A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y and Z Special characters and Numerics

This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


Specification for uncompressed voice for PSTN and Voice over Internet Protocol access.

Compressed audio codecs used on Voice over Internet Protocol connection for voice.

Compressed audio codecs used on Voice over Internet Protocol connection for voice.

In System z computing, the 5th generation of S/390 CMOS-based products.

In System z computing, the 6th generation of S/390 CMOS-based products.

See generic port.


  1. In the AIXwindows Toolkit, a windowless graphical object that looks like its equivalent like-named widget but does not support the translations, actions, or pop-up widget children supplied by that widget.
  2. A type of widget that handles third-party apps such as iGoogle.
  3. A proprietary widget that works under specific conditions or that is designed to a certain standard, such as a dashboard widget based on the OpenSocial standard. See also widget.

See Globalization Architecture Imperatives.

See media gallery.

The use of game theory to solve problems outside of game situations. For example, to increase productivity, a manager might implement a point system to reward the most productive workers in the office.

See global application management services delivery.

Gantt chart
A graphical representation of a project timeline and duration in which schedule data is displayed as horizontal bars along a time scale.

Gantt scheduler
The project scheduling functionality in the Project Tasks Gantt section of the Capital Project, Facilities Project, and RE Transaction Plan forms.


  1. Active-site log data that is not available to the tracking IMS. The log data might be missing either because it was not sent or because an I/O error occurred at the tracking site.
  2. In source control management, a state in which a target workspace or stream is missing preceding change sets for a change set that is being accepted or delivered. When a gap occurs, the change set cannot be accepted or delivered; it must be applied as a patch, which creates a new resulting change set.
  3. The relative difference between the integer solution found and the proven best possible objective solution value.
  4. In SQL replication, a range of log or journal records that the Capture program cannot read. The changed data in a gap can be lost.

garbage collection

  1. A routine that searches memory to reclaim space from program segments or inactive data.
  2. Part of a language's runtime system or an add-on library that automatically determines the memory that a program no longer uses, and recycles it for other use. Garbage collection may be assisted by the compiler, the hardware, the operating system, or any combination of the three.

garment on hanger (GOH)
A garment that is shipped to a warehouse on a hanger, and not folded and boxed.

See Global Asset Recovery Services.


  1. An entry to or an exit from an area or zone that is monitored by one device
  2. A requirement that must be met before an application can move on to the next phase.

gate condition
A condition on a message being processed that must be fulfilled for a mediation policy to apply.

gate keeper
A system component that manages jobs based on their priority, and optionally, by the estimated run time for normal-priority queries.


  1. An entity with a high measure of betweenness that may control the flow of information among other entities on an association chart. See also betweenness.
  2. A component of a Voice over Internet Protocol that provides services such as admission to the network and address translation.


  1. A network point that is used to control the divergence and convergence of sequence flow paths in a process and in a choreography.
  2. Software that provides services between the endpoints and the rest of the Tivoli environment.
  3. A middleware component that bridges Internet and intranet environments during web service invocations.
  4. A component of a Voice over Internet Protocol that provides a bridge between VoIP and circuit-switched environments.
  5. An entity that operates above the link layer and converts, when required, the interface and protocol used by one network into those used by another distinct network.
  6. An element that controls the divergence and convergence of sequence lines and determines the branching, forking, merging, and joining of paths that a process can take during execution.
  7. An extension of a web server program that transfers information from the web server to another server. Gateways are often CGI programs, but may follow other standards such as ISAPI and Apache modules.
  8. A device or program used to connect networks or systems with different network architectures.
  9. An integration pattern that provides format-independent boundary functions that apply to all incoming messages.
  10. A software component that controls the transmission of messages between two parties. The gateway is responsible for using the correct protocols to transfer messages between the sender and receiver.
  11. The runtime capability that hosts deployed APIs and their endpoints for access by applications.

gateway-capable host
A host node that has a defined NETID and SSCPNAME but does not perform gateway control functions, such as cross-network session initiation and termination. See also gateway host.

gateway class
The interface for Java Client applications to connect to the Gateway daemon. The Gateway classes, which are supplied with the CICS Transaction Gateway, must be in the classpath for Java Client applications to run.

gateway control function
A function that is performed by a gateway system services control point (SSCP) in conjunction with the gateway NCP. Such functions include assigning alias network address pairs for LU-LU sessions, assigning virtual routes for the LU-LU sessions in adjacent networks, and translating network names within BIND RUs.

Gateway daemon
Used only in remote mode, the Gateway daemon listens on protocols defined in CTG.INI for gateway requests from remote Java client applications. It issues these requests to the Client daemon on distributed platforms, and directly to CICS over the external CICS interface (EXCI) on z/OS. The Gateway daemon runs the protocol listener threads, the worker threads and the connection manager threads.

gateway destination
A type of service destination that receives messages for gateway services. Gateway destinations are divided into those that are used for request processing and those that are used for reply processing.

Gateway group
A collection of Gateway daemon instances, that uses the services of a single ctgmaster. The group provides a TCP/IP load balancing capability for XA transactions.

gateway host

  1. In the AIX operating system, a host that connects independent networks. It has multiple interfaces, each with a different name and address.
  2. A host node that contains a gateway system services control point (SSCP). See also gateway-capable host.

gateway method
A method that runs on behalf of an endpoint on the gateway to which the endpoint is assigned. The results of the method are forwarded to the managed resource that requested that the method be run.

gateway NCP
An NCP that performs address translation to allow cross-network session traffic. The gateway NCP connects two or more independent SNA networks.

gateway node
See gateway NCP.

gateway queue manager
A cluster queue manager that is used to route messages from an application to other queue managers in the cluster.

gateway server
A server that communicates between the data servers and the application stack. The application stack polls the gateway for information about the data on the data servers. The data servers push the information to the gateway.

gateway service
A web service that is made available through the web services gateway.

gateway service processor
A service processor that relays alerts from service processors on an Advanced System Management (ASM) interconnect network to IBM Director Server.

gateway session
A session between an LU and an SNA host through the SNA gateway.

gateway SSCP
See designated gateway VTAM.

gateway token
A token that represents a specific Gateway daemon, once a connection is established successfully.

gateway VTAM
An SSCP that is capable of cross-network session initiation, termination, takedown, and session outage notification. A gateway VTAM is in session with the gateway NCP; it provides network name translation and assists the gateway NCP in setting up alias network addresses for cross-network sessions.

For input/output operations, to read data from noncontiguous memory locations to write to a device. See also scatter.

An informal get-together for an entire tribe. Squads get the chance to show the tribe what they’re working on, what’s been delivered, and what they think would be helpful for other squads to learn. See also tribe.

See Globalization Architecture and Technology Team.

An indicator for the current value for an item. See also counter.

An iterative relaxation method for solving Laplace's equation. This method calculates the general solution by finding particular solutions to a set of discrete points distributed throughout the area in question. The values of the individual points are obtained by averaging the values of nearby points. See also chaotic relaxation.

See gigabit.

See gigabyte.

See gigabaud.

The cumulative amount of memory (in gigabytes) that is running for all application instances for a particular buildpack per hour.

See gigabit interface converter.

See group buffer pool.

The status of a page set or page set partition that is dependent on the group buffer pool. Either read/write interest is active among DB2 subsystems for this page set, or the page set has changed pages in the group buffer pool that are not yet cast out to disk.

See gigabits per second.


  1. See Global Business Services.
  2. See global billing system.

See graphics context.

See GNU Compiler Collection.

See graphic character conversion alternative selection number.

See graphic character conversion selection table.

See global configuration database.

See Grande CICS dynamic storage area.

See graphic character global identifier.

See Global Commerce Initiative.

See global configuration management.

See graphics context.

The process used by global services capacity and allocation team to reserve and allocate server and network capacity for projects.


  1. See graphic communication server.
  2. See Group Control System.

See graphic character set global identifier.

See global directory agent.

See GNU Debugger.

See Graphical Data Display Manager.

GDDM interface for X Window System (GDDMXD)
A graphical interface that formats and displays characters, graphics, and images on workstation display devices that support the X Window System.

See GDDM interface for X Window System.


  1. See graphics data file.
  2. See graphics data format.

GDF file
See graphics data format file.

See generation data group.

See Globally Distributed, Highly Available.

See generic data link control.

See Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex.


  1. See Global Directory Service.
  2. See generation data set.
  3. See Global Data Synchronization.
  4. See generalized data stream.
  5. See general data stream.
  6. See graphic data server.

See Grande dynamic storage area.

See Global Data Synchronization Network.

GDS reclaim processing
An automatic process that the storage management subsystem (SMS) performs when a generation data set (GDS) exists in deferred roll-in state and a job attempts to create a (+1) generation. When the job begins, SMS reclaims the GDS and uses its data set name for the new (+1) generation. GDS reclaim processing can be disabled. See also generation number.

See generation.

general activity
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an instruction to perform a specific operation such as *LOAD (load a new tape) or *EXIT (perform user exit).

general availability fix
A fix that is available to all customers.

general data stream (GDS)
A structured field that precedes all mapped conversation user data in the communications data stream. It consists of a length (LL), which is defined as the first 2 bytes of the structured field, and a general data stream identifier (GDS ID), which is defined as the next 2 bytes following the length field that identifies the GDS-defined format of the data.

general data stream variable
An RU substructure that is preceded by an identifier and a length field and includes either application data, user control data, or SNA-defined control data.

general document
In DCF, a type of document whose description can apply to a variety of documents, from memoranda to technical manuals. It can be used as a catch-all category for documents that do not conform to any other type description.

general format
In information analysis, the use of a character symbol for each unique data value. For example, all alphabetic characters in a column are replaced with the letter A.

General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP)
A protocol that Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) uses to define the format of messages.

The derivation of the definition of a class, function, or static data member from a template. An instantiation of a template function is a generalization.

generalized data stream (GDS)
The SNA-defined data stream format used for basic conversations on APPC sessions.

generalized interactive executive (GIX)
A function of the NetView Distribution Manager licensed program that provides the host system user with interactive use of the NetView Distribution Manager program.

generalized main scheduling (GMS)
A set of algorithms that allow the system programmer to tailor job scheduling and selection to the specific needs of the installation.

Generalized Markup Language (GML)
A language that can be used to identify the parts of a source document without respect to a particular processing system.

