This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.
A special 10-bit character used to indicate the beginning of a transmission word that performs Fibre Channel control and signaling functions. The first seven bits of the character are the comma pattern. See also comma.
See Apache Kafka.
- Chinese characters or ideograms used in Japanese writing. The characters may have different meanings from their Chinese counterparts. See also Hiragana, Katakana.
- A graphic character set consisting of symbols used in Japanese ideographic alphabets. Each character is represented by 2 bytes.
See knowledge-based authentication.
See kilobits per second.
See key distribution center.
- A TCP/IP mechanism where a small packet is sent across the network at predefined intervals to determine whether the socket is still working correctly.
- Pertaining to the amount of time that elapses before a message is sent to verify a connection.
In Internet communications, a message sent among nodes when no data traffic has been detected for a given period of time. This communication ensures the vitality of the session by keeping the link "alive."
See key-encrypting key.
A network authentication protocol that is based on symmetric key cryptography. Kerberos assigns a unique key, called a ticket, to each user who logs on to the network. The ticket is embedded in messages that are sent over the network. The receiver of a message uses the ticket to authenticate the sender.
In Kerberos, a service or user that is known to the Kerberos system. See also principal name.
A transparent application mechanism that transmits the identity of an initiating principal to its target. A simple ticket contains the identity of the principal, a session key, a timestamp, and other information, which are sealed using the secret key of the target.
- The part of an operating system that performs basic functions, such as allocating hardware resources.
- The part of an operating system that contains programs for such tasks as input/output, management and control of hardware, and the scheduling of user tasks. See also kernel address space.
- In OSI, a session-layer functional unit that supports the basic session services required to establish connections, transfer normal data, and release connections.
kernel address space
The address space containing support for z/OS UNIX services. See also kernel.
kernel device driver
See device head.
See system dump.
A component of CICSPlex SM that is responsible for building data structures and managing the interfaces between the other CICSPlex SM components. The environment built by Kernel Linkage is known as the method call environment.
The state in which a process runs kernel code. See also user mode.
- A distinct part of an operating system kernel that provides a specific support or function. For example, kernel modules can be device drivers or support programs for file systems. Kernel modules are either built into the kernel or are compiled as separate object files that can be dynamically loaded into the kernel, as needed.
- A piece of code that can be loaded into the kernel upon demand to extend functionality without requiring to reboot the system.
- The placement of characters such that their bounding boxes (character boxes) overlap. This allows for a more natural-looking spacing between characters.
- The adjustment of horizontal space between individual characters in a line of text. Adjustments in kerning are especially important in large display and headline text lines. Without kerning adjustments, many letter combinations can look awkward. The objective of kerning is to create visually equal spaces between all letters so that the eye can move smoothly along the text.
The API that is used to access the Pentaho data transformation engine that is capable of doing many different functions, including reading, manipulating, and writing data to and from various data sources.
- A column or an ordered collection of columns that is identified in the description of a table, index, or referential constraint. The same column can be part of more than one key.
- In sorting, a string of weights which can be used to compare characters or character strings.
- A column or an ordered collection of columns that is identified in the description of an index, unique constraint, or referential constraint. An index key can also be an expression, an ordered collection of expressions, or an ordered collection of columns and expressions. See also composite key.
- A cryptographic mathematical value that is used to digitally sign, verify, encrypt, or decrypt a message. See also key table, private key, public key.
- Information that characterizes and uniquely identifies the real-world entity that is being tracked by a monitoring context.
- One or more characters within an item of data that are used to uniquely identify a record and establish its order with respect to other records. See also alternate-index record.
- A button on a keyboard or key pad.
In DDS, a characteristic that can be specified for a field in a display file that automatically shifts the display station keyboard to control what the display station user can enter into the field. In IDDU and DDS, the keyboard shift can also be specified in database files, but only applies when these fields are referred to in a display file.
In EJB query language, a class that is used to create or find an entity bean. It represents the identity of the entity bean, corresponding to the primary-key columns of a row in a relational database.
In an ODM table, a column that forms the unique (non-repeatable) key to the table. For example, if the key columns of a scheduling application are DepartmentName, Workday and Shift, no two rows in the table can contain the same DepartmentName, Workday and Shift.
In security, a storage object, either a file or a hardware cryptographic card, where identities and private keys are stored for authentication and encryption purposes. Some key databases also contain public keys. See also stash file.
key database file
See also keystore file.
key distribution center (KDC)
A network service that provides tickets and temporary session keys. The KDC maintains a database of principals (users and services) and their associated secret keys. It is composed of the authentication server and the ticket granting ticket server.
