This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.
B2B direct business model
A business model that supports commerce transactions involving products, services, or information between two businesses or parties. Typical B2B direct transactions occur between buyers, suppliers, manufacturers, resellers, distributors, and trading partners. See also consumer direct, direct sales business model.
See bi-polar with 8-zero substitution.
See basic authentication.
backbone average distance
See NETID backbone average distance.
See NETID backbone diameter.
A central network to which smaller networks, normally of lower speed, connect. The backbone network usually has a much higher capacity than the networks it helps interconnect or is a wide-area network (WAN) such as a public packet-switched datagram network.
In GL, in double buffer mode, the non-visible plane of the main frame buffer bit planes. Typically, an application draws into the back buffer and views the front buffer for dynamic graphics.
backend as a service (BaaS)
See mobile backend as a service.
A system in a multisystem environment that accepts transactions from the front-end system, calls application programs for transaction processing, and routes replies back to the front-end system for response to the terminal. See also front-end system.
In synchronous transaction-to-transaction communication, a transaction that is started by a front-end transaction. See also front-end transaction.
- The part of a presentation space that is not occupied with object data.
- In CDE, the underlying area of a window on which elements, such as buttons and lists, are displayed.
- The conditions under which low-priority, noninteractive programs are run. See also foreground.
See background process.
- In the GDDM function, the first color of the display medium; for example, black on a display or white on a printer. See also neutral color.
- In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, the single electronic color assigned to the graphic field that appears behind the foreground elements inside the border of a displayed widget or gadget. See also foreground color.
Any connection defined in a HATS application other than the default connection. HATS does not transform screens from background connections. See also connection, default connection.
An attribute that determines how the background color of data, such as a graphics primitive, is combined with the existing color of a graphics presentation space. See also foreground mix.
The Tivoli NetView submap layer that provides the background for the application plane. The background plane can display a picture that provides context for viewing the icons of the application plane. See also application plane.
- A process that does not require operator intervention but can be run by the computer while the workstation is used to do other work. See also foreground process.
- In the AIX operating system, a mode of program execution in which the shell does not wait for program completion before prompting the user for another command.
A task that is running even though the user is not currently interacting with it. See also foreground task.
An additional pickup and delivery in the reverse direction made while a vehicle is returning to the starting site after it has made a delivery. See also deadhead distance.
The double reversal of direction in a tape resulting from a tape unavoidably moving past the desired stopping point. The tape controller moves the tape in the reverse direction to prepare it for acceleration to normal reading or writing speed in the original direction.
A process in which two links are used to define a relationship between artifacts in different products. Neither product has to query for these links because that information is provided in each product. See also back link, link discovery.
back-office business logic
The implementation of business logic, using commands and customized code, allowing a customer to complete an action in the store front. See also storefront asset.
- An operation that reverses all changes to resources made during the current unit of work. See also nonrecoverable data set, recoverable data set.
- The process of undoing uncommitted changes that an application process has made. A backout might be necessary in the event of a failure on the part of an application process or as a result of a deadlock situation. See also roll back.
- The process of removing all the database updates performed by an application program that has terminated abnormally. See also dynamic backout.
- See rollback.
- The process of returning a file to a particular point by removing journaled changes to the file.
- The process of removing changes that are possibly inconsistent. For example, backout recovery will delete an update that has been requested if the program fails before requesting a related update. Backout recovery requires a log to hold images of records before they were updated. See also forward recovery.
The character \. The backslash enables a user to escape the special meaning of a character. That is, typing a backslash before a character tells the system to ignore any special meaning the character might have.
In constraint programming, the activity of abandoning one line of search (usually after a failure), returning to a given state in the system, and restoring variables to their previous values in that state so that another alternative can be explored in the search for a solution.
- Pertaining to a system, device, file, or facility that can be used in the event of a malfunction or loss of data.
- A tape, diskette, or save file containing saved objects.
- A copy of a data set or object to be used in case of accidental loss.
- The process of making a copy of a data file that can be used if the original file is destroyed.
- A copy of a database or table space that can be stored on a different medium and used to restore the database or table space in the event of failure or damage to the original.
- The process of copying a file, directory, file system, or other data onto a tape, disk, or other media as insurance against data loss or corruption.
- To create a copy of computer data that can be used to restore data that has been lost, mislaid, corrupted or erased. See also restore.
- To save information or objects on a system, usually to tape or diskette, for safekeeping.
A program that runs on a workstation or file server and provides a means for users to back up, archive, restore, and retrieve files. See also administrative client.
backup control data set (BCDS)
One of the control data sets (CDSs) in DFSMShsm. The BCDS is a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) key-sequenced data set (KSDS) that contains information about backup versions of data sets, backup volumes, dump volumes, and volumes under control of the backup and dump functions of DFSMShsm. See also control data set.
backup control group
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of libraries, system keywords, and lists that share common backup characteristics. The default values for a backup control group are defined in the backup policy and can be used or overridden by each backup control group.
backup copy group
A policy object containing attributes that control the generation, destination, and expiration of backup versions of files. A backup copy group belongs to a management class. See also copy group.
backup Copy Services server
One of two Copy Services servers in a Copy Services domain. The other Copy Services server is the primary Copy Services server. The backup Copy Services server is available to become the active Copy Services server if the primary Copy Services server fails. See also Copy Services client, Copy Services server, Copy Services server group, primary Copy Services server.
- A copy that can be used to replace or reconstruct a damaged data set.
- A data set in the backup RACF database. For each data set in the primary RACF database, an installation should define a corresponding backup data set.
backup designated router
In a multiaccess OSPF network that has at least two attached routers, a router that needs to establish adjacencies with all the routers in the network (including the designated router) and is promoted to the designated router when the current designated router fails. A backup designated router is elected by other routers using the Hello Protocol. See also designated router.
backup domain manager
An agent in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that can assume the responsibilities of its domain manager. It is installed as a full status, fault-tolerant agent. See also domain manager, fault-tolerant agent, full status.
backup focal point
A focal point that provides management services support for a particular category for a node in the event of a communications failure with the primary focal point. Both assigned focal points (explicit and implicit) and default focal points can have backup counterparts.
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a report of what has been backed up with a BRMS backup policy. A backup history contains information about each item such as what type of object it is, the date and time it was saved, and when the saved item expires. Synonymous with media information report.
A host that is designated as a backup in the event that the distributing host should malfunction. The backup host takes over the IP address of the distributing host when required. See also distributing host.
- In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of objects or folders that are grouped together for processing in a backup control group. Each list is assigned a unique list name.
- In the Operational Assistant function, a list of libraries or folders to be saved on a regular basis, such as daily or weekly.
backup master domain manager
An agent in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that can assume the responsibilities of the master domain manager. It is installed as a full status, fault-tolerant agent. See also fault-tolerant agent, full status, master domain manager.
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a set of controls that are used to track information about the items that are being backed up, when they are being backed up, and where they are being backed up. Backup policy is a combination of the concepts of control group and media policy.
In DFSMShsm, a Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), discrete, data-set profile associated with the backup version of a cataloged data set that is protected by a RACF, discrete, data-set profile.
backup RACF database
A RACF database that reflects the contents of the primary RACF database. See also primary RACF database.
A plan that identifies the approach, procedures, and actions to be executed in the event of unsuccessful operation or execution. It does not imply the intent to revert back to the original environment, but, instead, the Backup/Recovery Plan identifies the alternate plan to proceed. It builds the information (dumps, backup datasets, logs, etc.) needed to recover from a serious error or processing exception and continue forward.
backup set collection
A group of backup sets that are created at the same time and which have the same backup set name, volume names, description, and device classes. The server identifies each backup set in the collection by its node name, backup set name, and file type.
See also replicated resource group.
A file or directory that a client node backed up to storage. More than one backup version can exist in storage, but only one backup version is the active version. See also active version, copy group, inactive version.
backup VTOC copy data set
In DFSMShsm, a copy of the volume table of contents (VTOC) of a volume that was backed up by DFSMShsm. The backup VTOC copy data set contains only part of the data-set VTOC entry for each data set from the original data set. This data set is written on a migration-level-1 volume.
Backus-Naur Form (BNF)
A metalanguage that is used to describe the syntax of a given language and its notation. In speech recognition, a special adaptation of grammar representation specified by Speech Recognition Control Language (SRCL) (pronounced "circle").
See badge number.
See data bag.
See Business Action Language.
balanced configuration unit (BCU)
In a data warehouse, a defined combination of resources that are divided and balanced to make up a single practical building block that is scalable. Larger systems can be configured by combining several building blocks into one system image.
balanced data link
In data communication, a data link between two participating combined stations. For transmissions it originates, each station can transmit both command frames and response frames, organize its data flow, and perform error recovery operations at the data link level.
balanced scorecard (BSC)
A performance management tool that evaluates a set of predictive indicators from four different perspectives. The four perspectives are financial, customer, internal process, and innovation and learning.
See business activity monitoring.
See boundary access node.
The connection from an SNA peripheral node through a boundary access node (BAN) over a frame-relay link to a subarea boundary node. The two portions of the BAN connection (one between the peripheral node and the BAN, and the other between the BAN and the boundary node) use different MAC addresses to identify the boundary node. See also BAN DLCI MAC address, boundary node identifier.
- An entity that groups several columns in a tree view to be treated as a whole.
- In data communication, the frequency spectrum between two defined limits. (A)
- A group of tracks on a recording medium, all of which are read or written in parallel.
- A group of values that have been organized into categories, based on their numeric variables.
- In printing, an arbitrary layer of an image. An image can consist of one or more bands of data.
BAN DLCI MAC address
The MAC address that identifies a subarea boundary node as the source or destination of frames carried over the portion of a BAN connection between an SNA peripheral node on a LAN and a boundary access node (BAN). The BAN DLCI MAC address appears as the source MAC address in frames sent from the BAN to the peripheral node and as the destination MAC address in frames sent from the peripheral node to the BAN. The portion of the BAN connection between the BAN and the boundary node uses the boundary node identifier (BNI) rather than the BAN DLCI MAC address. See also BAN connection.
- The difference, expressed in hertz, between the highest and the lowest frequencies of a range of frequencies.
- The capacity of a communication line, normally expressed in bits per second (bps).
- The amount of information that a system can transfer in a given time.
- In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), the capacity of a virtual channel, expressed in terms of peak cell rate (PCR), sustainable cell rate (SCR), and maximum burst size (MBS).
See Business Analytics and Optimization.
- A z/OS memory limit, which in 64-bit systems is set at 2 GB. The bar separates storage below the 2-gigabyte address from storage above the 2 GB address. The area above the bar is intended for data; no programs run above the bar.
- In bar codes, the darker element of a printed bar code symbol. See also space.
- A chart consisting of several bars of equal width. The value of the dependent variable is indicated by the height of each bar.
- A chart consisting of bars of equal width that are plotted horizontally. Each bar represents a category and the value of each category is indicated by the height of each bar.
bar code aspect ratio
The ratio of bar code height to overall symbol length. The aspect ratio determines the maximum label SKUs allowed for fixed linear scanners and is important for omni-directional scanners.
bar code label
A label that has a special imprinted bar code, generally both human and machine readable, which is detected by an automatic scanning device. It is used to identify package, carton or pallet contents.
bar code symbol
A combination of characters including start and stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology, that form a complete, scannable entity.
bar code symbology
A bar code language. Bar code symbologies are defined and controlled by various industry groups and standards organizations. Bar code symbologies are described in the public domain bar code specifications.