Generalized Object File Format (GOFF)
This object module format extends the capabilities of object modules so that they can contain more information. It is required for XPLINK.

generalized path information unit trace (GPT)
A record of the flow of path information units (PIUs) exchanged between the network control program and its attached resources. PIU trace records consist of up to 44 bytes of transmission header (TH), request/response header (RH), and request/response unit (RU) data.

generalized sequential access method (GSAM)
A database access method that allows batch application programs to access a sequential data set record that is defined as a database record. This database record is handled as one unit, with no segments, fields, or hierarchical structure. Any records to be added are inserted at the end of the database. GSAM does not allow database records to be updated or deleted.

generalized sequential access method program communication block (GSAM PCB)
The PCB that describes an application program's interface to a GSAM data set. One GSAM PCB is required for each GSAM data set view used by the application program.

generalized trace facility (GTF)
A z/OS service program that records significant system events such as I/O interrupts, SVC interrupts, program interrupts, and external interrupts.

general job step
A method for running native operating system commands and executable programs on a host or a remote process server. General jobs have access to files stored within the repository and on the file system and can be used to control the input/output of analytical processing.

general ledger account (GL account)
An account that is used to track expenses for various entities within a company, such as assets, locations, or tools.

general ledger code (GL code)
A code that corresponds to financial account transactions. A company can assign different GL codes to different account groups.

general ledger feed (GL feed)
A feed that is used to process invoices.

general log
A general purpose log stream used by CICS for any of the following: forward recovery logs, autojournals, or user journals. See also system log.

General Parallel File System (GPFS)
A high-performance shared-disk file system that can provide data access from nodes in a clustered system environment. See also information lifecycle management.

general pool
In a DFSMShsm environment with JES3, the collection of all DFSMShsm primary volumes added to that processor that have a mount status of permanently resident or reserved, that have the automatic recall attribute specified, and that have a mount attribute of storage or private.

General Public License (GPL)
A GNU term for a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

general purpose audience
Users whose primary domain of knowledge relates to tasks outside of information technology. See also specialized IT audience.

general purpose library (QGPL)
A library that contains IBM-provided objects that are required for many system functions, and user-created objects that are not explicitly placed in a different library when they are created.

general-purpose processor core
A licensed processor core other than a Power IFL processor core. The AIX, IBM i, VIOS, and Linux partitions can be run on a general-purpose processor core.

general purpose register (GPR)
An explicitly addressable register that can be used for a variety of purposes (for example, as an accumulator or an index register).

general resource
In RACF, any system resource, other than an MVS data set, that is defined in the class descriptor table (CDT). In MVS, general resources include DASD volumes, tape volumes, load modules, terminals, IMS and CICS transactions and other CICS resources, and installation-defined resource classes.

general resource profile
In RACF, a profile that provides protection for one or more general resources. The information in the profile can include the general resource profile name, profile owner, universal access authority, access list, and other data. See also profile.

General System service
A service that is used to coordinate other services or to manipulate variable data. See also service.

general topology manager (GTM)
In Tivoli NetView, the component that accepts information about resources that are accessed through protocols other than the Internet Protocol, stores this information in a database, and displays it to the user.

General Use Programming Interface (GUPI)
An interface, with few restrictions, for use in customer-written programs. The majority of programming interfaces are general-use programming interfaces, and are appropriate in a wide variety of application programs.

general user
A user who has limited RACF privileges, such as logging on, accessing resources, and creating data sets. General users typically use and create RACF-protected resources, but have no authority to administer resources other than their own.

general workstation
A workstation where activities other than printing and processing are carried out. A general workstation reporting to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS is usually manual, but it can also be automatic. Manual activities can include data entry and job setup.

generatable part
An EGL part that is generated into a single, compilable unit in the output code.


  1. To produce a computer program by selection of subsets from skeletal code under the control of parameters.
  2. In DB2 for i5/OS, to produce, through the actions performed by a precompiler. For example, the precompiler generates host language statements and declarations that are embedded into the input source, and this modified source is then used as input to a compiler.

generated column
A column for which the database manager assigns the value. An example of a generated column is an identity column, row change timestamp column, or row-begin column. See also generated expression column, row-begin column, row-end column, transaction-start-ID column.

generated expression column
A generated column that is defined using an expression. See also generated column.

generated test
A test that is created automatically by recording the user actions.

generated value
A property whose value is generated automatically when a mapping is executed.


  1. For some remote systems, the translation of a configuration into machine language.
  2. The process of assembling and link editing definition statements so that resources can be identified to all the necessary programs in a network.
  3. A means of referencing items in terms of time and ancestry so that an item without antecedents is designated as the first (n-th) generation and subsequent derivations are designated as n-1, n-2, and so on.
  4. In a database outline, the consolidation levels within each dimension. A series of generations begins at the root of an outline, then contains the branches, and ends at the leaf level. For example, in the time dimension, Year is generation 1, Quarter is generation 2 and Month is generation 3.

generation data group (GDG)
A chronological collection of historically related data sets that do not use the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM); each data set is called a generation data set. See also generation data set.

generation data group base entry
An entry that permits a data set that does not use the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) to be associated as a generation data set (GDS) with other data sets not using VSAM .

generation data set (GDS)
One of the data sets in a generation data group (GDG); a GDS is historically related to the other data sets in the group. See also generation data group.

generation number

  1. A number used to differentiate between the uses of the same i-node for several files or for different versions of the same file. When a file is created, an i-node is allocated for the file, and a new generation number is stored in the i-node for that file. Any use of an i-node with the wrong generation number indicates that the user's view of the file is out-of-date, or "stale."
  2. The number of a generation within a generation data group (GDG). A zero represents the current generation of the group, a negative integer (-1) represents an older generation, and a positive integer (+1) represents a new generation that has not yet been cataloged. See also GDS reclaim processing.

Relating to, or characteristic of, a whole group or class.

generic alert

  1. A Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Network Management Vector that enables a product to signal a problem to the network. CICSPlex SM uses generic alerts as part of its interface to NetView.
  2. Alert information that is provided as text or is encoded using a method in which code points provide an index into short units of stored text. The use of generic alerts prevents the receiver from having to recognize and understand each unique problem for which an alert is sent. See also nongeneric alert.
  3. An alert that is broadcast by Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, and collected by NetView, when an operation ends in error. Generic alerts can be specified as an option when defining application descriptions.

generic array
An array whose elements are initialized by external data and which is useful in performing some simple transformations.

generic asset
An authorized asset that is automatically created during automated linking, whenever an authorized asset cannot be found, matched, and linked to an authorized CI.

generic class

  1. A class with no special behavior built in. The administrator can customize, save, and query a generic class.
  2. See class template.

generic collection
In a Tivoli environment, a collection that contains objects representing resources of any type.

generic configuration item
An authorized configuration item that is automatically created during automated linking, whenever an authorized CI cannot be found, matched, and linked to an authorized asset.

generic controller description
An asynchronous controller description that is reserved for incoming calls on an X.25 packet-switching data network from a remote system or device that does not use SNA transmission protocols and whose location name and identifier are defined in configuration list QASYNCLOC in library QSYS.

generic data link control (GDLC)
A generic interface definition that provides application and kernel users a common set of commands to control DLC device managers within the operating system. Requirements for entry-point definitions, functions provided, and data structures for all DLC managers are specified. The following DLCs conform to this interface: IEEE 802.3 Ethernet, standard Ethernet, SDLC, and Token Ring.

generic definition
An object containing a set of formatting controls for mapping and printing any line data to a logical page of data.

generic envelope type
A value that defines a specific envelope type. The contents of this envelope are published so that it can be used as a common interchange format.

generic event listener
A service that listens to an external data source for incoming events and triggers policies based on the event data.

generic gate
Gives access to a set of functions that are provided by several domains.

generic interface
The interface, defined at a level that is independent of any particular programming language.

generic key
In systems with VSAM, a leading portion of a key, containing characters that identify those records that are significant for a certain application. The key is one or more consecutive characters, taken from a data record, used to identify the record and establish its order with respect to other records.

Generic Log Adapter (GLA)
A tool that allows generic data collection from multiple heterogeneous data sources by converting individual records and events into the Common Base Event format. See also autonomic computing.

generic name

  1. The characters common to object names that can be used to identify a group of objects. A generic name ends with an asterisk (*). For example, ORD* identifies all objects whose names begin with the characters ORD.
  2. In the hierarchical file system, a path name that contains one or more wildcard characters.

generic network
A Network Installation Management (NIM) network type used to define networks which are not currently known by NIM to support network boot operations.

generic object
An object that is used in API calls and XPATH expressions to refer to concepts, custom entities, or collections. For example, the XPATH expression /WSRR/GenericObject will retrieve all concepts from WebSphere Service Registry and Repository.

generic operator
A primitive operator that contains mixed-mode code, both C++ code and Perl code. The Perl code generates C++ code that augments the other C++ code and provides specific customization for that operator invocation. See also code generation template, non-generic operator, primitive operator.

generic port (G_port)
A port on a Fibre Channel switch that can function either as a fabric port (F_port) or as an expansion port (E_port). The functionality of a G_port is determined during port login: a G_port functions as an F_port when connected to a node port (N_port) and as an E_port when connected to an E_port.

generic primary key
A primary key that can be used by a set of tables that have the same base name, key columns, and attributes, but different creator IDs.

generic process
Processes that are designed to run outside typical component or application processing. See also application process, component process, process.

generic profile
A Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) profile that contains security information about multiple resources that have similar characteristics, similar naming conventions, and require a similar level of protection. See also data set profile, discrete profile, fully qualified generic profile, profile, resource profile.

generic relationship
The relationship between related tables that are identical, but have different creator IDs. See also data-driven relationship, explicit relationship.

generic resource group
A set of applications that have the same generic resource name, enabling VTAM to distribute terminal sessions among them.

generic resource member
An IMS system that belongs to a generic resource group.

generic resource name
A name used by VTAM to represent application programs that provide the same function in order to handle session distribution and balancing in a sysplex environment.

Generic Security Service API (GSS API)
A common application programming interface (API) for accessing security services.

Generic Security Services API
See Generic Security Services application programming interface.

Generic Security Services application programming interface (Generic Security Services API, GSS API)
A common application programming interface (API) for accessing security services.

generic server
A server or process, such as a Java server, a C or C++ server or process, a CORBA server, or a Remote Method Invocation (RMI) server, that is managed in the product administrative domain and supports the product environment.

generic server cluster
A group of remote servers that need routing by the proxy server.

generic set
A conjunction of expressions of the form p in S : condition where p is a parameter (or a tuple of parameters), S is a range, a string, or a finite set, and condition is an expression. These expressions are also used in forall statements and aggregate operators. They are often useful to transform a data structure, such as the data stored in a file, into a data structure more appropriate for stating the model effectively.

generic table function
A table UDF whose output table format is specified when the UDF is referenced, instead of when the UDF is defined.

generic threshold
The number of times that a data value can occur in the database for multiple entities before that data value is considered a generic value. See also generic value.

generic unit name
A name assigned to a class of devices that share the same hardware characteristics. See also esoteric unit name.

generic value
A data value that occurred in the database for one or more entities a specific number of times. For example, a telephone number with a value of 555-555-5555 might be considered a generic value after it occurs in the database 10 times. See also generic threshold.

