punch mask
A string value that defines the punch characters that can be combined in a single column for a multiple response category (for example, &-0123456789, 0123456789XY, or 0123456789).

PunchOut order
An order that can be placed for wireless devices and services by logging into a third-party e-procurement system through single sign-on over a secure connection.

A control signal within a stream that either creates boundaries within a stream of tuples (window punctuation marks) or identifies the end of a stream (final punctuation marks). See also window.

PU-PU flow
In SNA, the exchange between physical units (PUs) of network control requests and responses.

purchase order (PO)
An authorized order to an external vendor or internal supplier.

purchase requisition (PR)
A written request that is issued internally to the purchasing department to purchase items, materials, or services.

purchasing card (p-card)
A credit card that a business can offer its departments or employees to allow them to buy business-related items.

purchasing cycle time
The period of time between order creation and the time at which the order is received in the warehouse.

purchasing organization
An organization that is responsible for placing purchase orders to vendors to replenish raw materials and products in a company's locations.

pure virtual function
A virtual function that has the function definition replaced with '=0;'.

A DB2 feature in which the representation of the data from client to disk and back (that is, both the logical and physical data models) is XML.


  1. The abnormal end of a task by task control to alleviate a short-on-storage condition.
  2. To permanently delete an item from a database.
  3. In WebSphere Commerce Payments, to remove all associated payments and credits from a batch object, treating it as if it had just been created.
  4. The process by which old data is removed from the system database. Purges minimize the number of unused database records to increase search efficiency and reduce the size of the required physical disk.
  5. In Performance Tools, a job attribute that specifies whether a job is to be marked eligible to be moved out of main storage to auxiliary storage when entering a long wait or leaving the activity level.

purge criteria rules
Set of qualifications pertaining to each type of purge.

purge DSP
A dynamic support program (DSP) that performs post-execution removal of a job from the system, writes System Management Facility (SMF) records, and frees spool space used by the job.

A function of the resource manager that removes objects from the system.

purpose function
One of a set of functions that an access method uses to create, search, and drop indexes, and to insert entries into an index, delete from an index, and so on.


  1. To send data from a remote data source.
  2. To send information from a server to a client. When a server pushes content, it is the server that initiates the transaction, not a request from the client.
  3. The insertion of a module in a stream immediately below the stream head.
  4. A network operation that sends information to resources. See also pull.
  5. To upload or export to a server.
  6. To add an item to the top of a pushdown list. See also pop.

pushable manifest editor
A tool for creating mapping files for synchronizing local z/OS projects with remote systems.

pushable module
A module between the stream head and the driver. A driver is a non-pushable module and a stream head includes a non-pushable module.

pushback flow rack
A flow rack in which picking and replenishment are both done from the front of the rack.

push button

  1. In a window or dialog box, a rectangular control that, when clicked, immediately causes an action to be performed. Push buttons can be labeled with text, graphics, or both. The most familiar push buttons are OK and Cancel.
  2. A key on a telephone key pad.

pushbutton telephone
A type of telephone that has push buttons. It might or might not send tone signals. If it does, each number and symbol on the key pad has its own specific tone.

push configuration
In SQL replication, a configuration in which the Apply program runs on the source server or a replication server other than the target server. The Apply program pushes updates from the source server to apply them to the target. See also pull configuration.

In a federated system, the processing of fragments of a query at a data source instead of at the federated system. See also compensation.

pushdown list
A list that is constructed and maintained so that the next data element to be retrieved is the most recently stored. See also last-in first-out.

push notification
An alert indicating a change or update that appears on a mobile app icon.

push permission
A permission that enables the remote execution of commands.

push request
A message sent to a destination requesting message processing. Depending on the exchange profile used, the push request may wait for the business application to process the message, may send a pull request after the message is processed, or may not expect any response.

push technology
A form of network communication that is initiated by a source server and sent (or "pushed") to the client.

Pertaining to a feature that automatically distributes product updates, such as new releases, and configuration file updates, such as preferences, property groups, and remote system connections, to client workstations when they connect to a remote system. See also global configuration file, installation configuration file, system configuration file.

In message queuing, to use the MQPUT or MQPUT1 calls to place messages on a queue. See also browse, get.

See program update tape.

putaway task
The task of putting an item (pallet, case, single) into storage. The putaway task may be system directed in which the system selects the putaway location, or random in which an operator finds space for the item and updates the system as to which location was chosen.

PU type
See physical unit type.


  1. See persistent verification.
  2. See physical volume.


  1. See permanent virtual circuit.
  2. See permanent virtual channel.

PVC segment
In NCP, the connection between two frame-relay subports in the same NCP or in adjacent NCPs. A PVC segment between adjacent NCPs may pass through a frame-relay network.

See project VOB.

See processor value unit.

See Present Working Directory.

See Preboot Execution Environment.

PX engine
See parallel engine.