See bar height.
An algorithm for solving linear programming problems. It exploits both the primal and dual forms of a problem to find a sequence of primal and dual solutions. It measures the feasibility of solutions as it works, and it stops when it finds complementary primal and dual feasible solutions.
See Business Application Services.
- The numbering system in which an arithmetic value is represented.
- A predefined contribution version which contains no automatic journals.
- The core product, for which features can be separately ordered and installed.
A plain-text format that is used to encode binary data. Base64 encoding is commonly used in User Certificate Authentication to encode X.509 certificates, X.509 CSRs, and X.509 CRLs. See also DER encoded, PEM encoded.
A 65-character subset of US-ASCII, enabling 6 bits to be represented per printable character, and the extra 65th character (=) is used to signify a special processing function. The encoding process represents 24-bit groups of input bits as output strings of 4 encoded characters. Proceeding from left to right, a 24-bit input group is formed by concatenating 3 8-bit input groups and these 24 bits are then treated as 4 concatenated 6-bit groups, each of which is translated into a single digit in the base 64 alphabet. Each 6-bit group is used as an index into an array of 64 printable characters. The character referenced by the index is placed in the output string.
base address register
See base register.
base aggregate table
In SQL replication, a type of replication target table that contains data that is aggregated from a replication source table. See also change aggregate table.
In architecture, a conceptual illustration of an architecture that shows the architecture as a base with optional towers. The base and the towers represent different degrees of function achieved by the architecture.
baseboard management controller (BMC)
A controller that monitors system platform management events such as fan failure and temperature or voltage increases, and logs their occurrence. The BMC is also used for hardware control, such as powering the node on and off.
A calendar that includes the holidays and schedule for a country or work site. See also project calendar.
One of the set of two cards that comprise the VPACK or SPACK, both of which are needed to process voice signals. See also trunk interface card.
- See parent class.
- A class from which other classes or beans are derived. A base class may itself be derived from another base class. See also abstract class, class template definition.
See adapter foundation classes.
The part of a storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration that contains general storage management attributes, such as the default management class, default unit, and default device geometry. It also identifies the systems, system groups, or both the systems and system groups that an SMS configuration manages. See also SMS configuration.
The original authored or filed contract that is used as the base for a new contract. It can also be the executed contract that provides the header information for a cotermination quote contract or other renewal quote contract. For quote generation, the base contract is also the contract where renewal terms are specified within the renewals tab.
Base Control Program (BCP)
A program that provides essential services for the MVS and z/OS operating systems. The program includes functions that manage system resources. These functions include input/output, dispatch units of work, and the z/OS UNIX System Services kernel. See also Multiple Virtual Storage, z/OS.
A form of addressing in which a data description is associated with a storage area by a variable address held in a separate pointer area. This is implemented in COBOL by BLL cells and in VS COBOL II by the ADDRESS special register.
base data component
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a component of the base cluster containing data from a data set. See also base cluster.
base data model
The data model that is the most common installation because it adds the minimal number of properties, works for most organizations, and is sufficient for meeting most records management requirements.
- The Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) entry-sequenced data set (ESDS) or key-sequenced data set (KSDS) upon which an alternate index is built.
- A data set or file stored on MVS, in contrast to the view of the file as seen by the workstation.
In the VM operating system, the virtual disk that contains the text decks and macroinstructions for VTAM, NetView, and VM/SNA console support (VSCS). It also contains control files and sample files used when running VTAM on the VM operating system. See also DELTA disk.
- A snapshot of the approved project plan that is used for comparison over the course of a project.
- A conceptual line with respect to which successive characters are aligned.
- A collection of actions that are deployed together. A baseline is typically used to simplify a deployment or to control the order in which a set of actions are applied. See also deployment group.
- An object that represents a stable configuration for one or more components. A baseline identifies activities and one version of every element that is visible in one or more components.
- In source control management, a permanent copy of a component in a particular repository workspace or stream. A component baseline represents a configuration of a component at a particular point in time.
- A snapshot of a configuration item (CI) or a set of configuration items (CIs) frozen at a point in time for a particular purpose. A baseline can be recorded to ensure that the infrastructure can be restored to a trusted state should a change fail or the CI need to be built again. A baseline will also be established for the roll out of new CIs and for use in a disaster recovery situation.
- See snapshot.
- A reviewed and approved release of artifacts that constitutes an agreed basis for further evolution or development and that can be changed only through a formal procedure, such as change management and configuration control.
- An uneditable configuration of one or more components that captures a meaningful state of artifacts. Teams can use baselines as a known configuration or an initial state for a new stream of work. See also artifact, component, configuration, stream.
- A read-only copy of a module, which contains the history of the module up to the time the baseline was created.
baseline coordinate (B-coordinate)
In architecture, one of a pair of values that identify the position of an addressable position with respect to the origin of a specified I,B coordinate system. This value is specified as a distance in addressable positions from the I-axis of an I,B coordinate system. See also sequential baseline position.
baseline direction (B-direction)
The direction in which successive lines of text are added or appear on a page. See also inline direction.
- The space parallel to the character baseline that can be used to place characters. The baseline extent may extend both above and below the character baseline. An individual character's baseline extent is the greater of (a) its baseline offset or (b) the height of its raster-pattern box plus the number of pels, if any, that are needed to extend the raster-pattern box so that it touches (bounded-box) or includes (unbounded-box) the baseline.
- In architecture, a rectangular space oriented around the character baseline and having one dimension parallel to the character baseline. The space is measured along the Y-axis of the character coordinate system. For characters with bounded boxes, the baseline extent at any rotation is its character coordinate system Y-axis extent. Baseline extent varies with character rotation.
- In architecture, the distance between successive baselines.
- See line space.
See baseline direction.
Savings that are generated by the bid based on the historical cost of the item. Savings are calculated by deducting the price per unit from the historical cost multiplied by the total bid quantity.
baseline staging stream
See staging stream.
A map that depicts background reference information such as landforms, roads, landmarks, and political boundaries, onto which other thematic information is placed. A base map is used for locational reference and often includes a geodetic control network as part of its structure.
- In CDE, the file name of an icon file minus the file name suffixes for size (.l, .m, .s, .t) and type (.bm, .pm). For example, the base name of an icon file named myicon.m.pm is myicon.
- The last element to the right of a full path name.
- In Ada language, a compilation unit name specified without its type qualifier of lib/ or sec/.
- The manufacturer's suggested retail price.
- See base cost.
Base Primitive Environment (BPE)
A common system service base on which many other IMS components are built. BPE provides a common set of system services such as storage management, tracing, and dispatching to various components such as the IMS Common Queue Server (CQS), Base Primitive Environment-based Database Recovery Control (DBRC), IMS Connect, Open Database Manager (ODBM), Operations Manager (OM), Resource Manager (RM), and Structured Call Interface (SCI).
- See RACF segment.
- The portion of a RACF profile that contains the fundamental information about a user, group, or resource. The base segment contains information that is common to all applications that use the profile.
The set of functions, including verbs, parameters, return codes, and what-received indications, that is supported by all products that implement a particular architecture. See also option set.
The state of a terminal as set by CICS before sending data to it, in the absence of any instructions either from a user application program or from its terminal resource definition. In this state, the terminal behaves as an ordinary (unpartitionable) display device.
The set of one or more z/OS systems that is given a cross-system coupling facility (XCF) name and in which the authorized programs can then use XCF coupling services. A base sysplex does not include a coupling facility. See also sysplex.
- Within a table hierarchy, a parent table that can be used to create child tables based on the parent's schemas.
- A permanent table that stores data persistently until you destroy (drop) the table explicitly.
- A table that is created by the SQL CREATE TABLE statement and that holds persistent data. See also auxiliary table, clone table, created temporary table, declared temporary table, result table, table, temporary table, view.
- See opaque data type.
- A data type that controls the type of data that can be entered into an attribute. For example, an attribute definition that is created using the Date base type can only store date values.
An sh-compatible shell that incorporates the positive aspects of Korn shell and C shell. It serves as the GNU operating system's command language interpreter. See also Bourne shell.
A high-level programming language with a small number of statements and a simple syntax. BASIC is designed to be easily learned and used and is widely used for interactive applications on microcomputers.
basic catalog structure (BCS)
The name of the catalog structure in the integrated catalog facility (ICF) environment. An ICF catalog consists of a BCS and its related VSAM volume data sets (VVDSs). See also VSAM volume data set.
Frequently used double-byte character that is stored in the hardware of a DBCS-capable work station. The number of double-byte characters that are stored in the work station varies with the language supported and the storage size of the work station. A DBCS-capable work station can display or print basic characters without using the extended character processing function of the operating system. See also extended character, extended character processing.
basic disk pool
One or more storage units that are defined from the disk units or disk-unit subsystems that make up addressable disk storage. Disk pools (which are also known as auxiliary storage pools ) provide a means of placing certain objects on specific disk units to limit the impact of disk-media failures and to reduce recovery time. A basic disk pool contains both objects and the libraries or directories that contain the objects. Attributes such as authorization, ownership, and spooled file attributes are stored in the system disk pool (also known as the system ASP).
basic disposition schedule
IBM Enterprise Record schedule that allows for more efficient disposition processing where large volumes of records must be processed without creating a performance drain on the system and where the disposition process was limited to the destruction of electronic records. A basic schedule is simply a record category that specifies the retention period and the retention trigger property that will be applied to all records contained within that category.
A facility that performs general editing functions for terminal input and output messages. See also message editing.
Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
A set of rules used to encode Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) values as strings of octets. See also abstract syntax, Abstract Syntax Notation One, Distinguished Encoding Rules.
The format of a sequential data set that is neither large format nor extended format. A basic format data set has no minimum size requirement and a maximum size per volume of 65 535 tracks. See also extended format, large format.
The level of national language support whereby character data can be entered and presented to the user via appropriate keyboard, coded character set, and character set support. It accommodates basic cultural needs in using the supported language, such as calendar, time, numbers, and currency formats. The next level of support is advanced implementation. See also advanced implementation, linguistic function.
basic information unit (BIU)
In SNA, the unit of data and control information passed between the transmission and control layers. It consists of a request or response header followed by a request or response unit.
basic input/output system (BIOS)
The code that controls basic hardware operations, such as interactions with diskette drives, hard disk drives, and the keyboard. See also NetBIOS.
basic mapping support (BMS)
An interface between CICS and application programs that formats input and output display data and routes multiple-page output messages without regard for control characters used by various terminals.
A central processor mode that does not use logical partitioning. See also logically partitioned mode.
Basic Networking Utilities (BNU)
See UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program.
basic rate interface
The means of ISDN access normally used by private subscribers, providing two B-channels of 64kbits per second and one D-channel of 16kbits per second for signaling. This is often known as 2B+D. See also primary rate interface.
basic row format
A row format in which values for columns are stored in the row in the order in which the columns are defined by the CREATE TABLE statement. See also reordered row format.
A general search query that looks for any relationship that exists between the searched entity and any element in the database. Specifically, a basic search is a Boolean search using only the AND operator.
basic source character set
In the C++ language, a set of 96 characters that can be used in a source file. The set consists of control characters, plus 91 graphical characters. Other characters can be added to source files through the use of universal character names.
See multicultural support.
basic transmission unit (BTU)
In SNA, the unit of data and control information passed between path control components. A BTU can consist of one or more path information units (PIUs). See also blocking of PIUs.
- A collection of variables that is determined during an iteration of the simplex algorithm and that represents a feasible solution. The basis of a problem may change with each iteration as preferred decision variables enter the basis or variables that are less valuable leave the basis.
