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This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


See fabric port.

A complex network of hubs, switches, adapter endpoints, and connecting cables that support a communication protocol between devices. For example, Fibre Channel uses a fabric to connect devices. See also hardware zoning.

fabricated statistics
Statistics that are created or derived instead of collected by using the RUNSTATS command. For example, the number of rows in a table can be derived from the number of pages, the page size, and the average row width in the table. Fabricated statistics are used during query compilation.

fabric login (FLOGI)
The process by which a device gains access to the fabric. See also port login.

fabric loop port (FL_port)
A loop-capable fabric port that is used to connect node loop ports (NL_ports) to the switch in a loop configuration. See also fabric port, Fx_port.

fabric manager
Software that initializes and monitors communications network components.

fabric name
The unique identifier assigned to a fabric and communicated during login and port discovery.

fabric port (F_port)
An access point that is part of a Fibre Channel fabric. An F_port on a Fibre Channel fabric connects to a node's node port (N_port). See also fabric loop port, Fx_port.

Fabric Watch
A feature that runs on the Fabric Operating System (OS) and allows monitoring and configuration of fabric and switch elements.

A package within a subsystem that organizes and exports all information needed by the clients of the subsystem. Included in this package are interfaces (where the interfaces are unique to the subsystem), realization relationships to interfaces outside the subsystem, and any documentation needed by clients of the subsystem to use the subsystem.

An open source XHTML web framework and view handler technology for the JavaServer Faces 2 (JSF).

face match
A stand-alone module that matches available mug shots to a probe image.

Faces component
One of a collection of user interface components (such as input fields) and data components (representing data such as records in a database) that can be dragged to a Faces JSP file and then bound to each other to build a dynamic web project. See also JavaServer Faces.

Faces JSP file
A file that represents a page in a dynamic web project and contains JavaServer Faces UI and data components. See also JavaServer Faces.


  1. A clearly defined property of a subject. Facets for a given subject are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Faceted classification schemes differ from hierarchical categorization schemes in that more than one facet can be used to find items of interest. See also project facet.
  2. A faceted classification system allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways, rather than in a single, predetermined, taxonomic order. Each facet typically corresponds to the possible values of a property common to a set of objects. Catalog entries must contain multiple facets to be effective in a storefront.
  3. An XML entity that restricts XML data types.
  4. A function that groups similar items and attributes together in the left sidebar of starter stores to target meaningful product results.

Pertaining to a navigation technique for accessing product information represented using a faceted classification. This technique allows customers to explore by filtering information.

faceted browsing
A process of browsing information by filtering a set of topics by progressively selecting from only valid values of a faceted classification system, which is a predefined collection of facets.

faceted navigation
A process of browsing information by filtering a set of topics by progressively selecting from only valid values of a faceted classification system, which is a predefined collection of facets.

facilities extension
In the X.25 API, an extension to the optional facilities field in a packet that allows further, non-CCITT-specified, optional facility information to be added.

facilities field
In an X.25 packet switching data network, an optional field used by the data terminal equipment (DTE) to convey information about the call to the network.


  1. A service provided by an operating system for a particular purpose; for example, the checkpoint/restart facility.
  2. A commercial lending agreement between the financial institution and a customer (borrower). It has a type that denotes the characteristics (such as revolving, term, on balance / off balance) and purpose (such as working capital, investment, trade finance).

The number of items on a shelf that are facing the customer. Facing provides a measure of store space allocated to a single product.

facing optimization
A process that is used to determine the most effective product facing.

See fax.

facsimile machine (fax machine)
A functional unit that converts images to signals for transmission over a telephone system or that converts received signals back to images.


  1. The combination of an event plus any related report groups. A fact is recorded in the request of the affected hit for search purposes and in the database for reporting.
  2. A specific piece of information that is described by a concept in XBRL. See also concept, measure.
  3. See measure.
  4. An attribute in the input XML file of an API or in the agent criteria that determines the colony on which the API or agent is run.

fact build
A build that delivers fact data and dimension data so the user can construct a private data mart from within a single build. See also build.

fact delivery
An object in a fact build that delivers fact data.

fact delivery module
A delivery module used to deliver fact data to a target data mart. See also delivery module.


  1. In mathematics, to determine the prime numbers to multiply in order to produce the original number.
  2. To determine the most basic relevant elements of a problem. For example, a typical activity in designing the model of a problem is to factor the problem, and then to remove or reduce the repeated factors to eliminate symmetries or redundance in the model.
  3. In a multiplication operation, any of the numbers or quantities that are the operands.(I) (A)
  4. In RPG, an entry (for example, a field name, file name, literal, or data structure) that identifies the data to be used in an operation.
  5. A constant numerical value that can be assigned to an element for use in statistical calculations.
  6. A dimensionless scalar value used to form a product with another value. Factors can also be expressed as percentages.

factor analysis
A method of data reduction that summarizes the common variance in a large number of related fields. This method works by using a small number of derived fields that capture the structure in the original fields. See also principal components analysis.

factored cost
A method that shippers can use to rank carriers based on performance. The shipper can rank a carrier based on service quality.

In architecture, the movement of a parameter value from one state to a higher-level state. This permits the parameter value to apply to all of the lower-level states unless specifically overridden at the lower level.

factor weight
A weight that is assigned to various performance factors when creating a scenario for bid analysis.

In object-oriented programming, a class that is used to create instances of another class. A factory is used to isolate the creation of objects of a particular class into one place so that new functions can be provided without widespread code changes.

factory carton code
A code that identifies the carton in which a SKU is received and stored in bulk storage.

factory class
The main entry point to call REST API for a particular resource. If a resource has only get and query actions available, the factory class exposes only these methods.

factory method
See class method.

fact search
A search that given a fact pattern, returns facts extracted from a collection of documents by a set of analysis engines that match the fact pattern.

fact table

  1. The internal network of the Netezza appliance. that connects the host systems with the SPUs and other hardware components within the appliance.
  2. A relational table that contains facts, such as units sold or cost of goods, and foreign keys that link the fact table to each dimension table. See also star join.
  3. A table that consists of the measurements, metrics, or facts of a business process. Fact tables store the data used to calculate the metrics in metric reports.
  4. A database table, commonly located at the center of a star schema surrounded by dimension tables, that contains measures of a business process, and foreign keys from the dimension tables.

See file access definition.

fade in
To gradually increase the volume of sounds, such as background music.

fade out
To gradually decrease the volume of sounds, such as background music.

A test is deemed to fail if its actual result does not match its expected result. (ISTQB)


  1. The restoration of an appliance to its initial configuration after detection and repair of a failed network or component.
  2. In high availability disaster recovery, the process of restarting the original primary system and returning it to its status of primary system after a failover has occurred.
  3. Cluster recovery from failover, following repair. See also failover.

failed event
An object that records the source, destination, description, and time of failure between two service connector components.

failed member state
A state of a member of a data sharing group in which the member's task, address space, or z/OS system terminates before the state changes from active to quiesced.

An automatic operation that switches to a redundant or standby system or node in the event of a software, hardware, or network interruption. See also failback.

failover system
A standby database, server, or network that serves as a backup if the primary system fails or is temporarily shut down for servicing.

failsoft processing
Processing that occurs when no data sets in the primary RACF database are available RACF cannot make decisions to grant or deny access. The operator is prompted frequently to grant or deny access to data sets.


  1. An uncorrected hardware error. Failures are either recoverable or unrecoverable by the software or the operator. See also error.
  2. An individual instance of a transaction that did not complete correctly.
  3. The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements. A failure is characterized by the observable symptoms of one or more defects that have a root cause in one or more faults.

failure class
The highest level of a failure hierarchy.

failure group
A collection of disks that share common access paths or adapter connection, and could all become unavailable through a single hardware failure. See also disk descriptor.

failure hierarchy
A tree structure that shows relationships between identified problems, causes, and remedies for asset and operating location failures. Failure hierarchies are built from the top level, the failure class, down.

An asset health condition that indicates that the asset is in a state of minimum operability and can complete its basic functions.

A policy in which tasks, threads, or processes are guaranteed eventual access to a resource for which they are competing. For example, if multiple threads are simultaneously seeking a lock, no set of circumstances can cause any thread to wait indefinitely for access to the lock.

See freight all kinds.


  1. The process of a joining or reintegrating node acquiring resources that were previously owned by another node. A fallback policy can be specified for a resource group. See also fallover, resource group policies, startup.
  2. The process of automatically switching back to the original database server after failure caused a switch to an alternative database server.
  3. The process of returning to a previous release of a software program after attempting or completing migration to a current release.

fallback language
The language in which to display the user interface if the preferred language specified by the browser is not included in the language elements list.

fallback recommendation
A recommendation that is used when there is limited behavior data history for a product, when strict business rules eliminate the requested number of final recommendations, or when recommendations are not available for the specified target.

The process of an active node acquiring resources that were previously owned by another node to maintain availability of those resources. A fallover policy can be specified for a resource group. See also fallback, resource group policies, startup.

false global lock contention
A contention indication from the coupling facility that occurs when multiple lock names are hashed to the same indicator and when no real contention exists.

false negative

  1. A condition when using optimistic locking whereby a row that was not updated since it was selected cannot be updated without first being selected again. Optimistic locking support does not allow a false positive to happen, but a false negative might happen. See also false positive.
  2. An answer or annotation that is correct, but was predicted to be incorrect.

false positive

  1. An event or flow that the user can decide should not create an offense, or an offense that the user decides is not a security incident.
  2. A condition when using optimistic locking whereby a row that was updated since it was selected is updated without first being selected again. Optimistic locking support does not allow a false positive to happen, but a false negative might happen. See also false negative.
  3. An answer or annotation that is incorrect, but was predicted to be correct.
  4. A test result classed as positive (indicating that the site is vulnerable to attack), that the user decides is in fact negative (not a vulnerability).

false positive exception rule
A rule specific to low-risk vulnerabilities that minimizes the volume of vulnerabilities that are managed.

An Ada-language library unit together with its body and subunits (if any). Not all potential family members need be present; a library unit may have a missing optional body, and a main program procedure may have only an implicit specification. The family of a secondary unit is that unit together with any subunits.

family name
A surname that identifies the family that a person belongs to. See also surname.

Pertaining to continuous forms that are alternately folded at regular intervals, usually on a perforation.


  1. A single output that becomes input to multiple branches.
  2. In communications, the process of creating copies of a distribution to be delivered locally or to be sent through the network.
  3. The number of systems or processors that are to receive software updates or communications simultaneously.

fan set
A direct physical access path to data, which is provided by an index, hash, or link; a fan set is the means by which DB2 supports the ordering of data.

fan unit
See power supply unit.

See Formats and Protocols.

far-end code violation
In Performance Tools, an unintended line code violation detected by the network termination 1 (NT1), and counted by the terminal equipment (TE), for frames transmitted to the NT1 on the interface for the T reference point in the integrated services digital network (ISDN). The NT1 reports a violation to the TE through the maintenance channel S1.

farm node
A networked server that is housed in a server farm.

A numeric index that provides an estimate of the virtual distance between OUs which have the same entitlement/candidate role, for example the distance between OUs in which different registered users are aggregated to the same entitlement/candidate role.

See Fast and Secure Protocol.

Fast and Secure Protocol (FASP)
A UDP-based transport layer protocol that eliminates the fundamental shortcomings of conventional, TCP-based file transfer technologies such as FTP and HTTP.

See Fast Common Gateway Interface Protocol.

Fast Common Gateway Interface Protocol (FastCGI)
An extension of the Common Gateway Interface that improves performance and allows for greater scalability.

fast communication manager (FCM)
A group of functions that provides internodal communication support.

Fast Database Recovery region (FDBR region)
A separate IMS control region that monitors IMS, detects failure, and recovers any database resources that are locked by the failed IMS, making them available for other IMSs.

fast disk takeover
A method of taking over enhanced concurrent volume groups in which the application skips the extra processing needed to break the disk reserves, or updates and synchronizes the LVM information by running lazy update. Fast disk takeover is used for enhanced concurrent volume groups that are included in nonconcurrent resource groups. See also disk takeover, enhanced concurrent mode.

Fast Etherchannel (FEC)
A proprietary technology developed by Cisco that creates a team of two to four 10/100 Ethernet adapters or ports to increase transmission and reception throughput. Adapter fault tolerance is also supported by this technology.

Fast Ethernet
An Ethernet standard that provides a data rate of 100 Mbps. See also asynchronous transfer mode, OSA-Express.

fast formula
A formula that can be used to calculate simplified, static values and store them on calculation accounts.

fast organic display type
A display type where objects are displayed in the most efficient pattern by minimizing object crossing, maintaining uniform edge length, keeping uniform object distribution, and placing objects away from edges.

fast packet switching
Communications protocols, such as frame relay and cell relay, that specify the processing of lower-layer data only for the transmission of data packets across a network.

Fast Path
IMS functions for applications that require good response characteristics and that may have large transaction volumes. Programs have rapid access to main-storage databases (to the field level), and to direct-access data entry databases. Message processing is grouped for load balancing and synchronized for database integrity and recovery. See also data entry database, load balancing group, main storage database.

fast path
A method of doing something more directly and quickly than the usual way. For example, pressing a function key provides a fast path to a command.

Fast Path database
A type of database that is designed to provide high data availability and fast processing for IMS applications.

Fast Path dependent region
See IMS Fast Path region.

Fast Path exclusive transaction
A transaction type that runs exclusively in an IMS Fast Path region (IFP). See also Fast Path potential transaction.

Fastpath mode
A rule execution mode that uses an optimized sequential algorithm.

Fast Path potential transaction
A transaction type that can run in either a full-function region such as a message processing program (MPP), or in an IMS Fast Path region (IFP). See also Fast Path exclusive transaction.

fast recovery
See fast disk takeover.

fast replication
The functions that create an instant data copy. The IBM System Storage DS8000 FlashCopy function is an example of fast replication.

fast replication image copy
A type of image copy that is created by the DFSMS fast replication function.

fast response cache accelerator (FRCA)
A cache that resides in the kernel on AIX and Windows platforms that provides support for caching on multiple web servers and on servers with multiple IP addresses.

fast reverse restore
A FlashCopy option that reverses a FlashCopy relationship without waiting for the completion of the background copy of the previous FlashCopy.

An option with the NCP/EP definition facility (NDF) that indicates that only the syntax is to be checked in generation definition statements.

fast select
In X.25 communications, an optional facility that allows inclusion of data in call-request and clear-request packets.

fast subsequent migration
The function that reconnects a data set to the same ML2 tape volume from which it was recalled instead of migrating the data set again. The data set must satisfy a set of requirements when recalled and when a fast subsequent migration reconnect is attempted.

fast subsequent migration reconnect
The action that is attempted when fast subsequent migration is performed on a recalled data set.

fast user switching
A feature that allows users to switch between user accounts on a single workstation without quitting and logging out of applications.

fast view
In Eclipse, a view that is opened and closed by clicking a button on the shortcut bar.

fast write
A write operation at cache speed that does not require immediate transfer of data to a disk drive. The subsystem writes the data directly to cache, to nonvolatile storage, or to both. The data is then available for destaging. A fast-write operation reduces the time an application must wait for the I/O operation to complete.

See file allocation table.

fatigue rating
A value that is based on a formula that is applied to calculate stress and load on physical materials.


  1. In OSI, an event that triggers an unwanted transition in the condition of a resource.
  2. A condition that causes a component in an implementation model to fail. A fault is the root cause of one or more defects identified by observing one or more failures.

fault domain
In the IBM Token-Ring Network problem determination, the portion of a ring that is involved with an indicated error.

fault management
The process of detecting and managing abnormal network or system behavior.

fault message
An object that contains status information and details about a problem with a message.

fault monitor
A daemon process that monitors DB2 instances and can restart stopped instances.

fault tolerance
The ability of a system to continue to operate effectively after the failure of a component part. See also high availability.

fault-tolerant agent (FTA)
An installed agent component in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that can resolve local dependencies and launch its jobs in the absence of a domain manager. See also backup domain manager, backup master domain manager.

fault-tolerant workstation
A computer workstation configured to schedule jobs on a distributed computer. A fault-tolerant workstation is the logical representation in the Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS plan. See also distributed agent.


  1. A project, folder, or module that is used frequently and stored in a specific list.
  2. A library item that a user has marked for easy access.
  3. To identify something as being particularly interesting. For example, a tweet or a status update.


  1. To transmit an image, using a telephone system and facsimile machines.
  2. A service using telephone lines for transmission of text, graphics and still images.
  3. The printed copy received from a facsimile machine.

fax machine
See facsimile machine.

See fixed block.

See fixed-block architecture.

FBA disk device
See fixed-block architecture disk device.

See feedback code.

See Fibre Channel.

The Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) level that encompasses the mapping of upper layer protocols (ULPs) such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) to lower protocol layers (FC-0 through FC-3). For example, the mapping of SCSI commands is an FC-4 ULP that defines the control interface between computers and storage.

See Free Carrier.

See Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop.


  1. See forms control buffer.
  2. See file control block.

See Federal Communications Commission.

See first-character forms control.

See Fibre Channel over IP.

See fast communication manager.

See file compare and merge utility.

See Fibre Channel over Ethernet.

See frequency coupler.

See Fibre Channel Protocol.


  1. See frame check sequence.
  2. See function control sequence.


  1. See function control table.
  2. See forms control table.
  3. See file control table.


  1. See function control vector.
  2. See FICON converter.

See Formatted Data Object Content Architecture.

FDBR region
See Fast Database Recovery region.

See Fiber Distributed Data Interface.

See Feature Download Management.

See formatted data object.

See field developed product.

See field definition table.

See full-duplex.