Generic Windows playback policy
A policy that collects performance data played back from a recorded sequence of actions in a Microsoft Windows application. Generic Windows uses the time measurement calls and threshold settings to detect performance problems and send violation events when threshold violations occur.

A program to download microcode to a specific adapter or device. This program is provided with a microcode update.


  1. See Geospatial Entity Object Code.
  2. To assign latitude and longitude values to an address in order to compute distances between sites.

In WebSphere Commerce, an application-specific code representing a geographical region. See also jurisdiction.

In DB2 Spatial Extender, a scalar function that translates existing data into data that can be understood in spatial terms. For example, a geocoder that is supplied by Spatial Extender translates United States addresses into instances of a spatial data type. Another geocoder might translate the identifier of a shelf in a warehouse into data that identifies the location of that shelf in the warehouse.

The process of identifying geocodes from more traditional geographic markers (addresses, postal codes, and so on). For example, a landmark can be located at the intersection of two streets, but the geocode of that landmark consists of a number sequence. See also geolocation, Geospatial Entity Object Code, geotagging, global positioning system, radiolocation, reverse geocoding.

geodesic distance
The shortest path between two points on the ellipsoidal shape of the Earth.

A circle or a polygon that defines a geographical area.

Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS)
An application that integrates Parallel Sysplex technology and remote copy technology to enhance application availability and improve disaster recovery. GDPS topology is a Parallel Sysplex cluster spread across two sites, with all critical data mirrored between the sites. GDPS manages the remote copy configuration and storage subsystems; automates Parallel Sysplex operational tasks; and automates failure recovery from a single point of control.

geographic coordinate system
In DB2 Spatial Extender, a reference system that uses latitude and longitude to define locations on the surface of a sphere or spheroid.

geographic feature
An object on the surface of the Earth (such as a city or river), a space (such as a safety zone around a hazardous site), or an event that occurs at a location (such as an auto accident that occurred at a particular intersection). See also geographic information system.

geographic information system (GIS)
A complex of objects, data, and applications that is used to create and analyze spatial information about geographic features. See also DB2 Spatial Extender, geographic feature.

Geographic Logical Volume Manager (GLVM)
A facility that increases data availability for IBM volumes that use it to copy data to a remote site for disaster recovery purposes.

geographic mirroring
A subfunction of cross-site mirroring (XSM) that generates a mirror image of an independent disk pool on a system, which is (optionally) geographically distant from the originating site for availability or protection purposes.


  1. The process of pinpointing a location based on the assessment of various types of signals. In mobile computing, often WLAN access points and cell towers are used to approximate a location. See also geocoding, Geospatial Entity Object Code, geotagging, global positioning system, location services, radiolocation, reverse geocoding.
  2. The process of using GPS to detect the location of the device and adding a position marker to the map.

geometric text
A type of data whose character fonts are defined by the mathematical descriptions of the strokes that are required to draw those characters, rather than by raster images.


  1. In Enhanced X-Windows, the size and position of a window on the screen. The size of a widget is changed using geometry management routines.
  2. The information available in a zoomed-in road link on a map.

Approximately 1,000 brontobytes. See also brontobyte.

See geostationary Earth orbit system.

Pertaining to the geographical characteristics of the Earth.

Geospatial Entity Object Code (geocode)
A standardized numeric representation of a specific geographical address that can include information about latitude, longitude, and altitude. Not every geographic location has a traditional address, but it does have a geocode. See also geocoding, geolocation, geotagging, global positioning system, radiolocation, reverse geocoding.

geospatial information system
See geographic information system.

geostationary Earth orbit system (GEOS)
The communications system of satellites that travel in geosynchronous orbits 22,300 miles above Earth.

The process of adding coordinate data to the metadata of something not directly related to that coordinate data (for example, photographs, pictures, or QR codes). See also geocoding, geolocation, Geospatial Entity Object Code, global positioning system, radiolocation, reverse geocoding.

geo targeting
The process of personalizing a marketing message to consumers based on their geographical location.

See Global Expense Reporting System.

In mobile computing, a short, uni- or multi-directional input on a touchscreen. See also double-tap, drag, hold, multi-touch, pinch, pinch in, pinch out, press, slide, swipe, tap.

In HTTP, a parameter on the METHOD attribute of the <FORM> tag that specifies that a browser will append form data to the end of a URL when sending the form data to a server.

In message queuing, to use the MQGET call to remove a message from a queue and return its contents to the calling application. See also browse, put.

Get Data
A command in the web client that loads the screen that displays local links and system links.

An operation in which DB2 for z/OS accesses a data page.

getter method
A method whose purpose is to get the value of an instance or class variable. This allows another object to find out the value of one of its variables. See also accessor method, mutator method, setter method.

See grant functional transmission.

ghost engine
An analytic engine that is no longer associated with a channel definition. In some instances, ghost engines can consume server resources and lower the efficiency of the server that they are running on.

ghost instrument
In the Performance Toolbox, an empty space in the console where an instrument used to be, usually caused when a console designed for one system contains instruments not available on the current system. Ghost instruments occupy a space and prevent a new instrument from being defined in that same space or other instruments from being moved or resized to use the space.

See gibibyte.

gibibyte (GiB)
In digital information storage, a base-2 unit of measurement equal to 1,073,741,824 bytes (2 to the 30th power). See also gigabyte.


  1. See group ID.
  2. See group identifier.
  3. See group identification number.


  1. See Graphics Interchange Format.
  2. See graphical interchange format.

gigabaud (Gbaud)
A unit of measure equal to one thousand million symbol changes on a communication channel per second.

gigabit (Gb)
In data communications, 10 to the power of 9 or 1,000,000,000 bits. See also gigabyte.

Gigabit Ethernet
A variation of the Ethernet protocol that is capable of transmitting data at one billion bits per second. Gigabit Ethernet on the System i family is supported only by TCP/IP in full-duplex mode. See also asynchronous transfer mode, OSA-Express.

gigabit interface converter (GBIC)
An encoding/decoding device that is a class-1 laser component assembly with transmitting and receiving receptacles that connect to fiber-optic cables. GBICs perform a serial optical-to-electrical and electrical-to-optical conversion of the signal. The GBICs in the switch can be hot-swapped.

gigabits per second (Gbps)
A measure of high speed bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber. See also kilobits per second.

gigabit switch
A 16-port, Fibre Channel gigabit switch.

gigabyte (GB)
For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, two to the power of 30 or 1,073,741,824 bytes. For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1,000,000,000 bytes. See also gibibyte, gigabit.

See graphical identification and authentication.

See General Inter-ORB Protocol.

See geographic information system.

An open source program for source control management.


  1. The process by which an alternate subsystem releases itself from its extended recovery facility (XRF) sessions with terminal users and is replaced by the primary subsystem. See also takeover.
  2. A program within the Project Management Center of Excellence framework whereby a project manager returns services to the PM community, such as by mentoring or providing education.

given name
A name that is used to identify an individual within a group, such as a family. A person can have multiple given names. See also middle name, personal name, surname.

given position
In architecture, the coordinate position at which drawing is to begin. A given position is specified in a drawing order. See also current position.

See generalized interactive executive.

G keyboard
An IBM keyboard for programmable workstations. It has 101 keys in the United States, 106 in Japan, 103 on the IBM 3270 and 3151 terminals, and 102 in all other versions. It also includes a numeric keypad. See also 1A keyboard.

See Graphics Library.

See Generic Log Adapter.

GL account
See general ledger account.

A condition that occurs when both ends of a telephone line or trunk are seized at the same time.


  1. See greatest lower bound.
  2. See Global Location Broker.

See Global Location Broker daemon.

GL code
See general ledger code.

GL feed
See general ledger feed.

See global lock manager.

See Global Location Number.


  1. Pertaining to information available to more than one program or subroutine. See also local.
  2. Pertaining to all places in a document or file.
  3. Pertaining to an element that is available to any process in the workspace. A global element appears in the project tree and can be used in multiple processes. Tasks, processes, repositories, and services can be either global (referenced by any process in the project) or local (specific to a single process). See also local.

global access checking
An RACF feature that is used to improve performance of authorization checking for selected resources.

global access layer
A layer in a security system that is used to define settings for an application or database.

global administrator
An administrative role for performing advanced tasks in all IBM Connections applications, such as managing inappropriate content in IBM Connections, deleting bookmark links, creating global administrators.

global aggregate
A value that is computed from a collection of objects. Examples of global aggregates are average, count, maximum, minimum, and sum.

global application management services delivery (GAMSD)

global area

  1. A storage area used for communication between two or more main programs.
  2. An uninitialized portion of a partition accessible by any program of a task set in the partition at a given time. The same area may be used by other task sets that run in the same partition.

global asset
A library item that is available to the entire process application in which it is located. For example, environment variables for a process application are global assets and can be called from any implementation.

Global Asset Recovery Services (GARS)

global attribute

  1. In XML, an attribute that is declared as a child of the schema element rather than as part of a complex type definition. Global attributes can be referenced in one or more content models using the ref attribute.
  2. A generic attribute definition created at the installation level that can be copied to any module within the installation.

global availability
The total number of items of a specific type that are available for shipment from all nodes.

global billing system (GBS)
A system that automatically generates bills for customers, searches for billable audit events, and creates a billing file.

global breakable
In Java, an object that is often affected when any other system object changes. See also global butterfly.

global breakpoint
In an EGL debugging session, a rule that causes processing to suspend at every statement for which a specified condition evaluates to TRUE.

Global Business Services (GBS)
An IBM organization that partners with clients to create and implement premium business solutions in areas ranging from finance and analytics to human capital and procurement through deep industry expertise and high-powered technology.

global butterfly
In Java, an object that changes many other objects outside of its immediate relationships when it itself changes. See also global breakable.

global catalog

  1. In a federated system, the database system catalog. The catalog contains information about objects in the federated database and at the data source. The catalog also contains information about the entire federated system. The information in the global catalog is used by the query optimizer to plan the best way to process SQL statements.
  2. A system data set in which CICS records CICS system information. See also local catalog.
  3. A table that contains a global inventory of enterprise replication configuration information.

global catalog domain
Together with the local catalog domain, a repository used by other CICS domains to hold information to allow an orderly restart. The two catalog domains enable CICS code to read, write, and purge records on the global and local catalog data sets so that a record of the CICS state can be maintained when CICS is not running.

global character
See wildcard character.

global command
A command that is recognized and honored by any node in a JES2 network.