- In GL, a 4x4 matrix that controls the relationship between control points and the approximating spline. B-splines, Bezier curves, and Cardinal splines have different bases.
The smallest measure used to quote financial return. One basis point equals one one-hundredth of a percent. For example, the difference between a net profit margin of 2.25% and 2.50% percent is 25 basis points.
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade; for example, 25 x 38 inches for book papers, 17 x 22 inches for bond, and other sizes for other grades. The basis weight of continuous forms for computer output is based on the size for bond papers.
See basic assurance test.
- A quantity of parts that were typically produced at the same time by using a controlled process and are typically received into inventory after inspection.
- A group of events that occur within a time interval such that a response can process the events together.
- Pertaining to a group of jobs to be run on a computer sequentially with the same program with little or no operator action. See also interactive.
- A group of records or data processing jobs brought together for processing or transmission.
- To group warehouse tasks into a batch of activities based on the resources and equipment used to complete the task.
- A list of tasks that can be performed together. Only specific task types can be combined into a batch and each batch consists of only one type of task.
In DFU, an accumulator in which subtotals for a field are stored. See also total accumulator.
Any device that can read serial input or write serial output, or both, but cannot be used to communicate interactively with the system. Examples of batch devices are printers, magnetic tape units, or diskette units.
- An environment to which batch jobs in command lists are submitted and in which their execution is scheduled, independently of their submitter.
- An environment in which noninteractive programs are executed.
- A file containing data that is to be processed unattended.
- A file that contains instructions that are processed sequentially, as a unit.
batch image copy
A copy of a database or area that reflects the state of the data at a point when no updates were being made. The Database Image Copy utility (DFSUDMP0) creates batch image copies, which IMS utilities can use to recover from failures.
See batch processing program.
A predefined group of processing actions submitted to the system to be performed with little or no interaction between the user and the system. See also interactive job.
batch message processing program (BMP program)
An IMS batch processing program that has access to online databases and message queues. BMP programs run online, but like programs in a batch environment, they are started with job control language (JCL). See also batch processing program.
- A command line option that allows Rational DOORS to start up without the graphical user interface (GUI), run a specified DXL program, then stop. The product starts up by surpassing the login screen and the database explorer.
- In query management, the query mode associated with a query instance that does not allow users to interact with the query commands while a procedure is running.
- The condition established so that batch processing can be performed.
- The facility to run a program from a command line interface.
- A non-interactive way of processing data transactions that have been collected in advance and combined into a single batch file.
batch-oriented BMP program
A BMP program that has access to online databases and message queues while performing batch-type processing. A batch-oriented BMP program does not access the IMS message queues for input or output. It can access online databases, GSAM databases, and z/OS files for both input and output. See also transaction-oriented BMP program.
The method of grouping a set of tasks that a picker can complete in one pass of the warehouse. The tasks that can be put together in a batch are based on the batch rule setup for the task.
A method of processing one or more records (a batch) with little or no action from the user. See also interactive processing.
batch processing program
An application program that has access to databases and z/OS data management facilities but does not have access to the IMS control region or its message queues. See also batch message processing program, message processing program.
- A template that is used to batch upload data into an application.
- A definition that is created for uploading a group of records for inserting or updating in the Emptoris Strategic Supply Management platform.
The number of changes in signal levels, frequency, or phase per second on a communication channel. If each baud represents 1 bit of data, baud is the same as bits per second. However, it is possible for one signal change (1 baud) to equal more than 1 bit of data.
See baseline axis.
- In a warehouse, a stack of locations that represent the width of one shelf (or one pallet rack) and the height of the entire shelving or pallet rack.
- A physical space into which a device can be physically mounted and connected to power and data. For example, a power supply or a disk drive might be inserted into a bay.
- A statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted as degrees of belief.
- A statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted as degrees of belief.
See begin bracket.
See buffer-to-buffer credit.
See BlackBerry Messenger.
A closed source, proprietary mobile operating system based on the QNX platform. BBX replaced BlackBerry OS as Research in Motion's primary mobile operating system. See also mobile operating system, QNX.
See block control byte.
See block-check character.
See backup control data set.
See bearer channel.
See Bar Code Object Content Architecture.
See baseline coordinate.
See Base Control Program.
See basic catalog structure.
See balanced configuration unit.
See bilateral closed user group.
See business design assurance.
See big data as a service.
See basic direct access method.
See builder definition.
See baseline direction.
See batch data stream.
See bundle definition table.
See Big Design Up Front.
Pertaining to an adapter in a token-ring network that repeatedly sends a frame (beacon message) when it is not receiving a normal signal because of serious error, such as a line break or power failure. The message frame repeats until the error is corrected or bypassed. See also beacon message.
A message frame sent repeatedly by an adapter indicating a serious network problem, such as a broken cable. See also beaconing.
bean-managed persistence (BMP)
The mechanism whereby data transfer between an entity bean's variables and a resource manager is managed by the entity bean. (Sun) See also container-managed persistence.
- The capability of the session bean, servlet, or application client component to manage its own transactions directly, instead of through a container.
- A transaction where the bean itself is responsible for administering transaction tasks such as committal or rollback.
bearer channel (B-channel)
In ISDN, a duplex channel for transmitting data or digital voice between the terminal and the network. The B-channel operates at 64 kilobits per second. See also delta channel.
A Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) token that uses the bearer subject confirmation method. In a bearer subject confirmation method, a sender of SOAP messages is not required to establish correspondence that binds a SAML token with contents of the containing SOAP message.
See bus extension card.
Because It's Time Network (BITNET)
A low-cost, low-speed network of hosts interconnected by nonswitched SDLC and BSC lines that was started at the City University of New York. The network is primarily composed of universities, nonprofit organizations, and research centers. BITNET has merged with the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to form the Consortium for Research and Education Network (CREN).
See bus extension driver card.
- The contents of a record in a physical file before the data is changed by a write, an update, or a delete operation.
- A record of the contents of a data element before it is changed. Before images are used to backout incomplete or incorrect changes in the event of a failure.
- See before-value.
A trigger that is specified to be activated before a defined trigger event (an insert, an update, or a delete operation on the table that is specified in a trigger definition). See also after trigger, instead of trigger, trigger, trigger activation, trigger activation time.
In data replication, the value of a source-table column before an SQL insert or update has been applied to the table. See also after-value.
begin bracket (BB)
In SNA, an indicator defining the start of a conversation. The value of the indicator (binary 1) in the request header of the first request in the first chain of a bracket denotes the start of a bracket. See also conditional end bracket, end bracket.
In a system period or an application period, the column that indicates the beginning of the period. See also period.
- The observable effects of an operation or event, including its results.
- The way in which managed objects, name bindings, attributes, notifications, and operations interact with the actual resources that they model and with each other.
- In object-oriented programming, the functionality embodied within a method.
- A collection of assertions that describe the allowed states that a managed object can assume. An assertion can be a precondition, a postcondition, or an invariant. In practice, the behavior is often an informal description of the semantics of attributes, operations, and notifications.
A set of techniques and products used for marketing and promotional content that enable dynamic and targeted content to be served to the appropriate customer's browser at the right time.
See Business Events Language.
A heap controlled by a runtime option that contains library data, such as Language Environment control block and data structures that are not normally accessible from user code. Below heap always resides below 16M.
- A quantitative quality standard that defines the minimum level of acceptability for the data or the tolerance for some level of exceptions in a data analysis.
- A program designed to test the relative performance of computers of different architectures, or of different implementations of an architecture.
See bus extension receiver card.
best effort mode
A mode of synchronous remote mirroring in which input/output operations are not suspended when communication between a primary and secondary volume is broken. See also mandatory mode.
See linguistic conversion.
best plan date
See most accurate date.
A service that is not production-ready and is in a trial stage of development. See also experimental service.
A measure of how important an entity is, based on the number of paths that pass through it on an association chart. Betweenness is one of the centrality measures used in social network analysis. See also centrality, gatekeeper.
In printing, the concept of pel positioning that establishes the location of a pel's reference point at the edge of the pel nearest to the preceding pel rather than through the center of the pel.
See branch extender.
See baseline extent.
See boundary function.
See binary floating point.
See Border Gateway Protocol.
See Business Graphics Utility.
See business intelligence.
See business intelligence asset.
See Business Intelligence Bus.
See bank identifier code.
BIC Database Plus Tape
A tape of financial institutions and currency codes, supplied by S.W.I.F.T. The information is compiled from various sources and includes national, international, and cross-border identifiers.
- An offer from a carrier that specifies the proposed charge for delivering a shipment. A shipper issues a broadcast for capacity tender and the carriers submit their bids to take the shipment. The shipper reviews the bids and selects a carrier.
- An attempt by the computer or by a station to gain control of a line in order to transmit data.
- The price that a buyer is willing to pay for a financial instrument. See also ask.
See block identifier.
An SNA LU-LU half-session that is defined as requesting and receiving permission from another LU-LU half-session to begin a bracket at the start of a session. See also first speaker.
See contention-loser session.
A bid in which suppliers can increase or decrease the bid value of individual items in a forced lot as long as the overall bid value of the lot is decreased (in English reverse auctions), or increased (in English forward auctions).
A language that uses a script, such as Arabic and Hebrew, whose general flow of text proceeds horizontally from right to left, but numbers, English, and other left-to-right language text are written from left to right.
In Q replication, a replication configuration in which changes that are made to one copy of a table are replicated to a second copy of that table. Changes that are made to the second copy are replicated back to the first copy.
A script such as Arabic and Hebrew whose general flow of text proceeds horizontally from right to left, but numbers, English, and other left-to-right language text are written from left to right.
See business information executive.
See built-in function.
A data set whose size or type is beyond the ability of traditional relational databases to capture, manage, and process with low-latency. Four key dimensions of big data are volume, veracity, variety, and velocity.
See BigFix agent.
- In X.25 communications, an optional facility that allows calls to be made only between two designated DTEs.
- In data communication, two users who have bilaterally agreed to communicate with each other, but not with other users. Each user can belong to more than one bilateral closed user group and to more than one closed user group by means of outgoing access. See also closed user group.
In DECnet architecture, a circuit that accepts, translates, and routes DECnet Phase IV and DECnet Phase IV-Prime frames. The circuit must be configured with the DECnet MAC address specific to the attached LAN segment.
bill of landing (BOL)
A carrier's contract and receipt for goods that it agrees to transport from one place to another according to specified terms and conditions. It normally includes specific identification of the cargo contents and is often used as a receiving document at the point of destination.
- A list of the items, and quantities of each item, needed to manufacture an end product for sale to customers.
- A list of data about a job that has been completed. It contains information about steps in a job and changes to files that resulted from the job. For example, it can be used with source code adapters in software builds for auditing changes to source files.
A program that performs cost extensions within SmartCloud Cost Management and summarizes cost and resource utilization by account code. The Bill program uses the rate code table that is assigned to the client to determine the amount to be charged for each resource consumed.
- An enclosure on a printer that contains source or destination media, including paper, foils, labels, card stock, or microfilm.
- A set of search results that match the specified search criteria. A bin can be displayed as nested lists or as a graphic.
- A data construct that is used to provide the capability of drilling down within a report. For string variables, bins are the distinct data values appearing within a string variable (for example, MA, NH, and CA are bins within a State variable). For numeric variables, bins group data based on value ranges.
- A single storage location.
- The width of a column or the range of data values within a column.
