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This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


See byte.

See business-to-business.

B2B direct business model
A business model that supports commerce transactions involving products, services, or information between two businesses or parties. Typical B2B direct transactions occur between buyers, suppliers, manufacturers, resellers, distributors, and trading partners. See also consumer direct, direct sales business model.

B2B standards services
A set of services that implement interoperable Internet business sequencing protocols, such as EDIINT, SOAP, RosettaNet RNIF, and ebXML.

See business-to-consumer.

See business-to-employee.

See business-to-individual.

B4-size paper
Paper that is 257 mm by 363 mm (10.1 in. by 14.33 in.).

B5-size paper
Paper that is 182 mm by 257 mm (7.17 in. by 10.12 in.).

See bi-polar with 8-zero substitution.

See basic authentication.


  1. See backup as a service.
  2. See backend as a service.

A set of nodes and their interconnecting links that form a central, high-speed network which interconnects other, typically lower-speed, networks or client nodes.

backbone average distance
See NETID backbone average distance.

backbone diameter
See NETID backbone diameter.

backbone LAN segment
In a multiple segment configuration of a LAN, a centrally located LAN segment to which other LAN segments are connected by means of bridges.

backbone network
A central network to which smaller networks, normally of lower speed, connect. The backbone network usually has a much higher capacity than the networks it helps interconnect or is a wide-area network (WAN) such as a public packet-switched datagram network.

backbone router
A router that is used to transmit data between areas.

back buffer
In GL, in double buffer mode, the non-visible plane of the main frame buffer bit planes. Typically, an application draws into the back buffer and views the front buffer for dynamic graphics.

back door
A hole in the security of a system. It can be used by hackers to access sensitive information, or by programmers for maintenance and testing.

back end
The set of support components of a computer system, such as the database management system.

backend as a service (BaaS)
See mobile backend as a service.

back-end program
In the AIX operating system, the program that sends output to a particular device.

back-end service time
The time it takes for a web server to receive a requested transaction, process it, and respond to it.

back-end system
A system in a multisystem environment that accepts transactions from the front-end system, calls application programs for transaction processing, and routes replies back to the front-end system for response to the terminal. See also front-end system.

back-end transaction
In synchronous transaction-to-transaction communication, a transaction that is started by a front-end transaction. See also front-end transaction.


  1. The part of a presentation space that is not occupied with object data.
  2. In CDE, the underlying area of a window on which elements, such as buttons and lists, are displayed.
  3. The conditions under which low-priority, noninteractive programs are run. See also foreground.

background activity
See background process.

background color

  1. In the GDDM function, the first color of the display medium; for example, black on a display or white on a printer. See also neutral color.
  2. In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, the single electronic color assigned to the graphic field that appears behind the foreground elements inside the border of a displayed widget or gadget. See also foreground color.

background connection
Any connection defined in a HATS application other than the default connection. HATS does not transform screens from background connections. See also connection, default connection.

background job
A low-priority job, usually a batched or non-interactive job.

background mix
An attribute that determines how the background color of data, such as a graphics primitive, is combined with the existing color of a graphics presentation space. See also foreground mix.

background music
Any audio data that is played on a music channel.

background page
An open console page that is not fully visible or in focus. The user must click the tab for the page in the page bar to view its contents.

background picture
The diagram or image that is displayed behind other symbols to show the context or relations of those symbols.

background plane
The Tivoli NetView submap layer that provides the background for the application plane. The background plane can display a picture that provides context for viewing the icons of the application plane. See also application plane.

background process

  1. A process that does not require operator intervention but can be run by the computer while the workstation is used to do other work. See also foreground process.
  2. In the AIX operating system, a mode of program execution in which the shell does not wait for program completion before prompting the user for another command.

background processing
A mode of program execution in which the shell does not wait for program completion before prompting the user for another command.

background task
A task that is running even though the user is not currently interacting with it. See also foreground task.

background test
A test executed on one or more test engines at a constant load level for the duration of the performance test.

An additional pickup and delivery in the reverse direction made while a vehicle is returning to the starting site after it has made a delivery. See also deadhead distance.

backhaul allowance
A sum of money paid to a retailer that is determined by the quantity of product moved from the manufacturer's location to a retailer's location by the use of contracted trucks.

The double reversal of direction in a tape resulting from a tape unavoidably moving past the desired stopping point. The tape controller moves the tape in the reverse direction to prepare it for acceleration to normal reading or writing speed in the original direction.

The repeated back and forth motion a tape drive makes when there is interruption in the data stream.

backing store
The collection of off-screen, saved pixels maintained by the Enhanced X-Windows server.

back link
A relationship between artifacts in different products where each artifact stores a link that points to the other artifact. See also artifact, back linking.

back linking
A process in which two links are used to define a relationship between artifacts in different products. Neither product has to query for these links because that information is provided in each product. See also back link, link discovery.

In agile development, a list of features or technical tasks that are necessary for a project or release that the development team assesses and prioritizes to assign work.

back matter
In a book, the sections such as a glossary or an index that are placed after the main chapters or sections.

Pertaining to an application that processes support and administrative tasks not in real time.

back-office business logic
The implementation of business logic, using commands and customized code, allowing a customer to complete an action in the store front. See also storefront asset.

The status of an ordered product when inventory allocation has determined that the product is not available.


  1. An operation that reverses all changes to resources made during the current unit of work. See also nonrecoverable data set, recoverable data set.
  2. The process of undoing uncommitted changes that an application process has made. A backout might be necessary in the event of a failure on the part of an application process or as a result of a deadlock situation. See also roll back.
  3. The process of removing all the database updates performed by an application program that has terminated abnormally. See also dynamic backout.
  4. See rollback.

back out
To remove changes from a physical file member in the inverse order from which the changes were originally made.

backout recovery

  1. The process of returning a file to a particular point by removing journaled changes to the file.
  2. The process of removing changes that are possibly inconsistent. For example, backout recovery will delete an update that has been requested if the program fails before requesting a related update. Backout recovery requires a log to hold images of records before they were updated. See also forward recovery.

A hardware part that has (in one or more planes) logic paths, low-voltage distribution paths, and grounding paths of a section of a machine.

back pressure
A condition that occurs when outbound data transmission is held up until a network bottleneck has been cleared.

backpropagation neural network model
An algorithmic model that is used for generating data analysis.

backroom pick
The act of pulling inventory from the backroom of a store to fill an order.

The character \. The backslash enables a user to escape the special meaning of a character. That is, typing a backslash before a character tells the system to ignore any special meaning the character might have.

back-to-back gateways
Two gateways separated by one intervening network that contains no gateway system services control point (SSCP) function involved with either of the two gateway NCPs.

In constraint programming, the activity of abandoning one line of search (usually after a failure), returning to a given state in the system, and restoring variables to their previous values in that state so that another alternative can be explored in the search for a solution.


  1. Pertaining to a system, device, file, or facility that can be used in the event of a malfunction or loss of data.
  2. A tape, diskette, or save file containing saved objects.
  3. A copy of a data set or object to be used in case of accidental loss.
  4. The process of making a copy of a data file that can be used if the original file is destroyed.
  5. A copy of a database or table space that can be stored on a different medium and used to restore the database or table space in the event of failure or damage to the original.
  6. The process of copying a file, directory, file system, or other data onto a tape, disk, or other media as insurance against data loss or corruption.

back up

  1. To create a copy of computer data that can be used to restore data that has been lost, mislaid, corrupted or erased. See also restore.
  2. To save information or objects on a system, usually to tape or diskette, for safekeeping.

Backup, Recovery, and Media Services (BRMS)
An IBM licensed program that provides user-modifiable backup, archive, recovery, and media management functions and policies.

backup-archive client
A program that runs on a workstation or file server and provides a means for users to back up, archive, restore, and retrieve files. See also administrative client.

backup as a service (BaaS)
A remote, online, or managed service that provides users with a system for backing up, storing, and recovering data.

backup console
A console that, in the event of a failure, can be used as the system console that manages the operating system. See also alternate console, system console, twinaxial console.

backup control data set (BCDS)
One of the control data sets (CDSs) in DFSMShsm. The BCDS is a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) key-sequenced data set (KSDS) that contains information about backup versions of data sets, backup volumes, dump volumes, and volumes under control of the backup and dump functions of DFSMShsm. See also control data set.

backup control group
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of libraries, system keywords, and lists that share common backup characteristics. The default values for a backup control group are defined in the backup policy and can be used or overridden by each backup control group.

backup copy
A copy, usually of a file or group of files, that is kept in case the original file or files are unintentionally changed or destroyed.

backup copy group
A policy object containing attributes that control the generation, destination, and expiration of backup versions of files. A backup copy group belongs to a management class. See also copy group.

backup Copy Services server
One of two Copy Services servers in a Copy Services domain. The other Copy Services server is the primary Copy Services server. The backup Copy Services server is available to become the active Copy Services server if the primary Copy Services server fails. See also Copy Services client, Copy Services server, Copy Services server group, primary Copy Services server.

backup cycle
The frequency with which backups are performed.

backup data set

  1. A copy that can be used to replace or reconstruct a damaged data set.
  2. A data set in the backup RACF database. For each data set in the primary RACF database, an installation should define a corresponding backup data set.

backup designated router
In a multiaccess OSPF network that has at least two attached routers, a router that needs to establish adjacencies with all the routers in the network (including the designated router) and is promoted to the designated router when the current designated router fails. A backup designated router is elected by other routers using the Hello Protocol. See also designated router.

backup domain manager
An agent in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that can assume the responsibilities of its domain manager. It is installed as a full status, fault-tolerant agent. See also domain manager, fault-tolerant agent, full status.

backup focal point
A focal point that provides management services support for a particular category for a node in the event of a communications failure with the primary focal point. Both assigned focal points (explicit and implicit) and default focal points can have backup counterparts.

backup format
The format used to write a file when the backup command copies it. A file in this format must be restored before it can be used.

backup frequency
In DFSMShsm, the number of days that must elapse since the last backup version of a data set was made until a changed data set is again eligible for backup.

backup history
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a report of what has been backed up with a BRMS backup policy. A backup history contains information about each item such as what type of object it is, the date and time it was saved, and when the saved item expires. Synonymous with media information report.

backup host
A host that is designated as a backup in the event that the distributing host should malfunction. The backup host takes over the IP address of the distributing host when required. See also distributing host.

backup increment
A component of a backup set, a differential backup, or a cumulative backup.

backup list

  1. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of objects or folders that are grouped together for processing in a backup control group. Each list is assigned a unique list name.
  2. In the Operational Assistant function, a list of libraries or folders to be saved on a regular basis, such as daily or weekly.

backup master domain manager
An agent in a distributed Tivoli Workload Scheduler network that can assume the responsibilities of the master domain manager. It is installed as a full status, fault-tolerant agent. See also fault-tolerant agent, full status, master domain manager.

backup node
A cluster node on which there is a secondary copy of a cluster resource. The copy is kept current through replication.

backup NSD server
A node designated to perform Network Shared Disk (NSD) disk access functions in the event that the primary NSD server fails.

backup pending
The state of a database or table space that prevents an operation from being performed until the database or table space is backed up.

backup policy
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a set of controls that are used to track information about the items that are being backed up, when they are being backed up, and where they are being backed up. Backup policy is a combination of the concepts of control group and media policy.

backup profile
In DFSMShsm, a Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), discrete, data-set profile associated with the backup version of a cataloged data set that is protected by a RACF, discrete, data-set profile.

backup RACF database
A RACF database that reflects the contents of the primary RACF database. See also primary RACF database.

backup/recovery plan
A plan that identifies the approach, procedures, and actions to be executed in the event of unsuccessful operation or execution. It does not imply the intent to revert back to the original environment, but, instead, the Backup/Recovery Plan identifies the alternate plan to proceed. It builds the information (dumps, backup datasets, logs, etc.) needed to recover from a serious error or processing exception and continue forward.

backup retention grace period
The number of days the storage manager retains a backup version after the server is unable to rebind the file to an appropriate management class.

backup session
The session that replaces the failing primary extended recovery facility (XRF) session between a terminal user and the active subsystem.

backup set
A portable, consolidated group of active versions of backup files that are generated for a backup-archive client.

backup set collection
A group of backup sets that are created at the same time and which have the same backup set name, volume names, description, and device classes. The server identifies each backup set in the collection by its node name, backup set name, and file type.

backup site
See also replicated resource group.

backup system
In System i Navigator, a system that replaces a central system when the central system requires maintenance or upgrades.

backup version
A file or directory that a client node backed up to storage. More than one backup version can exist in storage, but only one backup version is the active version. See also active version, copy group, inactive version.

backup volume
A volume managed by DFSMShsm to which backup versions of data sets are written.

backup VTOC copy data set
In DFSMShsm, a copy of the volume table of contents (VTOC) of a volume that was backed up by DFSMShsm. The backup VTOC copy data set contains only part of the data-set VTOC entry for each data set from the original data set. This data set is written on a migration-level-1 volume.

backup-while-open (BWO)
A backup copy of a data set made while the data set is open for update. The backup copy can contain partial updates.