Global Commerce Initiative (GCI)
A voluntary body that was created in October 1999 to improve the performance of the international supply chain for consumer goods through the collaborative development and endorsement of recommended standards and important business processes.

global commit coordinator
The sync point manager that controls the overall result of the two-phase commit process in a distributed transaction.

global configuration
A configuration that gathers configurations from multiple tools, so you can define all the relevant artifacts for a system. Global configurations can establish the same context across all tools when each tool stores artifacts in otherwise unrelated configurations. See also component skew, configuration, configuration context, global configuration management.

global configuration database (GCD)
The Content Platform Engine component that stores global data that defines the domain. Data includes information about object stores, file storage areas, content cache areas, index areas, and other domain resources. The global configuration database also stores and manages the security descriptors for all accounts provided by the authentication provider.

global configuration file
A configuration file that is distributed from the primary system in a push-to-client environment. See also push-to-client.

global configuration management (GCM)
A process for gathering configurations from multiple tools that helps visualize and manage relationships in the development lifecycle by tracking artifact links across lifecycle tools and stages. See also configuration, configuration management, global configuration.

global configuration provider
A configuration provider that coordinates contributions from multiple configuration providers. See also artifact, configuration.

Global Copy
A non-synchronous long-distance copy option for data migration and backup. See also Global Mirror, Metro Mirror, remote mirror and copy.

global data
Data that can be addressed by any process while in kernel mode, for example, tables, such as the open file table and process table, and other data maintained by the kernel, such as buffer pointers.

global database configuration parameter
A database configuration parameter that has a single value across all members for a database in a DB2 pureScale environment.

Global Data Synchronization (GDS)
An ongoing business process that enables continuous exchange of data between trading partners to ensure synchronized information.

Global Data Synchronization Network (GDSN)
A global network that facilitates the synchronization of item information between retailers and suppliers by using a single global registry, comprised of selected data pools.

global delivery model
A model in which clients outsource components of their IT infrastructure operations to multiple service providers, who in turn use a combination of onsite and offsite (including offshore) resources to manage the components on behalf of their clients. Global Process Services (GPS) A leading business process outsourcing (BPO) provider, offering solutions for customer relationship management, finance and administration, human resources, and supply chain management through process innovation.

global directory agent (GDA)
A Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) component that makes it possible for the local control data set CDS to access names in foreign cells.

Global Directory Service (GDS)
The DCE Directory Service component that locates other cells using global cell names. GDS can use an X.500-based directory service or the Internet distributed directory service called Domain Name Service (DNS). See also Cell Directory Service.

global domain
A group of Domino domains, such as Sales1, Sales2, and Marketing, under a single Internet domain, such as renovations.com. All outbound SMTP mail, whether it originates from the Sales1 or Marketing domains, has the return address acme.com.

global element
In XML, an element that is declared as a child of the schema element rather than as part of a complex type definition. Global elements can be referenced in one or more content models using the ref attribute.

global error table
A method employed by some high-level languages, such as C and Fortran, to determine actions for handling conditions. Whereas Language Environment condition handling actions are defined at the stack frame level, actions defined using the global error table apply to an entire application until explicitly changed.

Global Expense Reporting System (GERS)

global file name character
Either a question mark (?) or an asterisk (*) used as a variable in a file name or file name extension when referring to a particular file or group of files.

global file set
The root file set in the global namespace.

global file system
A single file system that provides complete, shared access to both Windows and UNIX clients in the same environment. See also file-placement rule.

global footer
A footer that is applied to all of the tables in the table document. Any other footers that have been defined for any of the tables appear after the global footer.

global gateway
Two or more full talent gateways in multiple languages that have been grouped together to create one candidate experience to search and apply for jobs across multiple languages/countries.

global header
A header that is applied to all of the tables in the table document. Any other headers that have been defined for any of the tables appear after the global header.

global hold reminder
A type of automatic reminder for hold notices only that bundles all of a custodian's ongoing preservation obligations into a single notification. Rather than receive an automatic reminder email for each obligation, custodians receive a single message that tells them to go to the My Holds module and review their obligations. Not all hold notices must use the global hold reminder: for each hold notice, the notice author has the choice of using the global hold reminder, a notice-specific reminder, or none at all.

global identifier
In MO:DCA, an encoded graphic character string that provides a reference name for a document element.

global inactive state
The state of all file systems to which space management has been added when space management is globally deactivated for a client node.

global instance identifier
A globally unique identifier that is generated either by the application or by the emitter and is used as a primary key for event identification.


  1. The general process of worldwide economic, political, technological and social integration.
  2. In computing, the provision of a single software solution that has multicultural support, and a user interface and documentation that is available in one or more languages. See also multicultural support, multilingual computing.

globalization architecture
A software development model for developing globalized products that includes a single executable for all languages, the use of Unicode for handling multilingual data, a locale model, localization packs, input and output of multilingual data, and a globalization programming model.

Globalization Architecture and Technology Team (GATT)
A group of globalization experts who represent the IBM product divisions. The GATT owns and maintains the Globalization Architecture Imperatives (GAI) and also provides implementation guidance to developers.

Globalization Architecture Imperatives (GAI)
The fundamental principles that guide the design and implementation of globalization architecture to support globalization requirements for IBM products.

globalization plan assumption (GPA)
A basic information entry in the GBMS tool that describes the G11N plan for a product.

globalization process
The process of modifying a program to make it globalized. See also globalized program.

globalization programming model
A programming model whereby the layers in the computer system -- platform, operating system, middleware, and application, can reuse the globalization features of the layer below it.

globalization verification test (GVT)
All testing necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software or hardware product will satisfy given requirements for language support, cultural support, and multilingual support and that the product's user interface and messages are translatable. See also translation verification test.

globalized program
A program that is internationalized for multiple languages simultaneously. It uses a single, uniform character encoding (Unicode) in all of its internal processing, and allows for the installation of support for additional locales via localization packs. See also globalization process, internationalized program, localization pack, localized program.

global knowledge base
A database of z/OS product information supplied by product software. It defines what products are installed on a system, or made available to the system to use.

Global License Management
A function that is used to manage and control licenses that are granted through web sites.

Global Location Broker (GLB)
A server that maintains global information about objects on a network or an internet. The Global Location Broker is part of the NCS Location Broker.

Global Location Broker daemon (glbd)
An unattended program that manages the global location broker (GLB) database.

Global Location Number (GLN)
A unique 13-digit number that is used to identify a trade location. The first seven digits represent the company prefix, the next five digits represent the trade location, and the last digit is the check digit.

global lock

  1. A lock that provides concurrency control within and among DB2 subsystems. The scope of the lock is across all DB2 subsystems of a data sharing group.
  2. An IRLM lock that interests two IRLMs; both must coordinate to grant it.

global lock contention
A conflict on locking requests between different members of a data sharing group when those members are trying to serialize shared resources.

global lock management
Lock management that controls access to resources shared among IMS systems participating in block level sharing.

global lock manager (GLM)
A component that runs on a cluster caching facility and coordinates the lock requests made by the local lock manager running on each member. See also local lock manager.

global logical variable
In information analysis, a value that you set to represent a specific piece of data. It is a shared construct that can be used in all data rule definitions.

globally defined object
On z/OS, an object whose definition is stored in the shared repository. The object is available to all queue managers in the queue-sharing group. See also locally defined object.

Globally Distributed, Highly Available (GDHA)

globally RACLISTed profile
An in-storage profile for RACF-defined resources that are shared across a system. See also locally RACLISTed profile.

globally unique identifier (GUID)
An algorithmically determined number that uniquely identifies an entity within a system. See also agent ID, app ID, type 1 GUID, type 3 GUID, Universally Unique Identifier.

Global Mailbox event rule adapter
An adapter that listens to the events generated by the Global Mailbox and accepts the events over WebSphere MQ when the events are available.

Global Mailbox management node
The system that manages Global Mailboxes and Messages.

global main
The global address space that controls job scheduling and device allocation for a complex of JES3 processors. See also local main.

global master retention schedule
A master retention schedule that applies to all countries or regions that do not otherwise declare a country or region master.

Global Mirror

  1. A method of an asynchronous replication that maintains data consistency across multiple volumes within or across multiple systems. Global Mirror is generally used where distances between the source site and target site cause increased latency beyond what the application can accept.
  2. A hardware and software remote-copy service option that provides an asynchronous volume copy across storage subsystems for disaster recovery, device migration, and workload migration.
  3. An optional capability of the remote mirror and copy feature that provides a two-site extended-distance remote copy. Data that is written by the host to the storage unit at the local site is automatically maintained at the remote site. See also Global Copy, Metro Mirror, remote mirror and copy.
  4. An asynchronous copy service that enables host data on a volume to be mirrored over long distances to a volume in a remote location.

global moderator
A Java EE role that can review and manage community content from the global moderation interface.

global mutex
A mutual exclusion lock that is provided by the pthreads library to allow easy serialization to application resources.

global name

  1. In Managed System Services, the name by which an object is known to SNA File Services (SNA/FS). SNA/FS enables objects to be uniquely named in an SNA network with systems of different types.
  2. In COBOL, a name that is declared in only one program but that may be referred to from that program and from any program contained within that program. Condition names, data names, file names, record names, and some special registers may be global names.

global notes architecture (GNA)

global online change
An IMS function that changes resources online for all IMSs in an IMSplex. See also local online change, online change.

global operating mode
An operating mode that determines how deployment requests are created and approved for all managed applications.

global optimization guideline
An optimization guideline that applies to all DML statements for which an optimization profile is in effect. See also optimization guideline.

global optimizer
In a federated system, a feature of the DB2 SQL Compiler that analyzes distributed queries and determines the most efficient way to run them. The global optimizer evaluates queries based on resource cost.

global options
Configuration options defined on the master domain manager using optman. These options apply to all workstations in the Tivoli Workload Scheduler network. See also local options.

global orientation
The direction in which text is stored. It can be right to left (RTL) or left to right (LTR).

global planner
An expert in planning translation projects.

global polling
In Managed System Services, a type of polling used by the topology manager when collecting topology information for all the systems in the network.

global positioning system (GPS)
A worldwide radio-navigation system that is formed from a constellation of satellites and their ground stations. See also accelerometer, geocoding, geolocation, Geospatial Entity Object Code, geotagging, radiolocation, reverse geocoding.

global processor
The processor that controls job scheduling and device allocation for a complex of processors.

Global Process Services (GPS)

Global Product Classification (GPC)
A set of common categories that provides a common language to buyers and sellers for grouping products in the same manner globally.

global project executive (GPE)
IBM Global Services role.

global property
A property template that has not been assigned to a class.

global record

  1. In SQL replication, the row in the register table that defines global replication characteristics for an instance of the Capture program.
  2. An incident or a problem with a root cause that is the cause of many other issues, or that affects many users.