- A disk folder that contains executables or script files.
- Pertaining to a system of numbers with a base of two. The binary digits are 0 and 1.
- Pertaining to something that is compiled, or is executable.
- In ODM, a terminal descriptor type used to define a variable as a bit string that is not null-terminated.
- In DB2 for i5/OS, pertaining to a data type indicating that the data is a binary number with a precision of 15 (halfword) or 31 (fullword) bits.
- Property of a selection, choice, or condition that has two possible values.
A file format that does not consist of a sequence of printable characters (text). See also text file.
binary floating point (BFP)
A numeric mode that consists of a sign, a signed exponent, and a significand. Its numeric value is the signed product of its significand and two raised to the power of its exponent.
binary floating-point number
The conceptual form of a numeric value that contains a significand and a signed exponent. The number's numeric value is the signed product of the number's significand and 2 raised to the power of the number's exponent.
Representation of a decimal value in which each field must be 2 or 4 bytes long. The sign (+ or -) is in the far left bit of the field, and the number value is in the remaining bits of the field. Positive numbers have a 0 in the sign bit and are in true form. Negative numbers have a 1 in the sign bit and are in twos complement form.
See bit block transfer.
Binary JSON (BSON)
- A block of bytes of data (for example, the body of a message) that has no discernible meaning, but is treated as one entity that cannot be interpreted.
- A data type whose value is a sequence of bytes that can range in size from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. This sequence does not have an associated code page and character set. BLOBs can contain, for example, image, audio, or video data. See also large object.
A symbol representing an operation to be performed on two data items, arrays, or expressions. See also unary operator.
A process that searches strings that are located in all data files or only files of entered extensions. Binary processing does not search image file types such as .GIF and .JPG for text extraction.
- A sequence of bytes that is not associated with a CCSID. For example, the BLOB data type is a binary string. See also coded character set identifier.
- In REXX, a literal string expressed using a binary (base 2) representation of a value. The binary representation is a sequence of zero or more binary digits (the characters 0 or 1) enclosed in quotation marks and followed by the character b.
binary synchronous communication (BSC)
A data-communication line protocol that uses a set of transmission control characters and control character sequences to send binary-coded data over a communication line. See also Synchronous Data Link Control.
binary synchronous communication equivalence link support (BSCEL support)
The intersystem communications function (ICF) support on the System i platform that provides binary synchronous communications with other computers using BSC protocols.
binary tree server topology
A topology that connects servers in a pyramid fashion: the top server connects to two servers below it, each of which connects to two servers below it, and so on. Information travels down the pyramid and then back up.
A method of collecting auditing data that writes audit records to a temporary bin file. After the data is processed by the auditbin daemon, records are written to an audit trail file for storage.
See Berkeley Internet Name Domain.
- A process by which a usable control structure with SQL statements is generated; the structure is often called an access plan, an application plan, or a package. During this bind process, access paths to the data are selected, and some authorization checking is performed.
- To convert the output from the DBMS precompiler to a usable control structure, such as an access plan, an application plan, or a package.
- To logically associate a program with data or another program.
- To create a program, which can be run, by combining one or more modules created by an Integrated Language Environment (ILE) compiler.
- To relate an identifier to another object in a program. Examples of binding are relating an identifier to a value, an address, or another identifier, or associating formal parameters and actual parameters.
- To associate a variable with an absolute address, identifier, or virtual address, or with a symbolic address or label in a program.
- To combine object code from one or more sources into an executable load module or program object.
- To establish a connection between software components on a network using an agreed-to protocol. In web services, the bind operation occurs when the service requester invokes or initiates an interaction with the service at run time using the binding details in the service description to locate, contact, and invoke the service.
- To associate a file with a management class name. See also archive-retention grace period, management class, rebind.
In SNA, a command used to start a session between two logical units, and to define the characteristics of that session. See also UNBIND command.
bind distinguished name
A name that specifies the credentials for the application server to use when connecting to a directory service. The distinguished name uniquely identifies an entry in a directory. See also distinguished name.
- The system component that creates a bound program by packaging Integrated Language Environment (ILE) modules and resolving symbols passed between those modules.
- The z/OS program that processes the output of language translators and compilers into an executable program (a load module or program object). The binder replaces the linkage editor and batch loader. See also prelinker.
- See linkage editor.
- A feature that is used to group related events together. For example, an RFI and a related RFQ can be grouped together.
See binder application programming interface.
A small set of commands (STRPGMEXP, EXPORT, and ENDPGMEXP) that defines the external interface (signature) for a service program. These commands cannot be run alone and are of the source type BND.
- The process of creating a program by packaging Integrated Language Environment (ILE) modules and resolving symbols passed between those modules.
- In the context of SAML, the communication method used to transport the messages.
- In information analysis, a direct relationship between a logical element in a data rule and an actual column in a table in a data source.
- In a multiprocessor context, the act of constraining a thread to a specific physical processor to gain the benefit of processor affinity.
- A temporary association between a client and both an object and a server that exports an interface to the object. A binding is meaningful only to the program that sets it and is represented by a bound handle.
- An association between a client, object, and network that shares information about the transport protocol.
A list of names of modules and service programs that may be needed when creating an ILE program or service program. A binding directory is not a repository of the modules and service programs. Instead, it allows them to be referred to by name and type.
A measure of the strength of a relationship between two entities that are directly or indirectly linked. See also common neighbor.
A technique by which the address space manager (ASM) at one node controls the rate of transmission of BIND requests of a sending ASM at another node. BIND pacing can be used to prevent BIND standoff, in which each of two nodes has reserved most of its resources for sessions it is attempting to initiate through the other and thus rejects any BINDs received from the other.
One of the two communication security passwords. In an LU-LU session, it is the password that the system checks against the remote system to verify that the program to which the user is connected is the correct one.
See session security.
In DFSMSrmm, the specific shelf location where a volume resides in a storage location; bin number is equivalent to a rack number in the removable media library. See also shelf location.
See block input/output daemon.
See basic input/output system.
See built-in self-test.
See binary synchronous transmission.
See binary digit.
See bit block transfer.
A form of digital currency that uses encryption techniques to regulate the generation of currency (bitcoins) and verify the transfer of funds, all operating independently of a central bank. Bitcoin is one of the most widely known applications of Blockchain technology.
bit error rate (BER)
The probability that a transmitted bit will be erroneously received. The BER is measured by counting the number of bits in error at the output of a receiver and dividing by the total number of bits in the transmission. BER is typically expressed as a negative power of 10.
bit error ratio (BER)
The ratio of bits received incorrectly to the total number of bits that were sent. A bit error ratio of 10 to the power of -6 represents one failing bit in 1 000 000 bits transmitted.
In Enhanced X-Windows, the attraction of window contents for a location in a window. When a window is resized, its contents can be relocated. The server can be requested to relocate the previous contents to a region of the window.
- A representation of an image by an array of bits.
- In temporary storage, a control block used by intrapartition transient data to show the VSAM control intervals (or BSAM tracks) that have been used and are available. It is updated whenever a control interval or track is assigned to or released from a destination.
- A coded representation in which each bit, or group of bits, represents or corresponds to an item; for example, a configuration of bits in main storage in which each bit indicates whether a peripheral device or a storage block is available or in which each group of bits corresponds to one pixel of a display image.
- A pixmap with a depth of one bit plane.
- In zFS, a file listing the blocks that are free on disk. The file size is dependent on the size of the aggregate.
A display with a display adapter that has a hardware representation of each separately addressable point on the display. The hardware representation can be processor memory or adapter memory.
A pattern of bits designed to be logically compared to an existing bit value. The mask pattern allows only certain desired parts of the existing bit value to appear in the result of the comparison.
See Because It's Time Network.
In computer graphics, a set of bits that supplies one bit of color information per pixel on the display. Thus, an eight bit plane system allows 2 to the eighth power different colors to be displayed at each pixel.
See basic information unit.
In SNA, the portion of a basic information unit (BIU) that is contained within a path information unit (PIU). It consists of either (a) a request/response header (RH) followed by all or a part of a request/response unit (RU) or (b) a part of an RU.
BlackBerry Messenger (BBM)
Research in Motion's proprietary text messaging service. See also instant message.
- A pool in which no content can be seen.
- An abstraction of a device or system in which only its externally visible behaviour is considered and not its implementation or inner workings.
- A list of IP addresses or email addresses that are always identified as sources of spam.
- A list of values that, when detected, are excluded from the list of available dimension values.
- A list of PCI devices or of computer models that are known to raise issues, accompanied by hardware settings that must be used to work around these issues.
- A component that provides application-specific services and components.
- See blade server.
A BladeCenter unit that acts as an enclosure. This 7-U modular chassis can contain up to 14 blade servers. It enables the individual blade servers to share resources, such as the management, switch, power, and blower modules.
In RPG, an output specification option that changes the contents of a field so that it contains either zeros (if it is a numeric field) or blanks (if it is a character field) after that field is written to the output record.
- One of the characters that belong to the blank character class as defined via the LC_CTYPE category in the current locale. In the POSIX locale, a blank character is either a tab or a space character.
- A graphic representation of the space character.
- In computer graphics, the smooth transition from one color to another, giving a realistic look to a drawing.
- In architecture, a mixing rule in which the intersection of part of a new presentation space P-new with part of an existing presentation space P-existing changes to a new color attribute that represents a color-mixing of the color attributes of P-new with the color attributes of P-existing. For example, if P-new has foreground color-attribute blue and P-existing has foreground color-attribute yellow, the area where the two foregrounds intersect changes to a color attribute of green. See also overpaint, underpaint.
Learning that combines components of e-learning on the Internet with other learning models such as classroom training or books. See also e-learning.
A set of question and answer pairs that are never released or seen by developers and are used to test the system periodically to evaluate performance on unseen data. Testing on blind data prevents accuracy from being tainted by over-fitting to known question sets. Reported results should only come from tests that are run on blind data.
A type of call transfer in which the call is routed to another extension and the original call is terminated. No check is made to determine if the transferred call is answered or if the number is busy. See also screened transfer.
See block update command.
See binary large object.
- A string of data elements recorded, processed, or transmitted as a unit. The elements can be characters, words, or physical records.
- A collection of several properties (such as adapter, procedure, or parameter).
- To record data in a block.
- In programming languages, a compound statement that coincides with the scope of at least one of the declarations contained within it. A block may also specify storage allocation or segment programs for other purposes.
- A group of one or more questions.
- See store zone.
- A set of rows retrieved from a database server that are transmitted as a single result set to satisfy a cursor FETCH request.
- A multidimensional array that represents the cells of all dense dimensions.
- A group of contiguous sectors on a disk that contains a block header and some integral number of records.
- To suspend a program process.
- A component that can be used to design an incident.
- To prevent someone from seeing something in a social collaboration software.
- A unit of data storage on a device.
A database manager method of reading contiguous data pages from disk into contiguous portions of memory. See also scattered read.
- In longitudinal redundancy checking and cyclic redundancy checking, a character that is transmitted by the sender after each message block and is compared with a block-check character computed by the receiver to determine if the transmission was successful.
- The BSC transmission control character that is used to determine if all of the bits that were sent were also received.
block definition diagram
A representation of the components of a system and the flow of information between components. Block definition diagrams include blocks, actors, standard ports, dependencies, and flows. See also block diagram.
- One of the types of files in the AIX file system, described by an inode.
- A device that is accessed by means of an AIX device driver.
A representation that defines the structure of a system and identifies the large-scale organizational parts of the system. Block diagrams show the flow of information between system components and the interface definition through ports. See also block definition diagram, internal block diagram.