Backus-Naur Form (BNF)
A metalanguage that is used to describe the syntax of a given language and its notation. In speech recognition, a special adaptation of grammar representation specified by Speech Recognition Control Language (SRCL) (pronounced "circle").

backward log recovery
The final phase of restart processing during which DB2 scans the log in a backward direction to apply UNDO log records for all aborted changes.

backward recovery
The process of restoring integrity to databases and other recoverable resources following a failure.

bad block
A portion of a disk that can never be used reliably.

badge #
See badge number.

badge number (badge #)
A unique identification number that identifies a law officer in their jurisdiction.

See data bag.

A modeling technique that is designed to enhance the stability of the model and avoid overfitting. See also boosting, overfitting.

See Business Action Language.

balanced binary tree
A tree structure that provides for rapid location of items in a text list.

balanced configuration unit (BCU)
In a data warehouse, a defined combination of resources that are divided and balanced to make up a single practical building block that is scalable. Larger systems can be configured by combining several building blocks into one system image.

balanced data link
In data communication, a data link between two participating combined stations. For transmissions it originates, each station can transmit both command frames and response frames, organize its data flow, and perform error recovery operations at the data link level.

balanced routing
A method of assigning network routes so that all routes are used equally.

balanced scorecard (BSC)
A performance management tool that evaluates a set of predictive indicators from four different perspectives. The four perspectives are financial, customer, internal process, and innovation and learning.

In multicolumn text formatting, the process of making column depths on a page approximately equal by redistributing the text in the columns.

See business activity monitoring.

See boundary access node.

Ban Analysis
A utility that is to update the recommended invoice format for a set of accounts by executing a batch upload job which is based on the provided expression values.

BAN connection
The connection from an SNA peripheral node through a boundary access node (BAN) over a frame-relay link to a subarea boundary node. The two portions of the BAN connection (one between the peripheral node and the BAN, and the other between the BAN and the boundary node) use different MAC addresses to identify the boundary node. See also BAN DLCI MAC address, boundary node identifier.


  1. An entity that groups several columns in a tree view to be treated as a whole.
  2. In data communication, the frequency spectrum between two defined limits. (A)
  3. A group of tracks on a recording medium, all of which are read or written in parallel.
  4. A group of values that have been organized into categories, based on their numeric variables.
  5. In printing, an arbitrary layer of an image. An image can consist of one or more bands of data.

BAN DLCI MAC address
The MAC address that identifies a subarea boundary node as the source or destination of frames carried over the portion of a BAN connection between an SNA peripheral node on a LAN and a boundary access node (BAN). The BAN DLCI MAC address appears as the source MAC address in frames sent from the BAN to the peripheral node and as the destination MAC address in frames sent from the peripheral node to the BAN. The portion of the BAN connection between the BAN and the boundary node uses the boundary node identifier (BNI) rather than the BAN DLCI MAC address. See also BAN connection.


  1. The difference, expressed in hertz, between the highest and the lowest frequencies of a range of frequencies.
  2. The capacity of a communication line, normally expressed in bits per second (bps).
  3. The amount of information that a system can transfer in a given time.
  4. In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), the capacity of a virtual channel, expressed in terms of peak cell rate (PCR), sustainable cell rate (SCR), and maximum burst size (MBS).


bank identifier code (BIC)
A code used to uniquely identify a bank, logical terminal, or branch within a SWIFT network.

An optional report page that contains information from a recipient's user ID for the purpose of distribution. The three different banner types are: header, separator, and trailer.

See Business Analytics and Optimization.

See Business Application Programming Interface.


  1. A z/OS memory limit, which in 64-bit systems is set at 2 GB. The bar separates storage below the 2-gigabyte address from storage above the 2 GB address. The area above the bar is intended for data; no programs run above the bar.
  2. In bar codes, the darker element of a printed bar code symbol. See also space.

bar chart

  1. A chart consisting of several bars of equal width. The value of the dependent variable is indicated by the height of each bar.
  2. A chart consisting of bars of equal width that are plotted horizontally. Each bar represents a category and the value of each category is indicated by the height of each bar.

bar code
A pattern of bars of various widths containing data to be interpreted by a scanning device.

bar code aspect ratio
The ratio of bar code height to overall symbol length. The aspect ratio determines the maximum label SKUs allowed for fixed linear scanners and is important for omni-directional scanners.

bar code command set
In IPDS architecture, a collection of commands used to present bar code symbols in a page, page segment, or overlay.

bar code density
The number of characters per inch (cpi) in a bar code symbology. In most cases, the range is three to ten cpi.

bar code label
A label that has a special imprinted bar code, generally both human and machine readable, which is detected by an automatic scanning device. It is used to identify package, carton or pallet contents.

bar code object area
The rectangular area on a logical page into which a bar code presentation space is mapped.

Bar Code Object Content Architecture (BCOCA)
An architected collection of constructs used to interchange and present bar code data.

bar code presentation space
A two-dimensional conceptual space in which bar code symbols are generated.

bar code scanner
A device that reads bar-coded labels and communicates that data to a computer system.

bar code symbol
A combination of characters including start and stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology, that form a complete, scannable entity.

bar code symbology
A bar code language. Bar code symbologies are defined and controlled by various industry groups and standards organizations. Bar code symbologies are described in the public domain bar code specifications.

bare metal
Pertaining to a computer or network independent of its operating system or hypervisor. See also hypervisor, virtualization.

bare metal machine
New, empty, or damaged computer hardware.

bar graph
In Performance Tools, a graph consisting of several bars of equal width. The value of the dependent variable is indicated by the height of each bar.

bar height
In bar codes, the bar dimension perpendicular to the bar width.

bar length
See bar height.

barrier algorithm
An algorithm for solving linear programming problems. It exploits both the primal and dual forms of a problem to find a sequence of primal and dual solutions. It measures the feasibility of solutions as it works, and it stops when it finds complementary primal and dual feasible solutions.

bar width
In bar codes, the thickness of a bar measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.

bar width reduction
In bar codes, the reduction of the nominal bar width dimension on film masters or printing plates to compensate for systematic errors in some printing processes.

See Business Application Services.


  1. The numbering system in which an arithmetic value is represented.
  2. A predefined contribution version which contains no automatic journals.
  3. The core product, for which features can be separately ordered and installed.

A plain-text format that is used to encode binary data. Base64 encoding is commonly used in User Certificate Authentication to encode X.509 certificates, X.509 CSRs, and X.509 CRLs. See also DER encoded, PEM encoded.

Base64 encoding
A 65-character subset of US-ASCII, enabling 6 bits to be represented per printable character, and the extra 65th character (=) is used to signify a special processing function. The encoding process represents 24-bit groups of input bits as output strings of 4 encoded characters. Proceeding from left to right, a 24-bit input group is formed by concatenating 3 8-bit input groups and these 24 bits are then treated as 4 concatenated 6-bit groups, each of which is translated into a single digit in the base 64 alphabet. Each 6-bit group is used as an index into an array of 64 printable characters. The character referenced by the index is placed in the output string.

base ACL entry
A representation of the file's access permission bits. When a file is created, three base ACL entries are created to match the owner, group, and other permission bits.

base address
An address that is used as a reference point for resolving symbolic references to locations in storage.

base address register
See base register.

base aggregate table
In SQL replication, a type of replication target table that contains data that is aggregated from a replication source table. See also change aggregate table.

base-and-towers concept
In architecture, a conceptual illustration of an architecture that shows the architecture as a base with optional towers. The base and the towers represent different degrees of function achieved by the architecture.

base artifact
An artifact that is at the project level and not viewed as an embedded object in another artifact.

base attributes
A set of indexes that is assigned to each object. All Content Manager objects have base attributes.

base-aware mode
The process of comparing two units against each other, and against a base unit.

A frequency band that uses the complete bandwidth of a transmission and requires all stations in the network to participate in every transmission.

baseband LAN
A local area network in which data is encoded and transmitted without modulation of a carrier.

baseboard management controller (BMC)
A controller that monitors system platform management events such as fan failure and temperature or voltage increases, and logs their occurrence. The BMC is also used for hardware control, such as powering the node on and off.

base calendar
A calendar that includes the holidays and schedule for a country or work site. See also project calendar.

base card
One of the set of two cards that comprise the VPACK or SPACK, both of which are needed to process voice signals. See also trunk interface card.

base class

  1. See parent class.
  2. A class from which other classes or beans are derived. A base class may itself be derived from another base class. See also abstract class, class template definition.

base classes
See adapter foundation classes.

base cluster
In VSAM, a key-sequenced or entry-sequenced file for which one or more alternate indexes are built. See also alternate-index entry, base data component.

base column
In a cross-domain or cross-table information analysis, the column of data that is the driver for the analysis.

base configuration
The part of a storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration that contains general storage management attributes, such as the default management class, default unit, and default device geometry. It also identifies the systems, system groups, or both the systems and system groups that an SMS configuration manages. See also SMS configuration.

base contract
The original authored or filed contract that is used as the base for a new contract. It can also be the executed contract that provides the header information for a cotermination quote contract or other renewal quote contract. For quote generation, the base contract is also the contract where renewal terms are specified within the renewals tab.

base contract line
The line that is used to derive the sales unit price or supplier unit price of the current line.

Base Control Program (BCP)
A program that provides essential services for the MVS and z/OS operating systems. The program includes functions that manage system resources. These functions include input/output, dispatch units of work, and the z/OS UNIX System Services kernel. See also Multiple Virtual Storage, z/OS.

base cost
The total bid cost. It is derived by multiplying the unit price of an item to the total number of items. It comprises the price per unit and the total number of items.

base currency
The currency that is used to calculate costs for an organization.

based addressing
A form of addressing in which a data description is associated with a storage area by a variable address held in a separate pointer area. This is implemented in COBOL by BLL cells and in VS COBOL II by the ADDRESS special register.

base data component
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a component of the base cluster containing data from a data set. See also base cluster.

base data model
The data model that is the most common installation because it adds the minimal number of properties, works for most organizations, and is sufficient for meeting most records management requirements.

base data set

  1. The Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) entry-sequenced data set (ESDS) or key-sequenced data set (KSDS) upon which an alternate index is built.
  2. A data set or file stored on MVS, in contrast to the view of the file as seen by the workstation.

BASE disk
In the VM operating system, the virtual disk that contains the text decks and macroinstructions for VTAM, NetView, and VM/SNA console support (VSCS). It also contains control files and sample files used when running VTAM on the VM operating system. See also DELTA disk.

base distinguished name
A name that indicates the starting point for searches in the directory server.

base envelope
An envelope that is used to create a new envelope with the same properties. If the base envelope is modified, all related envelopes will also change.

Part of the set of phonetic pronunciations associated with a grammar. In WebSphere Voice Server, the IBM dictionary of pronunciations is used.

base href
A URL that indicates to Sterling B2B Integrator where to find image files or style sheets to use with a web template if the HTML code uses relative paths.

base identity
An identity that can be used to create a new identity.

base image

  1. A template for a virtual desktop.
  2. An image that has no parent image. See also image, parent image.

base language
The default language that an organization chooses for the 2x application.