Global Registry
A data pool that serves as the worldwide source for companies to store product data, ensuring that business partners have access to accurate, up-to-date, industry-compliant business information.

global registry
A file created during a root installation of a DB2 product on a UNIX or Linux system. The file contains information such as service records, instance records (instance name, instance path), variable records (variable names, variable values), and DAS information.

global resource
A common SAA Print resource that can be used anywhere in the SAA network.

global resource identifier (GRID)

  1. An identifier that indicates a global resource in the SAA network. This identifier is unique across all systems in the network.
  2. An 8-byte identifier that identifies a coded font resource. A GRID contains the following fields in the order listed: GCSGID of a minimum set of graphic characters required for presentation. It can be a character set that is associated with the code page, or with the font character set, or with both. CPGID of the associated code page. FGID of the associated font character set Font width in 1440ths of an inch.

global resource manager
A component of Tivoli Intelligent Orchestrator that determines optimal resource allocation and maintains a stable application infrastructure.

global resource serialization (GRS)
A component of z/OS that serializes the use of system resources and converts hardware reserves on direct access storage device (DASD) volumes to data set enqueues.

global resource serialization complex
A group of systems that use global resource serialization (GRS) to serialize access to shared resources such as data sets on shared direct access storage device (DASD) volumes.

global retention policy
A retention policy that manages a corporate taxonomy and library of retention, privacy, and discovery laws with appropriate roles and change management processes for field-level authorization.

global rule
A rule specifying the project-wide replacement of a certain type of host input field with a particular widget.

Global Sales School (GSS)
IBM's internationally recognized, certified sales learning program, that helps IBM sellers develop the core and critical capabilities they need to succeed.

global scope

  1. The portion of namespace scope that is not contained in a namespace definition. See also namespace scope.
  2. The portion of a source program that is not contained within a class, function, or namespace definition.

global scratch pool
A group of empty tapes that do not have unique serial numbers and are not known individually to DFSMShsm. The tapes are not associated with a specific device.

global search character
In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a percent sign (%), which represents any single character or an asterisk (*), which represents any character string of any length.

global security
Pertains to all applications running in the environment and determines whether security is used, the type of registry used for authentication, and other values, many of which act as defaults.

global sequence
An XML sequence that contains node references that are potentially on different database partitions.

global server
In the DCE Distributed Time Service (DTS), a server that provides its clock value to courier servers on other cells, or to DTS entities that have failed to obtain the specified number of servers locally.

global service group (GSG)
The collection of all IMS subsystems that can access a particular set of databases. A global service group can span several z/OS systems at more than one geographical location.

global shared resource (GSR)
An indicator of the use of a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) global resource pool. See also local shared resource, shared resource, VSAM record-level sharing.

global snapshot
A snapshot of an entire GPFS file system.

Global Solution Management Center (GSMC)

Global Standards Management Process (GSMP)
A platform that sets and enforces supply chain standards and guidelines, in the worldwide trade industry.

global suppression
A method that uses a strategic segment to specify a list of IDs in a single audience level that are automatically excluded from all segments in a campaign flowchart.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
The dominant 2G cellular network in the world. GSM was succeeded by 3G networks. To consumers, one of the big differences between GSM networks and CDMA networks is the use of SIM cards in GSM networks. See also 2G, code division multiple access, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution, phone locking, Subscriber Identity Module card.

Global Technology Services (GTS)
An IBM organization that offers end-to-end IT consulting and business services supported by a global delivery network. GTS has two lines of business: Infrastructure Services and Technical Support Services (TSS).

global trace
An IBM MQ for z/OS trace option where the trace data comes from the entire IBM MQ for z/OS subsystem.

Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)
A mechanism to cross-reference product identifiers. The GTIN is the identification number for uniquely identifying trade items (products and services) that are sold, delivered, warehoused, and billed throughout the retail and commercial distribution channels.

global training provider (GTP)
An IBM-selected provider that delivers IBM Training to clients.

global transaction

  1. A recoverable unit of work performed by one or more resource managers in a distributed transaction environment and coordinated by an external transaction manager.
  2. A unit of work in a distributed transaction processing environment in which multiple resource managers are required.

global transaction identifier (GTRID)
The part of an event identifier (EID) that uniquely identifies all of the nodes in a distributed transaction.

global transaction management (GTX)
The monitoring of transactions that can include operations on two or more different data sources. This feature enables databases or servers to be returned to a pre-transaction state if an error occurs. Either all databases and servers are updated or none are. The advantage of this strategy is that databases and servers remain synchronized and data remains consistent.

global trap/trace exit
A problem-determination function controlled by the CSFE CICS transaction.

global user exit
A point in a CICS module at which CICS can pass control to a user-written program (known as an exit program), and then resume control when the program has finished. When an exit program is enabled for a particular exit point, the program is called every time the exit point is reached. See also task-related user exit.

global variable

  1. A symbol defined in one program module that is used in other program modules that are independently compiled.
  2. A named entity within query management that can be assigned a value used for communications between an application program and query management. The entity is accessible from both the application program and query management. See also runtime variable.
  3. A variable that is used to hold and manipulate values assigned to it during translation and that is shared across maps and across document translations. One of the three types of variables supported by the Data Interchange Services mapping command language.
  4. A variable used to contain information for the use of actions. The values of global variables can be extracted from a host screen or elsewhere, and can be used in templates, transformations, macros, Integration Objects, or business logic. A global variable can be a single value or an array, and it can be shared with other applications sharing the same session.
  5. A variable or identifier whose scope of reference is all of the modules in a program. See also scope of reference.
  6. A representation of a value that can be accessed and sometimes modified by SQL statements that are running within the same scope. This scope can be either a session or a database, depending on how the global variable is defined. See also built-in global variable, database global variable, session global variable, special register, user-defined global variable, variable.
  7. A variable that is available to all queries. For example, a date range can be defined as a global variable so that it does not have to be re-keyed for multiple queries.

global variable pool
In query management, the set of all user- and query-defined variables associated with a query instance.

global variable table
The JCL variable table that Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS checks for a variable substitution value if no value is found in the specific JCL variable table associated with the operation.

global warming potential (GWP)
A measure of how much a given mass or greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. The GWP value is used to convert N2O and CH4 to a CO2 equivalent.

global work area (GWA)
An area provided by CICS for a user exit program when the user exit program is enabled.

global zone

  1. Logical division of the SMP/E consolidated software inventory (CSI).
  2. A zone that contains a fully functional installation of the Solaris operating system. Global zones control the installation, maintenance, operation, and destruction of non-global zones. See also non-global zone.

See file name substitution.

Globus certificate service
An online service that issues low-quality GSI certificates for people who want to experiment with Grid (or distributed) computing components that require certificates but have no other means to acquire certificates. The Globus certificate service is not a true CA. Certificates from the Globus certificate service are intended solely for experimentation. Use caution when using these certificates, for they are not intended for use in production systems. See also certificate authority.

A unit of information associated with a dictionary entry, such as lemma, part of speech, morphosyntactic category, frequency of usage, or synonym. Glosses can refer to other glosses, because common sets of information are often combined into a single instance of a gloss and then multiply referenced.

See group list table.

glue code
A segment of code that is used to connect two pre-existing pieces of code and retain full functionality. See also API stub.

See Geographic Logical Volume Manager.


  1. An image, usually of a character, in a font. See also character, graphic character.
  2. A graphic symbol whose appearance conveys information, for example, the vertical and horizontal arrows on cursor keys that indicate the directions in which they control cursor movement.
  3. A shape in a font that is used to represent a character code on screen or paper. The most common example of a glyph is a letter, but the symbols and shapes in a dingbats font are also glyphs.
  4. The actual shape (bit pattern, outline) of a character image. For example, italic A and roman A are two different glyphs representing the same underlying character. Strictly speaking, any two images which differ in shape constitute different glyphs. In this usage, glyph is a synonym for character image, or simply image (The Unicode Standard – Version 1.0).

See Generalized Markup Language.

See graduated monthly license charge.

GML delimiter
A special character that denotes the start of GML markup. In the starter set, it is initially a colon (:).

GML end tag delimiter
A special character that denotes the end of GML markup. In the starter set, it is initially a period (.).

GML interpretation
The process of recognizing the start or end of an element (or an attribute label), associating it with an APF, and executing the APF. In SCRIPT/VS, interpretation is performed jointly by SCRIPT/VS and by APFs.

See generalized main scheduling.

See Greenwich mean time.

See global notes architecture.

See GNU Network Object Model Environment.

A recursive acronym that means "GNU's Not UNIX!" It is a freely distributable replacement for UNIX created by the Free Software Foundation project.

GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)
An open source collection of compilers supporting C, C++, Objective-C, Ada, Java, and Fortran.

GNU Debugger (GDB)
An open-source portable debugger supporting Ada, C, C++, and Fortran.

GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME)
A desktop environment that is built on open source ideals that prides itself on being free, user-friendly, widely accessible, standardized, developer-friendly, well-formed and well-supported.


  1. The means by which an engine implements a search algorithm. See also search strategy.
  2. The criteria on which ODM optimizes, either maximizing or minimizing a weighted sum.
  3. In a policy-enabled system, a type of unsolicited decision that defines an objective that a managed resource must meet. A goal consists of a logic expression that defines the constraint and evaluation strategy, which defines when to evaluate the constraint. Based on a goal, an autonomic manager attempts to manage the behavior of a managed resource. In Policy Management for Autonomic Computing, goals are not supported.

goal mode

  1. A mode of processing in which the active service policy determines system resource management.
  2. A workload management mode for an MVS image in a sysplex using an MVS workload management service definition to automatically and dynamically balance its system resources according to the active service policy for the sysplex.

See Graphic Object Content Architecture.

See Generalized Object File Format.

See garment on hanger.

golden attribute
An attribute that is maintained by the Emptoris Strategic Supply Management platform and is synchronized to the integrating applications. Each application decides which golden attribute to replicate.

golden master image
An archive of the file system that is put on managed computer systems. It includes the operating system, software, and data or configuration files.

go live
To become operational.

An asset health condition that indicates that the asset is operating at a high level without problems.

goodness of fit criteria
The criteria that determines the best clustering model for data during the automated cluster model building process.

goods received note (GRN)
The document or process through which delivered services are presented to a customer for payment processing.

In Internet communications, a distributed information service that makes available hierarchical collections of information. A single Gopher client can access information from any accessible Gopher server. The Gopher client provides the user with a menu-driven interface.

gossip protocol
A multicast protocol that sends an IP packet with a message in the payload to a group of nodes so that information regarding the cluster membership can be shared.