In operations research, pertaining to a solution that represents an assignment of values to decision variables that satisfies the constraints of the problem, even if it does not satisfy the objective function of the problem. A feasible solution is thus a state in which values of decision variables respect all the constraints, but for which optimality is not necessarily satisfied. See also objective function, optimal solution, solution.

FeasOpt algorithm
An algorithm with facilities to help repair an infeasible model using bound and constraint relaxations determined by user preferences.


  1. A physical object, such as a guardrail or mile marker, that is associated with one or more linear assets, but which does not have a unique ID.
  2. The visual content information that is stored in the image search server. Also, the visual traits that image search applications use to determine matches. The four QBIC features are average color, histogram color, positional color, and texture.
  3. Part of a product that is either included with the product or can be ordered separately.
  4. A manifest file and a collection of OSGI bundles that correspond to a solution project.
  5. A data member or attribute of a type.
  6. In Eclipse, a JAR file that is packaged in a form that the update manager accepts and uses to update the platform. Features have a manifest that provides basic information about the content of the feature, which can include plug-ins, fragments and other files.

feature activation code
See license key.

feature attribute
An attribute that specifies how the information about products is to be displayed to customers. For example, features with numerical descriptions can be displayed to a customer in either ascending or descending order.

feature code
A code used by IBM to process hardware and software orders.

Feature Download Management (FDM)
An ADSI protocol that enables a number of alternative key and screen overlays to be stored in an ADSI telephone and to be selected by predetermined events at the telephone.

feature extraction
The extraction of complex concepts from various unstructured or semistructured sources such as blogs or text documents.

feature group
A group of functions that are installed at the user's option.

feature in service (FIS)
A feature that is added to a product via the service stream instead of the usual release stream.

feature path
A path that is used to access the value of a feature in a Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) feature structure.

feature phone
A mobile phone that is not as fully featured as a smartphone. For example, a feature phone might function as an MP3 player and a camera, but not a GPS, gaming platform, and so on.

feature structure
The underlying data structure that represents the result of text analysis. A feature structure is an attribute-value structure. Each feature structure is of a type, and every type has a specified set of valid features or attributes, much like a Java class.

feature-unique Licensed Internal Code (FULIC)
The Licensed Internal Code shipped with the processor feature that provides support for that feature. FULIC is a complex instruction set computer (CISC)-only function.

See Fast Etherchannel.

See fetch control block.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The standard body in the United States that is responsible for communications.

Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)
A standard produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology when national and international standards are nonexistent or inadequate to satisfy the U.S. government requirements. See also National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Federal Real Property Profile (FRPP)
An online system that houses the federal real property inventory data.

To merge two or more entities. For example, a company's registered domain could be federated with an IBMid.

federated attribute
An Information Integrator for Content metadata category that is mapped to native attributes in one or more content servers.

federated collection
A grouping of objects that results from a federated search. See also federated search.

federated content
Content that is designed to be self-managing to support reporting and rights management in a peer-to-peer network.

federated database
In a federated system, the database that is within the federated server. Users and applications interface with the federated database. To these clients, the data sources and the federated database seem to be a single database.

federated data store
Virtual representation of any number of specific content servers, such as Content Manager.

federated deployment dashboard
A customizable window that provides status data for multiple releases.

federated document
A document that specifies information about the source servers for the documents that are available to users.

federated entity
An Information Integrator for Content metadata object that is comprised of federated attributes and optionally associated with one or more federated text indexes.

federated partner
A partner in a federation. See also federation.

federated procedure
A federated database object that references a procedure on a data source.

federated search

  1. A search capability that enables searches across multiple search services and returns a consolidated list of search results.
  2. A query issued from Information Integrator for Content that simultaneously searches for data in one or more content servers, which can be heterogeneous. See also federated collection.

federated server
The DB2 server in a federated system. Existing DB2 instances can be used as a federated server, or new instances can be created specifically for the federated system.

federated system
A distributed database management system (DBMS) that consists of a DB2 instance that operates as a server, a database that serves as the federated database, one or more data sources, and clients (users and applications) who access the database and data sources. A federated system can be used to query and manipulate data that is located on other data servers.

federated text index
An Information Integrator for Content metadata object that is mapped to one or more native text indexes in one or more content servers.


  1. A relationship in which the participating entities agree to use the same technical standard, enabling access to each other's data and resources. See also federated partner.
  2. The process by which a node agent application is created on a WebSphere Application Server node and then registered with the deployment manager for a particular cell. A federated node is always administered through its deployment manager.
  3. The process of combining naming systems so that the aggregate system can process composite names that span the naming systems.

federation domain
A domain that determines the scope over which the federated REST API provides federation support for business processes and human tasks. A federation domain spans one or many BPM environments. See also domain.


  1. A batch of approved invoices that are to be processed for payment.
  2. A piece of code that configures an external event source to fire trigger events. See also action.
  3. A data format that contains periodically updated content that is available to multiple users, applications, or both. See also Atom, RDF Site Summary, Really Simple Syndication, Rich Site Summary.

Communication from a consumer or target audience member relaying how delivered products, services, and messages compare with consumer expectations.

feedback code (fc)
A condition token value. If you specify fc in a call, a condition token indicating whether the service was completed successfully is returned to the calling routine

feedback information
In VTAM, information that is placed in certain RPL fields when an RPL-based macroinstruction is completed.

feedback limit
A numeric value that defines the limits within which actual data, collected during tracking, is fed back and used by Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS.

feeder statement
A series of lines of code which causes placeholder values to be stored in rules-calculated cells so that the cells are not skipped during calculations.

feed reader
An application that automatically delivers summaries and details about updates from a website to which a user has subscribed.

feed subscription
A way for IBM Connections community members to receive automatic updates about application and user data that they might want to monitor without the need to check each application for updates. Members can subscribe to feeds for pages, comments, versions, attachments, members, and lists.

See first-expired first-out.

See form environment group.

A priority level that a job must exceed before it can run on a workstation.

Pertaining to a type, or characteristic, of a procedure, user-defined function, or federated wrapper that is defined to run in a separate process from the database manager. When a fenced object runs in fenced mode, the database manager is protected from modifications by the object. See also not fenced, trusted.

fenced mode
A safety feature that provides a separate process environment for user-defined objects.

A method that forces a Netezza host out of the cluster after Heartbeat detects problems on that host which would prevent normal operation. In the Netezza environment, fencing typically causes a forced powercycle to stop the problematic host and thus force a failover of the NPS resource group to the standby host.

See front-end processor.

See front-end programming interface.

FEPI pool
In the CICS Front End Programming Interface (FEPI), a collection of nodes and targets.


  1. To retrieve data from a database.
  2. An SQL action that positions a cursor on the next row of its result table and assigns the values of that row to host variables.
  3. A processing action that uses a user agent to retrieve a file from a remote location.
  4. The dynamic load of a PL/I procedure.
  5. In Git, to retrieve changes from a repository without merging them.
  6. The process of retrieving rows from the database or a file to create a data object.

fetch buffer
A buffer in the application process that the database server uses to send fetched row data (except TEXT and BYTE data) to the application.

fetch control block (FECB)
An executable dynamic stub that is created by a fetch call. The stub transfers control to the true entry point of the module specified in the fetch call. The stub also switches the writable static environment, thereby giving each instance of the fetched routine its own global data.

fetchless instantiation
The use of a factory method that instantiates an object using a name or a path and does not make a round trip to the server.

fetch orientation
The specification of the placement of the cursor as part of a FETCH statement, for example, BEFORE or AFTER. See also scrollability.

fetch overflow
In RPG, a routine that allows the user to change the basic RPG overflow logic to prevent printing over the perforation and to allow the user to use as much of the page as possible.

fetch protection
In the operating systems for IBM System z servers (such as the z/OS operating system), the process of preventing unauthorized read access to storage. Any program can read data in storage that has no fetch protection. A program can read data in fetch-protected storage only if the program status word (PSW) key matches the storage key of the storage area or is 0.

fetch set
A set of rows retrieved from the database for each table or view in the table editor.

See first-failure data capture.

See First Failure Support Technology.

FFST file
See First Failure Support Technology file.

See final-form text.

See font typeface global identifier.

See frame handler.

See frame handler subport.

See file information block.

See optical fiber.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for a 100 Mbps LAN using fiber optic cables.

fiber optic
Describing a transmission medium composed of a glass fiber light path surrounded by a cladding material that confines the signal to the light path.

fiber optic cable
A fiber or bundle of fibers in a structure built to meet optic, mechanical, and environmental specifications.

fiber optic network
A network based on the technology and standards that define data transmission using cables of glass or plastic fibers carrying light. The advantages of a fiber optic network are higher transmission speeds, greater carrying capacity, lower error rates, and lighter, more compact cables that are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference.

fiber optics
The technology of guiding optical power (or light) through thin, transparent strands (or fibers) that are made of glass, fused silica, or plastic.

fiber transport system (FTS)
A structured service that provides comprehensive connectivity planning, as well as onsite consultation, installation, and integration of fiber optic cabling infrastructure for data centers.

Fibre Channel (FC)
A technology for transmitting data between computer devices. It is especially suited for attaching computer servers to shared storage devices and for interconnecting storage controllers and drives. See also Installable File System, zoning.

Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
An implementation of the Fibre Channel standards that uses a ring topology for the communication fabric; refer to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) INCITS 272-1996, (R2001). In this topology, two or more Fibre Channel end points are interconnected through a looped interface.

Fibre Channel connection (FICON)
A Fibre Channel communication protocol designed for IBM mainframe computers and peripherals. See also FICON bridge.

Fibre Channel extender
A device used to extend a Fibre Channel link over a greater distance than is supported by the standard, usually a number of miles or kilometers. Devices must be deployed in pairs at each end of a link.

Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)
A protocol to route FC packets over Ethernet.

Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP)
A network storage technology that combines the features of the Fibre Channel Protocol and the Internet Protocol (IP) to connect distributed SANs over large distances.

Fibre Channel port fan-in
The number of hosts that can detect any one port.

Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP)
The serial SCSI command protocol used on Fibre Channel networks. See also open system.

Fibre Channel service
A service that is defined by Fibre Channel standards and exists at a well-known address. For example, the simple name server is an Fibre Channel service. See also Fibre Channel Service Protocol, simple name server.

Fibre Channel Service Protocol (FSP)
The common protocol for all fabric services, transparent to the fabric type or topology. See also Fibre Channel service.

Fibre Channel shortest path first (FSPF)
A routing protocol used by Fibre Channel switches.

Fibre Channel Transport Protocol
A protocol service that supports communication between Fibre Channel service providers.

See first-in-chain.

See microfiche.

See Fibre Channel connection.

FICON bridge
See also Fibre Channel connection.

FICON converter (FCV)
See FICON bridge.

In ESS Specialist, the label on a pseudo-host icon that represents a host connection that uses the FICON protocol and that is not completely defined on the ESS. See also access-any mode, pseudohost.

In AFP support, the degree of exactness required when processing the input data stream for printing a file. Different levels of fidelity can be specified, which determine how errors are handled (such as substituting fonts when a font named in the data stream cannot be found).

FID field
See format identification field.


  1. A bit of data that is constituent to a message.
  2. In the context of an SQL row data type, a named element of a row that contains data of a particular type.
  3. An area into which a particular category of data or control information is entered.
  4. In object-oriented programming, an attribute or data member of a class.
  5. The smallest piece of information that is defined in the application file. A field is the application map component that is mapped (linked) to a corresponding EDI element.
  6. In a database, a portion (as defined during the database description generation process DBDGEN) within a segment that is the smallest unit of the data that can be referred to.
  7. A set of one or more adjacent characters comprising a unit of data in an event or data item.
  8. In a video system, one-half of a complete television scanning cycle, or frame: in the NTSC format, 1/60th of a second; in the PAL and SECAM formats, 1/50th of a second.

field attribute
A data description that governs the presentation and handling of data in the associated data field. For example, direction (left-to-right, right-to-left) is a field attribute important in bidi applications.

field constructor
An element that defines the mapping from an event object to a business object.

field content assist
A feature that provides predefined system and variable values for entry fields.

field core override
A function with the capability to increase or decrease the factory-set number of active processor cores in the compute node of a server.

field definition
In IDDU, information that describes the characteristics of data in a field, such as its name, length, and data type. A field definition resides in a data dictionary.

field definition macro (DFHMDF)
In BMS, a macro that defines a field within a map defined by the previous DFHMDI macro. The DFHMDF macro specifies initial attributes to be given to fields within a map. See also map definition.

field definition table (FDT)
The field definition table describes the characteristics of a field; for example, its length and number of its data areas, and whether it is mandatory. If the characteristics of a field change depending on its use in a particular message, the definition of the field in the FDT can be overridden by the MCB specifications.

field description
Information that describes the characteristics of data in a field.

field developed product (FDP)

fielded search
A query that is restricted to a particular field.

field format
A format in which the output consists of structured field introducers and variable data rather than output in line format.

Pertaining to a request or response that is encoded into fields, each having a specified format such as binary codes, bit-significant flags, and symbolic names. See also unformatted, unformatted, unformatted system service.

field-formatted request
In SNA, a request that is encoded into fields, each having a specified format such as binary codes, binary counts, bit-significant flags, and symbolic names. A format indicator in the request/response header (RH) for the request is set to zero.

field group
One or several fields that are defined as being a group. Because a field can occur more than once in a message, field groups are used to distinguish them. A name can be assigned to the field group during message definition.

field group number
In the TOF, a number is assigned to each field group in a message in ascending order from 1 to 255. A particular field group can be accessed using its field group number.

field indicator
In RPG, an indicator that shows whether a given field in an input record is plus, minus, zero, or blank.

field interview
A report compiled by an investigation officer upon interviewing an individual or observing suspicious activity.

field-level access checking
The RACF facility by which a security administrator can control access to fields or segments in a RACF profile.

field-level sensitivity
The ability of an application program to access data at the field level.

field-level specification
In DDS, a specification coded on the same line as a field name or on lines immediately following a field name.

field line
In RLU, a temporary record in a report prototype that indicates the field boundaries in an associated report line.

field of view
In GL, the extent of the area which is under view. The field of view is defined by the viewing matrix in use.

field outline
The output record to be printed outlines, with boxes, the fields of data within the record.

field permission
The ability to access usability options for individual fields, such as whether a field is displayed or hidden, whether a field is required or enabled, or whether a field can be used as a search criterion or in ad hoc reporting. See also user privilege.

field procedure
A user-written exit routine that receives a single value and encodes or decodes it as specified by the user.

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
A Netezza-designed engine on custom programmable hardware that accelerates SQL query performance.

field record relation indicator
In RPG, an indicator that associates fields in an input record with a particular record type. The field record relation indicator is normally used when the record type is one of several in an OR relationship.

field reference file
A physical file that contains no data, only descriptions of fields.

field registration file (FRF)
A file that is used to define fields for use in the object database.

field-replaceable unit (FRU)
An assembly or part that is replaced in its entirety by service personnel when any one of its components fails.

field resolution
The minimum number of required decimal places for a numeric field value.

field return
The action that moves a data cursor from field to field in a reverse direction, as determined by the panel layout.

field search argument (FSA)
For Fast Path, the I/O area that is constructed by an application program to identify a field within a segment that is to be processed with a FLD call.

field selection

  1. In the GDDM function, the selection of fields from a database file for use as data values.
  2. A function that uses the state of the option indicators to display or print data when a record format is written.
  3. In Business Graphics Utility, the selection of fields from a database file for use as data values and data labels.

field tab (FTAB)
In MFS, a character defined for operator use in separating input fields if the length of the entered data is less than the defined field length, or there is no data for a field.

field tag
A character string used by MERVA to identify a field in a network buffer. For example, for SWIFT field 30, the field tag is :30:.

See first-in first-out.

FIFO special file
A type of file with the property that data written to such a file is read on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis.

figurative constant

  1. In RPG, an implied literal that is specified in the calculation specifications without a length definition because the implied length and decimal positions are the same as those of the receiver field.
  2. In COBOL, a reserved word that represents a numeric or character value or a string of repeated values. The word can be used instead of a literal to represent the value.

figure space

  1. See numeric space.
  2. A unit of measure equal to the width of the "en" space in a particular font. In DCF, the width of the figure zero (0).


  1. A sequence of records. If the file is located in internal storage, it is an internal file; if it is on an input/output device, it is an external file.
  2. A collection of related data that is stored and retrieved by an assigned name.

file access definition (FAD)
The basis for archive file security. All archive files generated by running an archive request that references an FAD are secured by the FAD.

file access permission
A designation that determines who can access a particular file and how the user can access the file.

file access time
On AIX, UNIX, or Linux systems, the time when the file was last accessed.