  1. A snapshot of the approved project plan that is used for comparison over the course of a project.
  2. A conceptual line with respect to which successive characters are aligned.
  3. A collection of actions that are deployed together. A baseline is typically used to simplify a deployment or to control the order in which a set of actions are applied. See also deployment group.
  4. An object that represents a stable configuration for one or more components. A baseline identifies activities and one version of every element that is visible in one or more components.
  5. In source control management, a permanent copy of a component in a particular repository workspace or stream. A component baseline represents a configuration of a component at a particular point in time.
  6. A snapshot of a configuration item (CI) or a set of configuration items (CIs) frozen at a point in time for a particular purpose. A baseline can be recorded to ensure that the infrastructure can be restored to a trusted state should a change fail or the CI need to be built again. A baseline will also be established for the roll out of new CIs and for use in a disaster recovery situation.
  7. See snapshot.
  8. A reviewed and approved release of artifacts that constitutes an agreed basis for further evolution or development and that can be changed only through a formal procedure, such as change management and configuration control.
  9. An uneditable configuration of one or more components that captures a meaningful state of artifacts. Teams can use baselines as a known configuration or an initial state for a new stream of work. See also artifact, component, configuration, stream.
  10. A read-only copy of a module, which contains the history of the module up to the time the baseline was created.

baseline analysis
A type of data analysis that compares a saved view of the results of a column analysis to another view of the same results that are captured later.

baseline axis (B-axis)
The axis on which successive lines of text are placed.

baseline comparison
A list that displays the differences between any two baselines of the same module, and includes objects that have been modified, added, or deleted.

baseline coordinate (B-coordinate)
In architecture, one of a pair of values that identify the position of an addressable position with respect to the origin of a specified I,B coordinate system. This value is specified as a distance in addressable positions from the I-axis of an I,B coordinate system. See also sequential baseline position.

baseline direction (B-direction)
The direction in which successive lines of text are added or appear on a page. See also inline direction.

baseline extent (B-extent)

  1. The space parallel to the character baseline that can be used to place characters. The baseline extent may extend both above and below the character baseline. An individual character's baseline extent is the greater of (a) its baseline offset or (b) the height of its raster-pattern box plus the number of pels, if any, that are needed to extend the raster-pattern box so that it touches (bounded-box) or includes (unbounded-box) the baseline.
  2. In architecture, a rectangular space oriented around the character baseline and having one dimension parallel to the character baseline. The space is measured along the Y-axis of the character coordinate system. For characters with bounded boxes, the baseline extent at any rotation is its character coordinate system Y-axis extent. Baseline extent varies with character rotation.

baseline file
A file against which instrumented code is compared and code coverage statistics are generated. It serves as input to the code coverage report generator.

baseline increment

  1. In architecture, the distance between successive baselines.
  2. See line space.

baseline member
A configuration item that has been added to a baseline.

baseline model
A basic solution to the transportation network that can be used to make improvements to the solution.

baseline offset
The perpendicular distance from the character baseline to the top edge of the character box.

baseline progression
See baseline direction.

baseline requirement
A requirement that is considered mandatory, unless a formal deviation is submitted and granted.

baseline savings
Savings that are generated by the bid based on the historical cost of the item. Savings are calculated by deducting the price per unit from the historical cost multiplied by the total bid quantity.

baseline set
A group of baselines that are treated as a single unit for project planning and management purposes.

baseline staging stream
See staging stream.

baseline unit cost
The per unit cost of an item that was paid on a previous purchase.

base logical unit
The default logical unit (LU) for an IMS system, when more than one LU is defined.

base map
A map that depicts background reference information such as landforms, roads, landmarks, and political boundaries, onto which other thematic information is placed.  A base map is used for locational reference and often includes a geodetic control network as part of its structure.

base name

  1. In CDE, the file name of an icon file minus the file name suffixes for size (.l, .m, .s, .t) and type (.bm, .pm). For example, the base name of an icon file named myicon.m.pm is myicon.
  2. The last element to the right of a full path name.
  3. In Ada language, a compilation unit name specified without its type qualifier of lib/ or sec/.

base node
An object in the topology that cannot be expanded or collapsed.

base number
The part of a self-check field from which the check digit is calculated.

base object
An object that defines a common set of attributes; more complex objects are then built from a base object, inheriting the common attribute set.

base operating system (BOS)
The collection of programs that controls the resources and the operations of the computer system.

base operating system installation (BOS installation)
The process of installing and configuring the minimum amount of software needed to bring a machine to the running state.

base OS template
A virtual machine sub assembly that is used to assemble more virtual machines or patterns. A base OS templates contains an operating system and small commonly used tools.

base package
The name and version of a software package that is installed on a system.

base page
In AFP printing, the page currently being processed.

base pool
A storage area that contains all unassigned main storage on the system and whose minimum size is specified in the system value QBASPOOL. The system-recognized identifier is *BASE.

base price

  1. The manufacturer's suggested retail price.
  2. See base cost.

Base Primitive Environment (BPE)
A common system service base on which many other IMS components are built. BPE provides a common set of system services such as storage management, tracing, and dispatching to various components such as the IMS Common Queue Server (CQS), Base Primitive Environment-based Database Recovery Control (DBRC), IMS Connect, Open Database Manager (ODBM), Operations Manager (OM), Resource Manager (RM), and Structured Call Interface (SCI).

base project
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of files that make up a VRPG component.

base QMF environment
The English language environment of QMF, established when QMF is installed. Any other language environment is established after installation.

base rate
A targeted rate for shipments. A shipper can compare the base rate to the actual rates available from its carriers.

base record table
A type of user table that contains data about customers or potential customers. Each base record table is mapped to a database table or flat file.

base register
A general purpose register that the programmer chooses to contain a base address.

base segment

  1. See RACF segment.
  2. The portion of a RACF profile that contains the fundamental information about a user, group, or resource. The base segment contains information that is common to all applications that use the profile.

base services
An application framework used to develop database applications that can be modeled.

base set
The set of functions, including verbs, parameters, return codes, and what-received indications, that is supported by all products that implement a particular architecture. See also option set.

base shape
The form of an Arabic character that identifies the character without specifying its presentation shape. See also presentation shape, shape determination.

base state
The state of a terminal as set by CICS before sending data to it, in the absence of any instructions either from a user application program or from its terminal resource definition. In this state, the terminal behaves as an ordinary (unpartitionable) display device.

base station (BS)
An earth-based transmitting and receiving station for cellular phones, paging services and other wireless transmission systems. See also cell, coverage, radio.

base subscription
A stand-alone subscription that is a prerequisite for other subscriptions.

base support
The total baseline volume exposed to a promotion.

base support level
In architecture, within the base-and-towers concept, the smallest portion of architected function that is allowed to be implemented. This is represented by a base with no towers.

base sysplex
The set of one or more z/OS systems that is given a cross-system coupling facility (XCF) name and in which the authorized programs can then use XCF coupling services. A base sysplex does not include a coupling facility. See also sysplex.

base table

  1. Within a table hierarchy, a parent table that can be used to create child tables based on the parent's schemas.
  2. A permanent table that stores data persistently until you destroy (drop) the table explicitly.
  3. A table that is created by the SQL CREATE TABLE statement and that holds persistent data. See also auxiliary table, clone table, created temporary table, declared temporary table, result table, table, temporary table, view.

base table space
A table space that contains base tables.

base time
The time spent executing a particular method. Base time does not include time spent in other Java methods that this method calls.

base transactions
A predefined set of transaction types that contain information about transaction behavior and define the limits for the creation of new transactions.

base type

  1. See opaque data type.
  2. A data type that controls the type of data that can be entered into an attribute. For example, an attribute definition that is created using the Date base type can only store date values.

base unit
In a comparison of two projects, or portions of projects, a third project that acts as the basis of the comparison.

base unit of measure
The standard way that a product is measured.

base value
A reported value to which different adjustments are made.

Bash shell
An sh-compatible shell that incorporates the positive aspects of Korn shell and C shell. It serves as the GNU operating system's command language interpreter. See also Bourne shell.

A high-level programming language with a small number of statements and a simple syntax. BASIC is designed to be easily learned and used and is widely used for interactive applications on microcomputers.

basic analysis
A type of analysis that displays a report for the values of one or more business measures during a specific period of time.

basic assistance level
The type of displays that provides the most assistance. Basic assistance level supports the more common user and operator tasks, and does not use computer terminology.

basic assurance test (BAT)
An automatic testing of a machine when the power is switched on.

basic authentication (BA)
An authentication method that uses a user name and a password.

basic catalog structure (BCS)
The name of the catalog structure in the integrated catalog facility (ICF) environment. An ICF catalog consists of a BCS and its related VSAM volume data sets (VVDSs). See also VSAM volume data set.

basic character
Frequently used double-byte character that is stored in the hardware of a DBCS-capable work station. The number of double-byte characters that are stored in the work station varies with the language supported and the storage size of the work station. A DBCS-capable work station can display or print basic characters without using the extended character processing function of the operating system. See also extended character, extended character processing.

basic checkpoint
A point in an application program where the work of the application is committed. Unlike with a symbolic checkpoint, an application cannot be restarted from a basic checkpoint.

basic conversation
In APPC, a conversation between two programs in which the sending program must construct generalized data stream (GDS) records for the receiving program.

basic data exchange
A file format for exchanging data on diskettes or tape between systems or devices.

basic direct access method (BDAM)
An access method used to directly retrieve or update particular blocks of a data set on a direct access device.

basic disk
A disk initialized for basic storage that can hold primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.

basic disk pool
One or more storage units that are defined from the disk units or disk-unit subsystems that make up addressable disk storage. Disk pools (which are also known as auxiliary storage pools ) provide a means of placing certain objects on specific disk units to limit the impact of disk-media failures and to reduce recovery time. A basic disk pool contains both objects and the libraries or directories that contain the objects. Attributes such as authorization, ownership, and spooled file attributes are stored in the system disk pool (also known as the system ASP).

basic disposition schedule
IBM Enterprise Record schedule that allows for more efficient disposition processing where large volumes of records must be processed without creating a performance drain on the system and where the disposition process was limited to the destruction of electronic records. A basic schedule is simply a record category that specifies the retention period and the retention trigger property that will be applied to all records contained within that category.

basic DST capability
A dedicated service tools (DST) capability used by a service representative or an experienced system user that provides access to DST functions that do not access sensitive data.

basic edit
A facility that performs general editing functions for terminal input and output messages. See also message editing.

Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
A set of rules used to encode Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) values as strings of octets. See also abstract syntax, Abstract Syntax Notation One, Distinguished Encoding Rules.

basic format
The format of a sequential data set that is neither large format nor extended format. A basic format data set has no minimum size requirement and a maximum size per volume of 65 535 tracks. See also extended format, large format.

basic implementation
The level of national language support whereby character data can be entered and presented to the user via appropriate keyboard, coded character set, and character set support. It accommodates basic cultural needs in using the supported language, such as calendar, time, numbers, and currency formats. The next level of support is advanced implementation. See also advanced implementation, linguistic function.

basic information unit (BIU)
In SNA, the unit of data and control information passed between the transmission and control layers. It consists of a request or response header followed by a request or response unit.

basic input/output system (BIOS)
The code that controls basic hardware operations, such as interactions with diskette drives, hard disk drives, and the keyboard. See also NetBIOS.

basic link unit (BLU)
In SNA, the unit of data and control information transmitted over a communications line by data link control.

basic mapping support (BMS)
An interface between CICS and application programs that formats input and output display data and routes multiple-page output messages without regard for control characters used by various terminals.

basic mode
A central processor mode that does not use logical partitioning. See also logically partitioned mode.

Basic Networking Utilities (BNU)
See UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program.

Basic Object Adapter (BOA)
Software that provides CORBA-compliant services for object implementations.

basic partitioned access method (BPAM)
An access method that can be used to create program libraries in direct access storage for convenient storage and retrieval of programs.

basic predicate
A predicate that compares two values.

basic program
A type of EGL program part that performs tasks without interacting with users in real time.

basic rate interface
The means of ISDN access normally used by private subscribers, providing two B-channels of 64kbits per second and one D-channel of 16kbits per second for signaling. This is often known as 2B+D. See also primary rate interface.

basic row format
A row format in which values for columns are stored in the row in the order in which the columns are defined by the CREATE TABLE statement. See also reordered row format.

basic schedule sweep
A sweep that runs the appropriate queries and generates a report with the records that are ready for disposition.

basic search
A general search query that looks for any relationship that exists between the searched entity and any element in the database. Specifically, a basic search is a Boolean search using only the AND operator.

Basic Security Manager (BSM)
A component of VSE/ESA Version 2.4 that is invoked by the System Authorization Facility, and used to ensure sign-on and transaction security.

basic sequential access method (BSAM)
An access method for storing or retrieving data blocks in a continuous sequence, using either a sequential access or a direct access device.

basic source character set
In the C++ language, a set of 96 characters that can be used in a source file. The set consists of control characters, plus 91 graphical characters. Other characters can be added to source files through the use of universal character names.

basic support
See multicultural support.

basic talent gateway
The technology that allows candidates to search and view open positions.

Basic Telecommunications Access Method (BTAM)
An access method that permits read and write communication with remote devices.

basic transmission unit (BTU)
In SNA, the unit of data and control information passed between path control components. A BTU can consist of one or more path information units (PIUs). See also blocking of PIUs.

basic type
A type whose values have no identity (that is, they are pure values). Basic types include Integer, Boolean, and Text.


  1. A collection of variables that is determined during an iteration of the simplex algorithm and that represents a feasible solution. The basis of a problem may change with each iteration as preferred decision variables enter the basis or variables that are less valuable leave the basis.
  2. In GL, a 4x4 matrix that controls the relationship between control points and the approximating spline. B-splines, Bezier curves, and Cardinal splines have different bases.

basis point
The smallest measure used to quote financial return. One basis point equals one one-hundredth of a percent. For example, the difference between a net profit margin of 2.25% and 2.50% percent is 25 basis points.

basis weight
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade; for example, 25 x 38 inches for book papers, 17 x 22 inches for bond, and other sizes for other grades. The basis weight of continuous forms for computer output is based on the size for bond papers.

basket lift
A statistical method that predicts how much of a product will be bought as a function of another variable, such as a promotion.