Gosstandart (GOST)
The national standards-setting organization of the former USSR. Since the fragmentation of the USSR, this organization has uncertain status. Some of the former republics such as Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia now have their own independent standards-setting organizations.

See Gosstandart.

go-to instruction
A routing instruction that informs the interviewer or respondent which questionnaire item to go to next based on the answer to the current question.

go to production (GTP)
A process in the Contributor Administration Console that takes the development application and creates the live production application.

goto statement
In programming languages, a statement that transfers control to another point in a program.

Gouraud shading
A method of shading polygons smoothly based on the intensities at their vertices. The color is uniformly interpolated along each edge, and then the edge values are uniformly interpolated along each scan line. For realistic shading, colors should be gamma corrected.

The decision-making processes in the administration of an organization. The rights and responsibilities of these processes are typically shared among the organization's participants, especially the management and stakeholders.

governance lifecycle
A lifecycle that represents the states and transitions that can exist in SOA deployment.

governance model
A model that specifies the policies for using and relating assets and asset metadata, such as categories and attributes.

governance policy validator (GPV)
A sample validator that enables the user to control the operations that can be performed on specific entities based on the metadata that is attached to those entities.

governance process
A process that ensures that compliance and operational polices are enforced, and that change occurs in a controlled fashion and with appropriate authority as envisioned by the business design.

governance state
A state defined within the governance lifecycle, for example, "created", "planned", or "specified".

governance web service
A service that retrieves information and runs actions, relating to the governance of objects, from a web service client.

governed collection
Group of objects on which an operation may be performed automatically, as a result of an initial operation.

governed entity
Controls visibility of artifacts as well as controlling who can perform which actions on specific governed entities.


  1. A set of rules to limit user activities, such as the execution of reports, that either take too long or consume too many resources.
  2. See resource limit facility.

See globalization plan assumption.

See Global Product Classification.

See global project executive.

See General Parallel File System.

GPFS cluster
A system of nodes that are defined as being available for use by GPFS file systems. See also cluster, cluster, clustered system.

GPFS cluster data
GPFS configuration data stored on the primary and secondary GPFS cluster data servers.

GPFS node set
A mounted, defined group of GPFS file systems.

GPFS portability layer
The interface module that each installation must build for its specific hardware platform and Linux distribution.

GPFS recovery log
A file that contains a record of metadata activity and that exists for each node of a cluster. In the event of a node failure, the recovery log for the failed node is replayed, restoring the file system to a consistent state and allowing other nodes to continue working.

GPFS snapshot
A point-in-time copy of a file system or file set.


  1. See General Public License.
  2. See Graphics Production Language.

See Graphical Process Modeler.

See guest platform management provider.

See group policy object.

See general purpose register.


  1. See Global Process Services.
  2. See global positioning system.

See generalized path information unit trace.

See governance policy validator.

See Guaranteed Resource Allocation.


  1. A procedure by which a window acts upon a key or button event that occurs for it or any of its descendents. This precludes the necessity of setting up translations for all windows.
  2. The act of selecting keyboard keys, the keyboard, pointer buttons, the pointer, and the server for exclusive use by a client. In general, these facilities are not intended to be used by normal applications, but are intended for various input and window managers to implement various styles of user interfaces. See also active grab, passive grab.

graceful down
See graceful stop.

graceful stop
A function that stops PowerHA SystemMirror cluster services on a cluster node and takes offline any applications that were under the control of PowerHA SystemMirror.

graceful stop with takeover
A function that stops PowerHA SystemMirror cluster services on a cluster node and moves any applications that were under the control of PowerHA SystemMirror to an available backup node.

grace period

  1. The time period during a cluster event when interface reconfiguration might be in progress and networks are not monitored.
  2. A time during which a customer might be entitled to use more than one version of a licensed product on the same machine, without paying two license fees.

A rating that indicates the accuracy of a piece of information or the reliability of an intelligence source.

grading system
A rating scale that is used to classify information in a data store or on a chart. A grading system is a measure of reliability and accuracy.

graduated monthly license charge (GMLC)
A monthly charge for mainframe software that is based on the power of the processor on which the software runs.

In a FlashCopy bitmap, the unit of data represented by a single bit.

grain size
The unit size for allocating space on thin-provisioned volumes, such as 32, 64, 128, and 256 kibibyte. The grain size is defined when a volume is created.


  1. A document type definition (DTD) or schema providing a structured format used for successful processing by the trace service.
  2. A structured collection of words and phrases bound together by rules. A grammar defines the set of all words, phrases and sentences that might be spoken by a caller and are recognized by the engine. A grammar differs from a vocabulary in that it provides rules that govern the order in which words and phrases can be joined together.

grammar mask
A set of values with grammatical and occasionally morphological information about the word. Grammatically ambiguous word forms have multiple grammar masks.

grammar rule
A structure rule in a parser program.

grammatical editor
An editor that modifies the grammar and spelling of educational content.

Grande CICS dynamic storage area (GCDSA)
See Grande dynamic storage area.

Grande dynamic storage area (GDSA)
The dynamic storage area above 2 GB.

To give a privilege or authority to an authorization identifier.

grant functional transmission (GFT)
In MTAM, a control character indicating that the host system gives permission to i5/OS to send data or that i5/OS gives permission to the host system to send data. See also request functional transmission.

grant level
A measure of the rights that a user has to change the security permissions of an item. Grant levels are calculated separately for every user and every item. See also access level, security dimension.

The extent to which a larger entity is subdivided. For example, a meter broken into millimeters has finer granularity than a meter broken into centimeters.


  1. See chart.
  2. A representation of the complete road network being monitored. See also link, node.
  3. The displayed, printed, or plotted output that represents one, two, or three axis variables specified by the user for a collection of data. Examples of graphs are scatterplots, bar charts, and histograms.

graph format
In Performance Tools, a template used to display performance and historical graphs. The graph format consists of such things as titles, axis variables, and the type of graph.


  1. Any raster pattern representation, for example, of a character or a line drawing.
  2. A symbol produced by a process such as handwriting, drawing, or printing.
  3. Image, text, or a combination of both that can be placed in a document. See also coordinate graphic.

Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM)
An IBM computer-graphics system that defines and displays text and graphics for output on a display or printer.

graphical identification and authentication (GINA)
A dynamic link library that provides a user interface that is tightly integrated with authentication factors and provides password resets and second factor bypass options.

graphical interchange format (GIF)
In NetView for AIX, the format that is used for the background pictures of a network topology map.

Graphical Process Modeler (GPM)
A stand-alone graphical interface tool that is used in Sterling B2B Integrator to create and modify business processes. The GPM converts the graphical representation of business processes to well-formed BPML (source code) and saves the effort of writing code.

graphical user interface (GUI)
A computer interface that presents a visual metaphor of a real-world scene, often of a desktop, by combining high-resolution graphics, pointing devices, menu bars and other menus, overlapping windows, icons and the object-action relationship. See also graphical user interface server.

graphical user interface server (GUI server)
A component that serves the web-based graphical user interface to web browsers through HTTP. See also graphical user interface.

graphic character

  1. A DBCS character.
  2. A visual representation of a character, other than a control character, that is normally produced by writing, printing, or displaying. See also character graphic, glyph.
  3. A member of a set of symbols that represent data. Graphic characters can be letters, digits, punctuation marks, or other symbols. See also character graphic.
  4. A graphic symbol, such as a numeric, alphabetic, or special character (see C-S 3-3220-019 Corporate Standard).

graphic character conversion alternative selection number (GCCASN)
A parameter of a function call to a graphic character data conversion process that facilitates selecting a specific conversion method and associated conversion tables from different alternatives.

graphic character conversion selection table (GCCST)
A table used in the graphic character data conversion process to manage the access to the various conversion methods and associated conversion tables under its sphere of control.

graphic character global identifier (GCGID)

  1. An identifier with up to 8 alphanumeric characters that is uniquely assigned to a graphic character in IBM standards. The GCGID specification also provides a short description for each GCGID (see C-H 3-3220-055 Corporate Standard).
  2. A 4- to 8-character alphanumeric identifier assigned to a registered graphic character. Each graphic character that is to be assigned a code point must have a GCGID. Each GCGID is unique.

graphic character modification
A process in which graphic characters are substituted or extended in a previously defined character arrangement. See also graphic character modification module.

graphic character modification module (GRAPHMOD)
A program module that defines a graphic character modification with scan patterns of IBM-supplied character sets, user-defined character sets, or both. See also graphic character modification.

graphic character name
See character identifier.

graphic character pattern
See character raster pattern.

graphic character raster pattern
See character raster pattern.

graphic character set

  1. A set of graphic characters in a code page.
  2. A defined set of graphic characters treated as an entity. No coded representation is assumed.

graphic character set global identifier (GCSGID)

  1. A number between 00001 and 65534 that is assigned to identify a graphic character set. For i5/OS, the graphic character set global identifier is expressed as a 5-digit decimal number. For example, the invariant character set has the GCSGID of 00640.
  2. A unique five-digit decimal number assigned to a graphic character set in IBM standards. The range of GCSGID values is 00001 to 65534 or x’0001’ to x’FFFE’ (see C-S 3-3220-019 Corporate Standard).
  3. A unique graphic character set identifier that can be expressed as either a 2-byte binary value or a 5-digit decimal value.

graphic character-set ID
A 5-digit registered identifier used to specify a graphic character set. The graphic character-set ID is the first part of the QCHRID system value or the CHRID parameter value.

graphic communication server (GCS)
The part of the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility that uses LU 6.2 to transport data between the NetView program and the server workstation and between the server workstation and its client workstations.

graphic data
Data that has an associated coding representation that defines how to interpret each specific pattern of bits that are grouped into one or more 2-byte sequences.

graphic data server (GDS)
The part of the NetView management console that receives network management data from Tivoli NetView for OS/390, maintains this data (except for dynamically created view information), and correlates this data with views.

graphic data type
A character string in which each character is represented by 2 bytes. The character string does not contain shift-in (SI) and shift-out (SO) characters. See also DBCS-only.

graphic difference
A visual difference that does not have an effect on the logic of a model.

graphic element
A geometric object that represents specific data in a visualization. Examples include points, lines, bars, and areas.

graphic key
A key in a keyboard whose primary purpose is the input of a graphic character or of an element of a graphic character. Some of these keys may also have a secondary purpose for input of a control function (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also function key.

graphic monitor
The graphical user interface (GUI) component of the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility.

Graphic Object Content Architecture (GOCA)
An architecture that provides a collection of graphics values and control structures used to interchange and present graphics data.

graphic primitive
See graphics primitive.

graphic push button
A button that uses an image, rather than text, to describe its use.