FileAct directory
A directory that is used exclusively to store files that are involved in FileAct transfers.

file age
For migration prioritization purposes, the number of days since a file was last accessed.

file allocation table (FAT)
A table that is used to allocate space on a disk for a file and to locate the file.

file archive collection
A document collection that is used to archive and retrieve files using the Network File System (NFS) or Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocols. Documents can also be retrieved using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). See also collection.

file attribute
The portion of the information about a file that determines its access and organizational characteristics.

file attribute conflict condition
In COBOL, an unsuccessful attempt to run an input-output operation on a file whose file attributes, as specified for that file in the program, do not match the fixed attributes for that file.

file chaining
In Query, a function that allows a query application to use data from two database files. The query application views the two chained files as if they were one file and refers to the first file as the primary record format and the second file as the secondary record format.

file class
The distributed data management (DDM) file class used when writing applications for Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) for OS/2 and AIX.

file clause
In COBOL, a clause that appears as part of any of the following Data Division entries: file description entry (FD entry) and sort-merge file description entry (SD entry).

file clone
A writable snapshot of an individual file.

file collection
A list of files, including event scripts, application scripts, and some configuration files, that can be automatically propagated and synchronized across the cluster. The file collection ensures that each node has the same version of key files and that software and applications run correctly.

file command
An instruction to start, end, or otherwise control an operation or task.

file compare and merge utility (FCMU)
A function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that is used to compare physical file members and merge updates to file members.

file conflict
A situation in which one or more people are working on a file at the same time and saved versions of the file get out of sync. Locking a file when editing it can prevent file conflicts.

file connector
In COBOL, a storage area that contains information about a file and is used as the connection between a file name and a physical file, and between a file name and its associated record area.

file control

  1. The CICS facility for managing basic operations against a file (ADD, READ, DELETE, REWRITE, and BROWSE).
  2. COBOL, the name and header of an Environment Division paragraph in which the data files for a source program are named and assigned to specific input/output devices.

file control block (FCB)
A block containing the addresses of I/O routines, information about how the routines were opened and closed, and a pointer to the file information block.

file control entry
In COBOL, a SELECT clause and all its subordinate clauses that declare the relevant physical attributes of a file.

file control table (FCT)
A CICS table containing the characteristics of the files accessed by file control.

file cursor
A control structure that keeps track of which record of a file a process is currently working on.

filed amendment
An amendment for which the language source is a file attachment.

file data
The contents of a file.

filed contract
A contract for which the language is saved as an attachment for record purposes.

See file definition statement.

file default ACL
A model access control list (ACL) that is inherited by files that are created within the parent directory.

file definition

  1. In IDDU, information that describes the contents and characteristics of a file. A file definition resides in a data dictionary.
  2. In RPG, file description and input specifications that describe the records and fields in a file.

file definition statement (FILEDEF)
In CMS, a statement that serves as the connection between the logical name of a file and the physical name of a file.

file dependency
A dependency in which a job or job stream cannot start until it finds that a specific file is present in a specific path on a specific workstation.

file description
The description of a file and its contents.

file description entry
In COBOL, an entry in the FILE SECTION of the Data Division that contains information about the identification, the physical organization, and the record name of a file.

file description file
In System i Access, a personal computer file that describes a personal computer data file. The description includes the name, data type, field length, and format of the data file. This information is used by the System i Access transfer function to transfer data to the System i product.

file description specification
In RPG, a specification on which the programmer identifies and describes all files used in a program.

file descriptor
A positive integer or a data structure that uniquely identifies an open file for the purpose of file access.

file device type
A device type that specifies the use of sequential access files on disk storage as volumes.

file-distribution server
In the Software Distribution task, an intermediate server that is used to distribute a software package when the redirected-distribution method is used.

file encryption key
A key used to encrypt sectors of an individual file. See also encryption key.

file extension
A tag of three or four letters, preceded by a period, that identifies a data file's format or the application used to create the file.

file format
A description of the entries to be made in an ASCII file, such as a configuration or customization profile.

file handle
A number that is used by the client and server sides of the Network File System (NFS) or the Server Message Block (SMB) to specify a particular file or prefix.

file hash
A unique, calculated number that is based on the content of the file.

file ID
See file identifier.

file identifier

  1. A 3-character identifier used for files being joined in Query for a query. The identifiers are used during a query definition to uniquely identify each file.
  2. In AFP, the name of a data set or file.
  3. In Subsystem Support Services, two alphanumeric characters that identify the kind of record a data set entry contains.

file index
See inode.

file information block (FIB)
A read-only block describing the characteristics of an I/O file.

file information data structure (INFDS)
In RPG, a data structure that can be defined for each file to make file exception/error information available to the program. A file information data structure must be unique for each file.

file I/O component
A service definition framework component that can be used to exchange messages between two systems, with the help of XML files. The files can be either created or processed using this component.

file key
In RPG, all the key fields defined for a file.

file level specification
In DDS, a specification coded on the lines before the first record format name.

file-level storage
A storage device that contains data exchanged between systems in client/server interactions, using user-level data representation interfaces.

file list
A list of files contained in a library.

file lock
A means to limit or deny access to a file by other users. A file lock can be a read lock or a write lock.

file maintenance
The process of adding, changing, or deleting records in a file to keep them current.

file-management policy
A set of rules defined in a policy file used to manage file migration and file deletion. See also policy.

file map
In Analyst, a map that tells the program how to split an ASCII or text file into columns of data. A file map puts in the divisions, or breaks, between one column of numbers and another, defines the start point and width of each column of data within an ASCII file, and denotes whether the column is a numeric, text, or date field.

file memory
Virtual-memory pages that are currently in real memory that are not part of computational memory. Normally these are pages of nonexecutable files.

file metadata
Information about the file, such as owner, permission, and physical location.

file mode
An object containing the file permission bits and other characteristics of a file.

file mode creation mask

  1. A pattern of characters that is used to control the keeping, deleting, or testing of portions of another pattern of characters.
  2. A pattern of characters that is used to establish maximum permissions that can then be applied to individual access control list (ACL) entries.

file model
A description of how information is organized and managed within a file.

file model ACL
See file default ACL.

file module

  1. A machine that provides file systems to network users. A file module must be provided with block volumes to store the data for these file systems. It also provides system management functions.
  2. A module that functions as an interface node that connects a system to an Internet Protocol (IP) network for file-serving capabilities by using service protocols.
  3. A component that provides file systems to network users. A file module must be provided with storage for the file systems.

See file name.

file name
A name assigned to identify a file.

file name extension

  1. An optional 3-letter code that may be used as the second part of a PC file name, and is separated from the file name by a period (.). Extensions have meanings to programs, and may be used to identify the type of the file.
  2. An addition to a file name that identifies the file type (for example, text file or program file).

file name substitution
In the AIX operating system, the process in which the shell substitutes an alphabetically sorted list of file names in the place of a pattern. The shell recognizes a pattern (as opposed to a file name) by the occurrence of a word (character string) with either of the following characteristics: (a) the word contains any of these characters: *, ?, [, or {, (b) the word begins with this character: .

FileNet P8 domain
A domain that represents a logical grouping of physical resources and the Content Platform Engine servers that provide access to those resources. Each resource and server belong to only one domain. A server can access any resource in the domain but cannot access any resource that lies outside of the domain.

file offset
The byte position in the file where the next I/O operation begins.

file operation code
In RPG, an operation code (for example, CHAIN) that lets the user control the input/output operations to a file.

file organization
In COBOL, the permanent file arrangement established at the time that a file is created.

file override
An attribute specified at run time that changes the attributes specified in the file description or in the program.

file owner
The user who has the highest level of access authority to a file, as defined by the file.

file-owning region (FOR)
See data-owning region.

file package
See software package.

file package block (fpblock)
A file or set of files that can be included in a particular software deployment. Examples include an installation package, installation files for a patch downloaded from the vendor's Web site, or a software image.

file permission bit
Information about a file that is used, along with other information, to determine whether a process has read, write, or execute permission to a file. The use of file permission bits is described in file access permissions.

file-placement policy
A set of rules defined in a policy file used to manage the initial placement of a newly created file. See also policy.

file-placement rule
A rule that controls in what pool SAN File System places files in the global file system. See also global file system, policy, rule.

file plan
A container hierarchy that defines the organization of records and determines the security and disposition of contained entities. See also file plan object store.

File Plan Import Export tool
A stand-alone IBM Enterprise Records utility that imports an external file plan or exports a file plan to an external environment.

file plan object store (FPOS)
An object store that hosts a file plan. See also file plan.

file plan repository
A repository that contains a small collection of custom objects of the System Configuration class.

file pointer

  1. An identifier that indicates a structure containing the file name.
  2. In the hierarchical file system, the representation of the position or offset in the file in which the next read or write operation occurs.

file position indicator
In COBOL, a conceptual entity that (a) contains the value of the current key within the key of reference for an indexed file, the record number of the current record for a sequential file, or the relative record number of the current record for a relative file; or (b) indicates that no next logical record exists, that the number of significant digits in the relative record number is larger than the size of the relative key data item, that an optional input file is not present, that the at end condition already exists, or that no valid next record has been established.


file reference function
A function of the system that lets the user track file use on the system.

file reference variable
A host variable that indicates that data is in a file on the client rather than in a client memory buffer.

file repository
An internal or external storage location where software and files are stored.

file request thread element (FRTE)
An element used by CICS file control to link related requests together as a file thread; to record the existence of READ SET storage to be released at syncpoint and the existence of any other outstanding work that must be completed at syncpoint; to register a task as a user of a file to prevent the file being closed while still in use.

file scope
A property of a file name that is declared outside all blocks, classes, and function declarations and that can be used after the point of declaration in a source file.

File Section
In COBOL, the section of the Data Division that contains file description entries and sort-merge file description entries together with their associated record descriptions.

file security packet (FSP)
In z/OS UNIX, a control block containing the security data (owner user identifier (UID), owner group identifier (GID), and the permission bits) associated with the file. This data is stored with the file in the file system.

file separator
The pages produced at the beginning of each output file and used to separate the file from the other files being sent to an output device.

file server

  1. The full identifier for a file, which includes its drive designation, path, file name, and file extension (for example, C:\PATH\FILENAME.EXT). The format is dependent on the storage medium of the file. 
  2. A dedicated computer and its peripheral storage devices that are connected to a local area network that stores programs and files that are shared by users on the network.
  3. A high-capacity disk storage device or a computer that each computer on a network can use to access and retrieve files that can be shared among the attached computers.

file server I/O processor
An input/output processor (IOP) that serves files.

file server node
An IBM System Blue Gene node used to serve files to other Blue Gene systems and to I/O nodes.

File Services
See OSI File Services.

file serving
A function that supports the serving of static files by web applications.


  1. See file set.
  2. A collection of files that comprise the smallest individually installable unit.

file set

  1. A module that functions as an interface node that connects a system to an Internet Protocol (IP) network for file-serving capabilities by using service protocols.
  2. A subset of a file system that provides granularity of functions such as snapshots or quotas within the file system.
  3. A hierarchical grouping of files managed as a unit for balancing workload across a cluster.
  4. An individually installable option or update. Options provide specific function and updates correct an error in, or enhance, a previously installed option.

fileset snapshot
A snapshot of an independent fileset plus all dependent filesets.

file share

  1. Files that are made available to multiple users over a network, virtual or otherwise.
  2. A unique name assigned to an integrated file system directory on a System i product that lets remote users and applications access the directory.
  3. In the IBM cloud environment, a persistent storage system where users store and share files. In IBM Containers, users can mount Docker volumes on file shares.

file sharing
The practice of making files available to multiple users over a network, virtual or otherwise.

files library
The library to search for database files for a System/36 environment job.

file space
A logical space in server storage that contains a group of files that have been backed up or archived by a client node, from a single logical partition, file system, or virtual mount point. Client nodes can restore, retrieve, or delete their file spaces from server storage. In server storage, files belonging to a single file space are not necessarily stored together.

file space ID (FSID)
A unique numeric identifier that the server assigns to a file space when it is stored in server storage.

file spec
See file specification.

file specification (file spec)
The full identifier for a file, which includes its drive designation, path, file name, and file extension (for example, C:\PATH\FILENAME.EXT). The format is dependent on the storage medium of the file.

file splitting
The division of an event file, based on a delimiter or based on size, to separate individual business objects within the file and send them as if they are each an event file to reduce memory requirements.

file state

  1. A file version that has static content.
  2. The space management mode of a file that resides in a file system to which space management has been added. A file can be in one of three states: resident, premigrated, or migrated. See also migrated file, premigrated file.

file storage area
A permanent storage area managed by Content Platform Engine. A file storage area retains document content in a distributed file system (DFS) or a Windows NTFS file system. See also content storage area.

file store
A type of message store that directly uses files in a file system through the operating system.

file suffix
In CDE, a suffix added to the end of a file name, often used in file typing or to categorize files for the user.

file system (FS)

  1. The collection of files and file management structures on a physical or logical mass storage device, such as a diskette or minidisk.
  2. A collection of files and certain attributes associated with those files.
  3. In the hierarchical file system, the underlying system support that manages I/O operations to files and controls the format of information on the storage media. A file system allows applications to create and manage files on storage devices and to perform I/O operations to those files.

file system descriptor
A data structure containing key information about a file system. This information includes the disks assigned to the file system (stripe group), the current state of the file system, and pointers to key files such as quota files and log files.

file system descriptor quorum
The number of disks needed in order to write the file system descriptor correctly.

file system gateway
Software that enables messages to be routed to or from designated folders on a file system. The File System Gateway can also be used to test Gentran Server for Windows to ensure that it is processing messages correctly.

file system manager

  1. The component that manages the multimedia file system.
  2. The provider of services for all the nodes using a single file system. A file system manager processes changes to the state or description of the file system, controls the regions of disks that are allocated to each node, and controls token management and quota management.

file system migrator (FSM)
A kernel extension that intercepts all file system operations and provides any space management support that is required. If no space management support is required, the operation is passed to the operating system, which performs its normal functions. The file system migrator is mounted over a file system when space management is added to the file system.

file system owner
In z/OS, the system that coordinates sysplex activity for a particular file system.

file system state
The storage management mode of a file system that resides on a workstation on which the hierarchical storage management (HSM) client is installed. A file system can be in one of these states: native, active, inactive, or global inactive.

file system storage
Data storage that is organized into files and directories.

file tag
A file attribute that identifies the character set of the text data within a file and indicates whether the file is eligible for automatic conversion. See also automatic conversion, program CCSID.

file tap (F-TAP)
An agent that is installed on a file server to monitor access to specified files.

file transfer
The transfer of one or more files from one system to another over a data link.

file transfer, access, and management (FTAM)
The OSI standard for transferring files between nodes.

File Transfer Program
See File Transfer Protocol.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
In TCP/IP, an application layer protocol that uses TCP and Telnet services to transfer bulk-data files between machines or hosts.

file transfer server
A server that is used to transfer files, such as data load files, to IBM Commerce on Cloud environments. The file transfer servers that are available with an IBM Commerce on Cloud service are different from the drop server, and are not used for transferring deployable packages to environments.

file transfer summarization
The reduction of a file transfer from a series of events to a single, data-rich summary record. See also process summarization, summary record.

file transfer support (FTS)
A function of the operating system that moves file members from one System i product to another or from a System i product to a System/36 by using asynchronous, APPC, or BSCEL communications support.

file translation
In RPG, a function that can change any of the 256 EBCDIC characters into another EBCDIC character.

file tree
The complete directory and file structure of a particular node, starting at the root directory. A file tree contains all local and remote mounts performed on directories and files.

See file type.

file upload utility
A Web Extensions utility that can be used to define business process files that require mapping from one data format to another. By default, the utility is configured to map positional data to XML data.

A color (or texture) used to fill a background area in a window.

fill character

  1. A character used to occupy an area on a human-readable medium; for example, in a business form or a legal document, dashes or asterisks used to fill out a field to ensure that nothing is added to the field once the form or document has been issued; in a letter, blanks used to fill up the space left by tabbing.
  2. A visual representation of an enterable character position on the display (for example, dots in each position or vertical bars between positions).
  3. In MFS, a character used to pad input message fields or output device fields when the length of the received data is less than the length defined for the field or no data is received for the field.
  4. A character used to fill a field in storage.

An operation to replace values in a record, often used to fill blanks with a specified value.

filler line
In RLU, a record in a report prototype that represents spacing between record formats and is used in the data description specifications (DDS) for the report.

A curve that is tangent to the end points of two connected lines.

fill pattern
The shading used inside a bar and pie slice on a chart and below the lines of a chart.

fill word
In Fibre Channel technology, a transmission word that is an IDLE or an ARBx primitive signal. Fill words are transmitted between frames, primitive signals, and primitive sequences to keep a Fibre Channel network active.


  1. To discard fields from a record. See also filter string.
  2. The set of predicates that are used to determine whether an event is captured. If all predicates are true, the event is captured.
  3. In JAX-RS, one or classes that can modify HTTP request and response headers. See also Java API for RESTful Web Services.
  4. In System Manager, a function that assigns alerts or problems into groups and specifies the actions to take for each group. A filter consists of selection entries and action entries.
  5. A set of rules that defines findings with certain traits.
  6. A mechanism that is used to query libraries, objects, and members on a System i server, and organize them for viewing in the Remote System Explorer. See also filter pool, filter string.
  7. See selection.
  8. A reusable set of conditions that is used in an event rule to evaluate whether an event matches certain criteria.
  9. A device or program that separates data, signals, or material in accordance with specified criteria. See also IP filter, LDAP filter, recording filter, servlet filtering, SQL filter.
  10. To reduce a list of items to those that share specific attributes.
  11. In an SQL query, a set of conditions that impact on how a row or record is selected. The conditional expression in the WHERE clause is a filter that controls the active set of the query.
  12. In a document copying machine, material used to modify selectively the transmitted radiation; a color filter modifies the color of the light it transmits.
  13. A mailbox server feature in which message display criteria can be set.
  14. A command that reads standard input data, modifies the data, and sends it to standard output. A pipeline usually has several filters.
  15. The process of restricting the data delivered by a fact build. See also level filter, output filter.
  16. A means of querying report data and returning only the rows that match specified criteria.
  17. See traffic layer.
  18. A program that examines incoming data to ensure that only data that matches certain criteria is allowed to pass through.

filter browser
A browser that displays messages matching predetermined criteria for a selected mailbox.

filter condition
A restriction placed on a search. For example, a filter condition could identify specific workflows.

filter editor
In Tivoli NetView, a part of the graphical user interface that enables the user to define, modify, and delete filtering rules for use by application programs.

filter expression
An optional expression, used by a notification receiver to filter the notification instances that it will accept. The receiver is listening for a particular type of notification, and in addition it will only accept notification instances that meet the criteria specified by the filter expression.

filter factor
A number between zero and one that estimates the proportion of rows in a table for which a predicate is true.

filter form
A form that can be used to select content to be displayed on the map and list.