See basic assurance test.


  1. A quantity of parts that were typically produced at the same time by using a controlled process and are typically received into inventory after inspection.
  2. A group of events that occur within a time interval such that a response can process the events together.
  3. Pertaining to a group of jobs to be run on a computer sequentially with the same program with little or no operator action. See also interactive.
  4. A group of records or data processing jobs brought together for processing or transmission.
  5. To group warehouse tasks into a batch of activities based on the resources and equipment used to complete the task. 
  6. A list of tasks that can be performed together. Only specific task types can be combined into a batch and each batch consists of only one type of task.

batch accumulator
In DFU, an accumulator in which subtotals for a field are stored. See also total accumulator.

batch application
An application that is implemented as part of a bundle or Java archive file and deployed as an archive file.

batch capture
A base system batch process that is executed at the time that a report is loaded into base system storage.

batch container
An entity that, after receiving work, provides lifecycle management, security, deployment, and runtime services to batch applications.

batch data interchange
A program that is used to extend the facilities of CICS terminal control to simplify further the handling of data streams in a network.

batch data stream (BDS)
A Java object that provides an abstraction for the data that is processed by a step in a batch application.

batch definition
A rule for inserting or updating records or data in the Emptoris Strategic Supply Management platform.

batch device
Any device that can read serial input or write serial output, or both, but cannot be used to communicate interactively with the system. Examples of batch devices are printers, magnetic tape units, or diskette units.

batched repository-update facility
A CICSPlex SM facility that applies multiple updates to a CMAS data repository.

batch environment

  1. An environment to which batch jobs in command lists are submitted and in which their execution is scheduled, independently of their submitter.
  2. An environment in which noninteractive programs are executed.

batch file

  1. A file containing data that is to be processed unattended.
  2. A file that contains instructions that are processed sequentially, as a unit.

batch flowchart
An IBM Campaign flowchart.

batch image copy
A copy of a database or area that reflects the state of the data at a point when no updates were being made. The Database Image Copy utility (DFSUDMP0) creates batch image copies, which IMS utilities can use to recover from failures.

batch IMS
See batch processing program.

batch interface
In Sterling Connect:Direct for z/OS, a noninteractive interface that issues commands from a batch jobstream, independently of their submitters.

batch job
A predefined group of processing actions submitted to the system to be performed with little or no interaction between the user and the system. See also interactive job.

batchlet step
A step that is started, runs to completion, and returns an exit status. A batchlet step performs task-oriented processing such as running a command or transferring a file.

batch loader
A batch program that you can use to create and update information in the application-description and operator-instruction databases.

batch message processing program (BMP program)
An IMS batch processing program that has access to online databases and message queues. BMP programs run online, but like programs in a batch environment, they are started with job control language (JCL). See also batch processing program.

batch mode

  1. A command line option that allows Rational DOORS to start up without the graphical user interface (GUI), run a specified DXL program, then stop. The product starts up by surpassing the login screen and the database explorer.
  2. In query management, the query mode associated with a query instance that does not allow users to interact with the query commands while a procedure is running.
  3. The condition established so that batch processing can be performed.
  4. The facility to run a program from a command line interface.
  5. A non-interactive way of processing data transactions that have been collected in advance and combined into a single batch file.

batch-oriented BMP program
A BMP program that has access to online databases and message queues while performing batch-type processing. A batch-oriented BMP program does not access the IMS message queues for input or output. It can access online databases, GSAM databases, and z/OS files for both input and output. See also transaction-oriented BMP program.

batch picking
The method of grouping a set of tasks that a picker can complete in one pass of the warehouse. The tasks that can be put together in a batch are based on the batch rule setup for the task.

batch printing
The printing of a group of documents in a separate job as a background process.

batch processing
A method of processing one or more records (a batch) with little or no action from the user. See also interactive processing.

batch processing program
An application program that has access to databases and z/OS data management facilities but does not have access to the IMS control region or its message queues. See also batch message processing program, message processing program.

batch program
A program that is processed in series with other programs and therefore normally processes data without user interaction.

batch queue
A queue that places batch jobs in sequence for execution. A batch queue's run limit controls how many jobs in the queue can run simultaneously.

batch shell
In CICS, a shell started to handle CICS interval control timer requests. The batch shell is transparent to the user; each user's program runs under its own user shell.

batch subsystem
A part of main storage where batch jobs are processed.

batch tracking sheet
A sheet that can be printed in the Interview Console and provides information about a data entry batch.

Batch Transaction Standard
A standardized file submission format that enables organizations to submit electronic transactions in a non-real-time mode.

batch upload
The process of uploading data into an application in groups of records or data processing jobs.

batch upload definition

  1. A template that is used to batch upload data into an application.
  2. A definition that is created for uploading a group of records for inserting or updating in the Emptoris Strategic Supply Management platform.

batch wave
Grouping of all tasks in a wave into meaningful batches where each batch can be executed by one operator.

battered alien
An immigrant who has been beaten or who has been subjected to extreme cruelty in the United States by a registered citizen or lawful permanent resident.

battery backup
A power source with which a device can continue to operate during an ac power outage.

battery power unit
A source of electrical power that can be used when the normal utility power fails.

See business-as-usual.

The number of changes in signal levels, frequency, or phase per second on a communication channel. If each baud represents 1 bit of data, baud is the same as bits per second. However, it is possible for one signal change (1 baud) to equal more than 1 bit of data.

baud rate
In remote communications, the transmission rate that is synonymous with signal events. The baud rate is usually expressed in bits per second.

See baseline axis.


  1. In a warehouse, a stack of locations that represent the width of one shelf (or one pallet rack) and the height of the entire shelving or pallet rack.
  2. A physical space into which a device can be physically mounted and connected to power and data. For example, a power supply or a disk drive might be inserted into a bay.

Bayesian inference

  1. A statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted as degrees of belief.
  2. A statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted as degrees of belief. 

Bayesian network
A graphical model that displays variables in a data set and the probabilistic or conditional independencies between them.

Bayesian shrinkage
A Bayesian methodology whereby information is borrowed across products and stores in order to intelligently reduce model estimates and moderate extreme values.

Bayeux protocol
An HTTP-based message routing protocol that operates between one web server and multiple web clients.

Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC)
A standardized connector that is used with coaxial cable. For example, Ethernet is a network that uses this connector.

See begin bracket.

BB credit
See buffer-to-buffer credit.

See BlackBerry Messenger.

A closed source, proprietary mobile operating system based on the QNX platform. BBX replaced BlackBerry OS as Research in Motion's primary mobile operating system. See also mobile operating system, QNX.

See current baseline print coordinate.

See block control byte.

See block-check character.

See backup control data set.

See bearer channel.

See Bar Code Object Content Architecture.

See baseline coordinate.

See Base Control Program.

See basic catalog structure.

See balanced configuration unit.

See bilateral closed user group.

See business design assurance.

See big data as a service.

See basic direct access method.

See builder definition.

See baseline direction.

See batch data stream.

See bundle definition table.

See Big Design Up Front.

beacon frame
A frame sent by an adapter indicating a serious ring problem, such as a broken cable. An adapter is beaconing if it is sending such a frame.

Pertaining to an adapter in a token-ring network that repeatedly sends a frame (beacon message) when it is not receiving a normal signal because of serious error, such as a line break or power failure. The message frame repeats until the error is corrected or bypassed. See also beacon message.

beacon message
A message frame sent repeatedly by an adapter indicating a serious network problem, such as a broken cable. See also beaconing.

A definition or instance of a JavaBeans component. See also enterprise bean, JavaBeans.

bean class
In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, a Java class that implements a javax.ejb.EntityBean class or javax.ejb.SessionBean class.

A Java class that provides explicit information about the properties, events, and methods of a companion bean class.

bean-managed messaging
A function of asynchronous messaging that gives an enterprise bean complete control over the messaging infrastructure.

bean-managed persistence (BMP)
The mechanism whereby data transfer between an entity bean's variables and a resource manager is managed by the entity bean. (Sun) See also container-managed persistence.

bean-managed transaction (BMT)

  1. The capability of the session bean, servlet, or application client component to manage its own transactions directly, instead of through a container.
  2. A transaction where the bean itself is responsible for administering transaction tasks such as committal or rollback.

Bean Scripting Framework
An architecture for incorporating scripting language functions to Java applications.

bearer channel (B-channel)
In ISDN, a duplex channel for transmitting data or digital voice between the terminal and the network. The B-channel operates at 64 kilobits per second. See also delta channel.

bearer service
The type of service that defines how an ISDN connection will be used. Typical bearer services are speech telephony, 64 kilobit per second data, and high quality speech.

bearer token
A Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) token that uses the bearer subject confirmation method. In a bearer subject confirmation method, a sender of SOAP messages is not required to establish correspondence that binds a SAML token with contents of the containing SOAP message.

The geographically assigned patrol area for a law enforcement officer.

See bus extension card.

Because It's Time Network (BITNET)
A low-cost, low-speed network of hosts interconnected by nonswitched SDLC and BSC lines that was started at the City University of New York. The network is primarily composed of universities, nonprofit organizations, and research centers. BITNET has merged with the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to form the Consortium for Research and Education Network (CREN).

BED card
See bus extension driver card.


  1. The contents of a record in a physical file before the data is changed by a write, an update, or a delete operation.
  2. A record of the contents of a data element before it is changed. Before images are used to backout incomplete or incorrect changes in the event of a failure.
  3. See before-value.

before trigger
A trigger that is specified to be activated before a defined trigger event (an insert, an update, or a delete operation on the table that is specified in a trigger definition). See also after trigger, instead of trigger, trigger, trigger activation, trigger activation time.

In data replication, the value of a source-table column before an SQL insert or update has been applied to the table. See also after-value.

begin bracket (BB)
In SNA, an indicator defining the start of a conversation. The value of the indicator (binary 1) in the request header of the first request in the first chain of a bracket denotes the start of a bracket. See also conditional end bracket, end bracket.

begin column
In a system period or an application period, the column that indicates the beginning of the period. See also period.

beginning attribute character
For a display file, the character that precedes the first position in a field and that defines how the data in the field is displayed.

beginning-of-tape marker (BOT marker)
A reflective material placed on a magnetic tape to indicate where the recording area starts.

beginning running disparity
The disparity at the transmitter or receiver when the special character associated with an ordered set is encoded or decoded.

begin-session handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles begin-session processing.


  1. The observable effects of an operation or event, including its results.
  2. The way in which managed objects, name bindings, attributes, notifications, and operations interact with the actual resources that they model and with each other.
  3. In object-oriented programming, the functionality embodied within a method.
  4. A collection of assertions that describe the allowed states that a managed object can assume. An assertion can be a precondition, a postcondition, or an invariant. In practice, the behavior is often an informal description of the semantics of attributes, operations, and notifications.

behavioral model
A representation of the life-cycle behavior of the system as defined in statecharts.

behavioral targeting
A set of techniques and products used for marketing and promotional content that enable dynamic and targeted content to be served to the appropriate customer's browser at the right time.

See Business Events Language.

below heap
A heap controlled by a runtime option that contains library data, such as Language Environment control block and data structures that are not normally accessible from user code. Below heap always resides below 16M.

In MPTN architecture, pertaining to a specific transport provider.

below-specific protocol boundary (BSPB)
In MPTN architecture, the interface between the common MPTN manager (CMM) and the protocol-specific MPTN manager (PMM).


  1. A quantitative quality standard that defines the minimum level of acceptability for the data or the tolerance for some level of exceptions in a data analysis.
  2. A program designed to test the relative performance of computers of different architectures, or of different implementations of an architecture.

See geolocation.

A label used to refer to the grouping of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.


  1. See Basic Encoding Rules.
  2. See bit error ratio.
  3. See bit error rate.

BER card
See bus extension receiver card.

Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
The implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Berkeley Load Average
The average number of processes on the operating system's ready-to-run queue.

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
The name of any of the series of UNIX specifications or implementations distributed by the University of California at Berkeley.

best-effort delivery
In connectionless service, the unreliable delivery of datagrams in a network. Information about whether the packet was delivered is not provided to the sender.

best effort mode
A mode of synchronous remote mirroring in which input/output operations are not suspended when communication between a primary and secondary volume is broken. See also mandatory mode.

best-effort service
In QoS, the type of service that by default is assigned to all traffic unless a network policy specifies otherwise. This traffic is not given special forwarding treatment.

best fit
A putaway location selection method that assigns a putaway location based on how well the volume of the receipt fills that location.

best-fit conversion
See linguistic conversion.

best plan date
See most accurate date.

beta planner
A member of a product or component development organization who plans a formal beta program for testing the product early with customers.

beta service
A service that is not production-ready and is in a trial stage of development. See also experimental service.

better/worse (B/W)
Pertaining to a financial outcome compared to a defined target.