  1. Pictures and illustrations.
  2. Charts, pictures, illustrations, and tables created from fundamental drawing units such as lines, curves, and polygons.

graphics command set
In IPDS architecture, a collection of commands used to present GOCA data in a page, page segment, or overlay.

graphics context (GC, GContext)
In the Enhanced X-Windows Toolkit, the storage area for various kinds of graphics output, such as foreground pixels, background pixels, line widths, and clipping regions. A graphics context can be used only with drawables that have the same root and the same depth as the graphics context.

graphics data
Data containing lines, arcs, markers, and other constructs that describe a picture.

graphics data file (GDF)
A picture definition in a coded format that is used by the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM) to optionally provide the user with a lower-level program interface than the GDDM application program interface (API).

graphics data format (GDF)
In AFP Utilities, the ability to create an AFP resource, such as an electronic overlay.

graphics data format file (GDF file)
A picture definition in a coded order format used internally by the GDDM function and, optionally, providing the user with a lower-level programming interface than the GDDM application programming interface.

graphic service facility
A GraphicsView/2 facility that logs trace and error data.

graphics field
In the GDDM function, that part of the display or the paper that is used for pictures and graphics text.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)
A file format for storing images. GIF files are common on the World Wide Web because they only contain a maximum of 256 colors and are therefore very small.

Graphics Library (GL)
An application programming interface (API) that supports 3-D graphics.

graphics mode
An alternative display mode for formal modules. The module structure is displayed as a tree and each object in the module is represented as a box showing a selected attribute.

graphics model space
A 2-dimensional conceptual space in which a picture is constructed. All model transforms are completed before a picture is constructed in a graphics model space. See also graphics presentation space.

graphics object
In architecture, an object that contains graphics data.

graphics object area
A rectangular area on a logical page into which a graphics presentation space window is mapped.

graphics presentation space
A two-dimensional conceptual space in which a picture is constructed. In this space graphics drawing orders are defined. The picture can then be mapped onto an output medium. All viewing transforms are completed before the picture is generated for presentation on an output medium. An example of a graphics presentation space is the abstract space containing graphics pictures defined in an IPDS Write Graphics Control command. See also graphics model space.

graphics presentation space window
The portion of a graphics presentation space that can be mapped to a graphics object area on a logical page.

graphics primitive

  1. A basic construct used by an output device to draw a picture; for example, an arc, line, fillet, character string, and marker.
  2. In the GDDM function, a single item of graphics information, such as a line or a string of graphics text.

graphics processor
The processing capability required to interpret a GOCA object, that is, to present the picture represented by the object. It includes the environment interface, which interprets commands and instructions, and the drawing processor, which interprets the drawing orders.

graphics processor unit
A specialized processor designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.

Graphics Production Language (GPL)
A grammar-of-graphics language that defines a visualization specification.

graphics segment
In the GDDM function, a group of graphics primitives (lines, arcs, and text) that are operated as a common set. The graphics primitives inside a graphics segment share characteristics, such as visibility and angle of rotation, but keep their individual characteristics, such as color and line width.

Graphics Support Library (XGSL)
A two-dimensional graphics application programming interface to various output devices.

graphics symbol set
In the GDDM function, an object that can contain either lines or images. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *GSS.

graphics text
In the GDDM function, text displayed by an application program using a graphics symbol set.

graphic string
A sequence of double-byte character set (DBCS) characters.

graphics window
In the GDDM function, the view of the graphics picture that is defined by the range of the world coordinates specified by the user.

graphic symbol
A visual representation of a graphic character, a control function, or a combination of graphic characters and/or control functions (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

graphing tool
A visualization tool, such as IBM ILOG Visualization Software, that provides a graphical display of alerts, entity relationships, and other entity information.

See graphic character modification module.

graph view
A graphical view in the Job Scheduling Console used to modify and maintain job streams in the database and the plan. See also plan.

gratuitous ARP
An ARP reply when there was no ARP request that recommends that all hosts on the network receive the ARP reply and refresh their ARP cache. For IP address takeover via IP aliases to be successful, systems and devices connected to the network must be configured to support gratuitous ARP. See also Address Resolution Protocol, IP address takeover via IP aliases.

In Enhanced X-Windows, the attraction to a location within a window exerted upon the contents of windows or subwindows. Gravity determines how the window ID is resized.

gray level
In the GDDM function, a digitally coded shade of gray that is in a range of 0 through 7.

gray scale

  1. In Enhanced X-Windows, a type of degenerate pseudocolor where the red, green, and blue values in any given color map entry are equal, thus producing shades of gray. The gray values can be changed dynamically.
  2. A scale that indicates the shades of gray between black and white that can be presented on a display device.
  3. In a grayscale adapter, the different levels of intensity corresponding to the shades of gray produced.

gray-scale image
An image that is represented by different gray values that range from white to black.

greatest lower bound (GLB)
On a decision variable, the largest number that is less than the variable. Greatest lower bounds are important in mathematical programming and constraint programming in the context of setting bounds on variables as tightly as possible. See also least upper bound, lower bound.

See group buffer pool recovery pending.

green banking
An approach to banking that endorses environmental reforms by both the bank and its clients. For example, environmental reforms can include the use of eco-efficient office buildings or loans for energy efficient home renovations.

green data center
A data center that uses energy-efficient computer services and is housed in an energy-efficient building. See also data center.

greenhouse gas sink
A physical unit or process that stores greenhouse gasses that typically refers to forests and underground or deep sea reservoirs of CO2.

green-screen application
An application coded for character-based interfaces such as IBM 3270 or 5250 terminals.

Green Sigma (GS)
An IBM initiative that combines the principles of Six Sigma and energy efficiency. See also Six Sigma.

green thread
An end-to-end workflow, based on real-world scenarios and usage, that a customer might follow to successfully accomplish a particular goal or handle a specific situation or event. Green threads are created as part of product planning and design to indicate where the workflow is not optimal, where functions are missing, where products or functions do not integrate well, and where there are market opportunities that are not being addressed.

Greenwich mean time (GMT)
The mean solar time at the meridian of Greenwich, England.

In voice mail, the recording heard by a caller on reaching subscriber's mailbox. See also voice message.

greeting header
In voice mail, a recording made by a subscriber and played to callers either before or instead of a personal greeting.

Gregorian calendar
The calendar widely used in the Western world and that closely approximates the length of a solar year.

A UNIX utility that allows the user to search one or more files for a specific string of text and outputs all the lines that contain the string. The user also has the option to replace the string with another.

See global resource identifier.


  1. A spreadsheet-like presentation of data. Grids allow users to store all campaign- and project-related data within the project.
  2. Two physically separate clusters connected by means of a TCP/IP network.
  3. A tabular form for viewing and entering data.
  4. In Business Graphics Utility and the GDDM function, uniformly spaced horizontal and vertical lines on a chart.
  5. A named set of interconnected replication servers for propagating commands from an authorized server to the rest of the servers in the set.
  6. In AFP Utilities, horizontal and vertical lines printed on an AFP resource, such as an electronic overlay, to help in the design of the AFP resource.

grid computing
The ability, using a set of open standards and protocols, to gain access to applications and data, processing power, storage capacity and a vast array of other computing resources over the Internet. Grid computing uses a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of resources distributed across multiple administrative domains based on their availability, capability, performance, cost, and users' quality-of-service requirements. See also virtualization, virtualized.

grid question
A special categorical question that consists of several subquestions that share a category list. Grid questions often ask respondents to choose a rating on a predefined scale for a number of products in a list.

A mechanical device for holding or advancing paper.

See goods received note.

gross lock
The shared, update, or exclusive mode locks on a table, partition, or table space. See also exclusive lock, shared lock.

gross margin
See gross profit.

gross margin rule
A constraint imposed on the optimization to stay within a particular gross margin range.

gross profit
Revenue minus cost.

Pertaining to an expression that does not contain decision variables, since the variables have no value at their stage of the computation and are subject to almost no restrictions. Breakpoints and slopes in a piecewise linear function must always be ground.

ground truth
The set of vetted data that is used to adapt a Watson system to a particular domain, for example: approved question and answer pairs or annotations of entities and relationships that appear in the domain content. Ground truth data is used to train machine learning models, measure system annotator components and the resulting end-to-end application performance (precision and recall), and calculate headroom to decide where to focus development efforts for improving performance. Accuracy of ground truth is essential since inaccuracies in the ground truth will correlate to inaccuracies in the components that use it. See also answer key, question set.


  1. In B2B Integration role-based security, a set of access permissions for multiple users that can be managed from a central location.
  2. A list of elements with information about how those elements can appear in a message. Groups can be ordered, unordered, or selective.
  3. In EDI, a looping structure that contains related items, which repeat in sequence either until the translation service has processed all the data in the group or it has repeated the loop the maximum number of times allowed.
  4. A logical organization of users whose membership allows them to perform the same activities or provide the same authority to access resources.
  5. A set of elements that is associated with the same category.
  6. A looping structure that contains related records or segments that repeat in sequence until either the data ends or the maximum number of times that the loop is allowed to repeat is exhausted.
  7. A complex data object that consists of components.
  8. A logical container that serves as a mechanism to grant permissions to multiple users.
  9. A logical set of managed objects. Groups can be dynamic, static, or task-based.
  10. A collection of users who can share access authorities for protected resources.
  11. In resource definition online, a collection of related resources. The main purpose of an RDO group is convenience in storing definitions in the CSD.
  12. A collection of organizing computers independent of any resource pool or application tier association. Groups can be static or dynamic.
  13. A named list of users and servers. It can be used in contact lists, access control lists, and so on.
  14. A company type to which subordinate companies are connected; for example, subsidiaries, group companies, group adjustment companies, or legal units.
  15. With respect to partitioned data sets (PDSs), a member and the member's aliases that exist in a PDS or partitioned data set extended (PDSE), or in an unloaded PDSE.
  16. A series of records logically joined together or having the same value for a particular field in all records.
  17. A logical state of a keyboard providing access to a collection of graphic characters or elements of graphic characters. Usually these graphic characters or elements of graphic characters logically belong together and may be arranged on several levels within a group. The input of certain graphic characters, such as accented letters, may require access to more than one group (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also level.
  18. In places, two or more people who are grouped for membership in a place.
  19. In a satellite environment, a collection of satellites that share characteristics such as the database configuration and the application that runs on the satellites.

group address
In communications, a multidestination address associated with one or more stations on a given network. See also individual address.

group adjustment company
A virtual company for system use only.

group aggregate function
A function that provides a summary of a set of rows without preserving any detail of the information. Group aggregates returns a group column and an aggregate value.

group-AUDITOR attribute
The RACF AUDITOR attribute restricted to a specific group to which a user is connected.

group authority

  1. A system-level authority such as OPERATIONS, AUDITOR, or SPECIAL, which is assigned to a user at the group level. See also authority.
  2. Authority to use objects, resources, or functions from a group profile.

group backup
The backup of a group containing a list of files from one or more file space origins.

group buffer pool (GBP)

  1. A group cache structure that is used by a DB2 pureScale environment to cache data and to ensure that all members read the most recently committed version of a page. See also local buffer pool.
  2. A DB2 for z/OS coupling facility cache structure that is used by a data sharing group to cache data and to ensure that the data is consistent for all members. See also cache structure.

group buffer pool duplexing
The ability to write data to two instances of a group buffer pool structure: a primary group buffer pool and a secondary group buffer pool.

group buffer pool recovery pending (GRECP)
Pertaining to the state that exists after the buffer pool for a data sharing group is lost. When a page set is in this state, changes that are recorded in the log must be applied to the affected page set before the page set can be used.

group calendar
A display that shows the events for up to seven users at one time.