  1. The selective function of allowing some Internet Protocol (IP) packets to continue to their destination or, at the same time, blocking others.
  2. A technique for selecting the information displayed in a view that uses criteria specified by a user. See also sorting.
  3. The process of selecting data sets based on specified criteria. These criteria consist of fully-qualified or partially-qualified data set names, certain data set characteristics, or both.

filtering mode
An object mode of a database object, that causes bad rows to be written to the violations table during DML operations. During DML operations, the database server enforces requirements of a constraint or of a unique index that is in this mode and identifies any rows that would violate the requirement.

filtering output
See pipe.

filter interface
A statement that is used to associate a set of filter rules with a particular physical interface.

filter pool
A group of filters. See also filter, filter pool reference.

filter pool reference
A mechanism that displays a filter pool from one connection in any other connection, so that when a user makes a change to the original filter pool, the change is reflected in the filter pool reference. See also filter pool.

filter primitive
A program that separates data in accordance with specified criteria.

filter resource
The command line interface components manage the filter resources in the Enamel API.

filter rule
A rule that selects particular Internet Protocol (IP) traffic and requests an action for that traffic. Possible actions are to discard the packet, to allow the packet without security, and to take the appropriate IP security action.

filter string
The information used by a filter to perform a search. See also filter, filter.

The SWIFT store-and-forward message-processing service defining message standards and protocols. See also SWIFTNet FIN.

final action
An action attached to a rule flow task that is performed after the task has been executed.

final form data
In architecture, data that has been formatted for presentation.

final-form text (FFT)
A data stream defined by document content architecture that is used to exchange resolved documents (which can be printed directly by most printers or displayed) between systems. See also revisable-form text.

Final-Form Text Document Content Architecture
The architecture that specifies the structure of the data stream used for the interchange of text documents formatted for presentation. A Final-Form Text:Document Content Architecture document consists of text and formatting information that controls the presentation of the text.

final job stream
The last job stream that is run in a production period. It contains scripts that generate the next production plan. See also production period, production plan.

Final Merge and Rank
The last stage of processing in the IBM Watson pipeline, which uses machine learning to identify the final answer. The various feature scores are normalized and combined into a single score for each candidate answer and a ranking of those candidate answers is provided.

final project proposal (FPP)
Developed by the PDT in the plan phase and is the basis for the IPMT/PDT contract which is agreed to in the Plan phase. It consists of the following documentation: business transformation operations process (BTOP) Top Sheet, BTOP business template (plan phase items), architecture solution definition document (ADD), IPMT/PDT contract and integrated project plan (This plan is typically done by solution project manager or technical project manager). The FPP may contain additional documentation from other sources as deemed appropriate by the PDTL. The templates (BTOP business template, BTOP architecture and technology template) and integrated project plan continue to be updated by phase as the project evolves. However, if the results indicate that the project is extending beyond the limits of the plan IPMT/PDT contract, an interim DCP with the IPMT must be held.

final score
An additive function of a continuous collection of weighted attributes.

final warning
In OSI Communications Subsystem, a subsystem threshold that indicates that not enough system storage is available to maintain existing connections. When the final warning threshold is reached, the subsystem ends existing connections and does not allow new connections to be made. See also first warning.

final write
A write of the same information as the intermediate write that is performed at the end of the checkpoint cycle. See also intermediate write, primary write.

finance communications
The data communications support that allows i5/OS programs to communicate with programs on finance controllers, using the SNA LU session type 0 protocol.

finance device
A device, such as the 4700 Finance Communications System devices and the 3694 Document Processor, that performs functions specifically related to the finance industry. The 3180, 3270, and 5250 work stations are not finance devices.

finance I/O manager (FIOM)
A set of routines that can be used by an application program to do I/O operations on a finance device that is configured as a non-intersystem communications function (non-ICF) device.

finance lead role
The finance lead who is the focal point for the financial support required for the solution, and consolidates individual plans and performs financial assessments of the integrated plan.

finance support
A part of the system support that uses a System i product as a host system to which finance devices can be attached.

financial asset
An asset that is used to define quantity and details of a financial collateral. It is used to capture the market value of the asset to determine whether it qualifies as eligible financial collateral under Basel reporting rules. Typical examples are pledges of cash, gold, a portfolio of debt securities and equities, such as bonds, government funds and stocks.

financial instrument
A tradable asset of any kind.

financial modeling
See activity based costing.

financial rollup
A data type that is used to contain totals from other fields involved in financial transactions.

financial rule
A business rule that pertains to payments and charges on the system. Financial rules are used to set up payment collection rules, charge definitions, payment terms, and tax names.

financial token
A set of criteria that is used to determine what financial transactions will be used in a financial rollup field.

The MERVA component used for SWIFT FIN-Copy support.

See discover.

See Find Destination.

Find Destination (FINDDEST)
An internal service in IMS used for finding certain IMS resources, most of which represent IMS destinations.

finder method
In enterprise beans, a method defined in the home interface and invoked by a client to locate an entity bean. (Sun)

The discovery of an instance of a security exposure in code. AppScan divides findings into three categories: vulnerability, exception, and informational.

find path
A feature of the Visualizer module that allows a user to identify unknown associations among objects. For example, if two objects have a known association, the find path feature will find any unknown associations that they have in common.

find result
The results in the search view of the viewer thumbnail pane and in the document-viewing area.

Pertaining to viewing an individual object in detail. See also coarse-grained.

See Name/Finger Protocol.

In Internet communications, a program that displays information about the current users of a local or remote system. The finger usually displays the user's full name, last login time, idle time, terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable).

See digest code.

Graphical information that appears on the drawing, including text, leader arrows, balloons, hatches, and dimensions. Drawing elements and construction are not finishing information.

finishing margin
In printing, the distance from the edge of a paper to the line where staples are placed for edge stitching.

A dependency type between two project elements in which the predecessor element must finish before the successor element can finish.

A dependency type between two project elements where the predecessor element must finish before the successor element can start.

finite state dictionary
A dictionary that uses a finite state automaton or finite state transducer to recognize words and associate information to them. Finite state dictionaries perform more quickly and require less memory consumption than other types of dictionaries, when compared to word lists, tree maps, or hash tables.

finite state grammar (FSG)
In WebSphere Voice Server, the extension of a file that contains grammar specifications in compiled, binary form. It is generated from a .bnf file and is called a .fsg file.

finite state machine (FSM)
The theoretical base describing the rules of a service request state and the conditions to state transitions.

See finance I/O manager.

See Federal Information Processing Standard.


  1. In object-oriented programming, to cause a state transition.
  2. To activate a trigger.

fire-once message
A message that displays a maximum of once per workflow no matter how many times the condition that triggers it occurs.

fire status
A Boolean flag indicating whether or not an event has occurred (fired). The fire status of an event can be either FIRED (true) or NOTFIRED (false).

A network configuration, typically both hardware and software, that prevents unauthorized traffic into and out of a secure network.

firewall rule
A chain of statements matching specific criteria that define the types of traffic to block on a network.

firm order exception (FOE)
An exception to the firm order policy in which approval is given to ship a product without complete firm order paperwork. See also firm order policy.

firm order policy (FOP)
An IBM fulfillment policy that specifies the documentation that is required before an order is entered. See also firm order exception.


  1. Proprietary code that is usually delivered as microcode as part of an operating system.
  2. Licensed Internal Code (LIC) that is shipped with hardware. Firmware is considered an integral part of the system and is loaded and run at power on. Firmware is not open for customer configuration and is expected to run without any customer setup.

first box
A physical machine on which OpenStack and all the virtual machines with SmartCloud Orchestrator components are installed. It provides DHCP, DNS, HTTP, and TFTP services and supports the installation of additional compute nodes over the network.

first-call resolution rate
The percentage of customer calls resolved within a single contact. A crucial measure of quality, first-call resolution gauges the ability of the call center and the individual agent to resolve the customer issue in a single interaction with that customer.

first-character forms control (FCFC)
A method that specifies the format of printed output. The first character of each record determines the format.

first critical operation
An operation of an occurrence that has the earliest latest-start-time. The first critical operation of an occurrence determines the critical path.

first-expired first-out (FEFO)
A queuing technique in which the next item to be retrieved is the item that has the earliest expiration date.

first failure data capture
A problem diagnosis aid that identifies errors, gathers and logs information about these errors, and returns control to the affected runtime software.

first-failure data capture (FFDC)

  1. A problem diagnosis aid that identifies errors, gathers and logs information about these errors, and returns control to the affected runtime software.
  2. The i5/OS implementation of the FFST architecture providing problem recognition, selective dump of diagnostic data, symptom string generation, and problem log entry.

First Failure Support Technology (FFST)
An IBM architecture that defines a single approach to error detection through defensive programming techniques. These techniques provide proactive (passive until required) problem recognition and a description of diagnostic output required to debug a software problem.

First Failure Support Technology file (FFST file)
A file containing information for use in detecting and diagnosing software problems. In IBM MQ, FFST files have a file type of FDC.

first-in-chain (FIC)
A request unit (RU) whose request header (RH) begin chain indicator is on and whose RH end chain indicator is off. See also RU chain.

first-in first-out (FIFO)
A queuing technique in which the next item to be retrieved is the item that has been in the queue for the longest time. See also last-in first-out.

first-in first-out costing
A method of cost accounting that can be used to make an inventory valuation, based on actual receipt costs. First-in first-out costing uses the "first in" (oldest) item cost for inventory transactions. See also last-in first-out costing.

first-level destination
The part of a destination identifier that indicates a target node to which input is to be sent. See also second-level destination.

first-level folder
A folder name that is not preceded by another folder name. A first-level folder is the first folder name in a folder path. For example, if folder A is a first-level folder, folder path A/B indicates that folder B is within folder A, and that folder A is within the root folder.

first-level interrupt handler (FLIH)
A routine that receives control of the system as a result of a hardware interrupt. One FLIH is assigned to each of the six interrupt levels.

first line manager (FLM)

first occurrence data capture (FODC)
The process of capturing scenario-based data about a DB2 instance. FODC can be invoked manually by a DB2 user based on a particular symptom or automatically when a predetermined scenario or symptom is detected.

first operation
An operation that has no internal predecessor. The start node in a network.

first-page indicator
In RPG, an indicator, coded as 1P, that specifies which lines (such as headings) should be printed on the first page only.

first read rate
See read rate.

first shipment fill rate
The average percentage of the purchase order (PO) line quantities of an order that is fulfilled by the first shipment.

first speaker
In SNA, the logical unit (LU) half-session defined when the session is started as the half-session able to begin a bracket without requesting permission from the other LU half-session to do so, and the half-session winning permission if both half-sessions attempt to begin a bracket simultaneously. See also bidder.

first-speaker session
See contention-winner session.

first time data capture (FTDC)
The passive collection of sufficient data on a system such that the root cause any error can be identified without a reproduction of the error.

first warning
In OSI Communications Subsystem, a subsystem threshold that indicates that not enough system storage is available to establish new connections. When the first warning threshold is reached, the subsystem maintains existing connections but does not allow new connections to be made. See also final warning.

See feature in service.

A software maintenance package, such as an interim fix, test fix, or program temporary fix, that solves a customer problem. See also fix pack.

Fix Central
An external IBM website from which installation packages of all IBM products for the fix pack and interim fix releases can be downloaded.

fixed array
In Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an array whose size is defined in the Interface Definition Language (IDL). All of the data in the array is transmitted during the call.

fixed block (FB)
See fixed-block architecture.

fixed-block architecture (FBA)
An architecture for a virtual device that specifies the format of and access mechanisms for the virtual data units on the device. The virtual data unit is a block. All blocks on the device are the same size (fixed size). The system can access them independently. See also data record, storage architecture type.

fixed-block architecture disk device (FBA disk device)
A disk device that stores data in blocks of fixed size. These blocks are addressed by block number relative to the beginning of the file. See also extended count key data device.

fixed bundle
A package comprising products, services, and/or other bundles. A fixed bundle comprises a bundle parent item and one or more component items.

fixed cost
An expenditure that does not vary with the production volume, such as rent, equipment, buildings, property tax, and some salaries.

fixed currency symbol
A currency symbol that appears in the far left position of an edited field. See also floating currency symbol.

fixed dashboard
A dashboard that is supplied with the application to provide report and data source information in a graphical format. See also custom dashboard.

fixed data
In AFP Utilities, an element in the record layout and page layout that has a constant value. See also variable data.

fixed deliverable
The quantifiable goods or services of a permanent nature that are provided upon the completion of a project.

fixed disk
Boards and cartridges that contain microchips or bubble memory, which simulate the operations of a fixed-disk drive.

fixed file attribute
In COBOL, information about a file that is established when a file is created and that cannot subsequently be changed during the existence of the file. Attributes include the organization of the file (sequential, relative, or indexed), the prime record key, the alternate record keys, the minimum and maximum record size, the record type (fixed or variable), the collating sequence of the keys for indexed files, the minimum and maximum physical record size, the padding character, and the record delimiter.

Pertaining to the entering of data according to certain rules of format. See also free-form.

fixed format
See positional data format.

fixed-format file
See application file.

fixed-frequency maintenance (PIP)
See progressive inspection program.

Pertaining to a characteristic of a field on a display that is of a defined length.

fixed length
A specified length for a record or field that cannot be changed. See also variable length.

fixed-length record
A record whose length is established as an attribute of the file in which it is stored, and cannot be changed. Every record in such a file has the same length, which is specified by the record length attribute (LRECL) of the file. See also variable-length record, variable-length record.

fixed-length string
A character, graphic, or binary string whose length is specified and cannot be changed. See also varying-length string.

fixed medium information
In architecture, information that can be applied to a sheet by a printer or printer-attached device that is independent of data provided through the data stream. Fixed medium information does not mix with the data provided by the data stream and is presented on a sheet either before or after the text, image, graphics, or bar code data provided within the data stream. Fixed medium information can be used to create "preprinted forms," or other types of printing, such as colored logos or letterheads, that cannot be created conveniently within the data stream.

fixed metrics
Measurement information in specific units such as pels, inches, or centimeters for individual or collections of graphic characters. See also font metric, relative metrics.

fixed pacing
See fixed session-level pacing.

fixed part
In Pascal, the part of a record that is common to all instances of a particular record type.

fixed-point constant
A numeric constant shown as an optional sign followed by one or more digits and a decimal point.

fixed-point format

  1. The internal storage format that represents a fixed-point value that can be stored either in zoned or packed decimal format.
  2. The external representation of a decimal value, that shows an optional sign followed by one or more digits, a decimal point, and zero or more digits.

fixed-point notation
A REXX number that is written without exponentiation.

fixed-point number
A number where the decimal point is fixed at a specific place regardless of the value of the number.

fixed-point overflow exception
A program interruption caused by an overflow during signed binary arithmetic or signed left-shift operations. This program interruption can be disabled through a program mask bit setting. See also overflow.

fixed rate
A rate in which the shipper and carrier define a specific contract rate for the shipments that are delivered in a lane. See also spot rate.

fixed resources
A set of resource names used to check a user’s authority to access the panels.

fixed session-level pacing (fixed pacing)
A form of session-level pacing in which the data transfer rate is controlled using fixed pacing-window sizes, which are initialized at session-activation time. See also adaptive session-level pacing, session-level pacing.

fixed-space font
See also proportionally spaced font.

fixed status
The status that indicates an issue has been addressed.

fixed storage area
A file storage area that has a connection to a third-party fixed content system providing additional storage capacity and security.

fixed syntax
A group whose components have a fixed size. Each component is padded to a fixed size or its minimum and maximum content size values are equal.

fixed term licensing
Licensing of IBM products for a limited term so designated by IBM in the program's Proof of Entitlement.

fixed trade fund
Monies that the manufacturer pays to the retailer to secure a display or an advertisement.

fixed utility volume
A simplex volume assigned by the storage administrator to a logical storage subsystem (LSS) to serve as working storage for extended remote copy (XRC) functions on that storage subsystem.

A piece of BigFix content containing Relevance and Action Script statements bundled together to perform an operation or task. Fixlets are the basic building blocks of BigFix content. A Fixlet provides instructions to the BigFix agent to perform a network management or reporting action.

fix pack
A cumulative collection of fixes that is released between scheduled refresh packs, manufacturing refreshes, or releases. A fix pack updates the system to a specific maintenance level. See also fix, interim fix, program temporary fix, refresh pack, test fix.

fix procedure
A maintenance procedure that runs within the product application and provides step-by-step guidance to resolve an error condition.

fix recommendation
The specific and technical details on fixing a web application to secure it against the issue that was discovered.

fix-up and resume
The correction of a condition either by changing the argument or parameter and running the routine again or by providing a specific value for the result.

F keyboard
See 1A keyboard.

See fabric loop port.


  1. A field/variable with two distinct values, such as Yes and No or 1 and 2.
  2. The bit sequence 01111110 used to mark a frame in SDLC.
  3. Information about an extended attribute that is stored with the extended attribute.
  4. A character that signals the occurrence of some condition, such as the end of a word.
  5. An indicator or parameter that shows the setting of a switch.

flag field
A field that indicates the presence or absence of a condition, value, or attribute.

A precompiler option that identifies SQL statements in applications that do not conform to selected validation criteria (for example, the ISO/ANSI SQL92 entry-level standard).

Pertaining to a product or service that are highly strategic and require the highest level of investment.

flagship product
A product that supports a major strategic initiative, is critical to the success of a division or unit, has significant revenue or potential market share growth, or is essential to IBM's success in a particular geography. The highest levels of investment in globalization is required for flagship products. See also key product, legacy product, non-key product.

flank contouring operation
In engineering, the process that is used on a machine tool for machining a face or multiple faces with the side of the cutting tool (the flank).