A measure of how important an entity is, based on the number of paths that pass through it on an association chart. Betweenness is one of the centrality measures used in social network analysis. See also centrality, gatekeeper.

In printing, the concept of pel positioning that establishes the location of a pel's reference point at the edge of the pel nearest to the preceding pel rather than through the center of the pel.

See branch extender.

See baseline extent.

In mobile computing, the frame that surrounds a touchscreen.

See boundary function.

See binary floating point.

See Border Gateway Protocol.

BGP configured neighbor
A specific router, as defined by its BGP neighbor's IP address, in a BGP group with which the IBM 6611 Network Processor exchanges routing information.

BGP group
An autonomous system that is made up of neighbors that are configured or learned. The neighbors have the same group type, such as external, test, internal, or Interior Gateway Protocol.

See Business Graphics Utility.

See business intelligence.

BI asset
See business intelligence asset.

BI Bus
See Business Intelligence Bus.

See bank identifier code.

BIC Bankfile
A tape of bank identifier codes supplied by S.W.I.F.T.

BIC Database Plus Tape
A tape of financial institutions and currency codes, supplied by S.W.I.F.T. The information is compiled from various sources and includes national, international, and cross-border identifiers.

BIC Directory Update Tape
A tape of bank identifier codes and currency codes, supplied by S.W.I.F.T., with extended information as published in the printed BIC Directory.


  1. An offer from a carrier that specifies the proposed charge for delivering a shipment. A shipper issues a broadcast for capacity tender and the carriers submit their bids to take the shipment. The shipper reviews the bids and selects a carrier.
  2. An attempt by the computer or by a station to gain control of a line in order to transmit data.
  3. The price that a buyer is willing to pay for a financial instrument. See also ask.

See block identifier.

An SNA LU-LU half-session that is defined as requesting and receiving permission from another LU-LU half-session to begin a bracket at the start of a session. See also first speaker.

bidder session
See contention-loser session.

bidding quantity
The number of items that the supplier bids for. Buyer users can define the maximum bid quantity and minimum bid quantity.

bid field
A field that is available within the system or defined by buyers to obtain item-related information from suppliers.

See bidirectional.

bidirectional (bidi)
Pertaining to scripts such as Arabic and Hebrew that generally run from right to left, except for numbers, which run from left to right.

bidirectional bid
A bid in which suppliers can increase or decrease the bid value of individual items in a forced lot as long as the overall bid value of the lot is decreased (in English reverse auctions), or increased (in English forward auctions).

bidirectional conversion
The process of transforming bidirectional text layouts between incompatible systems.

bidirectional language
A language that uses a script, such as Arabic and Hebrew, whose general flow of text proceeds horizontally from right to left, but numbers, English, and other left-to-right language text are written from left to right.

bidirectional mapping
A mapping in XBRL in which the element in either taxonomy can be considered the source element.

bidirectional replication
In Q replication, a replication configuration in which changes that are made to one copy of a table are replicated to a second copy of that table. Changes that are made to the second copy are replicated back to the first copy.

bidirectional script
A script such as Arabic and Hebrew whose general flow of text proceeds horizontally from right to left, but numbers, English, and other left-to-right language text are written from left to right.

bid suggestion
A bid price that is generated by the system. Suppliers can use the bid suggestions and enter them as their own bids.

bid transformation
A feature that alters bids to account for costs specific to a supplier or an item.

See business information executive.

See built-in function.

big data
A data set whose size or type is beyond the ability of traditional relational databases to capture, manage, and process with low-latency. Four key dimensions of big data are volume, veracity, variety, and velocity.

big data as a service (BDaaS)
A model that offers analysis of large information sets.

Big Design Up Front (BDUF)
A software development practice in which a completed design precedes any implementation stage.

big endian
A format for storage or transmission of binary data in which the most significant value is placed first. See also endian, little endian.

BigFix agent
The BigFix code on an endpoint that enables management and monitoring by BigFix.

BigFix client
See BigFix agent.

BigFix console
The primary BigFix administrative interface. The console provides a full set of capabilities to BigFix administrators.

big integer
In DB2 for i5/OS, a data type indicating that the data is a binary number with a precision of 63 bits.

big word
In the vi editor, a contiguous set of alphanumeric characters bounded at the beginning and end by blank spaces, tabs, or new-line indicators.

bi-indexed chart
A chart that provides a view of a two-dimensional array view.

bilateral closed user group (BCUG)

  1. In X.25 communications, an optional facility that allows calls to be made only between two designated DTEs.
  2. In data communication, two users who have bilaterally agreed to communicate with each other, but not with other users. Each user can belong to more than one bilateral closed user group and to more than one closed user group by means of outgoing access. See also closed user group.

bilingual circuit
In DECnet architecture, a circuit that accepts, translates, and routes DECnet Phase IV and DECnet Phase IV-Prime frames. The circuit must be configured with the DECnet MAC address specific to the attached LAN segment.

bilingual command list
A command list written in a combination of REXX and the NetView command list language.

An indication of whether the task assignment generates revenue.

bill batch
A group of bills for fees or charges that a customer accrues that is sent to the customer at designated intervals.

billing issue
An element that is created in an application to communicate an error in an invoice.

billing period
A set period of time for which service and usage charges are calculated and sent to the customer.

billing template
A format designed to define a rate structure for a particular combination of organization-location-category-position class containing rate cards, markup cards, and skill surcharges.

bill of landing (BOL)
A carrier's contract and receipt for goods that it agrees to transport from one place to another according to specified terms and conditions. It normally includes specific identification of the cargo contents and is often used as a receiving document at the point of destination.

bill of materials (BOM)

  1. A list of the items, and quantities of each item, needed to manufacture an end product for sale to customers.
  2. A list of data about a job that has been completed. It contains information about steps in a job and changes to files that resulted from the job. For example, it can be used with source code adapters in software builds for auditing changes to source files.

Bill program
A program that performs cost extensions within SmartCloud Cost Management and summarizes cost and resource utilization by account code. The Bill program uses the rate code table that is assigned to the client to determine the amount to be charged for each resource consumed.

bill rate
An amount that a company or a professional charges per hour of work.


  1. An enclosure on a printer that contains source or destination media, including paper, foils, labels, card stock, or microfilm.
  2. A set of search results that match the specified search criteria. A bin can be displayed as nested lists or as a graphic.
  3. A data construct that is used to provide the capability of drilling down within a report. For string variables, bins are the distinct data values appearing within a string variable (for example, MA, NH, and CA are bins within a State variable). For numeric variables, bins group data based on value ranges.
  4. A single storage location.
  5. The width of a column or the range of data values within a column.
  6. A disk folder that contains executables or script files.


  1. Pertaining to a system of numbers with a base of two. The binary digits are 0 and 1.
  2. Pertaining to something that is compiled, or is executable.
  3. In ODM, a terminal descriptor type used to define a variable as a bit string that is not null-terminated.
  4. In DB2 for i5/OS, pertaining to a data type indicating that the data is a binary number with a precision of 15 (halfword) or 31 (fullword) bits.
  5. Property of a selection, choice, or condition that has two possible values.

binary concatenated expression
A concatenated expression that consists of one or more binary columns, hexadecimal literals, or substrings of binary columns.

binary data
Data that is represented by a string of binary digits. The interpretation of this data is typically the responsibility of the application program.

binary data type
A sequence of single-byte characters that have no meaning, for example, nonreadable text.

binary digit (bit)
The smallest unit of computer information. A bit has a value of 1 or 0.

binary expression
An expression containing two operands and one operator.

binary file
A file format that does not consist of a sequence of printable characters (text). See also text file.

binary floating point (BFP)
A numeric mode that consists of a sign, a signed exponent, and a significand. Its numeric value is the signed product of its significand and two raised to the power of its exponent.

binary floating-point number
The conceptual form of a numeric value that contains a significand and a signed exponent. The number's numeric value is the signed product of the number's significand and 2 raised to the power of the number's exponent.

binary format
Representation of a decimal value in which each field must be 2 or 4 bytes long. The sign (+ or -) is in the far left bit of the field, and the number value is in the remaining bits of the field. Positive numbers have a 0 in the sign bit and are in true form. Negative numbers have a 1 in the sign bit and are in twos complement form.

binary-image transfer
See bit block transfer.

binary integer
A basic data type that can be further classified as small integer (SMALLINT), large integer (INTEGER), or big integer (BIGINT).

binary item
Numeric data that is represented internally as a number in the base 2 numbering system; internally, each bit of the item is a binary number with the sign as the far left bit.

Binary JSON (BSON)
A standardized binary representation format for serializing JSON documents. See also JavaScript Object Notation.

binary large object (BLOB)

  1. A block of bytes of data (for example, the body of a message) that has no discernible meaning, but is treated as one entity that cannot be interpreted.
  2. A data type whose value is a sequence of bytes that can range in size from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. This sequence does not have an associated code page and character set. BLOBs can contain, for example, image, audio, or video data. See also large object.

binary operator
A symbol representing an operation to be performed on two data items, arrays, or expressions. See also unary operator.

binary processing
A process that searches strings that are located in all data files or only files of entered extensions. Binary processing does not search image file types such as .GIF and .JPG for text extraction.

binary project
In Eclipse, a read-only project that typically includes compiled code and is compressed.

binary search tree
A search structure in which, at each step of the search, the set of data elements is divided by two; some appropriate action is taken in the case of an odd number of data elements.

binary security token
A security token that is binary encoded using a value type and an encoding type to interpret the token.

binary stream
A sequence of characters that corresponds on a one-to-one basis with the characters in the file. No character translation is performed on binary streams.

binary string

  1. A sequence of bytes that is not associated with a CCSID. For example, the BLOB data type is a binary string. See also coded character set identifier.
  2. In REXX, a literal string expressed using a binary (base 2) representation of a value. The binary representation is a sequence of zero or more binary digits (the characters 0 or 1) enclosed in quotation marks and followed by the character b.

binary synchronous communication (BSC)
A data-communication line protocol that uses a set of transmission control characters and control character sequences to send binary-coded data over a communication line. See also Synchronous Data Link Control.

binary synchronous communication adapter (BSCA)
A synchronous communication adapter that supports point-to-point or multipoint operation.

binary synchronous communication equivalence link support (BSCEL support)
The intersystem communications function (ICF) support on the System i platform that provides binary synchronous communications with other computers using BSC protocols.

binary synchronous communication remote job processing (BSCRJP)
A facility that permits the input and output of jobs to and from binary synchronous communication (BSC) workstations.

binary synchronous transmission (bisync)
Data transmission in which synchronization of characters is controlled by timing signals generated at the sending and receiving stations.

binary time stamp
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an opaque 128-bit (16-octet) structure that represents a Distributed Time Service (DTS) time value.

binary tree server topology
A topology that connects servers in a pyramid fashion: the top server connects to two servers below it, each of which connects to two servers below it, and so on. Information travels down the pyramid and then back up.

binary XML format
A representation of XML data that uses binary values, an approach that facilitates more efficient storage and exchange.

bin collection
A method of collecting auditing data that writes audit records to a temporary bin file. After the data is processed by the auditbin daemon, records are written to an audit trail file for storage.

See Berkeley Internet Name Domain.


  1. A process by which a usable control structure with SQL statements is generated; the structure is often called an access plan, an application plan, or a package. During this bind process, access paths to the data are selected, and some authorization checking is performed.
  2. To convert the output from the DBMS precompiler to a usable control structure, such as an access plan, an application plan, or a package.
  3. To logically associate a program with data or another program.
  4. To create a program, which can be run, by combining one or more modules created by an Integrated Language Environment (ILE) compiler.
  5. To relate an identifier to another object in a program. Examples of binding are relating an identifier to a value, an address, or another identifier, or associating formal parameters and actual parameters.
  6. To associate a variable with an absolute address, identifier, or virtual address, or with a symbolic address or label in a program.
  7. To combine object code from one or more sources into an executable load module or program object.
  8. To establish a connection between software components on a network using an agreed-to protocol. In web services, the bind operation occurs when the service requester invokes or initiates an interaction with the service at run time using the binding details in the service description to locate, contact, and invoke the service.
  9. To associate a file with a management class name. See also archive-retention grace period, management class, rebind.

BIND command
In SNA, a command used to start a session between two logical units, and to define the characteristics of that session. See also UNBIND command.

bind distinguished name
A name that specifies the credentials for the application server to use when connecting to a directory service. The distinguished name uniquely identifies an entry in a directory. See also distinguished name.