Group Control System (GCS)
In OSI Communications Subsystem, a VM operating environment in which the subsystem and Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM) run.

group control system group
A group of virtual machines that share common storage and load the same saved-VM system through a control program (CP) command or directory entry.

group crash recovery
The portion of the group restart process where a specific database is brought back to a transactionally consistent state after a failure in a DB2 pureScale instance. Either the primary and secondary cluster caching facilities both failed, or the primary cluster caching facility failed when the secondary cluster caching facility was not in peer state. See also member crash recovery.

group data area
A data area that is automatically created when an interactive job becomes a group job. This data area is shared by all jobs in the group but cannot be used by jobs outside the group.

group data set
In z/OS, a RACF-protected data set in which either the high-level qualifier of the data set name or the qualifier supplied by an installation exit routine is a RACF group name. See also user data set.

group definition
The application group to which the application description or job description is a member.

group deployment
A type of deployment where multiple actions were deployed to one or more devices.

grouped layout
A layout in which entities are arranged to show groups of interconnected entities. See also layout.

Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM)
A CEPT/CCH standard for mobile telephony.

group ID

  1. A system-generated grouping identifier for ad slots that should appear together.
  2. In the UNIX operating system, an integer that uniquely identifies each group of users to the operating system.
  3. In Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), a string of one to eight characters that identifies a group. The first character must be A through Z, #, $, or @. The rest can be A through Z, #, $, @, or 0 through 9.
  4. In the AIX operating system, a number that corresponds to a specific group name. The group ID can often be substituted in commands that take a group name as a value.

group identification number (GID)
A 4 byte, unsigned integer (GID) that is used to identify a group profile. See also user identification number.

group identifier (GID)

  1. A numeric value associated with a group name that represents a specific group of users.
  2. A number between 0 and 2147483647 that identifies a group of users to z/OS UNIX. The GID is associated with a RACF group name when it is specified in the OMVS segment of the group profile. See also effective group identifier, real group ID.

group indication
In RPG, the printing of control information for only the first record of a group of records containing identical control information.


  1. A characteristic of objects of a certain type on the basis of which they can be divided into sets. See also set.
  2. In reporting, the process of organizing identical values of query items together and only displaying the value once.

grouping profile
A profile in a resource group class.

group item
In COBOL, a named set of consecutive elementary or group items.

group job
One of up to 16 interactive jobs that are associated in a group with the same work station device and user.

group job name
The name that identifies a given job within a group.

group job transfer
An operation performed by the Transfer to Group Job (TFRGRPJOB) command that will either start a new group job or resume an existing group job.

group level
The release level of a data sharing group, which is established when the first member migrates to a new release.

group level control
A level of control that allows the administrator to apply security and resource settings to groups of similar user profiles.

group list
A range of numeric values or sets of string values to be recorded as a single dimension value.

group list print descriptor
A special type of print descriptor used to define print descriptor groups, and the search order used when a print descriptor is referred to.

group list table (GLT)
A CICS table that identifies the library and file names for resource mapping that is to be installed when the control region is started.

group member

  1. A user profile that is a member of a group profile.
  2. The name of an entity that joins an XCF group and communicates with IMS using the OTMA protocol. A member can be either a server (IMS) or a client.

group message queue
A message queue that is associated with a group of jobs. When the message queue is set either to break mode or notify mode in the active group job, the mode is the same for any job in the group that becomes the active job.

group name

  1. The z/OS XCF identifier for a data sharing group.
  2. A name that uniquely identifies a group of users to the system.
  3. A name that uniquely identifies a group, such as a group of users, devices, or objects.

group-OPERATIONS attribute
The RACF OPERATIONS attribute restricted to a specific group to which a user is connected.

group policy object (GPO)
A collection of group policy settings. Group policy objects are the documents created by the group policy snap-in. Group policy objects are stored at the domain level, and they affect users and computers contained in sites, domains, and organizational units.

group polling
A process whereby a single poll is sent to a collection point for a group of stations, inviting a response from any station in the group that has data to send.

group profile
A profile that provides the same authority to a group of users.

group-related user attribute
In RACF, a user attribute assigned at the group level that allows the user to control the resource, group, and user profiles associated with the group and its subgroups. See also user attribute.

group restart

  1. The act of restarting a complete DB2 pureScale instance (cluster caching facilities and members) and performing group crash recovery on each database. See also member restart.
  2. A restart of at least one member of a data sharing group after the loss of either locks or the shared communications area.

group scope
In a DB2 pureScale environment, the scope of a command that affects all members of a data sharing group.

group select
A function that, if activated, will change the keyboard state to produce characters from a different group (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

group selection
The selection of a sample set of rows to extract from a start table. The user can specify a maximum number of rows for a number of unique values based on a selected column in the start table.

group services
A subsystem that provides client subsystems, such as Resource Monitoring and Control, with a distributed coordination and synchronization service. Each client subsystem forms one or more groups by having its processes (group services clients, such as the RMC daemon on each node) connect to the group services subsystem and use the various group services interfaces.

group-SPECIAL attribute
The RACF SPECIAL attribute restricted to a specific group to which a user is connected.

group terminal option
In RACF, a function that allows users within a group to log on only from those terminals that they have been specifically authorized to use.

group widget
A widget that acts as a container for several widgets.

group window
In System i Access for Windows, a window that contains one or more icons that represent applications, functions, or documents.

See global resource serialization.

GRS complex (GRSplex)
One or more z/OS images that share a common global resource serialization (GRS) policy in either a ring or star configuration.

See GRS complex.

See Green Sigma.

See generalized sequential access method.

See generalized sequential access method program communication block.

See global service group.


  1. See Groupe Spécial Mobile.
  2. See Global System for Mobile Communications.

See Global Solution Management Center.

See Global Standards Management Process.

See global shared resource.

See Global Sales School.


  1. See Generic Security Service API.
  2. See Generic Security Services application programming interface.

See generalized trace facility.

See Global Trade Item Number.

See general topology manager.


  1. See global training provider.
  2. See go to production.

See global transaction identifier.

See Global Technology Services.

See global transaction management.

guaranteed print labeling
A method of print labeling that ensures the integrity of the identification label by preventing the user from changing the label. If attempts are made to override print labeling, printing is stopped, and an audit record is written. See also non-guaranteed print labeling.

Guaranteed Resource Allocation (GRA)
A resource allocation policy that limits users or groups to use a percentage of the system resources. When there is contention for resources, the system uses the GRA settings to enforce resource ceilings and to allocate the system resources among the groups using the system.

guaranteed service
A type of service class that ensures bandwidth availability and provides information on queuing delays. Guaranteed service is the most reliable of the service classes. It is commonly used for applications that cannot tolerate network delays or performance variations. For example, applications such as Internet Protocol (IP) telephony and other real-time applications have specific timing needs that require guaranteed service.

guaranteed space
A storage class attribute indicating that space is to be allocated when a data set is created. If space to satisfy the allocation is not available on the user-specified volumes, the allocation fails.

guardband method
A method that calculates the reliability of the calibration of an asset to ensure that the asset meets a specified level of quality.

guard bar
In bar codes, the bar at either end or at the center of an EAN, JAN, or UPC symbol, that provides a reference point for scanning.


  1. An account that provides read-only access. To log on, the account requires credentials.
  2. An optional account for anonymous logons.
  3. An operating system that runs in a virtual machine managed by the z/VM Control Program (CP ).

Guest LAN
A virtual local area network (LAN) segment that is emulated by the z/VM Control Program (CP). A Guest LAN can be shared by guest virtual machines on the same z/VM system.

guest login
An access level that gives users access to some applications without requiring a username or password.

guest member
A member that is started on an active host other than its home host for the purpose of restart light. See also member, resident member, restart light.

guest partition
A secondary partition that runs an operating system other than i5/OS. The guest partition requires another partition to host it. The purpose of the hosting partition is to supply paths from virtual I/O in the guest partition's operating system to real I/O hardware drivers in the hosting partition.

guest platform management provider (GPMP)
An optional suite of applications that is installed in specific z/OS, Linux, and AIX operating system images to support platform management functions. For example, the guest platform management provider collects and aggregates performance data for virtual servers and workloads.

guest virtual machine (GVM)
In z/VM, the functional equivalent of a System z9 or zSeries system, including the virtual processors, virtual storage, virtual devices, and virtual channel subsystem allocated to a single user. Each guest virtual machine can be controlled by an operating system, such as CMS, z/VSE, z/OS, or Linux.

See graphical user interface.

GUI Builder
Programming software that allows the user to visually create and edit a graphical user interface.

See globally unique identifier.

guided node discovery
In Sterling Control Center, a feature that locates other Sterling Connect:Direct servers that communicate with the Sterling Connect:Direct server. See also network map.

guided sell metaphor
A metaphor that presents customers with a series of multiple-choice questions, where each answer determines the next question and eventually refines the search to a smaller list of products. The guided sell metaphor is intended for customers who are not sure where to start.

guideline value
In capacity planning, a value used as a general guide for optimal resource utilization. If resource utilization is above the guideline value, the resource may be approaching a problem area or a threshold value. Guideline values are also available for the rate of synchronous reads in the machine pool and for the sum of all pools. See also threshold value.

GUI designer
The VRPG tool suite that allows the user to create interfaces by dragging and dropping controls from the parts palette to the design window.

A community of interest that spans across a tribe. Members join the guild in order to share their knowledge of tools, code, and best practices. Guilds are similar to chapters but are not limited to people with the same responsibilities within a tribe. For example, the web technology guild could include some testers, some web developers and some UI designers within the tribe. See also chapter, squad, tribe.

GUI server
See graphical user interface server.

See General Use Programming Interface.

In multicolumn text formatting, the space between columns.

See guest virtual machine.

See globalization verification test.

See global work area.

See global warming potential.

GX adapter
An I/O hub that connects I/O adapters to the processor and to memory in the system.