In POSIX, a condition that prevents a signal-handling action associated with a signal from being performed. See also unblocked signal.
A function of the DB2 database that retrieves (or fetches) a set of rows together. Using a block fetch can significantly reduce the number of messages that are sent across the network. Block fetch applies only to cursors that do not update data. See also blocking.
- The process of combining two or more records into one block.
- An optimization that involves changing the access order of loops that access large arrays, so that each array element is accessed as infrequently as possible.
- A performance improvement technique that ships multiple rows of data to a database client from a server in response to a single FETCH request. See also block fetch.
- A process that partitions records into subsets that share common characteristics with the goal to limit the number of record pairs being examined during matching. By limiting matching to records pairs within a subset, successful matching becomes computationally feasible for large data sets.
- The number of records in a block. A blocking factor is calculated by dividing the size of the block by the size of the record.
- The number of iterations of an inner loop that are executed for each pass of a corresponding blocking loop.
A way of requesting a service over an interface so that if the request cannot be completed immediately, the requesting process is suspended until the request is completed. See also nonblocking mode.
blocking of PIUs
In SNA, an optional function of path control that combines multiple path information units (PIU) in a single basic transmission unit (BTU). See also basic transmission unit.
An operation that is not completed until the operation either succeeds or fails. For example, a blocking receive will not return until a message is received or until the channel is closed and no further messages can be received.
See block size.
A method of sharing data among IMS systems so that multiple application programs can access and update data concurrently between multiple IMS subsystems. See also database-level sharing.
A bitmap that contains an array of block states, one for each block in the multidimensional clustering table. Each entry in the array has 8 bits, four of which are used: In use, Load, Constraint pending, and Refresh pending.
- The number of pages in a block. It is equal to the extent size.
- In the Netezza system, block size is defined as 128 KB.
- A measure of the size of a block, usually specified in units such as records, words, computer words, or characters. Block size is sometimes referred to as block length and physical record size.
block special file
A file that provides a low-level block access to an input or output device. See also character special file.
In the C or C++ languages, a group of data definitions, declarations, and statements that are located between a left brace and a right brace that are processed as a unit. The block statement is considered to be a single, C-language statement.
block storage volume
A storage disk that can be attached to or detached from a virtual machine as part of a deployed pattern instance. The content in the block storage volume persists after the deployment is deleted.
The total amount of elapsed time in hours and minutes from the first movement of an aircraft from its parking position at the departure location until the wheels stop and all engines are shut down at the parking position in the destination location.
A block cipher that operates on 64-bit (8-byte) blocks of data. It uses a variable size key, but typically, 128-bit (16-byte) keys are considered to be good for strong encryption. Blowfish can be used in the same modes as DES.
See bit block transfer.
See basic link unit.
A collection of IBM DB2 technologies designed to work primarily with read-mostly business intelligence query processing. BLU Acceleration consists of four major database design advances: dynamic in-memory columnar processing, actionable compression, parallel vector processing, and data skipping.
A deployment technique that enables continuous delivery and minimizes downtime by running two nearly identical production environments called Blue and Green. While one of the environments (for example, Blue) is the live production environment, the other (for example, Green) can be used for final testing and deployment. After the application is deployed in Green, Green becomes the production environment and Blue becomes idle. See also red-black deployment.
An open-standards, cloud-based platform for building, managing, and running apps of all types, such as web, mobile, big data, and smart devices. Capabilities include Java, mobile back-end development, and application monitoring, as well as features from ecosystem partners and open source—all provided as-a-service in the cloud.
- A Heat Orchestration Template (HOT) that specifies information about an automatic deployment of cloud resources to a virtual environment. Blueprints contain three sections: parameters, resources, and outputs. See also blueprint design server, blueprint designer, engine.
- A collection of diagrams that include information technology elements, which represent the architecture of an information project, and method elements, which represent standard information technology practices.
The graphical user interface that models blueprints, which specify information about the automatic deployment of deployment of cloud resources to a virtual environment. See also blueprint, blueprint design server, cloud discovery service.
See baseboard management controller.
See Decision Model and Notation.
See bean-managed persistence.
See batch message processing program.
See basic mapping support.
See bean-managed transaction.
See boundary node.
See Bayonet Neill-Concelman.
See Backus-Naur Form.
See boundary node identifier.
See boundary network node.
See Basic Networking Utilities.
See business object.
See Basic Object Adapter.
See Business Object Document.
- In a book, the portion between the front matter and the back matter.
- On a printed page, the area between the top and bottom margins that contains text.
- In Ada language, the definition of the execution of a subprogram, package, or task.
See buy-one-get-one free.
See bill of landing.
See link aggregation.
A type of GNOME component architecture that is based on the CORBA architecture that is used to create compound documents. See also Common Object Request Broker Architecture.
See booking number.
- A customizable, graphical link to databases, views, documents, web pages, and newsgroups.
- A shortcut to a web page of interest to IBM Connections community members.
- The state of a saved page in the Dimensions view. A bookmark preserves the filters, dimension, window positions and settings, graphs, charts, menus and reports.
- To save a link to a web page.
See favorites icon.
A bookmark that extends the functionality of a browser by allowing the user to access content from within an existing browser window. For example, one might create a bookmarklet to a news story on a social collaboration site that provides their friends with a small image and the first two lines of the news story.
- In COBOL, a category of data items that are limited to a value of 1 or 0.
- In SQL, data that has one of three values: true, false, or null.
An expression that evaluates to a Boolean value. See also Boolean value.
- In REXX, an operator each of whose operands and whose result take one of two values (0 or 1).
- A built-in function that specifies a logical operation of AND, OR or NOT when sets of operations are evaluated. The Boolean operators are &&, || and !. See also operator.
A value that can be either true or false, sometimes coded as 1 or 0, respectively. See also Boolean expression.
To identify a specific set of search results for special handling, such as displaying them first in a list or in a unique area of a graphic. See also spotlight.
An object that contains specifications that can influence the relative rank of a document in the search results. See also boost word.
A modeling technique that creates a sequence of models, rather than a single model, to obtain more accurate predictions. Cases are classified by applying the whole set of models to them, and then combining the separate predictions into one overall prediction. See also bagging.
A word that can influence the relevant rank of a document in the search results. During query processing, the importance of a document that contains a boost word might be raised or lowered, depending on the score that is predefined for the word. See also boost class.
See Bootstrap Protocol.
The processing that occurs when a boot image is loaded. Depending on the configuration file, boot processing over the network brings a machine to the running state, the Base Operating System (BOS) installing state, or the diagnostic state.
- A VSAM data set that contains an inventory of all active and archived log data sets known to IBM MQ for z/OS, and a wrap-around inventory of all recent IBM MQ for z/OS activity. The BSDS is required to restart the IBM MQ for z/OS subsystem.
- A VSAM data set that contains name and status information for DB2 for z/OS and relative-byte address-range specifications for all active and archive log data sets. It also contains passwords for the DB2 for z/OS directory and catalog and lists of conditional restart and checkpoint records.
An application server or cluster that is configured to accept application initialization requests into the service integration bus. The bootstrap member authenticates the request and directs the connection request to a bus member.
The process by which an initial reference of the naming service is obtained. The bootstrap setting and the host name form the initial context for Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) references.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
An Internet Protocol (IP) routing protocol used between domains and autonomous systems. See also Exterior Gateway Protocol.
Pertaining to an open, non-proprietary development platform that includes public cloud, dedicated cloud, and local cloud deployment models. See also dedicated cloud, local cloud, public cloud.
See base operating system.
See base operating system installation.
A program that visits websites in an automated fashion. Some bots are used to gather information, such as Google's search indexing of web pages. Others may be employed with malicious intent, such as to cause denial of service (DoS) by causing a website to be too busy to service legitimate requests.
See beginning-of-tape marker.
In AIXwindows, a narrow band of a dark color across the bottom of a rectangular graphical object (a widget or gadget) that creates a three-dimensional appearance when the object is manipulated.
In web services, the process of developing a service from an existing artifact such as JavaBeans or an enterprise bean rather than a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file. See also top-down development.
In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, an approach for mapping enterprise beans to database tables, in which the schema is first imported from an existing database and then enterprise beans and mappings are generated.
- To remove the edit lock from the current editing user for an e.List item in the Contributor web client.
- See debounce.
boundary access node (BAN)
A router (such as the IBM 6611) that provides its attached LAN-based SNA peripheral nodes direct frame-relay access to a subarea boundary node (such as an IBM 3745 or an IBM 3746 Model 900).
- A method used to align image data elements by adding padding bits to each image data element.
- The position in main storage of a fixed-length field, such as halfword or doubleword, which is aligned on an integral boundary for that unit of information. For example, a word boundary alignment stores the object in a storage address evenly divisible by four.
An intermediate event that is attached to the boundary of an activity. A boundary event can be triggered only while the activity is running, either leaving the activity running or interrupting the activity.
boundary function (BF)
In SNA, a capability of a subarea node to provide protocol support for attached peripheral nodes, such as: interconnecting subarea path control and peripheral path control elements; performing session sequence numbering for low-function peripheral nodes; and providing session-level pacing support.
boundary network node (BNN)
In SNA, a subarea node that provides protocol support for adjacent peripheral nodes, for example, transforming network addresses to local addresses and vice versa, and providing session-level support for these peripheral nodes.
boundary node identifier (BNI)
The MAC address that identifies a subarea boundary node as the source or destination of frames carried over the portion of a BAN connection between the boundary node and the boundary access node (BAN). All frames sent by a BAN to the boundary node have their destination MAC address set to the BNI, and all frames sent by a boundary node to a BAN have their source MAC address set to the BNI. See also BAN connection.
boundary white space
In an XQuery direct element constructor, white space characters that occur by themselves in the boundaries between tags, enclosed expressions, or both tags and enclosed expressions.
A font in bounded box format. See also unbounded-box font.
An organization of character graphics and information used by AFP programs. See also unbounded-box format.
bounded-box relative metric
A unit of measure that is expressed in 1000 units per Em-square. See also relative metrics.
bounded character box
A character box that does not contain blank space on any sides of the character. See also unbounded character box.
- In GL, a two-dimensional rectangle that bounds a primitive. A bounding box can be used to determine whether the primitive lies inside a clipping region.
- See character box.
- In computer graphics, the smallest rectangle that encloses a character at the x, y origin.
bounding box coordinates
In DCF, the coordinates of the lower-left and upper-right corners of an imaginary box surrounding an image in the default user coordinate system. The bounding box coordinates are used by SCRIPT/VS to place a PostScript image in the space reserved within a DCF document.
The tightening of bounds on a variable in one of two ways: range, by changing one of the bounds; value, by reducing the domain of the variable to only one possible value. See also lower bound, upper bound.
Bourne shell (sh)
The original implementation of the shell concept for the UNIX operating system. See also Bash shell.
- A line enclosure that forms a rectangle around text or a table.
- A software object that provides a mechanism to model physical entities that contain other physical entities.
- An entity representation that can indicate an organization or group on a chart. A box is often used to enclose other entities. See also circle, representation.
Placing a primitive type within an object so that the primitive can be used as an object, in a language where there is a distinction between a primitive type and an object type. See also autobox, object type, primitive type, unbox.
See business process as a service.
See basic partitioned access method.
See business process definition.
See Business Process Execution Language.
See Business Process Execution Language for Web Services.
See bits per inch.
See Business Process Modeling Language.