  1. The system component that creates a bound program by packaging Integrated Language Environment (ILE) modules and resolving symbols passed between those modules.
  2. The z/OS program that processes the output of language translators and compilers into an executable program (a load module or program object). The binder replaces the linkage editor and batch loader. See also prelinker.
  3. See linkage editor.
  4. A feature that is used to group related events together. For example, an RFI and a related RFQ can be grouped together.

binder API
See binder application programming interface.

binder application programming interface (binder API)
The set of binder entry points with which a calling program can request specific binding and editing services individually.

binder dialog
A sequence of calls to the binder to accomplish a specified task.

binder hole
A hole or slot punched at set intervals so that a form can be inserted in a loose-leaf or ring binder.

binder language
A small set of commands (STRPGMEXP, EXPORT, and ENDPGMEXP) that defines the external interface (signature) for a service program. These commands cannot be run alone and are of the source type BND.

binder processing intent
A list of services and options that are valid for the module in the binder working storage.

bind file
A file that is produced by the precompiler when the PRECOMPILE command or the respective API is used with the BINDFILE option.


  1. The process of creating a program by packaging Integrated Language Environment (ILE) modules and resolving symbols passed between those modules.
  2. In the context of SAML, the communication method used to transport the messages.
  3. In information analysis, a direct relationship between a logical element in a data rule and an actual column in a table in a data source.
  4. In a multiprocessor context, the act of constraining a thread to a specific physical processor to gain the benefit of processor affinity.
  5. A temporary association between a client and both an object and a server that exports an interface to the object. A binding is meaningful only to the program that sets it and is represented by a bound handle.
  6. An association between a client, object, and network that shares information about the transport protocol.

binding directory
A list of names of modules and service programs that may be needed when creating an ILE program or service program. A binding directory is not a repository of the modules and service programs. Instead, it allows them to be referred to by name and type.

binding entry
A mapping that is located between a field in a table and a variable.

binding strength
A measure of the strength of a relationship between two entities that are directly or indirectly linked. See also common neighbor.

BIND pacing
A technique by which the address space manager (ASM) at one node controls the rate of transmission of BIND requests of a sending ASM at another node. BIND pacing can be used to prevent BIND standoff, in which each of two nodes has reserved most of its resources for sessions it is attempting to initiate through the other and thus rejects any BINDs received from the other.

BIND password
One of the two communication security passwords. In an LU-LU session, it is the password that the system checks against the remote system to verify that the program to which the user is connected is the correct one.

bind request
A request to establish a connection between systems or logical units.

bind-time security
See session security.

The process of grouping search results by examining the values of specific metadata, tags, or other parameters.

bin number
In DFSMSrmm, the specific shelf location where a volume resides in a storage location; bin number is equivalent to a rack number in the removable media library. See also shelf location.

binomial logistic regression
A logistic regression that is used for targets with two discrete categories. See also multinomial logistic regression, target.

A short personal description used to define who the user is.

See block input/output daemon.

Pertaining to a device that measures or analyzes biological information.

The identification of a user based on a physical characteristic of the user, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or handwriting.

See basic input/output system.

bi-polar with 8-zero substitution (B8ZS)
A T1 line code required for 64-kilobit channels such as ISDN.

See Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools.

See built-in self-test.

See binary synchronous transmission.

See binary digit.

bit block transfer (bit BLT, BLT)
The movement of a binary image (bitmap or pixmap) by specifying the lower-left and upper-right corners of the image and the destination address.

bit BLT
See bit block transfer.

bit clocking
In an EIA 232 interface, the field that indicates which piece of equipment, either the modem or the computer, provides the clock signal for synchronized data transactions.

A form of digital currency that uses encryption techniques to regulate the generation of currency (bitcoins) and verify the transfer of funds, all operating independently of a central bank. Bitcoin is one of the most widely known applications of Blockchain technology.

bit count
The number of bits that a processor can send or process in parallel.

bit data
Data with character type CHAR or VARCHAR that is not associated with a coded character set and therefore is never converted.

bitemporal table
A table that is both a system-period temporal table and an application-period temporal table. See also application-period temporal table, system-period temporal table.

bit error rate (BER)
The probability that a transmitted bit will be erroneously received. The BER is measured by counting the number of bits in error at the output of a receiver and dividing by the total number of bits in the transmission. BER is typically expressed as a negative power of 10.

bit error ratio (BER)
The ratio of bits received incorrectly to the total number of bits that were sent. A bit error ratio of 10 to the power of -6 represents one failing bit in 1 000 000 bits transmitted.

bit field
A member of a structure or union that contains 1 or more named bits.

bit gravity
In Enhanced X-Windows, the attraction of window contents for a location in a window. When a window is resized, its contents can be relocated. The server can be requested to relocate the previous contents to a region of the window.


  1. A representation of an image by an array of bits.
  2. In temporary storage, a control block used by intrapartition transient data to show the VSAM control intervals (or BSAM tracks) that have been used and are available. It is updated whenever a control interval or track is assigned to or released from a destination.
  3. A coded representation in which each bit, or group of bits, represents or corresponds to an item; for example, a configuration of bits in main storage in which each bit indicates whether a peripheral device or a storage block is available or in which each group of bits corresponds to one pixel of a display image.
  4. A pixmap with a depth of one bit plane.
  5. In zFS, a file listing the blocks that are free on disk. The file size is dependent on the size of the aggregate.

bitmap file
The file containing the height and width instructions for creating a bitmap.

bitmap index
A type of index that stores a bitmap for any duplicated key value.

bitmapped display
A display with a display adapter that has a hardware representation of each separately addressable point on the display. The hardware representation can be processor memory or adapter memory.

bit mask
A pattern of bits designed to be logically compared to an existing bit value. The mask pattern allows only certain desired parts of the existing bit value to appear in the result of the comparison.

See Because It's Time Network.

bit plane
In computer graphics, a set of bits that supplies one bit of color information per pixel on the display. Thus, an eight bit plane system allows 2 to the eighth power different colors to be displayed at each pixel.

bit rate
The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second.

bits per character
The number of bits in a data character.

bits per inch (bpi)
The density, measured in number of bits per inch, at which information can be stored on magnetic tape.

bits per second (bps)
In serial transmission, the instantaneous bit speed with which a device or channel transmits a character.

bit string
A series of bits consisting of the values 0 and 1.


At the level of individual bits.

bitwise operator
An operator that manipulates the value of an object at the bit level.

bitwise shift
An operation where specified bits of binary data are shifted to the left or right.

See basic information unit.

BIU segment
In SNA, the portion of a basic information unit (BIU) that is contained within a path information unit (PIU). It consists of either (a) a request/response header (RH) followed by all or a part of a request/response unit (RU) or (b) a part of an RU.

BlackBerry device
A mobile device sold by BlackBerry, the company formerly called Research in Motion.

BlackBerry Messenger (BBM)
Research in Motion's proprietary text messaging service. See also instant message.

BlackBerry OS
A closed source, proprietary mobile operating system created by Research in Motion. See also mobile device, mobile operating system, QNX.

black box

  1. A pool in which no content can be seen.
  2. An abstraction of a device or system in which only its externally visible behaviour is considered and not its implementation or inner workings.


  1. A list of IP addresses or email addresses that are always identified as sources of spam.
  2. A list of values that, when detected, are excluded from the list of available dimension values.
  3. A list of PCI devices or of computer models that are known to raise issues, accompanied by hardware settings that must be used to work around these issues.

blacklisted device
See exclusion.

A setting that prevents deployments and snapshots from being scheduled. Blackouts solely affect the environment and application that they are applied to.


  1. A component that provides application-specific services and components.
  2. See blade server.

BladeCenter chassis
A BladeCenter unit that acts as an enclosure. This 7-U modular chassis can contain up to 14 blade servers. It enables the individual blade servers to share resources, such as the management, switch, power, and blower modules.

blade server
An independent server containing one or more processors, memory, disk storage, and network controllers. A blade server runs its own operating system and applications.

blank after
In RPG, an output specification option that changes the contents of a field so that it contains either zeros (if it is a numeric field) or blanks (if it is a character field) after that field is written to the output record.

blank character

  1. One of the characters that belong to the blank character class as defined via the LC_CTYPE category in the current locale. In the POSIX locale, a blank character is either a tab or a space character.
  2. A graphic representation of the space character.

blanket agreement
A purchase contract that specifies a vendor, a total dollar amount to be spent, and the dates between which the agreement is valid.

blanket contract
A contractual agreement to spend a predetermined amount of money with a specified vendor over a predefined period of time.

blanket order
A written agreement between a supplier and a buyer to provide goods, services, and contingent staff at a negotiated cost or rate for a stipulated time period.

blanket purchase order
A contract agreement for services, materials, or both. A blanket purchase order is usually made with an outside vendor.


  1. In computer graphics, the smooth transition from one color to another, giving a realistic look to a drawing.
  2. In architecture, a mixing rule in which the intersection of part of a new presentation space P-new with part of an existing presentation space P-existing changes to a new color attribute that represents a color-mixing of the color attributes of P-new with the color attributes of P-existing. For example, if P-new has foreground color-attribute blue and P-existing has foreground color-attribute yellow, the area where the two foregrounds intersect changes to a color attribute of green. See also overpaint, underpaint.

blended learning
Learning that combines components of e-learning on the Internet with other learning models such as classroom training or books. See also e-learning.

blind data
A set of question and answer pairs that are never released or seen by developers and are used to test the system periodically to evaluate performance on unseen data. Testing on blind data prevents accuracy from being tainted by over-fitting to known question sets. Reported results should only come from tests that are run on blind data.

blind receiving
The receipt of inventory when a BOL or order number does not exist in the system for that specific inventory.

blind return
A return of items without obtaining a return authorization.

blind transfer
A type of call transfer in which the call is routed to another extension and the original call is terminated. No check is made to determine if the transferred call is answered or if the number is busy. See also screened transfer.

See block update command.

See binary large object.

A unit of disk allocation within a blobspace. The size can vary, depending on the size of the TEXT or BYTE data that the user inserts.

A logical collection of blobpages that are used to store TEXT and BYTE data.


  1. A string of data elements recorded, processed, or transmitted as a unit. The elements can be characters, words, or physical records.
  2. A collection of several properties (such as adapter, procedure, or parameter).
  3. To record data in a block.
  4. In programming languages, a compound statement that coincides with the scope of at least one of the declarations contained within it. A block may also specify storage allocation or segment programs for other purposes.
  5. A group of one or more questions.
  6. See store zone.
  7. A set of rows retrieved from a database server that are transmitted as a single result set to satisfy a cursor FETCH request.
  8. A multidimensional array that represents the cells of all dense dimensions.
  9. A group of contiguous sectors on a disk that contains a block header and some integral number of records.
  10. To suspend a program process.
  11. A component that can be used to design an incident.
  12. To prevent someone from seeing something in a social collaboration software.
  13. A unit of data storage on a device.

block-based I/O
A database manager method of reading contiguous data pages from disk into contiguous portions of memory. See also scattered read.

A shared, immutable ledger for recording the history of transactions and exchanges that take place in a peer-to-peer network.

block-check character

  1. In longitudinal redundancy checking and cyclic redundancy checking, a character that is transmitted by the sender after each message block and is compared with a block-check character computed by the receiver to determine if the transmission was successful.
  2. The BSC transmission control character that is used to determine if all of the bits that were sent were also received.

block control byte (BCB)
In a multileaving telecommunications access method, a control character used for transmission block status and sequence count.

block count
The number of data blocks in a file on a magnetic tape volume.

block decryption
Symmetric algorithms that decrypt a block of data at one time.

block definition diagram
A representation of the components of a system and the flow of information between components. Block definition diagrams include blocks, actors, standard ports, dependencies, and flows. See also block diagram.

block delete
In SEU, to delete two or more adjoining source records from a source member.

block device

  1. One of the types of files in the AIX file system, described by an inode.
  2. A device that is accessed by means of an AIX device driver.

block diagram
A representation that defines the structure of a system and identifies the large-scale organizational parts of the system. Block diagrams show the flow of information between system components and the interface definition through ports. See also block definition diagram, internal block diagram.

The status of a test case that cannot be run because the preconditions for running the test case have not been met.

block edit function
In AFP Utilities, a function that moves, copies, or removes all elements defined in a specified scope on the image area at one time.

blocked signal
In POSIX, a condition that prevents a signal-handling action associated with a signal from being performed. See also unblocked signal.

block encryption
Symmetric algorithms that encrypt a block of data at one time.

block fetch
A function of the DB2 database that retrieves (or fetches) a set of rows together. Using a block fetch can significantly reduce the number of messages that are sent across the network. Block fetch applies only to cursors that do not update data. See also blocking.

block file
A file listing the usage of blocks on a disk.

block identifier (BID)
An entry that is stored along with a key value in the leaf node of a block index. This identifier references a particular block in a multidimensional clustering table.

block index
An index that is structured in the same manner as a traditional record identifier (RID) index, except that at the leaf level, keys point to a block identifier (BID) instead of an RID.