  1. An optional feature of the Storage System DS family that can make an instant copy of data, that is, a point-in-time copy of a volume. See also capacity licensing.
  2. Pertaining to a point-in-time copy where a virtual copy of a volume is created. The target volume maintains the contents of the volume at the point in time when the copy was established. Any subsequent write operations to the source volume are not reflected on the target volume.

FlashCopy image
A space-efficient image of the contents of part of the SAN file system at a particular moment.

FlashCopy mapping
A continuous space on a direct-access storage volume, which is occupied by or reserved for a particular data set, data space, or file.

FlashCopy relationship
See FlashCopy mapping.

FlashCopy service
A copy service that duplicates the contents of a source volume on a target volume. In the process, the original contents of the target volume are lost. See also point-in-time copy.

flash drive
A data storage device, which is typically removable and rewritable, that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. See also flash drive.

flash frame
A photographic negative containing a predefined design that is exposed to the printer's photoconductor by a flash of light. The flash frame can be merged with variable data during printing.

flash memory
A computer chip with a read-only memory that retains its data when the power is turned off and that can be electronically erased and reprogrammed without being removed from the circuit board.

flash module
A modular hardware unit containing flash memory, one or more flash controllers, and associated electronics.

flat collection
A collection that has no hierarchical structure.

flat file

  1. A file stored on a local file system, as opposed to a more complex set of files, such as those in a structured database.
  2. A file that has no hierarchical structure.
  3. A file that contains non-XML data. Flat files are typically of two types: delimited, in which a comma, tab, white space, or other delimiter is used to separate variable-length fields and records; or positional, in which fields and records have a fixed width.
  4. A character delimited file that uses a delimiter character such as a tab or space to separate individual fields within records.

flat file delivery
A recommendation delivery method that uses a static list of recommendations from an data file.

flat network
A network in which all hosts are administered by one central authority.

The settings of a virtual machine that are used for configuration.

fleet ID
A code that identifies a carrier fleet in regions outside North America, which do not use a SCAC as an identifier. See also Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

flexible job
A job step that is only used for scheduling resources for a flexible reservation.

flexible reservation
A reservation that starts as soon as resources are first available.

flexible service processor (FSP)
Firmware that provides diagnostics, initialization, configuration, runtime error detection, and correction. The flexible service processor connects the managed system to the Hardware Management Console.

flight log book
A collection of flight data records that report aviation quality and maintenance for a specific aircraft.

flight log book setup record
A record that configures the information that is shown in the flight log book and collects information that is required for a specific aircraft and regulations.

flight recorder
An object that stores trace information used to record a history of what has happened in the system's programs. The flight recorder contains only information that helps to identify the flow of the system's programs and status information.

See first-level interrupt handler.

See first line manager.

To separate a window from the main application window so that it can be moved around.

float constant

  1. A constant representing a non-integral number.
  2. A number containing a decimal point, an exponent, or both a decimal point and an exponent. The exponent contains an "e" or "E," an optional sign (+ or -), and one or more digits (0 through 9).

floating bar chart
In the GDDM function, a chart that shows bars detached from either line. See also composite bar chart, multiple bar chart.

floating bar graph
In Performance Tools, a graph that shows bars detached from either line. See also composite bar graph.

floating currency symbol
A currency symbol that appears immediately to the left of the far left position in an edited field. See also fixed currency symbol.

floating display
In text formatting, a block of text that the nroff command places on the current page only if there is room for the entire block. If there is not enough room, the nroff command sets aside the display and finishes filling the page with the text from the input file that follows the display. When the page is full, the nroff command places the display at the top of the next page and then continues with the text from the previous page. See also static display.

floating keep
A keep ensures that bracketed text is not broken across a page boundary, by comparing the size of the text block against the space remaining on the page. If it does not fit, the block is printed at the first possible opportunity on the following page. A fixed keep leaves the remainder of the page blank and a floating keep moves subsequent text onto that page.

floating license

  1. A licensing model that permits anyone on your network to use a product while a license is available. See also token license.
  2. See concurrent-use license.

floating overlay

  1. An overlay that can be placed anywhere on the page, including over another overlay or image.
  2. See page overlay.

Pertaining to a method of encoding binary numbers and decimal numbers within the limits of finite precision available on computers.

floating point
A method of encoding binary numbers and decimal numbers within the limits of finite precision available on computers.

floating-point constant

  1. A constant in which the binary numbers are encoded within the limits of finite precision available on computers.
  2. A number shown as an optional sign followed by one or more digits and a decimal point, which may be at the end.
  3. A numeric constant shown as an optional sign, followed by the letter D or E, followed by a 1- to 3-digit integer constant. For example, 3E-02, which is 3 times 10 to the -2 power or 0.03.

floating-point format
In binary floating-point representation, the storage format that represents a binary floating-point value.

floating-point notation
A REXX number that is written using exponentiation.

floating-point number

  1. Either a 32-bit or 64-bit approximate representation of a real number. In IBM SQL, floating-point numbers do not include decimal floating-point numbers. See also decimal floating-point number, double-precision floating-point number, single-precision floating-point number.
  2. A real number represented by a pair of distinct numerals. The real number is the product of the fractional part, one of the numerals, and a value obtained by raising the implicit floating-point base to a power indicated by the second numeral.

floating-point operations per second (FLOPS)
A measure of a computer's performance.

floating-point register (FPR)
A register used to manipulate data in a floating-point representation system. [I][A]

floating-point type
A real type that is specified by a relative error bound, which is expressed as a number of significant decimal digits.

floating-point unit (FPU)
The portion of a microprocessor dedicated to floating-point operations (calculations involving floating-point numbers).

floating user
A shared user access to the a licensed program that can be assigned temporarily to any user who accesses the program.

floating utility volume
Any volume of a pool of simplex volumes assigned by the storage administrator to a logical storage subsystem (LSS) to serve as dynamic storage for extended remote copy (XRC) functions on that storage subsystem.

See fabric login.

The greatest integer that is less than or equal to the floating-point number under consideration. For example, the floor of 3.5 is 3.

floor plan
The physical layout of any indoor site.

floor price
The cut-off value entered by the supplier for a bid in reverse auction.

floor shipment
Goods or products that are not packaged on pallets or slipsheets. Floor shipments are typically packaged as cartons, cases, drums, or rolls.

See floating-point operations per second.


  1. A series of connected steps in a process or service that represents the overall progression of how the process is performed. See also human service, sequence flow.
  2. An executable service or API.
  3. In Enterprise Service Tools, a graphical representation of the sequence of activities performed in accordance with the business processes of an enterprise. Flows consist of a graph of nodes, with defined entry and exit points. Each node represents invoking a service operation, controlling the flow of the sequence, or performing reusable business logic. Flows are exposed as a service themselves, to be driven externally.
  4. An arrangement between two workspaces or between a workspace and a stream that enables users to deliver and accept change sets.
  5. A single transmission of data passing over a link during a conversation.
  6. The passing of a message from one process to another. For example, Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) flows are those that consist only of messages described by the DRDA protocol as part of the DRDA protocols.
  7. A directional connector between elements in a process, collaboration, or choreography that represents the overall progression of how a process or process segment is performed. There are two types of flows: sequence flow and message flow.
  8. In NetDA/2, the amount of traffic that can pass through a node, connection, or route in both directions during a given period of time.

A visual representation of marketing campaign logic, in which prospects are selected and segmented from various data sources. A typical flowchart provides offers to prospects or tracks responses to offers.

flow control

  1. In OSI, procedures that control the amount of data than can be sent from one node to another. Flow control is used to prevent a node from sending data to another node faster than the receiver can handle it.
  2. In data communication, control of the data transfer rate. See also pacing.

flow controller
A UIMA construct that determines the order in which the components of a top level aggregate are invoked on a CAS.

flow editor
In Enterprise Service Tools, an editor that can be used to construct manually service that represents a screen operations file and to prepopulate a flow by using a captured WSDL screen operations file.

flow line
A directional line that indicates the sequence of activities within a process.

flow log
A collection of flow records.

flow message editor
In Enterprise Service Tools, the default editor provided by the service flow project tools perspective for editing message definition (.mxsd) files.

flow message set editor
In Enterprise Service Tools, the default editor provided by the service flow project tools perspective for editing message set (messageSet.mset) files.

flow object

  1. A graphical object that can be connected to or from a sequence flow. In a process, flow objects are events, activities, and gateways. In a choreography, flow objects are events, choreography activities, and gateways.
  2. An object of the business process model that helps connect components in the workflow.

flow rack
A slanted storage rack in which cartons or pallets are loaded from the back and gravity fed to the front on rollers, from which single units may be picked from the front carton.

flow record
A record of the conversation between two hosts.

flow reduction sequence number (FRSN)
A sequence number space used between two APPN nodes to reduce the amount of APPN topology information that must be exchanged when APPN nodes reconnect to each other.

flow sources
The origin from which flow is captured. A flow source is classified as internal when flow comes from hardware installed on a managed host or it is classified as external when the flow is sent to a flow collector.

flow target
A source or destination of incoming and outgoing change sets. In a team setting, most workspaces have flow targets. Streams have flow targets only if they are part of a stream hierarchy.

See free least-recently used.

See Font Library Service Facility.

See fork lift truck.

See Font Library Update Utility.


  1. In logical unit (LU) 6.2, the process of sending through the network all remaining buffered data generated by a transaction program. The transaction program issues the flush action to begin the process. It also occurs if the network operator issues the command.
  2. Having no indentation.
  3. To transfer computer data from a temporary storage area to the computer's permanent memory.

flush left
Text aligned at the left margin. See also flush right.

flush right
Text aligned at the right margin. See also flush left.

flush-through mode
See write-through mode.

FLWOR expression
An XQuery expression that is comparable to an SQL SELECT statement, providing the capabilities to iterate over input sequences (FOR), bind variables (LET), define filters (WHERE), order filtered results (ORDER BY), and return results (RETURN).

See frequency modulation.

See function management data.

See function management end.

See function management header.

See function modification identifier.

In PSF/VSE, form number. A keyword on the * $$ statement that specifies the printer-parameter member used during printing.

FOB point
See free on board point.

See Font Object Content Architecture.

focal point (FP)
An APPN network node that is the destination of alerts. A focal point allows a customer to centrally manage a network. See also management services focal point.

Focal Point administrator
A user who has administrative rights on a global level that is outside the workspaces. This user does not necessarily have access to all workspaces.

Focal Point database
A database that contains all the users that have access to Focal Point and all of the workspaces that have been created.


  1. The first three components of the dynamic context (context item, context position, and context size) of an XQuery expression. The focus enables the processor to track which items the expression is processing. See also context size.
  2. In VisualAge RPG, the state of a component, as indicated by the cursor, that indicates where a user's interaction with the keyboard will appear.
  3. A noun or a noun phrase that is likely to be present in the answer. To test a candidate answer, the Watson system substitutes the focus with the candidate answer to produce a statement. The truth of the resulting statement is correlated with the value of the substituted answer.

focused clause
The currently selected clause in the contract language.

focus window
See input focus.

See first occurrence data capture.

See firm order exception.

See transparency.


  1. To compact data by combining parts of the data; for example, to transform a two-word numeric key by adding the numeric equivalents of the letters.
  2. To continue data on the next line. See also truncate.
  3. To translate the lowercase characters of a character string into uppercase.


  1. A container used to organize objects.
  2. A named collection of related modules that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity.
  3. A project element that can be used to group rules according to business logic.

folder class
A template for folders.

folderless document
A document in the document library that is not in any folder.

folder manager
The Content Manager model for managing data as online documents and folders. You can use the folder manager APIs as the primary interface between your applications and the Content Manager content servers.

folder pane
The Notes workspace area that shows the folders and views available in the opened database.

folder path
A folder name, followed by one or more additional folder names, where each preceding folder is found. For example, path A/B indicates that folder B is within folder A, and that folder A is in the root folder.

folder role
A set of permissions that apply to all jobs, report packs and dashboards within the folder. See also user type.

The substitution of one graphic character for another. Folding generally maps a larger character set into a subset, and may result in loss of information. Folding allows the presentation of uppercase graphic characters when lowercase characters are not available. See also monocase, mono-casing.

fold memory
The ability of a form to refold at the fold perforation after exposure to heat during the fusing process.

fold perforation
The perforation on which a form is folded during manufacture and refolded after printing. See also page perforation.

A page numbering format that places the page number at the outside of the running head at the top of the page.

folio-size paper
Paper that is 216 mm by 330 mm (8.5 in. by 13 in.).

A user-defined taxonomy used to categorize a document using tags that are meaningful to the user. A folksonomy is usually accessible to an organization or to the public and improves search capabilities. See also Dogear.

To subscribe to someone's profile, or in some cases, to resources such as communities and forums, to see their updates. See also unfollow.

In mobile computing, someone who subscribes to a Twitter feed. See also social network, tweeter.

follower store
A store that follows the operational processes of a designated model store.

The act of subscribing to a profile, topic, or blog to receive notifications of updates.

follows dependency
A dependency where a job or job stream cannot start until other jobs or job streams have completed successfully. See also dependency.

follow-up action
The next task that needs to be performed after the completion of a task.

follow-up date
The date on which the user needs to follow up on an alert that has been raised.


  1. A family or assortment of characters of a given size and style, for example, 9-point Bodoni modern.
  2. A complete set of characters or symbols which share the same size and style. For example, 12 point Goudy Oldstyle Bold is a font. Fonts can contain as few as 26 characters for the basic alphabet, or up to hundreds of characters. Fonts for some languages, like Japanese, can exceed these numbers, which make them more difficult to access from the standard keyboard. See also typeface.
  3. A particular type style (for example, Bodoni or Times Roman) that contains definitions of character sets, marker sets, and pattern sets.

font baseline extent
In IPDS architecture, the sum of the uniform or maximum baseline offset and the maximum baseline descender of all characters in the font.

font character set

  1. A Font Object Content Architecture (FOCA) resource containing descriptive information, font metrics, and the digital representation of character shapes for a specified graphic character set.
  2. Part of an AFP font that contains the raster patterns, identifiers, and descriptions of characters.

font control record
In architecture, the record sent in an IPDS Load Font Control command to specify a font ID and other font parameters that apply to the complete font.

font definition
A listing of the printing attributes of a coded font, contained in an internal library member built into an external library object called a coded font.

font height
See vertical font size.

font ID
A number that identifies the character style and size for certain printers.

font index

  1. In IPDS architecture, an LF1-type raster-font resource containing character metrics for each code point of a raster font or raster-font section for a particular font inline sequence. There can be a font index for 0 degree, 90 degree, 180 degree, and 270 degree font inline sequences. An LF1-type coded font or coded-font section is the combination of one fully described font and one font index.
  2. The mapping of a descriptive font name to a font member name in a font library. An example of a font member in a font library is a font resource object. Examples of attributes used to form a descriptive font name are typeface, type family name, point size, weight, and width. An association of code points with the metrics and character patterns for a particular character rotation.

font inline sequence
In architecture, the clockwise rotation of the inline direction relative to a character pattern.

Font Library Service Facility (FLSF)
An IBM licensed program that provides a way to make changes to a font in a font library while retaining its correct format.

Font Library Update Utility (FLU)
An MVS-based utility processed against the AFP font library to ensure that the appropriate GRID information is available for processing COM text.

font list
In AIXwindows, a list of available fonts specified by the fontlist parameter. Also, the list of fonts to be used in formatting a source document.

font mapping
PSF has internal tables that equate core raster fonts to core outline fonts. This comparing and matching activity is called mapping. The default is for PSF for OS/390 not to map fonts, but you can set XTP7MTOF to ON (B'1') in Exit 7 to enable PSF to map raster fonts to outline fonts.

font metric
Measurement information that defines individual character values such as height, width, and space, as well as overall font values such as averages and maximums. Font metrics can be expressed in specific fixed units, such as pels, or in relative units that are independent of both the resolution and size of the font. See also character set metric, fixed metrics, relative metrics.

font modification parameter
In architecture, a parameter that alters the appearance of a typeface.

font object
An AFP resource object that is a member of a font library and which describes a font.

Font Object Content Architecture (FOCA)
An architecture that defines the content of IBM's digital font resources by means of a set of parameter definitions.

font orientation
A value composed of the print direction and character rotation.

font palette
In VisualAge RPG, a window from which the user can select the font to be applied to a selected control.

font production
The process of font creation that generally consists of the following: designing character images, converting character images to a digital-technology format, such as bit image, vector drawing order, or outline algorithm, defining the parameter values for each character, such as height, width, and escapement, assigning appropriate descriptive and identifying information, and creating a font resource that contains the required information in a format that can be used by a text-processing system. Digital-technology formats include bit image, vector drawing order, and outline algorithms. Parameter values include such attributes as height, width, and escapement.

font pruning
An action in which PSF reduces the number of characters downloaded to the printer by sending only those characters in a character set that are actually referenced by the code page (characters without code points are not sent). Font pruning can save time needed to download the characters and can reduce the amount of raster pattern storage used by the printer but can increase processor use.

font referencing
A method used to identify or characterize a font. Examples of processes that use font referencing are document editing, formatting, and presentation.

font resource
A resource object that is required to print AFPDS documents on a printer. The three types of font resources are coded fonts, character sets, and code pages. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *FNTRSC.

font section
A subdivision of a double-byte font character set. The section consists of a maximum of 256 characters.

font set
The set of fonts to be used in formatting a source document.

font structure
A data structure that contains all the information necessary to create a font set.

font table
A list of all fonts that have been loaded into the system.

font typeface global identifier (FGID)
A unique font identifier that can be expressed as either a 2-byte binary or a 5-digit decimal value. The FGID is used to identify a type style and the following characteristics: posture, weight, and width.

font width (FW)
A characteristic value of a font, parallel to the character baseline, that represents the size of all graphic characters in a font.

food traceability framework
An instrumented method of tracking food through the supply chain by using RFIDs, barcodes, or other identifiers.