- See Business Process Modeling Lanaguage activity.
- A step in a business process that provides directions for how data should be handled.
See Business Process Modeling Notation.
See business process outsourcing.
See bits per second.
See Business Process Specification Schema.
- In SNA, one or more chains of request units and their responses, representing a complete transaction, exchanged between two session partners. See also end bracket.
- Either of the characters left bracket ([) and right bracket (]).
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which exchanges between two session partners are achieved through the use of brackets, with one partner designated at session activation as the first speaker and the other as the bidder. The bracket protocol involves bracket initiation and termination rules. See also protocol.
- An object that specifies a linear sequence of versions of an element. Each branch is an instance of a branch type object.
- In the CVS team development environment, a separate line of development where changes can be isolated. When a programmer changes files on a branch, those changes are not displayed on the main trunk or other branches.
- A stream for insulated or parallel development.
- A distinct path leading to or originating from an element in a process model or UML diagram.
- A set of parallel steps in a workflow. A workflow step is a node in a branch.
- To create a stream for parallel or insulated development.
- In a rule flow, a node that organizes conditional transitions. Several transitions can go to and from a branch node. All transitions created from a branch must have a condition, except the Else transition.
- In a computer program, an instruction that selects one of a number of alternative sets of instructions.
branch and cut
An algorithm that searches the tree of all possible solutions, branching on decision variables and cutting off those branches that do not lead toward a better solution than the one currently known.
branch extender (BEX, BrEx)
An extension to the APPN network architecture that appears as a network node to the downstream end nodes in low entry networks, and as an end node to the wide area network.
branch network node
An APPN network node that implements the Branch Extender architecture. A branch network node appears to be an end node to the backbone network but acts as a network node to the branch network. There may be multiple branch network nodes in a branch, and an end node may receive network node services from any of these branch network nodes.
An index page that contains pointers to a leaf node or other branch nodes. The database server creates a branch node when the root node and subsequent leaf nodes become full. See also node.
A location on a tree structure that has at least one page below and one page above it. In an R-tree index, branch pages are located in the intermediate levels, between the root page and leaf pages.
The source of a relevant, distinctive and enduring "promise of value" to a specific set of customers. The promise should be relevant to those customers and be differentiated from those of competitors. A powerful brand influences a marketplace, demonstrates leadership and quality, and is familiar and trusted.
A person who charts the strategy and tactics surrounding the brand plan. For example, the brand manager tracks which new products get developed and which marketing mix events will occur.
The value at which a service level objective (SLO) is considered as not being met. A service level agreement (SLA) violation occurs if a breach value for one or more of its SLOs is exceeded. See also service level objective.
A web interface element that displays the user's position within a site. It is usually a series of hyperlinks appearing across the top or bottom of the page. These links indicate pages that have been viewed and enable the user to navigate back to the starting location.
- In DCF, an interruption in the formatting of input lines so that the next input line is printed on a new output line.
- To interrupt the sending end and take control of a circuit at the receiving end.
break bulk node
A node within a distribution network that is used during zone skipping. For example, a user might transport a full container load economically by a single carrier to a break bulk node, where the contents of the container are then split into a few small loads for local dispatch to individual customers, or to other subsidiary distribution depots. See also zone skipping.
- A location in a program, specified by a command or a condition, where the system halts execution and gives control to the workstation user or to a specified program.
- A marked point in a process or programmatic flow that causes that flow to pause when the point is reached, typically to allow debugging or monitoring.
- A point where some property of a function changes, such as its slope, for example.
break quantity high
The upper quantity range for a given price. For example, the break quantity high is 10 for an item that for quantities of 1 to 10 the price is $20 per unit; the break quantity high is 50 when for quantities of 11 to 50 the price is $15.
break quantity low
The lower quantity range for a given price. For example, the break quantity low is 1 for an item that for quantities of 1 to 10 the price is $20 per unit; the break quantity low is 11 when for quantities of 11 to 50 the price is $15.
A form that a shipper uses to define rate breaks. A break schedule does not contain specific prices for each rate break. Shippers define the prices when they assign the break schedule to a contract lane or accessorial. See also rate break.
A C or C++ control statement that contains the keyword break and a semicolon (;). It is used to end an iterative or a switch statement by exiting from it at any point other than the logical end. Control is passed to the first statement after the iteration or switch statement.
See branch extender.
- A functional unit that interconnects multiple LANs (locally or remotely) that use the same Logical Link Control (LLC) protocol but that can use different Media Access Control (MAC) protocols. A bridge forwards a frame to another bridge based on the MAC address. See also router.
- A collection of adapters and business process in Sterling B2B Integrator that are used to establish communication and send and receive messages between Multi-Enterprise Integrated Gateway and Sterling B2B Integrator.
- A component that converts metadata from one format to another format by mapping the metadata elements to a standard model. This model translates the semantics of the source tool into the semantics of the target tool. For example, the source tool might be a business intelligence or data modeling tool, and the target tool might be the metadata repository. Or, the source tool might be the metadata repository, and the target tool might be a file that is used by a data modeling tool. See also connector.
- In the connection of local loops, channels, or rings, the equipment and techniques used to match circuits and to facilitate accurate data transmission. See also web application bridge.
In LANs, the forwarding of a frame from one LAN segment to another. The destination is specified by the medium access control (MAC) sublayer address encoded in the destination address field of the frame header.
See Business Rule Language Definition Framework.
A communication channel that uses a wide frequency range divided into narrower bands that can be made available to different users for the simultaneous transmission of different signals (such as voice, video, and data). A broadband channel is capable of higher-speed data transmission than a voice-grade channel.
broadcast for bid tender
See broadcast for capacity tender.
broadcast for capacity tender
A tendering method that allows a shipper to offer a load to a list of carriers as a request for capacity. After carriers submit a bid, the shipper views the available capacity and selects a carrier. See also broadcast for review tender.
broadcast for review tender
A tendering method in which the shipper offers a load to multiple carriers at the same time. The shipper reviews the carriers and selects a carrier to take the load. See also broadcast for capacity tender.
A job that runs on all clones at once. Like any other job, it is handled by the scheduler. See also scheduler.
broadcast Locate search
See broadcast search.
In Notes, a meeting about which invitees are notified; they do not need to respond to the invitation. This option is useful when individual response will not affect the occurrence of the meeting.
A notification that is targeted to all of the users of a specific MobileFirst application. See also tag-based notification.
A situation where one message that is broadcast across a network results in multiple responses. Each response generates more responses, causing excessive transmission of broadcast messages. Severe broadcast storms can block all other network traffic, but they can usually be prevented by carefully configuring a network to block illegal broadcast messages.
A tendering method that allows a shipper to tender a single shipment to multiple carriers at the same time. The shipment is awarded to the first carrier who accepts the shipment, based on first receipt of a tender acceptance by Sterling TMS.
broken access control
A vulnerability that results from inadequate enforcement of restrictions for authenticated users. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access other users' accounts, view sensitive files, or use unauthorized functions.
broken authentication and session management
An issue that occurs when account credentials and session tokens are not properly protected. Attackers can compromise passwords, keys, session cookies, or other tokens, and can assume other users' identities.
broken data set
A data sets that does not conform to IBM data-set standards. Broken data sets are either missing or have invalid catalog entries, volume table of contents (VTOC) entries, or VSAM volume data set (VVDS) entries.
- A set of execution processes that host one or more message flows. See also execution group, message flow.
- In the Network Computing System (NCS), a server that manages information about objects and interfaces to the objects. A program that wants to become the client of an interface can use a broker to obtain information about servers that export the interface.
A file that is the unit of deployment to the broker that can contain any number of compiled message flow and message set files and a single deployment descriptor. A separate broker archive file is required for each configuration that is deployed.
A section in a customization definition document (CDD) that describes which BAR files are deployed, which execution group and broker the files are deployed to, and which tuning parameters the files use.
broker topology definition (BTD)
A description of the brokers, execution groups, and broker archive (BAR) files that are used in a runtime environment, and the actions that are required to implement the current broker topology (for example, deploying the BAR files for a new service).
See business role.
- To look at information without changing it.
- In message queuing, to copy a message without removing it from the queue. See also get, put.
- A program that can be used to look at data but not change it.
- A window that displays a list of items, such as documents (transaction sets), interchanges, and translation objects.
- A client program that initiates requests to a web server and displays the information that the server returns.
A SAML profile that uses a SOAP back channel to exchange an artifact during the establishment and use of a trusted session between an identity provider, a service provider, and a client (browser).
The borders of a web browser window, which include the frames, menus, toolbars and scroll bars. See also chromeless browser.
brute force attack
An attack that uses a repetitive method of trial and error to obtain the user name and password for a valid account on a web application. If successful, the attacker can then access credit card numbers, cryptographic keys, profile data for confidential documents, and tools that are used to manage the user privileges and content of the web application.
See base station.
See basic sequential access method.
See binary synchronous communication adapter.
See binary synchronous communication equivalence link support.
See Berkeley Software Distribution.
See bootstrap data set.
See Basic Security Manager.
See Binary JSON.
- In architecture, the distance between the character coordinate system X-axis values of the two extremities of a character shape.
- In font design, the distance in pels, measured in the inline (print) direction, between the toned pel closest to the character reference point and the toned pel furthest from the character reference point.
See below-specific protocol boundary.
See business transformation.
See Basic Telecommunications Access Method.
See broker topology definition.
See broker topology definition document.
See Business Transformation Management Tool.
An index that is arranged as a balanced hierarchy of pages and that minimizes access time by realigning data keys as items are inserted or deleted. See also forest of trees index.
See business transformation team.
See basic transmission unit.
See British thermal unit.
See British thermal unit per hour.
- One or more fields that accumulate the result of an operation.
- Cloud storage container used by Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3).
- An object that coordinates the expenses of plans, programs, and projects in the form of allocations, forecasted or committed spending, and actual expenses.
- A set of financial commitments including revenue and expense based on the telecom spend.
- A storage area used by MERVA programs to store a message in its internal format. A buffer has an 8-byte prefix that indicates its length.
- A reserved segment of memory used to hold data while it is being processed. See also buffer overflow.
- To allocate and schedule the use of temporary storage areas.
- An area of storage that compensates for the different speeds of data flow or timings of events by temporarily holding a block of data that is waiting to be processed or written to an I/O device.
- An area that surrounds a map item to a specified distance. A buffer is useful for proximity analysis, for example to see what is within five miles of an item.
buffered disk I/O
Disk I/O that is controlled by the operating system instead of by an application. With buffered disk I/O, the operating system stores data in the kernel portion of memory before periodically writing the data to disk. See also disk I/O, unbuffered disk I/O.
In VTAM, a group of buffers associated with one or more contiguous, related entries in a buffer list. The buffers may be located in discontiguous areas of storage, and may be combined into one or more request units.
A technique for preventing the use of invalid data in an IMS Sysplex data sharing environment. The technique involves marking all copies of data in IMS buffers invalid once a sharing IMS subsystem has updated that data.
In VTAM, a contiguous set of control blocks (buffer list entries) that allow an application program to send function management data (FMD) from a number of discontiguous buffers with a single SEND macroinstruction.
An exploitation technique that alters the flow of an application by overwriting parts of memory. Buffer overflows are a common cause of malfunctioning software. See also buffer.
An area of memory into which data pages are read and in which they are modified and held during processing. See also address space.
buffer-to-buffer flow control
Management of the frame transmission rate in either a point-to-point topology or in an arbitrated loop. See also buffer-to-buffer credit.