  1. The process of combining two or more records into one block.
  2. An optimization that involves changing the access order of loops that access large arrays, so that each array element is accessed as infrequently as possible.
  3. A performance improvement technique that ships multiple rows of data to a database client from a server in response to a single FETCH request. See also block fetch.
  4. A process that partitions records into subsets that share common characteristics with the goal to limit the number of record pairs being examined during matching. By limiting matching to records pairs within a subset, successful matching becomes computationally feasible for large data sets.

blocking call
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a call in which the caller is suspended until a called procedure is completed.

blocking factor

  1. The number of records in a block. A blocking factor is calculated by dividing the size of the block by the size of the record.
  2. The number of iterations of an inner loop that are executed for each pass of a corresponding blocking loop.

blocking mode
A way of requesting a service over an interface so that if the request cannot be completed immediately, the requesting process is suspended until the request is completed. See also nonblocking mode.

blocking of PIUs
In SNA, an optional function of path control that combines multiple path information units (PIU) in a single basic transmission unit (BTU). See also basic transmission unit.

blocking operation
An operation that is not completed until the operation either succeeds or fails. For example, a blocking receive will not return until a message is received or until the channel is closed and no further messages can be received.

block input/output daemon (BIOD)
In the Network File System (NFS), a daemon that performs parallel read/write requests on behalf of an NFS client.

block I/O
Input/output operations on blocks of data stored in random locations.

block length
See block size.

block-level data sharing
A method of sharing data among IMSs so that multiple application programs can access and update data concurrently between multiple IMSs.

block-level groom
A process that removes empty blocks (128 KB pages) from the beginning or end of a table to recover disk space.

block-level sharing
A method of sharing data among IMS systems so that multiple application programs can access and update data concurrently between multiple IMS subsystems. See also database-level sharing.

block-level storage
A storage device that writes data to specific blocks and retrieves it from specific blocks.

block lock
The locking of a block within a multidimensional clustering environment.

block map
A bitmap that contains an array of block states, one for each block in the multidimensional clustering table. Each entry in the array has 8 bits, four of which are used: In use, Load, Constraint pending, and Refresh pending.

block response
A default response that prevents attacks by dropping packets and sending resets to TCP connections.

block size

  1. The number of pages in a block. It is equal to the extent size.
  2. In the Netezza system, block size is defined as 128 KB.
  3. A measure of the size of a block, usually specified in units such as records, words, computer words, or characters. Block size is sometimes referred to as block length and physical record size.

block special file
A file that provides a low-level block access to an input or output device. See also character special file.

block statement
In the C or C++ languages, a group of data definitions, declarations, and statements that are located between a left brace and a right brace that are processed as a unit. The block statement is considered to be a single, C-language statement.

block storage
A unit of data storage on a device.

block storage replication
In disaster recovery, the synchronous or asynchronous replication of block storage volumes between two IBM PureApplication systems.

block storage volume
A storage disk that can be attached to or detached from a virtual machine as part of a deployed pattern instance. The content in the block storage volume persists after the deployment is deleted.

block time
The total amount of elapsed time in hours and minutes from the first movement of an aircraft from its parking position at the departure location until the wheels stop and all engines are shut down at the parking position in the destination location.

block update command (BLKUPD)
A RACF diagnostic command used to examine or modify the content of individual physical records in a RACF data set.

block utilization
The measurement of the percentage of used subblocks per allocated block.

A web page that provides frequent continuing publication of thoughts, comments, and web links on a specific topic or subject. See also blogger, blogging.

A person who creates entries in a blog. See also blog, blogging.

The act of creating entries in a weblog. See also blog, blogger.

blog theme
A template that controls the look of a blog.

Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology on which the IBM 3534 is based.

Blowfish format
A block cipher that operates on 64-bit (8-byte) blocks of data. It uses a variable size key, but typically, 128-bit (16-byte) keys are considered to be good for strong encryption. Blowfish can be used in the same modes as DES.

Blox component
An Alphablox software component that is used to build Java EE-based analytic applications.

See bit block transfer.

See basic link unit.

BLU Acceleration
A collection of IBM DB2 technologies designed to work primarily with read-mostly business intelligence query processing. BLU Acceleration consists of four major database design advances: dynamic in-memory columnar processing, actionable compression, parallel vector processing, and data skipping.

Blue Gene core
The IBM System Blue Gene I/O nodes, compute nodes, and interconnects.

Blue Gene system
A Blue Gene service node, front end node, or file server.

blue-green deployment
A deployment technique that enables continuous delivery and minimizes downtime by running two nearly identical production environments called Blue and Green. While one of the environments (for example, Blue) is the live production environment, the other (for example, Green) can be used for final testing and deployment. After the application is deployed in Green, Green becomes the production environment and Blue becomes idle. See also red-black deployment.

An open-standards, cloud-based platform for building, managing, and running apps of all types, such as web, mobile, big data, and smart devices. Capabilities include Java, mobile back-end development, and application monitoring, as well as features from ecosystem partners and open source—all provided as-a-service in the cloud.

Bluemix Garage
A consultancy with a startup DNA that empowers companies, large and small, to design and build engaging applications leveraging the IBM Bluemix Garage Method.


  1. A Heat Orchestration Template (HOT) that specifies information about an automatic deployment of cloud resources to a virtual environment. Blueprints contain three sections: parameters, resources, and outputs. See also blueprint design server, blueprint designer, engine.
  2. A collection of diagrams that include information technology elements, which represent the architecture of an information project, and method elements, which represent standard information technology practices.

blueprint designer
The graphical user interface that models blueprints, which specify information about the automatic deployment of deployment of cloud resources to a virtual environment. See also blueprint, blueprint design server, cloud discovery service.

blueprint design server
A server that hosts the blueprint designer and the cloud discovery service, and controls access to blueprints. See also blueprint, blueprint designer, cloud discovery service.

blueprint file
A file that contains the component assembly and configuration information for an OSGi bundle.

A short range (5 - 100 meters), wireless communications technology commonly used in mobile computing to connect devices to mobile devices (such as keyboards and headsets).

blur interaction
Input assistance that determines how values are handled when a field receives focus and input from the keyboard, mouse, or clipboard.

See baseboard management controller.

See Decision Model and Notation.

See bean-managed persistence.

BMP program
See batch message processing program.

See basic mapping support.

See bean-managed transaction.

See boundary node.

See Bayonet Neill-Concelman.

See Backus-Naur Form.

See boundary node identifier.

See boundary network node.

See Basic Networking Utilities.

See business object.

See Basic Object Adapter.

See Business Object Document.


  1. In a book, the portion between the front matter and the back matter.
  2. On a printed page, the area between the top and bottom margins that contains text.
  3. In Ada language, the definition of the execution of a subprogram, package, or task.

See buy-one-get-one free.

A template that includes one application and its associated runtime environment and predefined services for a particular domain.

boilerplate text
Reusable text or code that is automatically added to a field or template in response to an event.

See bill of landing.

Any typeface characterized by wide strokes.

A heavy-faced type, generally a heavier version of a regular text font.


  1. See bill of materials.
  2. See business object model.
  3. See byte order mark.

BOM property
A property added to a type in a business object model (BOM). Business properties extend the original type without altering its source.

BOM-to-XOM mapping
A mechanism that defines how business elements are mapped to the Execution Object Model.

To aggregate multiple network interfaces into a single, logical interface.

bonded interface
See link aggregation.

bond paper
A paper formulated with at least 80% wood pulp.

A type of GNOME component architecture that is based on the CORBA architecture that is used to create compound documents. See also Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

Booch methodology
An object-oriented methodology that helps users design systems using the object-oriented paradigm.

A collection of shipments that are delivered together using an ocean or air cargo carrier.

booking #
See booking number.

booking number (booking #)
A unique identification number that is assigned to an arrest.


  1. A customizable, graphical link to databases, views, documents, web pages, and newsgroups.
  2. A shortcut to a web page of interest to IBM Connections community members.
  3. The state of a saved page in the Dimensions view. A bookmark preserves the filters, dimension, window positions and settings, graphs, charts, menus and reports.
  4. To save a link to a web page.

bookmark icon
See favorites icon.

A bookmark that extends the functionality of a browser by allowing the user to access content from within an existing browser window. For example, one might create a bookmarklet to a news story on a social collaboration site that provides their friends with a small image and the first two lines of the news story.

book message
An order-book object that contains binary data.

Characteristic of an expression or variable that can only have a value of true or false.

Boolean data

  1. In COBOL, a category of data items that are limited to a value of 1 or 0.
  2. In SQL, data that has one of three values: true, false, or null.

Boolean expression
An expression that evaluates to a Boolean value. See also Boolean value.

Boolean literal
In COBOL, a literal composed of a Boolean character enclosed in double quotation marks and preceded by a B; for example, B "1" .

Boolean operator

  1. In REXX, an operator each of whose operands and whose result take one of two values (0 or 1).
  2. A built-in function that specifies a logical operation of AND, OR or NOT when sets of operations are evaluated. The Boolean operators are &&, || and !. See also operator.

Boolean search
A search in which one or more search terms are combined by using operators such as AND, NOT, and OR.

Boolean value
A value that can be either true or false, sometimes coded as 1 or 0, respectively. See also Boolean expression.

To identify a specific set of search results for special handling, such as displaying them first in a list or in a unique area of a graphic. See also spotlight.

boost class
An object that contains specifications that can influence the relative rank of a document in the search results. See also boost word.

A modeling technique that creates a sequence of models, rather than a single model, to obtain more accurate predictions. Cases are classified by applying the whole set of models to them, and then combining the separate predictions into one overall prediction. See also bagging.

boost word
A word that can influence the relevant rank of a document in the search results. During query processing, the importance of a document that contains a boost word might be raised or lowered, depending on the score that is predefined for the word. See also boost class.

To load an operating system or start the system.

boot address
The address of the NIC as defined to AIX and is mapped to the NIC when AIX starts. The mapping of boot address to NIC is invariant and is not changed or recovered by SysytemMirror.

boot block
In a file system, the first block where the bootstrap program resides.

boot BOM
A set of files that define the system types, such as string or number, for the Business Action Language (BAL).

boot device
The device that assigns the fixed disk within the root volume group (rootvg) that will contain the startup (boot) image.

boot drive
A drive that has the required software to start a system.

boot image
An image containing the kernel, file systems, libraries, and programs. The boot image is loaded after the machine is turned on or reset and brings it to a running state.

boot interface
A communications interface with an HACMP boot IP label that backs up a service interface.

A software program that loads an operating system into a computer’s memory when the system is booted and then starts the operating system.

boot order
An order that defines the sequence of devices read at system start-up.

See Bootstrap Protocol.

boot process
The process of loading the operating system or initializing components of a system.

boot processing
The processing that occurs when a boot image is loaded. Depending on the configuration file, boot processing over the network brings a machine to the running state, the Base Operating System (BOS) installing state, or the diagnostic state.

A small program that starts a computer by loading the operating system and other basic software.

bootstrap aggregating
See bagging.

bootstrap authorization
An authorization that has been recorded but not yet processed by an relationship management application (RMA).

bootstrap data set (BSDS)

  1. A VSAM data set that contains an inventory of all active and archived log data sets known to IBM MQ for z/OS, and a wrap-around inventory of all recent IBM MQ for z/OS activity. The BSDS is required to restart the IBM MQ for z/OS subsystem.
  2. A VSAM data set that contains name and status information for DB2 for z/OS and relative-byte address-range specifications for all active and archive log data sets. It also contains passwords for the DB2 for z/OS directory and catalog and lists of conditional restart and checkpoint records.

bootstrap member
An application server or cluster that is configured to accept application initialization requests into the service integration bus. The bootstrap member authenticates the request and directs the connection request to a bus member.

bootstrap period
The period during which relationship management (RM) data is recorded and converted into authorization records.

The process by which an initial reference of the naming service is obtained. The bootstrap setting and the host name form the initial context for Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) references.

Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
A protocol that allows a client to find both its Internet Protocol (IP) address and the name of a file from a server on the network.

bootstrap server
An application server that runs the SIB process. The bootstrap server selects the messaging engine client applications to connect to that message engine to gain bus access.

A visual boundary that separates a displayed object from everything else on a screen.

border address
A public address that forms a boundary between a trusted and an untrusted network. It describes the IP address as an actual interface on the system.

border bar
A feature that allows a user to expand or collapse a map landscape in the indicated direction.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
An Internet Protocol (IP) routing protocol used between domains and autonomous systems. See also Exterior Gateway Protocol.

Pertaining to an open, non-proprietary development platform that includes public cloud, dedicated cloud, and local cloud deployment models. See also dedicated cloud, local cloud, public cloud.

border node
An APPN network node that interconnects APPN networks having independent topology databases in order to support LU-LU sessions between these networks.

border router
In Internet communications, a router, positioned at the edge of an autonomous system, that communicates with a router that is positioned at the edge of a different autonomous system.

border system
A system that exists within a trusted system but communicates between trusted and untrusted systems. A border system prevents security from being compromised.