Text that is formatted to be in the bottom margin of printed pages in a document. See also header.

See footer.

footing area
In COBOL, the position of the page body adjacent to the bottom margin.


  1. A supporting piece of XBRL information that is tied to a fact.
  2. A note of reference, explanation, or comment placed below the text of a column or page, but within the body of the page above the footer.

The amount of computer storage that is occupied by a computer program. For example, if a program occupies a large amount of storage, it has a large footprint.

See firm order policy.

See file-owning region.

In Application Development ToolSet, a specification that tests whether the control field in the input record contains a particular entry. If it does not, the control field character is replaced before the record is sorted.

forced down
See unmanage.

forced Licensed Internal Code completion
A function of the system that allows the user to force a deadlocked system to complete interrupted machine instructions by turning the Power switch on the control panel to the Delayed Off position.

forced lot
A lot in which it is mandatory for suppliers to bid on all items within the lot.

forced shutdown
A type of shutdown of the CICS adapter where the adapter immediately disconnects from IBM MQ for z/OS, regardless of the state of any currently active tasks. See also quiesced shutdown.

forced spacing
A mode that overrides the page spacing from the line record.

forced update
An update to a log that must be written to nonvolatile storage before processing can proceed. In order to ensure synchronization in case of failure, most Resource Recovery Services (RRS) logging operations are forced updates.

forced varyon
A method of forcing an activation of a volume group that is specified in SMIT. A forced varyon operation can be specified for all volume groups in the resource group if a normal varyon operation for the volume group fails due to a lack of quorum and if PowerHA SystemMirror finds at least one complete copy of every logical volume for this volume group. See also enhanced concurrent mode.

forceful browsing
See Predictable Resource Location.

force time
The time when all items on a distribution queue are sent regardless of how many items are on the queue.


  1. A function that can provide a prediction of future performance of a managed system using past data collected on that managed system.
  2. To analyze current and historical data to determine future trends.

forecast plan
A projection over a selected timeframe based on the job streams and dependencies defined in the database. See also plan.

forecast time span
The full span of historical and future time records. For example, 2 years of history and 5 years of future periods equals 7 total years.


  1. In TSO, the environment in which programs are swapped in and out of main storage to allow terminal users to share processing time.
  2. A mode of running a program in which the shell waits for the program specified on the command line to complete before responding to user input.
  3. In GOCA, the portion of a drawing primitive that is mixed into the presentation space under the control of the current value of the mix and color attributes.
  4. The part of a presentation space that is occupied by object data.
  5. In multiprogramming, the environment in which high-priority programs are run. See also background.

foreground color
A single color assigned to all of the graphic elements that appear in front of all the background graphic elements within a displayed image. See also background color.

foreground mix
In architecture, an attribute used to determine how the foreground color of data is combined with the existing color of a graphics presentation space. An example of data is a graphics primitive. See also background mix.

foreground process
A process that must be completed before another command is issued. See also background process.

foreground process group
A group whose member processes have privileges that are denied to background processes when the controlling terminal is being accessed. Each controlling terminal can have only one foreground process group.

foreground task
The task with which the user is interacting. See also background task.

foreign bus
A service integration bus with which a particular service integration bus can exchange messages.

foreign cell
A cell other than the one to which the local machine belongs. A foreign cell and its binding information are stored in either Global Directory Service (GDS) or the Domain Name System (DNS). See also local cell.

foreign configuration
Configuration options for a hosting application.

Foreign Exchange Subscriber
A signaling protocol that links a user's location to a remote exchange that would not normally be serving that user, to provide, for instance, calls to outside the local area at the local rate.

foreign host
See remote host.

foreign key

  1. A column or set of columns that refers to a parent key.
  2. A field or set of fields in a dependent file of a constraint relationship. Each foreign key value must either match a parent key value in the related parent file or be null.
  3. In a relational database, a key in one table that references the primary key in another table. See also constraint, primary key, unique key.

foreign network
Any network that is interconnected to the local network by one or more intermediate gateways or routers. See also local network.

foreign trade zone (FTZ)
A designated warehouse or area used for storing goods to be exported to other countries. Duty does not have to be paid on imports to an FTZ warehouse. If a company does sell any of the products within the US, duty must be paid.

forensic investigator
The user who extracts relevant data from network traffic and documents in the forensic repository.


  1. A collection of one or more Windows 2000 Active Directory trees, organized as peers and connected by two-way transitive trust relationships between the root domains of each tree. All trees in a forest share a common schema, configuration, and Global Catalog. When a forest contains multiple trees, the trees do not form a contiguous namespace.
  2. An ordered set of subtrees of XML nodes.

forest of trees index (FOT index)
A B-tree index that is divided into smaller subtrees. The subtrees contain multiple root nodes and leaves. Multiple root nodes can alleviate root node contention because concurrent users can access the index. Subtrees can improve query performance by reducing the number of levels involved in buffer read operations. See also B-tree index, subtree.


  1. To create a project and Git repository that contain all of the repository content and history of another project.
  2. To create and start a child process. See also exec.
  3. In a rule flow, a node that splits the execution flow into several parallel transitions. The transitions created from a fork do not have conditions.
  4. In UML diagrams, a node that is used to model a single flow of control that divides into two or more separate but simultaneous flows.
  5. A process element that makes copies of its input and forwards them by several processing paths in parallel.
  6. A function that creates a child process, which is almost an exact copy of the calling, or parent, process.
  7. A point in the process where one sequence flow path is split into two or more paths that run in parallel within the process, allowing multiple activities to run simultaneously rather than sequentially. BPMN uses multiple outgoing sequence flow paths from activities or events or a parallel gateway to perform a fork.
  8. In Git, a divergent copy of a repository that can be modified without affecting or having to synchronize with the original.

forked address space
An address space created by a fork function. A forked address space is perceived by MVS to be a batch job.

fork lift truck (FLT)
A type of material movement equipment used for moving pallets and capable of lifting pallets overhead.

for loop
A loop that repeats the same sequence of activities a specified number of times.


  1. A set of instructions that indicate how the system should format data. In the Forms Integration subsystem, screen entry and printed forms can be designed for EDI documents.
  2. A partially-filled message containing data that can be copied for a new message of the same message type.
  3. A physical sheet of paper or other medium on which data is printed. See also sheet.
  4. A display screen, printed document, or file with defined spaces for information to be inserted.
  5. In query management, an object that describes how to format the data for printing or displaying a report.
  6. A Notes database element that controls how a user edits, displays, and prints documents. A form can contain fields, static text, graphics, and special objects. A Notes database can have any number of forms.

formal module
A module that stores objects and their associated attribute and link information.

formal review
A review characterized by documented procedures and requirements, e.g. inspection. (ISTQB)


  1. The arrangement or layout of data in a data medium.
  2. The shape, size, printing requirements, and general makeup of a printed document or presentation display.
  3. To prepare a diskette for use by a computer, by creating an addressing scheme for data storage.
  4. To arrange information on a page, in a file, or on a display screen.
  5. In programming languages, a language construct that specifies the representation, in character form, of data objects in a file.
  6. In message queuing, a term used to identify the nature of application data in a message.
  7. The sheet size of the plotted drawing in USA, metric, or a user-defined size.

format analysis
A data analysis that validates the pattern of characters that is used to store a data value in selective columns (for example, telephone numbers or Social Security numbers) that have a standard general format.

format identification field (FID field)
In SNA, a field in each transmission header (TH) that indicates the format of the TH; that is, the presence or absence of certain fields. TH formats differ in accordance with the types of nodes between which they pass. See also origin address field.

format independence
The ability to send data to a device without having to be concerned with the format in which the data is displayed. The same data may appear in different formats on different devices.

format line
In SEU, the abbreviated names of the source line fields that are displayed directly above the source line. The format line is displayed when the F (format) line command is run.

format resolution
A value in pels per inch that indicates the resolution in which the data stream is formatted. PSF uses this information to determine which resolution system library to use.

Formats and Protocols (FAP)
In message queuing, a definition of how queue managers communicate with each other, and of how clients communicate with server queue managers.

format selector
A user-defined program (either a CL or a high-level language program) that determines where a record should be placed in the database when an application program does not pass a record format name for a record being added to a logical file.

format set
In MFS, a format definition, all message definitions that refer to the format definition, and any table referred to by the format.

format string attack
An attack that alters the flow of an application by using string formatting library features to access other memory space. Vulnerabilities occur when user-supplied data is used directly as formatting string input for certain C/C++ functions, such as fprintf, printf, sprintf.

formatted data

  1. Data that is transferred between main storage and an input/output device according to a specified format.
  2. In FD:OCA, data whose implied syntax and semantics are represented by architected controls that accompany the data.

formatted data object (FDO)
In architecture, an object that contains formatted data.

Formatted Data Object Content Architecture (FD:OCA)
A defined collection of constructs used to interchange formatted data.

formatted diskette
A diskette on which the control information for a particular computer system has been written but which may or may not contain any data.

formatted document
A document arranged in paragraphs and pages usually for viewing or printing.

formatted file
A file that is arranged with particular characteristics, such as line spacing, headings, and number of characters and lines per page. See also unformatted file.

formatted print data
Data that is in a format ready to be printed. For example, if columnar data is to be printed, the print lines contain imbedded blanks to create the appearance of columns of data. PSF selects each input record and prints it according to specifications contained in the page definition.

formatted print records
Line data made up of records that are formatted for printing on line printers. PSF uses a page definition to print formatted records on page printers.

formatted system service
A portion of VTAM that provides certain system services as a result of receiving a field-formatted command, such as an Initiate or Terminate command. See also unformatted system service.

formatted text
The footnote reference number and the associated text within the footnote that is resolved at the bottom of the page.

format template
The template file (.docx) that applies the default document page size, paragraph styles, header, and footer of the contract language. See also template.

A program that prepares a document or input lines for printing or display on a particular type of device.


  1. In text processing, the capability of a text editor that allows the preparation of the layout of text according to criteria specified by the user.
  2. The initialization of a data medium so that a particular computer system can store data in and subsequently retrieve data from the medium.(T)

formatting mode
In document formatting, the state in which input lines are concatenated and the resulting output lines are justified.

form-based login
An authentication process where a user ID and a password are retrieved using an HTML form, and sent to the server over the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.

form bean
In Struts, a class that stores HTML or JSP form data from a submitted client request or that stores input data from a link that a user clicked. The superclass for all form beans is the ActionForm class.

form class
A group of products that share the same form, such as a liquid or a solid.

form data
The data from a filled-out form which can manually or automatically be saved to an object store. See also content, form data document class, form data entry template, form proxy custom object class, form template.

form data document class
A document class used when specifying how form data is to be saved. See also document class, form data.

form data entry template
An entry template that specifies how form data will be added to an object store. A form data entry template can be associated with document and workflow policies. See also entry template, form data.

form definition
An Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) resource object that defines the characteristics of the form or printed media, including: overlays to be used, duplex printing, text suppression, the position of composed-text data on the form, and the number and modifications of a page.

form environment group (FEG)
An internal object, located in a medium map (in a form definition), that identifies overlays to be used and defines the characteristics of the form and placement of pages.

form factor
The industry-standard physical dimensions of a storage system drive enclosure. Possible values include “3.5 inch”, “2.5 inch”, and “1.8 inch.”

form feed
An ASCII printer control, 0C, that causes the printer to eject the current page. All jobs printing on a page printer should end with a form feed, which forces the last page to print.

form-feed character
A character in the output stream that indicates that printing should start on the next page of an output device. The form-feed character is designated by '\f' in the C and C++ language. If the form-feed character is not the first character of an output line, the result is unspecified. X/Open.

form-field editing
Numeric, character, or date and time editing that can be specified for a form-field instruction.

form flash

  1. The display of a form overlay.(I)(A)
  2. In computer graphics, the projection of a pattern such as a report form, grid, or map, used as the display image.(T)

In EGL, a collection of form parts. A formGroup part is generated as an output separate from an EGL program.

form logout
A mechanism to log out without having to close all web browser sessions.

form map
See form definition.

form number
A user-defined code that identifies the type of paper to be used for an operation on a printer workstation. Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS can use the form number to identify the different print operations belonging to one job.

form overlay
A pattern such as a report form, grid, or map used as background for a display image.

form policy
A file or specification that determines how the form is presented. There are two types of policies: document policy and workflow policy. See also document policy, form proxy custom object class.

form policy specification document class
A document class used with document and workflow policies. See also document class, document policy, workflow policy.

form property
A value used when forms are filled out automatically.

form proxy custom object class
A custom object class used to link form data to form template policies. See also document class, form data, form policy.

forms control buffer (FCB)
A buffer for controlling the vertical format of printed output. The FCB is a line-printer control that is similar to the punched-paper, carriage-control tape. For Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) printers, the forms control buffer is replaced by the page definition.

forms control table (FCT)
An object that contains the special processing requirements for output data streams received from a host system by a remote job entry (RJE) session. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *FCT.

forms design
The process of creating a constant-data design that can be used for preprinted forms, forms overlays, or electronic overlays.

form set
A collection of forms.

forms flash
In AFP support on the 3800 Printing Subsystem, a means of printing an overlay using a negative plate projected on a form.

forms overlay
The photographic negative or print data of a predefined design to be either exposed to the photoconductor by a flash of light or merged into the data stream, producing a preprinted form. The forms overlay is merged with variable data during printing to simulate printing with preprinted forms. See also preprinted form.

forms path
The entire path that the forms take through a printer. The forms path usually begins where the forms are loaded and ends at the stacker.

form template
An XML-based document that contains the framework, intelligence, and graphic and text elements of a form created by the form author in eForms Designer. See also desktop form template document class, document class, document policy, form data, workflow policy.

form template document class
A document class used when defining form templates for document policies and workflow policies. See also document class, document policy, workflow policy.

form type
A 10-character identifier, assigned by the user, that identifies each type of form used for printed output.


  1. A database object that is a calculation, rule or other expression for manipulating the data within a multidimensional database.
  2. An expression that has program-like attributes; for example, a formula can be used to assign values to variables and use a limited control logic.

formula linkbase
A collection of functions that can be used by a number of taxonomies and is not necessarily tied to a particular taxonomy.

for statement

  1. A looping statement that contains the word for followed by a list of expressions enclosed in parentheses (the condition) and a statement (the action). Each expression in the parenthesized list is separated by a semicolon, which cannot be omitted.
  2. In programming languages, a statement that executes one or more statements for each of a set of values assigned to one or more variables.

A high-level programming language used primarily for scientific, engineering, and mathematical applications.

Fortran signature CSECT
The resident routine that indicates that the load module in which it is present contains a Fortran routine.

An online discussion board where people can ask questions, share their experiences, and discuss topics of common interest.

forum moderation
The review and approval of user-added content by a moderator before it appears in a forum. A moderator of a forum can review and manage forum topics before they are published and review forum topics that are already available. In addition, when forum content is flagged as inappropriate by forum users, a notification is sent to the moderator who reviews the content and decides what action to take.

Forums portlet
A portlet that lets WebSphere Portal users view and interact with forum content from a Portal application.

In Struts, an object that is returned by an action and that has two fields: a name and a path (typically the URL of a JSP). The path indicates where a request is to be sent. A forward can be local (pertaining to a specific action) or global (available to any action).

forwardable credential
A mechanism-specific security credential that is issued to access a resource, which is used to obtain another credential for access to a different resource.

forwardable ticket
A ticket that allows a server to pass on the credentials of the requester to another service. For this to happen, the initial TGT must have been requested with the forwardable option and the server is allowed to delegate credentials.

forward buy
A purchase of an amount of product that exceeds immediate needs in order to take advantage of favorable pricing offered for promotions.

forward capacity
A process in which a carrier indicates that it will have equipment available in a specific area, at a specific time. A shipper can find this available equipment and use the carrier to deliver a shipment.

forward data type mapping
In a federated system, the mapping of a data type at a remote data source to a comparable DB2 data type. For most data sources, the default forward data type mappings are in the wrappers. See also data type mapping, reverse data type mapping.

forward declaration
A declaration of a class or function made earlier in a compilation unit, so that the declared class or function can be used before it has been defined.

A name server whose main purpose is to handle all off-site queries for name servers at a given site.

forward explicit route
An explicit route that originates in the host.

forwarding destination
One or more vendor systems that receive raw and normalized data from log sources and flow sources.

forwarding server
A read-only server that replicates all changes sent to it. This contrasts to a peer/master server in that it is read only and it can have no peers.

forward log recovery
The third phase of restart processing, during which DB2 for z/OS processes the log in a forward direction to apply all REDO log records.

forward-mapping domain
A domain database file that maps host names to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

forward-only cursor
See nonscrollable cursor.

forward recovery
The process of reconstructing a file from a particular point by restoring a saved version of the file and then applying changes to that file in the same order they were originally made. See also backout recovery, nonrecoverable data set, recoverable data set.

forward spacing
A mode used during repositioning for I/O error recovery and operator command processing. Pages that do not need to be reprocessed are skipped over.

foster parent
In a hierarchy or auto-level hierarchy, an artificially introduced member that acts as a parent for members that either have no defined parent or whose defined parent cannot be found at the next highest level.

FOT index
See forest of trees index.

foundation baseline
A baseline that configures a stream. Foundation baselines specify the versions and activities that appear in a view.

foundation node
The server where the management host and the administration host run.

four-way breakout cable
The cable used to connect the Digital Trunk Quad Adapter with up to four digital trunk processors.

See focal point.

See file package block.

See Field Programmable Gate Array.

See file plan object store.