See flash drive.
keyed data queue
An i5/OS data queue that contains individual pieces of data (messages) that are associated with a key value. Messages can be received from a keyed data queue by specifying the key value or a relational operator. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *DTAQ.
An order in which records are retrieved that is based on the contents of key fields in records. See also arrival sequence.
keyed sequential access
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record in its key or relative-record sequence, relative to the previously retrieved or stored record as defined by the sequence set of an index.
keyed sequential retrieval
A type of record access that uses keyed direct retrieval to recover subsequent records implicitly in key or relative record-number sequence without specifying another key or relative record number.
The effect that results when a key on a keyboard is actuated, depending on the level of force, and possibly by a concurrent operation of a qualifier key or keys. The key effect may be the generation of a graphic character or of a control function (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).
key-encrypting key (KEK)
A key that is used exclusively for encrypting and decrypting keys. See also data-encrypting key.
key exchange protocol
A protocol governing how two parties exchange keys to use in securing a transaction. Once keys have been exchanged, data can be encrypted at the sender’s end and decrypted at the receiver’s end.
- A field that uniquely identifies a data item in a data type.
- A field in a data file that contains the values that Gentran Server for Windows uses to determine the trading partnership code.
- See sequence field.
- The field in a database segment used to store segment occurrences in sequential ascending order. A key field is also a search field. See also search field.
- The portion of a record that is used (possibly with other key fields) to locate a data record in a key file See also alternate key.
- A field used to arrange the records of a particular type within a file member.
- In EJB query language, a container-managed field in an entity bean that corresponds to one of the primary-key columns of a row in a relational database. Each key field is a member of the entity bean key class.
key field level specification
Data description specification coded on the lines following the last field specification. Key field level specifications are permitted only for physical files or logical files.
- See key ring.
- In computer security, a file that contains public keys, private keys, trusted roots, and certificates.
A static image from a camera that is usually smaller than the actual video size. A key frame might contain more visual information about an event or alert such as a bounding box, or a track of motion.
- The key used to indicate how the information for the signing key is included in the WS-Security header of the message.
- The unique name associated with the key for a thread in a process.
A portal component that provides a view of multiple metrics in a single view. The view contains a list of the metrics and attributes of the metrics, such as actual values, threshold values, and percentage of actual to threshold.
In computer security, a public key and a private key. When the key pair is used for encryption, the sender uses the receiver's public key to encrypt the message, and the recipient uses their private key to decrypt the message. When the key pair is used for signing, the signer uses their private key to encrypt a representation of the message, and the recipient uses the sender's public key to decrypt the representation of the message for signature verification.
- A quantifiable measure that is designed to track one of the critical success factors of a business process.
- A metric that is computed from performance data that indicates a level of compliance against expectations. For example, the acknowledgment response time to an order, an order fill rate, or an on time shipment rate.
- A measurable quantity against which specific performance criteria can be set when a service level agreement is written.
A product that is not being substantially redesigned or rewritten. New products will be classified as flagship or non-key. Existing key products will be reclassified as flagship if they are undergoing substantial re-engineering. See also flagship product, legacy product, non-key product.
The two key fields signifying a range of records to be processed sequentially. The range of records is selected by specifying either key values that bound the records to be selected or an individual key value for which all matching records should be selected in a shared index.
- In computer security, a file that contains public keys, private keys, trusted roots, and certificates.
- See key file.
The collating sequence of data records, determined by the value of the key field in each of the data records. It can be the same as, or different from, the entry sequence of the records. See also entry sequence.
- See encryption key server.
- A server that negotiates the values that determine the characteristics of a dynamic virtual private network (VPN) connection that is established between two endpoints.
- A repository that contains password information.
- See key database.
- A repository of security certificates.
- In security, a file or a hardware cryptographic card where identities and private keys are stored, for authentication and encryption purposes. Some keystores also contain trusted or public keys. See also certificate signing request, keytool, truststore.
A key ring that contains both public keys that are stored as signer certificates and private keys that are stored in personal certificates. See also key database file.
The part of the Front End Programming Interface that allows a front-end application to specify a sequence of keystroke-like commands, which is used to define input to a back-end application.
In telephony, the type of telephone system that provides telephones with more than one line for users. Outside lines appear directly on the telephones instead of being routed through an operator and transferred, as in PBX systems.
- In the Kerberos protocol, a file that contains service principal names and secret keys. The secret keys should be known only to the services that use the key table file and to the key distribution center (KDC). See also key.
- See keytab file.