- A specification for the acquisition, transformation, and delivery of data. See also dimension build, fact build.
- To create or modify resources, typically based on the state of other resources. A Java builder converts Java source files into executable class files, for example, and a web link builder updates links to files whose name or location has changed.
- To convert a product from source code to a binary or executable software product.
- A general descriptor of a person's body type, for example, a person may have a thin or heavy build.
- The process during which a build program produces one or more derived objects. This may involve actual translation of source files and construction of binary files by compilers, linkers, text formatters, and so on.
The metadata that describes how an application is built, including compiler parameters and dependencies. See also launch configuration.
- A reusable component that dynamically generates Java and JSP code based on the context in which it is called. For example, it can add a button to a JSP page, link fields in a form to an XML variable, or create a web service. See also builder skeleton, model.
- A tool that builds and compiles code.
- A module in CICS that, in conjunction with other builders, makes the autoinstall process possible, allows the terminal control table (TCT) to be changed dynamically on a running CICS system, and reduces the times needed for warm and emergency restart on systems that use autoinstall.
A particular invocation of a builder. When a builder is added to a model, a call is added to that builder (builder call), not the builder itself. A model is made up of an ordered list of builder calls.
builder call editor
In Web Experience Factory Designer, the user interface associated with each builder. These wizard-like editors help developers create and edit builder calls during the implementation of the model.
builder call name
The name of the builder call, not the name of the builder being called. See also builder name.
builder definition (Bdef)
The description of both the generation behavior and user interface of a builder. This file is used to create the builder call editor dialog. It contains constraints and default values for the arguments in the builder call being constructed.
The set of parameters that the builder takes as inputs. These builder inputs allow a builder to be configured to produce a specific result or output. For example, most builders have a Name input whose value appears in the builder call list.
The name of the entire builder component. See also builder call name.
A dialog in Web Experience Factory Designer that lists the available builders by category or in an alphabetically-ordered list. The primary purpose of the builder picker is to provide a convenient way to select a new builder to add to a model.
A builder that is used to create other builders. The builder skeleton takes a base model and related profiled inputs and automatically generates the additional code required to create a builder based on the model. See also builder.
The model of an image that is created by combining models of a base operating system and software bundles. Each building block contains a semantic and functional model that describes the contents of the components, for example, the installed products, supported operating systems, prerequisites, and requirements.
- A server system that client systems use to perform builds. A build server receives requests from build clients to create executable files from source code sent from the build clients.
- The computer on which the app build and deployment processes are run. The build server can be used to build and configure the mobile apps.
- A data type that IBM supplies. Among the built-in data types for DB2 for z/OS are string, numeric, XML, ROWID, and datetime. See also distinct type.
- A data type defined by the database server. See also data type.
Application data in a message for which the queue manager defines the meaning. See also application-defined format.
- A predefined, SQL-invoked function that provides some basic arithmetic and other operations, such as cos(), log(), or today().
- A function that is predefined by the compiler and whose code is incorporated directly into the compiled object rather than called at run time. See also function.
- A special calculation formula set up specifically for planning. For example, some built-in functions include depreciation, discounted cashflow, forecasting using different drivers, and stock purchase prediction based on future sales.
- A function that is defined by the database manager. See also function, routine, user-defined function.
built-in shell command
A command that is implemented as part of a shell program. Certain commands are built into the shell in order to improve the performance of shell scripts or to access the shell's internal data structures and variables.
The storage of high volumes of SKUs that represent a specific space on the floor of the warehouse. Typically SKUs stored in this area would be sturdy enough to stack multiple pallets high, permitting better utilization of warehouse space.
See block decryption.
See block encryption.
- A graphic object that simulates a real-life bulletin board in that it displays text and graphic information in the form of messages to the user from client applications that are currently running.
- The mechanism by which the Tivoli Management Framework and Tivoli applications communicate with Tivoli administrators. The bulletin board collects notices in notice groups. Administrators can access the bulletin board from the Tivoli desktop. The bulletin board is an audit trail for important operations that the administrators perform.
- A kit item that can contain both products and services.
- A packaged collection of software products that is purchased as one item and that has its own product identifier (PID).
- Catalog merchandise that provides single-click function for referring to multiple items. More formally, a bundle is a composite catalog entry consisting of at least one code. See also dynamic kit, kit, package, prebuilt kit.
- To package a collection of individually orderable components or products into a single offering, often for promotional purposes. Software manufacturers typically offer a single license to cover all components of a bundled offering.
- A set of findings that the user creates. Bundles can be exported and shared between people and applications.
- In the OSGi service platform, a Java archive file that contains Java code, resources, and a manifest that describes the bundle and its dependencies. The bundle is the unit of deployment for an application. See also bundle cache, bundle repository, enterprise bundle archive, subagent.
- An object that allows a user to package, organize, and optionally provide additional information about the reports that can be sent to the recipients.
- A group of journal entries that are deposited together by the system.
- A collection of CICS resources, artifacts, references, and a manifest file that can be installed as a unit. See also CICS bundle, management bundle.
- A set of tokens that are transferred between nodes in a simulation as a complete group.
A cell-wide store, or server-wide store for single-server systems, of bundles that OSGi applications refer to and that have been downloaded from both internal and external repositories. See also bundle, bundle repository.
- A product that is comprised of multiple products.
- A part of a bundle that is defined within a definition by having the same recipient identifier and distribution description as that distribution, and each bundle component is specific to a report that is defined in the OnDemand database.
A bid that is placed by suppliers for multiple items rather than a separate bid for each item. Bundled bids are available only with RFQs, RFPs and reverse auctions. The buyer can choose to ignore them when performing scenario analysis on the returned bids.
A special file that describes the resources, location of supporting artifacts, application prerequisites, and services that are included in a bundle to deploy part or all of a CICS application.
In agile software development, a tool for measuring progress in which the number of remaining tasks are plotted against the estimated number of total tasks for the day, iteration, or other period.
See burndown chart.
- In data communication, a sequence of data counted as one unit in accordance with some specific criterion or measure.
- To create several report results by running a single report once. For example, the user can create a report that shows sales for each employee, and run it once, sending different results to regional managers by bursting on region.
- To separate continuous-forms paper into individual sheets.
- A sudden sharp increase in the rate of incoming events or flows such that the licensed flow or event rate limit is exceeded.
An optional printer feature that separates continuous forms into separate sheets, trims the carrier strip from both edges of the paper, and stacks the sheets. The BTS also identifies jobs by offsetting the stacking. See also job offset.
- In a processor, a physical facility on which data is transferred to all destinations but from which only addressed destinations can read in accordance with appropriate conventions.
- Interconnecting messaging engines that manage bus resources.
- A facility for transferring data between several devices located between two end points, only one device being able to transmit at a given moment.
- One or more conductors used for transmitting signals or power.
- A computer configuration in which processors are interconnected in series.
bus extension driver card (BED card)
The card, connected by a cable to a bus extension receiver (BER) card, that is used to route data from one card enclosure to another card enclosure. The direction of data can be from the processing unit to an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures, or from an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures to the processing unit. See also bus extension receiver card.
bus extension receiver card (BER card)
The card, connected by a cable to a bus extension driver (BED) card, that is used to route data from one card enclosure to another card enclosure. The direction of data can be from the processing unit to an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures, or from an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures to the processing unit. See also bus extension driver card.
- An activity defined for business objects.
- For RosettaNet, a message with content of a business nature such as a Purchase Order Request or a Request For Quote. The exchange of business actions and business signals comprise the message choreography necessary to complete a business activity specified by a PIP.
- For RosettaNet, one or more discrete activities encapsulated by PIP and as specified by the business analysts during development of the PIP blueprint. The exchange of business actions and business signals comprise the message choreography necessary to complete a business activity specified by a particular PIP. For example, PIP 3A4 (Manage Purchase Order) specifies three separate business activities: Create Purchase Order, Change Purchase Order, and Cancel Purchase Order.
- See activity.
- A specialist who analyzes business needs and problems, consults with users and stakeholders to identify opportunities for improving business return through information technology, and transforms requirements into a technical form.
- A decision management user role that is responsible for modeling rule application projects.
Business Analytics and Optimization (BAO)
A service offering that helps clients gain greater perspective and predictability for business decisions. Business Analytics and Optimization means that clients can operate at a greater level of intelligence.
Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)
A programming interface that is used to access SAP databases from with SAP or other development platforms. BAPI is used to achieve integration between the R/3 System and external applications and legacy systems.
Business Application Services (BAS)
The component of CICSPlex SM that provides the ability to define and manage business applications in terms of their CICS resources and associated CICS systems. BAS provides a central definition repository for CICS systems, complete with installation facilities and the ability to restrict a CICSPlex SM request to those resources defined as being part of the business application.
Under the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), an organization or person working in association with or providing services to a covered entity who handles or discloses Personal Health Information (PHI) or Personal Health Records (PHR). See also business associate agreement, covered entity, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
business associate agreement
Under the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), a contract between a covered entity and a business associate that protects personal health information (PHI) in accordance with HIPAA guidelines. See also business associate, covered entity, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
- A working calendar, configured by either the buyer or the seller organization, that specifies nonworking days, such as holidays and special events.
- A calendar that is used to model noncontiguous time intervals (intervals that do not proceed in a sequential manner). For example, a business calendar that defines regular working hours might refer to the non-overtime regular working hours of Monday to Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
A template used in the Business Transformation Management System (BTMS) to provide information on the business case for a program (during BT portfolio management) or project (during BT operations process phases). It includes information on the value areas (cost avoidance, cost reductions, incremental revenue, revenue shift to web base, etc.) and quantification of value over the life of the investment.
- A part of an enterprise that has the potential to operate independently, in the extreme as a separate company, or as part of another company.
- A component that defines the structure, behavior, and information displayed by a particular subject, such as a product, contact, or account, in Siebel Business Applications.
A model of a real world constraint on purchasing activities. Business constraints are a mechanism to add limiting conditions within a scenario. The conditions could be based on existing business contracts, procurement policies, or business rules. For example, a favorite supplier rule, award limit rule, supplier count rule, total cost rule etc can be defined in a scenario.
The capability of a business to withstand outages and to operate mission-critical services normally and without interruption in accordance with predefined service-level agreements. See also business continuity solution.
business continuity solution
A combination of hardware, software, and services that ensures business continuity. The business continuity solution must address data, operational environment, applications, the application hosting environment, and the user interface. See also business continuity.
business design assurance (BDA)
Process which provides a structured approach to linking and validating business process designs to business rules, business strategies and objectives and related application architectures.
A business community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals. This community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. A business ecosystem contains business services networks, which contain business process, relevant to the transactions in that network.
In web services programming, a data structure type that contains information about the business that has published the service. The business entity is specified when the service is registered.
- An occurrence of significance to a business. Application events and system events can be business events.
- A significant occurrence in a business process, generally identified by a business analyst, that warrants monitoring over time to reveal a key performance indicator (KPI).
- An event that occurs during a business process. See also application event.
Business Event Language
A business rule language that expresses event rules. See also business rule language.
The controlled vocabulary and associated enterprise-wide information about governance policies and rules that define business semantics that, in turn, reveal or aid the operational needs of the business. See also category, information governance policy, policy, term.
A wrapper that is added around a simple business object or a hierarchy of business objects to provide additional capabilities, such as carrying change summary and event summary information related to the business objects in the business graph. See also business object.
- A place to collect any elements to group together. Different business groups can be created for companies, processes, parts of processes, or any other grouping.