See final project proposal.

See floating-point register.

See frames per second.

See floating-point unit.

See fully qualified domain name.

See fully qualified network name.

See fully qualified procedure correlation identifier.

fractional second
The portion of a second that is greater than 0 but less than 1.

fraggle attack
A type of denial-of-service attack in which User Datagram Protocol (UDP) echo requests are sent to a broadcast or multicast address, with the source address spoofed as the victim's address.


  1. A portion of a table or index.
  2. See fragmentation.
  3. A sequence of captured visitor hits.
  4. A file that contains HTML tags that can be appended to a parent element.
  5. A unit of disk storage that is smaller than a (4KB) page.
  6. The smallest unit of file system disk space allocation. A fragment can be 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096 bytes in size. The fragment size is defined when a file system is created.
  7. The space allocated for an amount of data too small to require a full block. A fragment consists of one or more subblocks.
  8. An Internet Protocol (IP) datagram that contains only a portion of the user data from a larger IP datagram.


  1. A process that enables the user to define groups of rows or index keys within a table according to some algorithm or scheme in order to control where data is stored at a table level.
  2. A data organization scheme in which index or table data is divided across multiple storage objects.
  3. The process of breaking down an Internet Protocol (IP) datagram into smaller parts to match the capabilities of the physical medium over which it will be transmitted. See also defragmentation, segmenting.
  4. The separation of the index into pieces as a result of inserts and deletions in the index.
  5. An operating system's process of writing different parts of a file to discontiguous sectors on a computer storage medium when contiguous space that is large enough to contain the entire file is not available. When data is thus fragmented, the time that it takes to access the data may increase because the operating system must search different tracks for information that should be in one location.

fragment elimination
In query execution plans, the technique of applying one or more filter predicates to avoid scanning fragments that do not include any qualifying rows.


  1. A construct that contains all of the relevant ESG (English Slot Grammar) slots and their values. Frames are created during preprocessing when building Prismatic Knowledge Bases.
  2. In Open Systems Interconnection architecture, a data structure consisting of slots that can accept the values of specific attributes and from which inferences can be drawn.
  3. The block of information transmitted between two or more stations in the data link layer of a network. It includes delimiters, control characters, and information.
  4. In hypertext markup language (HTML) coding, a subset of the web browser window.
  5. A rectangular area on microfilm, bounded by imaginary intersecting, orthogonal lines that form a grid pattern, within which data can be recorded. The grid pattern does not actually appear on the microfilm.
  6. The hardware support structure, covers, and all electrical parts mounted therein that are packaged as one entity for shipping.
  7. A group of data bits, surrounded by a beginning sequence and an ending sequence or other control information.
  8. In Fibre Channel technology, the structure used to transmit data between ports. A frame consists of a start-of-frame delimiter, a header, any optional headers, the data payload, a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), and an end-of-frame delimiter. There are two types of frames: link control frames (such as transmission acknowledgments) and data frames. See also data word, packet.
  9. A set of consecutive digit time slots in which the position of each digit time slot can be identified by reference to a frame alignment signal.
  10. A unit of information in a recording. A frame can either be a screen capture or information about mouse events, keyboard events, or other relevant events.

frame buffer
A quantity of video RAM (VRAM) that is used to store the image displayed on the monitor. The frame buffer is the electronic canvas on which every drawing primitive is drawn.

frame check sequence (FCS)
In communications, a field in a frame used to determine if the frame was received without an error.

frame handler (FH)
See frame-relay frame handler.

frame handler subport (FHSP)
The access point of a frame-relay frame handler to a PVC segment. Frame handler subports function in pairs; frames enter the frame handler through one frame handler subport and exit through the other. See also subport.

frame level

  1. See data link level.
  2. See link level.

frame level interface
In packet mode operation, the level of the interface between a data terminal equipment (DTE) and a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) associated with the exchange of packets contained in frames for local error control. See also packet level interface.

frame rate
The frequency with which video frames are displayed on a device, measured in frames per second.

frame reject (FRMR)
In communications, a data link command or response used to reject a received frame. A frame reject is generally used to indicate that the received protocol data unit is not valid or not supported.

frame relay

  1. A protocol for routing frames through the network based on the address field (data link connection identifier) in the frame and for managing the route or virtual connection.
  2. An industry-standard, switched data link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits using HDLC encapsulation between connected devices.

frame-relay connection
See frame-relay physical line.

frame-relay frame handler (FRFH)
The function in a frame-relay node that routes (or switches) frames along a permanent virtual circuit (PVC). A frame handler receives frames from an adjacent frame-relay node and uses the DLCI to forward them to the next node on the PVC.

frame-relay network
A network that consists of frame-relay frame handlers (FRFH) in which frames are passed from one frame-relay terminating equipment (FRTE) station to another through a series of one or more FRFHs.

frame-relay physical line
The physical connection between two frame-relay nodes. A frame-relay physical line can simultaneously support PVC segments for both the frame-handler and terminating-equipment functions. In NCP, a frame-relay physical line is defined as a nonswitched duplex line.

frame-relay protocol
A layer 2 frame-switching method that is defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT).

frame-relay segment set
The set of subports that defines the primary and substitute permanent virtual circuit (PVC) paths in an NCP with frame-relay switching equipment (FRSE) support.

frame-relay switch
A frame-relay node that provides both the frame-relay frame handler function and the local management interface (LMI) function.

frame-relay switching equipment subport set
The set of primary and, optionally, substitute frame handler subports (FHSPs) within an NCP that comprise those used for a given frame-relay segment set.

frame-relay switching equipment support
In NCP, a set of frame-relay functions that includes the frame-relay frame handler function and the local management interface (LMI) function. NCP provides additional functions, including performance measurement and enhanced reliability, that are not defined by ANSI or CCITT standards. See also frame-relay terminating equipment.

frame-relay terminal equipment
A device that can connect to a frame-relay network to provide the frame-relay terminating equipment function. See also frame-relay terminating equipment.

frame-relay terminating equipment (FRTE)
The function at the end of a frame-relay permanent virtual circuit (PVC). Frame-relay terminating equipment provides higher-layer protocols with access to a frame-relay network through terminating equipment subports (TESPs). It does this by (a) adding frame-relay frame headers to data for another protocol and sending the frames to adjacent frame-relay nodes, and (b) receiving frames from adjacent frame-relay nodes and removing the frame headers. See also frame-relay switching equipment support, frame-relay terminal equipment.

An HTML file that defines the layout of a web page that is composed of other, separate HTML files.

frames per second (FPS)
The number of frames displayed per second.

frame switching
The function performed by frame-relay nodes to route frames through a network.

frame window
In X.25 communications, the number of frames that can be outstanding without acknowledgment.


  1. An architecture for an application that provides a standard structure for an application, and general, extensible functionality. A framework enables and simplifies consistent implementation of complex technologies for application development.
  2. A set of class libraries encompassing the following: Functions (or set of functions) of a particular domain arranged in an inheritance hierarchy. An encoded model for use of the framework that defines the relationships between the classes in the framework and the rules that govern their use. Frameworks call the code; the user does not call the frameworks.
  3. A set of object classes that provide a collection of related functions for a user or piece of software.
  4. A set of related architectural components.
  5. A set of classes that embodies an abstract design for solutions to a family of related problems.

framework server
The server where the server component is installed. This server also holds information about the configuration definitions and supported software that the product manages.

framing error
An asynchronous transmission error usually caused by the number of bits per character not being set the same on the sending and receiving workstations.

franchise pricing
A set of functionality which allows users of Price Management and Price Optimization to set transfer prices.

See fast response cache accelerator.

Free Carrier (FCA)
A trade contract arrangement where the seller takes responsibility for the goods at the back dock and handles all shipping and customs clearance.

free-control-interval pointer list
In a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), sequence-set, index record, a vertical pointer that gives the location of a free control interval in the control area governed by the record.

freedays calendar
See non-working days calendar.

free float
A period of time in a process flow after a task runs and before the subsequent task can start. Free floats may result from parallel paths in a process that take varying lengths of time to complete.

Pertaining to the entering of data without regard for rules of format. See also fixed-form.

free format
A format for entering characters that does not have predefined fields. See also text entry.

free-form project
A monitored directory where Java EE artifacts or module files can be created or dropped. As artifacts are introduced or modified in the free-form project, the artifacts are placed in the appropriate Java EE project structures that are dynamically generated in the workspace. The rapid deployment tools generates deployment artifacts required to construct a Java EE-compliant application and deploy that application to a target server. See also monitored directory.

free-form surface
The open area in a visual editor where developers can add and manipulate objects. For example, the Struts application diagram editor provides a free-form surface for representing JSP pages, HTML pages, action mappings, other Struts application diagrams, links from JSP pages, and forwards from action mappings.

free-form text
Unstructured text consisting of words or sentences.

free item
A chart item that is not ordered. Free items can be moved anywhere on the chart. See also controlling item, ordered item.

free least-recently used (FLRU)
A list that tracks free or unmodified pages in a queue.

free list
A list of available blocks on each file system.

free on board point (FOB point)
The point where responsibility and liability for a shipped item are transferred. The FOB point is usually either the destination or the shipping point.

free pool
The total amount of resources on a particular frame (the number of CPUs and the amount of memory) minus the resources that are currently used by the LPARs. The free pool on a particular frame can be dynamically allocated through the HMC to the LPAR on the same frame, if the LPAR requires additional resources. See also Capacity Upgrade on Demand, dynamic LPAR, Hardware Management Console.

free space
The total amount of unused space in a page, data set, file, storage medium, or file system. Free space is the space that is not used to store records, control information, or files.

free space control record (FSCR)
A record containing approximations of available space for each of the next 500 pages. In multidimensional clustering (MDC) or insert time clustering (ITC) tables, there is one FSCR for each block. The FSCR is stored on the first page of each block and covers only the pages in that block.

free space element (FSE)
In a hierarchical direct database, the first 8 bytes of an area that is free space. The FSE describes the area of free space in a control interval or block that is 8 or more bytes in length.

free space element anchor point (FSEAP)
In a hierarchical direct database, the first four bytes of a control interval or block. The first 2-byte field contains the offset, in bytes, to the first free space element (FSE) in the control interval or block. The second 2-byte field identifies whether this block or control interval contains a bit map.

freestanding application

  1. A z/OS C/C++ application that does not use the services of the dynamic z/OS C/C++ run-time library or of the Language Environment. Under z/OS C support, this ability is a feature of the System Programming C support.
  2. An application that is created to run without the run-time environment or library with which it was developed.

free-standing text
Text in a composed-text structured field that does not follow an RPS or TRN text control.

free store
Dynamically allocated memory. New and delete are used to allocate and deallocate free store.

free-text condition
A condition in Rembo-C syntax using variables and logical operators to evaluate true or false.

free text search
A search in which the search term is expressed as free-form text.

Free Time database
A database on a Domino server that is the component of calendar scheduling that stores times that users are available for meetings.

free-time request
A request to look up a user's free time in the Free Time database.

An operation in which a storage system blocks I/O from the host system to the affected volumes on the primary site. A freeze operation stops mirroring between the primary and secondary volumes to ensure data consistency at the secondary site. See also thaw.

freeze area
In a spreadsheet that is very long or wide, an area of rows or columns that can be frozen, such as table headers or other contents, to make them visible on the screen all of the time.

freight all kinds (FAK)
A general freight class for LTL shipments. A company that manufactures only a few similar products might use the same FAK class in all of the LTL contracts.

freight allowance
A sum of money paid to a retailer that is determined by the quantity of product moved from the manufacturer's location to a retailer's location by manufacturer owned trucks.

freight class
A pricing structure that is used to rate LTL shipments. Each freight class is used to represent a type of commodity.

freight terms
The terms and conditions of calculated transportation costs.

A copy group attribute that specifies the minimum interval, in days, between incremental backups.

frequency coupler (F-coupler)
A physical device that merges broadband analog signals with digital data on an IBM Cabling System using shielded twisted-pair wiring. The IBM F-Coupler separates analog signals and sends them from the IBM Cabling System to the workstation. The F-Coupler allows the IBM Cabling System to accommodate simultaneous analog video with data traffic on a token-ring network.

frequency distribution
In information analysis, the number of occurrences of each unique value in a column and the characteristics of that column. A frequency distribution is a foundation on which other analyses are run when profiling data.

frequency iteration
Repeated intervals of scheduled tasks or maintenance.

frequency modulation (FM)
The process of regulating the frequency of the carrier wave in accordance with speech or a signal.

See field registration file.

See frame-relay frame handler.


  1. An entity that has an established connection to another entity for communication. For example, a server can be a friend to another server.
  2. A contact in social software. A friend usually has access to information that is blocked from other users.
  3. To create a relationship link with another user. See also unfriend.

friend class
A class in which all member functions are granted access to the private and protected members of another class. It is named in the declaration of another class and uses the keyword friend as a prefix to the class.

friendly name
A more understandable name for something that is indecipherably technical.

See fulfillment reengineering management plan.

See frame reject.

front buffer
In GL, in double buffer mode, the visible plane of the main frame buffer bit planes. Typically, an application draws into the back buffer and views the front buffer for dynamic graphics.

front-end node
An IBM System Blue Gene node on which users compile applications and submit them to be run.

front-end processor (FEP)
See communication controller.

front-end programming interface (FEPI)
A separately-installable function of CICS Transaction Server that enables communication with non-LU6.2 partners by simulating an LU0 or LU2 device. FEPI allows CICS to communicate with existing applications on LU0 or LU2 systems without change to those applications.

front-end system

  1. An IMS in an MSC network in which all terminals are connected, messages are routed to the proper processing IMS, and all replies are routed to the terminals. A front-end system may also perform back-end processing. See also back-end system, pseudo-front-end system, transaction processing system.
  2. A system that provides access to applications that run on other systems.

front-end transaction
In synchronous transaction-to-transaction communication, the transaction that acquires the session to a remote system and initiates a transaction on that system. See also back-end transaction.

frontier exploration
The practice of investing in and developing regions that have traditionally been undeveloped, typically for oil or gas production. Frontier exploration poses risks because the terrain is unknown.

front matter
In a book, those sections (such as the preface, abstract, table of contents, and list of illustrations) that are placed before the main chapters or sections.

Pertaining to a client-facing application that operates in real time.

frozen version
A document version whose custom properties cannot be edited.

See Federal Real Property Profile.

See functional recovery routine.

See flow reduction sequence number.


  1. See file request thread element.
  2. See frame-relay terminating equipment.

See field-replaceable unit.

In GL, a truncated, four-sided pyramid; that is, a pyramid with the point cut off. In a perspective projection, the shape of the clipping volume is a frustum. The bottom of the frustum is referred to the far clipping plane, the top of the frustum is the near clipping plane, and the sides are respectively the top, left, bottom, and right clipping planes. In an orthographic projection, the clipping volume is a parallelepiped.

See file system.


  1. See field search argument.
  2. See functional subsystem application.

See free space control record.

See free space element.

See free space element anchor point.

See finite state grammar.


  1. See functional subsystem interface.
  2. See functional subsystem intercommunication.

See file space ID.


  1. See file system migrator.
  2. See finite state machine.

FSM instance directory
A directory used by a finite state machine (FSM) to store temporary files, such as shared memory handles and trace files.


  1. See flexible service processor.
  2. See file security packet.
  3. See Fibre Channel Service Protocol.

See Fibre Channel shortest path first.

See functional statistics record.

See functional subsystem.

See fault-tolerant agent.

See field tab.

See file transfer, access, and management.

See file tap.

See first time data capture.

See full time equivalent.

See full truckload.

FTL carrier
See full truckload carrier.

See File Transfer Protocol.

FTP client
A software program that is used to transfer files to and from an FTP server.

FTP server
A software or hardware server that responds to File Transfer Protocol.


  1. See file transfer support.
  2. See fiber transport system.

See foreign trade zone.

fuel accessorial
An accessorial that is used to apply fuel rate changes to shipments. The fuel prices are calculated based on the U.S. federal fuel index.

fuel dip
See stick reading.

fuel index
A matrix of fuel prices that is used to track and update fuel price changes. Shippers can define fuel accessorials, which apply fuel rate changes to shipments, based on the prices in the fuel index.

The function through which requests to create, update, or remove accounts are initiated.

fulfillment center
A storage warehouse where products are packaged and shipped to customers. Fulfillment centers, stores, and shipping carriers are treated as separate entities. See also disposition, shipping carrier.

fulfillment reengineering management plan (FRMP)

See feature-unique Licensed Internal Code.

full access state
A state indicating that both read access and write access to a table are allowed.

full arc
A complete circle or ellipse.

full attribution
An auditing feature of the entity database whereby specific details are stored on where the identities come from. By accumulating this context, all data in the entity database can be traced back to the original source system.

full backup

  1. The process of copying all the files on a system. See also cumulative backup.
  2. The process of backing up the entire server database. A full backup begins a new database backup series. See also database backup series, database snapshot, incremental backup.

full build
In Eclipse, a build in which all resources within the scope of the build are considered. See also incremental build.