In capacity planning, the time between interactive transactions such as typing, thinking, idle time, and so on. As an interactive user's proficiency with the application improves, the user's key/think time is likely to reduce, which can result in an increase in the observed throughput.
A utility used for creating SSL encryption keys and managing the keystores where they are maintained. See also keystore.
Information that is expressed as a paired set of parameters. For example, if you want to express that the specific sport is football, this data can be expressed as key=sport and value=football. See also tag group.
- A word that a customer enters in a website when searching for an item.
- One of the predefined words of a programming language, artificial language, application, or command. See also keyword operand, operand, parameter, positional operand.
- A word that is used to conduct searching operations.
- A list of strings that can be used by a customer using the web channel application when searching for a category.
- See reserved word.
- A statement or group of statements that one can reuse in test scripts.
- A symbol that identifies a parameter in job control language (JCL).
keyword driven testing
A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results, but also keywords related to the application being tested. The keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script for the test. (ISTQB) See also data driven testing.
In REXX, one or more clauses, the first of which starts with a keyword that identifies the instruction. Some keyword instructions affect the flow of control, while others provide services to the programmer. CALL, DO, and PARSE are examples of keyword instructions.
A multiple-choice field that lets users make selections by clicking, rather than typing, an entry. Keywords fields can display in several formats, including a drop-down list box, a check box, and a radio button.
A base-2 unit of measurement that is equal to 1,024 bytes (2 to the 10th power). See also kilobyte.
A computer program that proves to be so popular and valuable that it drives the success of whatever technology that it is associated with. For example, Lotus 1-2-3 drove the sale of the IBM PC.
A threshold that restarts the system. See also throttle threshold.
- For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1000 bits.
- For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the power of 10 or 1024 bits.
kilobits per second (kbps)
A measure of bandwidth on a data transmission medium, where 1 kbps = 1000 bits per second. This contrasts with units of storage where 1 Kb = 1024 bits (note upper case K). See also gigabits per second, megabits per second.
For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the power of 10 or 1,024 bytes. For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1,000 bytes. See also kibibyte.
A form of a node test that can select nodes based on their kind and name. See also node test.
See keyword intelligence system.
- A collection of kit components.
- A collection of catalog entries that are ordered as a single SKU. See also bundle, prebuilt kit.
A meta-package that is used to install other components. Kit components support the installation of the following dependencies: kit component dependencies on other kit components, OS package dependencies on packages in an OS distribution, and kit dependencies on packages within the kit.
See knowledge management.
See Keyhole Markup Language.
A question that is asked of candidates at the beginning of an application process to assess their suitability for a position. See also default question.
- See software knowledge base.
- See corpus.
- A collection of data that may be interpreted as a set of facts and rules considered true in a possible world.
knowledge-based authentication (KBA)
A method of authentication whereby a user proves their identity by correctly answering questions from a knowledge base. See also challenge-response authentication.
The process of acquiring knowledge from various sources for use in knowledge management. For example, in social business, knowledge capture takes place when an expert shares a strategy in a social forum, where it can then be compiled and used again later. See also knowledge management.
See IBM Knowledge Center.
A model that consolidates typed entities, their relationships, their properties, and hierarchical taxonomies to represent an organization of concepts for a given domain. After the knowledge graph store is loaded with input from structured and unstructured data sources, users and applications can access the knowledge graph to explore key elements of knowledge for a specific domain, explore interactions, and discover additional relationships.
knowledge management (KM)
Efficient, effective use of enterprise knowledge to achieve common objectives across a corporation. See also knowledge capture.
See knock out.
A neural network that can be used to cluster a data set into distinct groups. When processing is complete, records that are similar should be close together on the output map, while records that are different will be far apart. See also neural network.
Korean non-Hangeul/non-Hanja character set
A subset of the Korean DBCS, consisting of non-Hangeul/non-Hanja characters, such as Greek, Russian, Roman numeric, alphanumeric and related symbols, Katakana, Hiragana, and special symbols. There are 940 characters in this set.
- An interactive command interpreter and a command programming language.
- A command interpreter developed for UNIX, which forms the basis for the z/OS shell.
See key performance indicator.
A numeric value that ranges from 0-100 and indicates key performance indicator reliability. Performance is considered reliable if the value is less than or equal to the configured performance tolerance. If the actual performance is always within tolerance, then the KPI value is 100. Otherwise, the KPI value is 0. Many KPI values are calculated over time to give an average rating.
See thousands of power-on hours.
See key-sequenced data set.
See Korn shell.
See kernel tap.
See kernel-based virtual machine.
See keyboard video mouse console.