- The highest level in the organization hierarchy which has no accounting impact. It can consist of a single company or multiple companies.
business integration system
An integration broker and a set of integration adapters that allow heterogeneous business applications to exchange data through the coordinated transfer of information in the form of business objects.
business intelligence (BI)
The consolidation and analysis of data collected in the day-to-day operation of a business, which is then used as a basis for better business decisions and competitive advantage.
business intelligence asset (BI asset)
An information asset that is used by business intelligence (BI) tools to organize reports and models that provide a business view of data. These assets include BI reports, BI models, BI collections, and cubes.
Business Intelligence Bus (BI Bus)
An application programming interface (API) that uses SOAP and other standard protocols for message encoding, transport, and security. Using any compliant toolkit, the BI Bus can be integrated with other web portals and software applications.
A business document, work product, or commodity that is used in business operations. Examples of business items are a manufacturing order, system board, power supply, and memory chip (in a PC assembly process), itinerary and customer information record (in a trip reservation process), and passenger (in a transportation process). See also business object.
business item template
A category used to model a group of business items that share common properties. After these properties are defined in the template, they are inherited by all business items using the template. For example, an organization may define a number of forms to be used in human resource processes, all of which have fields for date, employee number, HR form number, and HR administrator.
The lifecycle of a unit of data, such as a table or a column, between information assets. Business lineage excludes data transformations that data lineage typically includes. See also data lineage.
- The part of a distributed application that is concerned with the application logic rather than the user interface of the application. See also presentation logic.
- The codified procedures in a business software system that implements the day-to-day operations of an organization (such as processing an order, payroll management, and so on). Business logic typically includes industry-standard procedures for business operations and customizations reflecting an organization's unique business policies.
In System Manager, the discipline that encompasses inventory management, security management, financial administration, business planning, and management services for all enterprise-wide information systems.
A description of a performance management characteristic that you want to monitor. Business measures include instance metrics, aggregate metrics (also called measures), and key performance indicators (KPI).
- A method of an enterprise bean that implements the business logic or rules of an application. (Sun)
- A method added to a type in a business object model. Business methods extend the original type without altering its source.
A sample commerce solution that includes an organization structure, default user roles and access control policies, one or more starter stores, administration tools, and business processes that demonstrate best practices.
A decentralized peer-to-peer architecture that has nodes consisting of market participants (such as banks and securities firms). Members exchange items of value through a ledger, which each member possesses and whose content is always in sync with the others.
- An abstract representation of the fields that belong to the event and action definitions.
- A software entity that represents a business entity, such as an invoice. A business object includes persistent and nonpersistent attributes, actions that can be performed on the business object, and rules that the business object is governed by. See also business graph, business item, data object, private business object, Service Data Objects.
- The definition of a data object. For example, the business object triPeople defines a person structure and includes the person's given name, surname, and primary address.
- A single instance of a class that includes, but is not limited to, an organization, price, and contract.
A high-level business goal. Because business objectives are typically abstract, they are difficult to measure and are therefore translated into more measurable lower-level business goals.
- A representation of the core concepts of a business and their logical connections. The business object model is the basis for the vocabulary used in business rules. The elements of a business object model (BOM) map to those of a corresponding execution object model.
- A model that defines how a system organizes its processes when interacting with business objects. An example of a business object model is the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component model.
business operational view
For RosettaNet, the first section of every PIP specification, which describes the business-related aspects of the PIP. This is information captured from business analysts during development of the PIP. The BOV is the PIP Blueprint as approved by the RosettaNet members.
The ways in which an organization operates, including its processes and organizational structure. For example, an organization might have a management structure and processes defined for everything from taking vacation days to submitting travel expenses.
A company that has a partnership with a sponsor company. See also sponsor.
A series of processes that analyze the IBM portfolio, compare it to the competitive landscape, use strategy to derive direction, and finally decide upon the best transformation opportunities to ensure that IBM remains competitive in the marketplace.
- A policy that is attached to an object in the ontology known as the business policy target. It optionally specifies a set of conditions that must be met for the business policy to apply. The policies declare a set of assertions that must be satisfied when the conditions are met.
- A set of rules that define business processes, industry practices, or the scope and characteristics of business offerings.
- A group of activities. See also activity.
- A defined set of business activities that represent the required steps to achieve a business objective. A business process includes the flow and use of information and resources.
business process definition (BPD)
A reusable model of a process that defines the common aspects of all runtime instances of that process model. See also process.
Business Process Execution Language (BPEL)
An XML-based language for the formal specification of business processes and business interaction protocols. BPEL extends the web services interaction model and enables it to support business transactions.
Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS)
See Business Process Execution Language.
business process management (BPM)
The services and tools that support process management (for example, process analysis, definition, processing, monitoring and administration), including support for human and application-level interaction. BPM tools can eliminate manual processes and automate the routing of requests between departments and applications.
- A paradigm that controls the business workflow of transactions.
- An automated business process that uses drag-and-drop technologies to link activities in a digital, graphical representation of the related task.
business process sketch
A diagram that illustrates a directed flow of activities that are specified by using a subset of Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). Two types of processes are supported: simple and business-to-business.
See business continuity.
- An advanced expression used to perform calculations or otherwise manipulate the value of attributes. For example, a business rule could be a formula that can check the quality of requirements, implement a complete workflow, or aggregate sales figures for a large corporation. See also expression.
- A conditional statement that defines how events are processed and which activities trigger an event alert.
- A user-defined script to be included in the consolidation process.
- A policy, constraint, or required operation that applies to a specific set of business conditions or dependencies. An example of a business rule for a bank is that a credit check is not required when opening an account for an existing customer.
- A configurable rule that specifies in detail how an order management system handles installation, inventory, pricing, promotions, services, and organizations.
- A constraint on optimization that allows rules to describe strategies or policies that are important in guiding the outcome of the optimization to suit the customer’s needs.
- A representation of how business policies or practices apply to a business activity.
business rule group
A set of scheduled business rules that are available as a service that can be invoked. The business rule group also provides the organizational structure for managing the set of business rules.
An account or synopsis of a projected course of action or events. The scenario defines and documents a major end-to-end business transaction, speaks to how people and organizations interact to execute the defined process, the business transaction, and how they will ultimately utilize systems and applications that support the end-to-end process design. Used in the business design assurance process to define the interactions of the users with the systems.
A series of periods that indicate how a business divides a time line into different operational states. The level of service that is guaranteed during each schedule state can be varied.
- In web services programming, a data structure type that contains information about groups of web services. The business service structure is specified when a service is registered.
- An abstract representation of a business function, hiding the specifics of the function interfaces.
business service definition
A representation of the WSDL PortTypes in a business service. A business service definition describes a specific set of business service operations that are used to perform related business functionality.
business service object
A representation of an XML schema file (.xsd). There are inline XML schemas and schema types within WSDL files. A business service object is a collection of business service object definitions and business service object templates.
business service object definition
A representation of the WSDL ComplexType in an inline schema, or the XML schema type (SimpleType, ComplexType, Anonymous ComplexType, or Anonymous SimpleType) in an XML schema file. There are inline XML schemas and schema types within WSDL files. A business service object definition is similar to a business item and is used to define the business data that is required when a business service operation is invoked.
business service operation
A representation of the WSDL Operation in a business service definition. A business service operation describes a business function and includes the business service object definitions that are required when the operation is invoked. A business service operation also describes the business service object definitions that result from completing the business service operation. For example, a Product Search business service operation requires a Product name (a business service object definition) and returns a Product business service object definition. Business service operations can be added to process diagrams as non-editable services.
business services network
A collection of business processes, services, subscribers, and policies that enable, control, or consume a portfolio of business services. The business services network can span enterprise boundaries and geographies or be confined to a single physical network or entity.
A message exchanged between two RosettaNet network applications to communicate certain events within the execution of a PIP instance. Examples of signals include "receipt and successful validation of a message" (Receipt Acknowledgement) and "receipt of a message out of sequence" (General Exception). A signal is used to communicate an exception condition within the normal message choreography of a PIP.
Refers to Internet applications that exchange information or run transactions between businesses. See also business-to-consumer.
Refers to the subset of Internet applications that exchange information or run transactions between businesses and consumers. See also business-to-business.
A self-contained business function, for example, the booking of an airline ticket. A business transaction might be implemented as multiple user transactions or activities. See also business transaction services.
business transaction services (BTS, CICS BTS)
An application programming interface and set of services for implementing complex business transactions in CICS. See also business transaction.
Business Transformation Management System (BTMS)
An integrated management system framework to manage the IBM portfolio to meet the needs of IBM and the marketplace. The IBM portfolio consists of planned solutions, in-flight solutions, deployed solutions, and solutions that have been sunset.
Business Transformation Management Tool (BTMT)
A workflow tool developed by the BT-CIO to manage development of solutions, projects, and assets through the Solution Development processes of BTMS. BTMT is used to accomplish the following: initiate web marketing activity, request a new web site, begin new development of any type of asset (application, tool, team room, data repository, form, or infrastructure system service), deploy any type of asset, manage an asset once deployed, or request an IT Funding Request (IPP#).
- A unit in the CIO representing a major business area. Business units lead end-to-end transformation in their business area and are accountable for results tied to performance. Units execute their strategy and implement process changes necessary to drive performance and simplification. Examples include: Server and Storage Systems Group, Sales and Distribution, Software Group, IBM Research, Technology Group, Global Services, IBM Global Financing, Corporate Functions, and Personal Computer Division.
- A group within a buyer organization.
The component of a policy expression that indicates the relative economic value of the decision of a policy. Business value is used to determine which policy is selected among conflicting policies.
The dedicated allocation of an entire bus and all accompanying resources (input/output processors and input/output devices) to a particular logical partition. See also IOP-level partitioning.
A device or subsystem that controls data transfers between itself and a subordinate. See also DMA slave.
A local area network in which there is only one path between any two data stations and in which data transmitted by any station is concurrently available to all other stations on the same transmission medium.
See busy pointer.
- A mechanism on a pointing device, such as a mouse, used to request or start an action.
- A graphic that executes an action when clicked.
- On the sell-side, a defined role in WebSphere Commerce that handles negotiations and ordering, keeps track of inventory, makes purchase order decisions, tracks reasons for returns, and tracks expected inventory records and receipts.
- On the buy-side, a defined role in WebSphere Commerce that makes purchases from the seller's website on behalf of a customer account. Typically, purchases are made under one or more agreements negotiated with the Seller.
- An organization that purchases products from an enterprise or other seller organizations.
- A buyer user with administrative privileges. See also buyer user.
- A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the information for the buying organization. The buyer administrator creates and administers the suborganizations within the buying organization and manages the various users, including approving users as buyers (buy-side).
See client journey.
- See purchasing organization.
- An organization that places purchase orders (PO) to vendors.
An internal survey that is sent to members of the buyer organization. A buyer organization typically uses a buyer survey to gather information prior to creating an RFI, RFQ, RFP or auction.
A user who belongs to a buyer organization, and purchases products from a storefront on behalf of that buyer organization. See also buyer administrator.
The process of comparing the software package to be installed and the base software package. See also delta install.
byte order mark (BOM)
A marker that consists of a Unicode character code that is placed at the beginning of a data stream, typically in a text file. The marker can be used to indicate the byte order and encoding of the data stream. An example of a byte order mark is the UTF-16BE (big endian) BOM 0xFEFF.
- A sequence of bytes without any organizing structure.
- A simple sequence of bytes stored in a stream file. See also record data.