Pertains to a software licensing scheme that bases charges on the capacity of the entire machine or cluster of machines that is available to the licensed program, rather than on just one or more partitions. See also processor value unit, subcapacity.

full capacity
The total number of physical processors that are available for use in an eligible machine.

full capacity licensing
A method of licensing in which the licensee must obtain PVU entitlements that are sufficient to cover all activated processor cores in the physical hardware environment that are made available to or managed by the licensed program.

full case
An unbroken case that is received, stored, and shipped in the original carton from the supplier in the standard quantity, always received from that supplier.

full character set
The maximal character set of a code page such that there are no more unassigned graphic code points remaining in the associated encoding scheme. No other larger character set can be represented in that code page. For example, CS 697 (the maximal character set of CP 500 in encoding scheme ES 1100), contains 190 graphic characters and is assigned all the 190 available graphic code points in ES 1100. See also maximal character set, subset character set.

full deployment
Deployment of all the data required to set up the resources for an entire instance. See also delta deployment.

full DST capability
A dedicated service tools (DST) capability used by a service representative or an experienced system user that provides access to all DST functions except changing DST passwords.

full-duplex (FDX)
See duplex.

full-function database
A hierarchical database that is accessed through Data Language I (DL/I) call language and can be processed by all six types of application programs. Examples of full-function databases include HDAM, PHDAM, and HIDAM.

full function mode
The state that permits a printer to produce page-mode output.

full harvest
An IBM StoredIQ Platform Data Server harvest setting type that can be used instead of an incremental harvest. A harvest type that is run on a selected volume, regardless of when it was last harvested, on every volume or on individual volumes to cover gaps due to exceptions or to pick up deleted events.

The ICE mode in which the TURN Server considers all possible candidates, including those computers hosted behind a network address translator or a firewall, when gathering possible connection pairs for data transmission. FULL ICE mode is the default method by which clients access other clients.

full installation
The process of installing both the CSM software and the operating system on the nodes of the cluster, as opposed to installing only CSM on the nodes, or installing only the operating system on the nodes.

full menus
A choice that allows a user to see all of the choices available on the menus.

full-motion video
Video reproduction at 30 frames per second (fps) for NTSC signals or 25 fps for PAL signals.

full name
A construction of the name of an item and the names of any items in which the name is nested. The full name is useful in indicating where an item fits in a hierarchy. For example, if a variable is nested within a loop, the variable's full name will include the name of the loop. Brackets ([ ]) are used to indicate the iterations of a loop or grid and a single period (.) is used to indicate a parent/child relationship.

full notebook
A choice that allows a user to see all of the choices available in the notebook.

full outer join
A join whose result consists of the matched rows of the two tables that were joined and the unmatched rows of both tables. See also join, left outer join, outer join, right outer join.

full paging
The final phase of the IPL sequence, in which all functions can access all data on all disk units in the ASP. See also limited paging, prestatic paging, static paging.

full path name
The name of any directory or file expressed as a string of directories and files beginning with the root directory.

full pointer
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a pointer without the restrictions of a reference pointer.

full procedural file
In RPG, a file that uses input operations controlled by programmer-specified operation codes instead of by the program cycle. See also primary file.

full refresh
In data replication, the process of loading a target table with data from a source table. See also change-capture replication.

full repository
A complete set of information about every queue manager in a cluster. This set of information is called the repository or sometimes the full repository and is usually held by two of the queue managers in the cluster. See also partial repository.

full restore
The creation of a new database and restoration of the contents of a full backup set to that database.

full save operation
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a backup operation that includes all objects, libraries, or folders in a control group regardless of whether they have been changed since the last backup operation or archive operation.

full-screen application
An application program that requires control of a display screen. It cannot run in a window.

full-screen editor
A program that allows users to edit an entire screen of data or text at one time.

full-screen mode
A form of screen presentation in which the contents of an entire terminal screen can be displayed at once. See also line mode.

A subselect, a values-clause, or a number of both that are combined by set operators. Fullselect specifies a result table. If UNION is not used, the result of the fullselect is the result of the specified subselect. See also scalar fullselect.

full snapshot
A backup of all data at a certain point in time.

full status
An attribute of an agent that enables it to be updated with the status of jobs and job streams running on all other workstations in its domain and in subordinate domains, but not on peer or parent domains. A backup domain manager or master domain manager must be full status. See also backup domain manager, backup master domain manager, domain.

full talent gateway
Functionality added to the basic talent gateway/career center that allows candidates to search and view open positions as well as manage a profile history.

full-text index
A data structure that references data items to enable a search to find documents that contain the query terms.

full-text indexing
A method used to create and maintain an index catalog of text-based content and string properties stored in the database of an object store.

full-text search
Search option that lets you search a Notes database for words and phrases, as well as perform more complex searches using wildcards and logical operators.

full time equivalent (FTE)
Head count or people resource overhead that is used in a particular site.

full trace
Option for formatting CICS trace entries. Full trace shows all the data for each trace entry. See also abbreviated trace.

full truckload (FTL)
The quantity of freight required to fill a truck.

full truckload carrier (FTL carrier)
A trucking operation where the customer pays for all of the truckload. See also less than truckload carrier.

full validation
A second pass of entry where all data that was entered in the Initial Entry is entered again by an operator.

full version
A component version that contains all of the artifacts in the component, as opposed to an incremental version. See also incremental version, version.

full volume dump
In DFSMShsm, the process of using a DFSMSdss function that dumps the entire volume image.

full volume restore
In DFSMShsm, the process of using a DFSMSdss function that restores the entire volume image.

A sequence of bits or characters that comprises four bytes (one word) and is referred to as a unit. See also halfword.

fullword binary
In DB2 for i5/OS, a binary number with a precision of 31 bits.

fullword boundary
A storage location whose address is evenly divisible by 4. See also word boundary.

fully described font
The IPDS form of a host font for which PSF converts pairs of host font character sets and code pages into IPDS form before downloading them to the printer for printing.

fully escaped mapping
A mapping of characters in an SQL identifier to characters in an XML name where some characters might be represented using XML character escapes.

fully meshed network
A network in which each routing or switching point is directly connected to every other routing or switching point. See also partially meshed network.

fully qualified data set name
A data set in which all the qualifiers are completely spelled out.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
In Internet communications, the name of a host system that includes all of the subnames of the domain name. An example of a fully qualified domain name is rchland.vnet.ibm.com. See also host name.

fully qualified generic profile
A data set profile that has a name that contains no generic characters. A fully qualified generic profile protects only resources whose names exactly match the name of the pro-file. See also discrete profile, generic profile.

fully qualified host name
A complete qualified name that includes all names in the hierarchical sequence above the structure member to which the name refers, as well as the member itself.

fully qualified name
A qualified name that includes all names in the hierarchical sequence above the structure member to which the name refers, as well as the name of the member itself.

fully qualified network name (FQNN)
In a network hierarchy, the name of an object that includes all of the departments. An example of a fully qualified network name is CompanyA.Department.Marketing.

fully qualified path
A string that begins with the root directory of a file system, followed by an ordered list of subdirectories and terminated by a file name.

fully qualified procedure correlation identifier (FQPCID)
See procedure correlation identifier.


  1. Any instruction or set of related instructions that performs a specific operation. See also macro, user-defined function.
  2. A built-in formula that performs specialized calculations automatically.
  3. A named group of statements that can be called and evaluated and can return a value to the calling statement. See also built-in function.
  4. In REXX, a series of instructions that a REXX procedure calls to perform a specific task and to return a value. The three types of routines that can be called as functions are internal, built-in, and external.
  5. In SQL, an operation that supplies a single value from another value or from a set of values. A function obtains a single value by applying the function name (for example, AVG) to the result of the expression (for example, column-name).
  6. A machine action such as carriage return or line feed.
  7. A relationship between a set of input data values and a set of result values that is used to extend and customize SQL or XQuery. Functions are invoked from elements of SQL statements such as the select list or the FROM clause and from XQuery as primary expressions. See also aggregate function, built-in function, external function, routine, row function, scalar function, sourced function, SQL function, table function, user-defined function.
  8. In ADSI, an ADSI instruction, or group of instructions.
  9. A user-defined set of mathematical or verbal criteria that is used to obtain highly specific information from a database. Examples of functions include Average, Minimum, and Maximum.

functional acknowledgment
An electronic acknowledgment returned to the sender to indicate acceptance or rejection of EDI documents.

functional decomposition
A method of dividing the work in a program to take advantage of parallelism. The program is divided into independent functions, which are distributed to independent processors. See also data decomposition.

functional group

  1. One or more documents of a similar type transmitted from the same location and enclosed by functional group header and trailer segments.
  2. An envelope that contains related business documents. The standards define which transaction sets should be placed together into a functional group envelope.

functional group envelope
The section in an EDI transmission that surrounds a functional group and is made up of a functional group header and trailer segment pair. When data is transmitted, the functional group envelope signals a change in the transaction set type, in the sender, or in the receiver.

functional ID
See functional identifier.

functional identifier (functional ID)
A two-character code that represents a document or message type.

functional index
An index that stores the result of executing a specified function on a table column.

functionality testing
The process of testing to determine the functionality of a software product. (ISTQB) See also security testing.

functional parallelism
A situation in which parallel tasks specialize in particular work.

functional privilege

  1. A privilege that controls user access to functions and dialogs. For example, it allows users to create, run, and access requests for actions, definitions, security definitions, and utility definitions.
  2. The ability to grant or revoke access to individual service tools functions.

functional recovery routine (FRR)
A z/OS recovery and termination manager that enables a recovery routine to gain control in the event of a program interrupt.

functional report
A report that summarize the pass or fail verdicts for a test.

functional security
A general security level that allows an administrator to control user access to the functions on the interface.

functional service view
For RosettaNet, the second section of every PIP specification describing the PIP exchange protocol. The FSV is derived systematically from the BOV.

functional statistics record (FSR)
A record that is created each time a DFSMShsm function is processed. The FSR contains a log of system activity and is written to the system management facilities (SMF) data set.

functional subsystem (FSS)
An extension of JES that runs in an address space separate from the JES address space. An FSS provides support for a function peripheral to JES processing, such as a peripheral device or other component.

functional subsystem application (FSA)

  1. An application that uses the support facilities of the functional subsystem (FSS) to communicate with JES.
  2. An area within the PSF functional subsystem (FSS) that drives and manages a single printer.

functional subsystem intercommunication (FSI)
Provides formal communication between JES3 and the functional subsystem application or FSS.

functional subsystem interface (FSI)
A set of services that allow communication between the JES address space or direct printer services subsystem (DPSS) and the Print Services Facility functional subsystem.

functional unit

  1. Hardware, software, or a combination of hardware and software that is capable of accomplishing a specified purpose.
  2. In OSI, a logical grouping of related services.

functional verification procedure
A procedure distributed with DFSMShsm that verifies that all basic DFSMShsm functions are operating correctly.

functional verification test (FVT)
A high-level test that is used to test the completeness of a requirement.

functional zoom
A way of viewing an application diagram by showing only top level artifacts and any direct or aggregate relationships between them. This allows for a quicker and more responsive user experience, rather than showing all nodes in the diagram. A top level artifact can be expanded to have the diagram "zoom in" and show the contained artifacts.

function body
The implementation of the logic of a function. See also routine body.

function call

  1. In REXX, the process of calling a set of instructions that must return a result. Function calls can be included in an expression anywhere that a term would be valid.
  2. An expression that transfers the path of execution from the current function to a specified function (the called function). A function call contains the name of the function to which control is transferred and a parenthesized list of values.

function check
A notification that an unexpected condition has stopped the running of a program.

function code
A numeric code used by MVS when requesting a service or control information from JES3 by using the subsystem interface (SSI).

function composition
A form of aggregation in which simple functions are combined to build more complicated ones.

function control sequence (FCS)
A multiple-leaving telecommunications access method (MTAM), control character that controls the flow of individual function streams.

function control table (FCT)
The master dispatching queue for JES3. Entries in the FCT are arranged in priority order and each represents a dynamic service program (DSP) to be dispatched.

function control vector (FCV)
A signed value provided by IBM that enables the CAA application, which is in the coprocessor, to provide a cryptographic service level that is consistent with the applicable import and export regulations.

function cursor
A cursor that is associated with an EXECUTE FUNCTION statement, which executes routines that return values. See also cursor function.

function cycle
A chain of calls in which the first caller is also the last to be called. A function that calls itself recursively is not considered a function cycle.

function declarator
The part of a function definition that names the function, provides additional information about the return value of the function, and lists the function parameters. See also declarator.

function definer

  1. The authorization ID of the owner of the schema of the function that is specified in the CREATE FUNCTION statement.
  2. The authorization ID that was used to process the CREATE FUNCTION statement.

function definition
The complete description of a function. A function definition contains an optional storage class specifier, an optional type specifier, a function declarator, optional parameter declarations, and a block statement (the function body).

function directory
A DB2 database directory that is used to store the executable files and libraries that are associated with users' external routines (procedures, functions, and methods).

function element
A major component that is common to most buildings that usually perform a function regardless of the design specification, construction method, or materials used. See also Uniformat.

function invocation
The use of a function together with any argument values being passed to the function body. The function is invoked by its name.

function key

  1. A keyboard key that can be programmed to perform certain actions. See also graphic key.
  2. A key whose primary purpose is the input of a control function. Function keys are found in all sections of the keyboard (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

function key indicator
In RPG, an indicator that is set on when a valid corresponding function key is pressed. Valid function key indicators are KA through KN and KP through KY.

function management data (FMD)
A response unit (RU) category used for end-user data exchanged between logical units (LUs) and for requests and responses exchanged between network services components of LUs, physical units (PU), and control points.

function management end (FME)
An SNA logical unit response type that CICS terminal control receives from a logical unit.

function management header (FMH)

  1. In SNA, a record that contains control information for the data that follows.
  2. One or more headers, optionally present in the leading request units (RUs) of an RU chain, that allow one LU to (a) select a transaction program or device at the session partner and control the way in which the end-user data it sends is handled at the destination, (b) change the destination or the characteristics of the data during the session, and (c) transmit between session partners status or user information about the destination (for example, a program or device). Function management headers can be used with LU type 1, 4, and 6.2 protocols.

function management profile
In SNA, a specification of various data flow control protocols (such as response unit (RU) chains and data flow control requests) and function management data options (such as use of function management headers, compression, and alternate codes) supported for a particular session. Each function management profile is identified by a number.

function mapping
In a federated system, a mapping between a data source function and an existing DB2 database function. The federated system supplies default mappings between existing built-in data source functions and built-in DB2 database functions; the default mappings are in the wrapper. The DB2 counterpart function can be either a complete function or a function template. See also function template.

function modification identifier (FMID)
For products that use the System Modification Program/Extended (SMP/E) installation process, a value that is used to distinguish separate parts of a product. An FMID is the zSeries identifier for a serviceable unit.

function name
In COBOL, an IBM-defined name that identifies system logical units, system-supplied information, printer control characters, and program switches.

function object
See functor.

function overloading
See routine overloading.

function package
A package that results from binding the DBRM for a function program.

function package owner
The authorization identifier of the user who binds the function program's DBRM into a function package.

function path
See SQL path.

function pointer
An identifier that gives the location of a function or procedure.

function prototype
A function declaration that provides type information for each parameter. It is the first line of the function (header) followed by a semicolon (;). The declaration is required by the compiler at the time that the function is declared, so that the compiler can check the type.

function reference
The appearance of an intrinsic function name or a user function name in an expression.

function resolution
The process, internal to the database manager, by which a particular function instance is selected for invocation. The function name, the data types of the arguments, and the SQL path are used to make the selection.

function scope
Labels that are declared in a function have function scope and can be used anywhere in that function after their declaration.

function selection
See function resolution.

function set
In architecture, a collection of architecture constructs and associated values. Function sets can be defined across or within subsets.

function shipping

  1. The process of requesting function from the owning file system and returning the response to the requester through XCF communications.
  2. The process, transparent to the application program, by which CICS accesses resources when those resources are actually held on another CICS system.
  3. The process of sending the subsections of a request to the specific database partition that contains the applicable data.

function signature
The logical concatenation of a fully qualified function name with the data types of all of its parameters.

function template

  1. A detailed plan that describes the construction of a set of related individual C++ functions.
  2. A DB2 database function that forces the federated server to call a data source function. See also function mapping.

An object that can be called or invoked as if it were a function.

functor class
The class that is generated when the functor-based code reuses code generation functionality for activity diagrams of classes. The new class implements an activity diagram on the class level.

fundamental data type
In databases, a data type which represents the smallest unit that can be specified in a SELECT statement.


  1. To combine multiple operator invocations in a data flow graph into the same partition and thus into the same processing element. See also partition.
  2. In printing, to use heat and pressure to blend toner on forms to make a permanent bond.

In certain printers, the assembly that bonds a toned image to paper through the use of heat and pressure.

fuser counter
See jam recovery page counter.

fuser oil
A supply item for printers. Fuser oil aids the release of the paper from the fuser rollers.

fuser station
The printer assembly that bonds the toned image to the paper by heat and pressure.

Permanently bonding toner to paper by means of heat and pressure.

fusion center
A terrorism prevention and response center that was started as a joint project between the US Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. It is designed to promote information sharing at the federal level among agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice, US military, and state and local government.

future inventory
Items that are expected to arrive on a specific date.

future order
A release of an advanced order for which the user has requested that the shipment be delayed until a specified future date.

future order offset
A setting in an online store that indicates how much time in advance of the specified ship date of a future order when order items should be allocated in inventory.

See fuzz testing.

fuzz testing (fuzzing)
A technique that is used to identify problems in a computer program. Bad data is intentionally injected into an application in order to trigger failure modes and see what breaks.

fuzzy backup
A backup version of a file that might not accurately reflect what is currently in the file because the file was backed up at the same time as it was being modified.

fuzzy copy
A backup version or archive copy of a file that might not accurately reflect the original contents of the file because it was backed up or archived the file while the file was being modified.

fuzzy image copy
An image copy of an online database. The database can be updated while the image copy is being taken and some, all, or none of the updates might appear in the image copy.

fuzzy logic
A type of logic that recognizes degrees of truthfulness and falsehood, rather than the Boolean values of true and false.

fuzzy search
A search that can find words with spellings that are similar to that of the search term.

See functional verification test.

See font width.

A fabric port that can operate as either a fabric port (F_port) or fabric loop port (FL_port). See also fabric loop port, fabric port.