See base operating system.

BOS installation
See base operating system installation.

A program that visits websites in an automated fashion. Some bots are used to gather information, such as Google's search indexing of web pages. Others may be employed with malicious intent, such as to cause denial of service (DoS) by causing a website to be too busy to service legitimate requests.

both field
A field that can be used for either input data or output data.

BOT marker
See beginning-of-tape marker.

A series of connected computers that are infected with malicious software and controlled as a group to perform automated tasks such as spreading viruses.

A place in the system where contention for a resource is affecting performance.

bottom margin
On a page, the space between the body or the running footing, if any, and the bottom edge of the page.

bottom shadow
In AIXwindows, a narrow band of a dark color across the bottom of a rectangular graphical object (a widget or gadget) that creates a three-dimensional appearance when the object is manipulated.

bottom-up development
In web services, the process of developing a service from an existing artifact such as JavaBeans or an enterprise bean rather than a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file. See also top-down development.

bottom-up mapping
In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, an approach for mapping enterprise beans to database tables, in which the schema is first imported from an existing database and then enterprise beans and mappings are generated.


  1. To remove the edit lock from the current editing user for an e.List item in the Contributor web client.
  2. See debounce.

A limit on the value that a variable can assume. See also lower bound, upper bound.

boundary access node (BAN)
A router (such as the IBM 6611) that provides its attached LAN-based SNA peripheral nodes direct frame-relay access to a subarea boundary node (such as an IBM 3745 or an IBM 3746 Model 900).

boundary alignment

  1. A method used to align image data elements by adding padding bits to each image data element.
  2. The position in main storage of a fixed-length field, such as halfword or doubleword, which is aligned on an integral boundary for that unit of information. For example, a word boundary alignment stores the object in a storage address evenly divisible by four.

boundary class
In performance profiling, a class that is normally excluded in the filtering criteria, but which is directly invoked by the classes that are included as filters.

boundary event
An intermediate event that is attached to the boundary of an activity. A boundary event can be triggered only while the activity is running, either leaving the activity running or interrupting the activity.

boundary function (BF)
In SNA, a capability of a subarea node to provide protocol support for attached peripheral nodes, such as: interconnecting subarea path control and peripheral path control elements; performing session sequence numbering for low-function peripheral nodes; and providing session-level pacing support.

boundary network node (BNN)
In SNA, a subarea node that provides protocol support for adjacent peripheral nodes, for example, transforming network addresses to local addresses and vice versa, and providing session-level support for these peripheral nodes.

boundary node (BN)
In SNA, a subarea node with boundary function.

boundary node identifier (BNI)
The MAC address that identifies a subarea boundary node as the source or destination of frames carried over the portion of a BAN connection between the boundary node and the boundary access node (BAN). All frames sent by a BAN to the boundary node have their destination MAC address set to the BNI, and all frames sent by a boundary node to a BAN have their source MAC address set to the BNI. See also BAN connection.

boundary violation
In COBOL, an attempt to write beyond the externally defined boundaries of a sequential file.

boundary white space
In an XQuery direct element constructor, white space characters that occur by themselves in the boundaries between tags, enclosed expressions, or both tags and enclosed expressions.

boundary zone
A zone that is used for implementing access control to areas that are not covered by event devices and, therefore, cannot be controlled completely or directly.

bound component
In the Type Designer, a component for which each occurrence of the data can be identified without considering the context in which that occurrence is placed.

bounded-box font
A font in bounded box format. See also unbounded-box font.

bounded-box format
An organization of character graphics and information used by AFP programs. See also unbounded-box format.

bounded-box relative metric
A unit of measure that is expressed in 1000 units per Em-square. See also relative metrics.

bounded character box
A character box that does not contain blank space on any sides of the character. See also unbounded character box.

bounding box

  1. In GL, a two-dimensional rectangle that bounds a primitive. A bounding box can be used to determine whether the primitive lies inside a clipping region.
  2. See character box.
  3. In computer graphics, the smallest rectangle that encloses a character at the x, y origin.

bounding box coordinates
In DCF, the coordinates of the lower-left and upper-right corners of an imaginary box surrounding an image in the default user coordinate system. The bounding box coordinates are used by SCRIPT/VS to place a PostScript image in the space reserved within a DCF document.

bound program
An i5/OS object that combines one or more modules created by an Integrated Language Environment (ILE) compiler.

bound strengthening
The tightening of bounds on a variable in one of two ways: range, by changing one of the bounds; value, by reducing the domain of the variable to only one possible value. See also lower bound, upper bound.

bounds violation
An attempt to access an array using an index or pointer that references storage outside of the array.

bound type
In the Type Designer, a type whose data object can be identified without considering the context in which that data object is placed.

Bourne shell (sh)
The original implementation of the shell concept for the UNIX operating system. See also Bash shell.


  1. A line enclosure that forms a rectangle around text or a table.
  2. A software object that provides a mechanism to model physical entities that contain other physical entities.
  3. An entity representation that can indicate an organization or group on a chart. A box is often used to enclose other entities. See also circle, representation.

Placing a primitive type within an object so that the primitive can be used as an object, in a language where there is a distinction between a primitive type and an object type. See also autobox, object type, primitive type, unbox.

See business process as a service.

See basic partitioned access method.

See business process definition.


  1. See Base Primitive Environment.
  2. See business process executive.

See Business Process Execution Language.

See Business Process Execution Language for Web Services.

See bits per inch.


  1. See business process management.
  2. See business performance management.

See Business Process Modeling Language.

BPML activity

  1. See Business Process Modeling Lanaguage activity.
  2. A step in a business process that provides directions for how data should be handled.

See Business Process Modeling Notation.

See business process outsourcing.

See bits per second.

See Business Process Specification Schema.

Either of the characters left brace ({) and right brace (}). When an object is enclosed in braces, the left brace immediately precedes the object and the right brace immediately follows it.


  1. In SNA, one or more chains of request units and their responses, representing a complete transaction, exchanged between two session partners. See also end bracket.
  2. Either of the characters left bracket ([) and right bracket (]).

bracketed DBCS
A character string in which each character is represented by 2 bytes. The character string starts with a shift-out (SO) character and ends with a shift-in (SI) character.

bracket protocol
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which exchanges between two session partners are achieved through the use of brackets, with one partner designated at session activation as the first speaker and the other as the bidder. The bracket protocol involves bracket initiation and termination rules. See also protocol.


  1. An object that specifies a linear sequence of versions of an element. Each branch is an instance of a branch type object.
  2. In the CVS team development environment, a separate line of development where changes can be isolated. When a programmer changes files on a branch, those changes are not displayed on the main trunk or other branches.
  3. A stream for insulated or parallel development.
  4. A distinct path leading to or originating from an element in a process model or UML diagram.
  5. A set of parallel steps in a workflow. A workflow step is a node in a branch.
  6. To create a stream for parallel or insulated development.
  7. In a rule flow, a node that organizes conditional transitions. Several transitions can go to and from a branch node. All transitions created from a branch must have a condition, except the Else transition.
  8. In a computer program, an instruction that selects one of a number of alternative sets of instructions.

branch and cut
An algorithm that searches the tree of all possible solutions, branching on decision variables and cutting off those branches that do not lead toward a better solution than the one currently known.

branch exchange
A switching system that provides telephone communication between branch stations and external networks.

branch extender (BEX, BrEx)
An extension to the APPN network architecture that appears as a network node to the downstream end nodes in low entry networks, and as an end node to the wide area network.

branch instruction
An instruction that changes the sequence of instructions processed in a computer program. The sequence of instructions continues at the address specified in the branch instruction.

branch job
A job that can be defined to evaluate a particular job status or output and, based on specified conditions, controls which jobs to run within the job stream.

branch network node
An APPN network node that implements the Branch Extender architecture. A branch network node appears to be an end node to the backbone network but acts as a network node to the branch network. There may be multiple branch network nodes in a branch, and an end node may receive network node services from any of these branch network nodes.

branch node
An index page that contains pointers to a leaf node or other branch nodes. The database server creates a branch node when the root node and subsequent leaf nodes become full. See also node.

branch page
A location on a tree structure that has at least one page below and one page above it. In an R-tree index, branch pages are located in the intermediate levels, between the root page and leaf pages.

The source of a relevant, distinctive and enduring "promise of value" to a specific set of customers. The promise should be relevant to those customers and be differentiated from those of competitors. A powerful brand influences a marketplace, demonstrates leadership and quality, and is familiar and trusted.

brand class
A collection of brands based of set of similar traits or attributes. For example, generic sodas can be placed in a private label brand class and Coke in a national label brand class.

brand class rule
A constraint imposed on members of a brand class that determines the price relationship among members.

brand family
A subset of a brand class.

The customization of the user interface by changing the appearance of the Emptoris applications.

brand manager
A person who charts the strategy and tactics surrounding the brand plan. For example, the brand manager tracks which new products get developed and which marketing mix events will occur.

brand rule
A constraint imposed on members of a brand that determines the price relationship among members.

breach probability
A prediction, based on monitored data, of the likelihood that an application or resource pool will exceed a defined threshold.

breach value
The value at which a service level objective (SLO) is considered as not being met. A service level agreement (SLA) violation occurs if a breach value for one or more of its SLOs is exceeded. See also service level objective.

A web interface element that displays the user's position within a site. It is usually a series of hyperlinks appearing across the top or bottom of the page. These links indicate pages that have been viewed and enable the user to navigate back to the starting location.

breadcrumb trail
A navigation technique used in a user interface to give users a way to keep track of their location within the program or documents.


  1. In DCF, an interruption in the formatting of input lines so that the next input line is printed on a new output line.
  2. To interrupt the sending end and take control of a circuit at the receiving end.

A function that changes the value of variables to make a formula equal to a specified value.

break bulk load
A consolidated shipment that is shipped to a break bulk node for a particular region to reduce transportation costs.

break bulk node
A node within a distribution network that is used during zone skipping. For example, a user might transport a full container load economically by a single carrier to a break bulk node, where the contents of the container are then split into a few small loads for local dispatch to individual customers, or to other subsidiary distribution depots. See also zone skipping.

break condition
In the tty subsystem, a character framing error in which the data is all zeros.

break delivery
The method of delivering messages to a message queue in which the job associated with that message queue is interrupted as soon as the message arrives.

break field
In AFP Utilities, a field that causes a page break. When the Print Format Utility encounters a record with a value that is not equal to that of the previous record, a page break occurs.

break group
A set of rows of returned data that are grouped according to a common column value. For example, in a column of states, the rows of data for each state are grouped together.


  1. A location in a program, specified by a command or a condition, where the system halts execution and gives control to the workstation user or to a specified program.
  2. A marked point in a process or programmatic flow that causes that flow to pause when the point is reached, typically to allow debugging or monitoring.
  3. A point where some property of a function changes, such as its slope, for example.

breakpoint program
For a batch job, a user program that can be called when a breakpoint is specified.

break quantity high
The upper quantity range for a given price. For example, the break quantity high is 10 for an item that for quantities of 1 to 10 the price is $20 per unit; the break quantity high is 50 when for quantities of 11 to 50 the price is $15.

break quantity low
The lower quantity range for a given price. For example, the break quantity low is 1 for an item that for quantities of 1 to 10 the price is $20 per unit; the break quantity low is 11 when for quantities of 11 to 50 the price is $15.

break schedule
A form that a shipper uses to define rate breaks. A break schedule does not contain specific prices for each rate break. Shippers define the prices when they assign the break schedule to a contract lane or accessorial. See also rate break.

break signal
A signal sent over a remote connection to interrupt current activity on the remote system.

break statement
A C or C++ control statement that contains the keyword break and a semicolon (;). It is used to end an iterative or a switch statement by exiting from it at any point other than the logical end. Control is passed to the first statement after the iteration or switch statement.

break value
In allocating data segment space, the address of the first location beyond the current end of the data segment.

See branch extender.


  1. A functional unit that interconnects multiple LANs (locally or remotely) that use the same Logical Link Control (LLC) protocol but that can use different Media Access Control (MAC) protocols. A bridge forwards a frame to another bridge based on the MAC address. See also router.
  2. A collection of adapters and business process in Sterling B2B Integrator that are used to establish communication and send and receive messages between Multi-Enterprise Integrated Gateway and Sterling B2B Integrator.
  3. A component that converts metadata from one format to another format by mapping the metadata elements to a standard model. This model translates the semantics of the source tool into the semantics of the target tool. For example, the source tool might be a business intelligence or data modeling tool, and the target tool might be the metadata repository. Or, the source tool might be the metadata repository, and the target tool might be a file that is used by a data modeling tool. See also connector.
  4. In the connection of local loops, channels, or rings, the equipment and techniques used to match circuits and to facilitate accurate data transmission. See also web application bridge.

bridged local area network
A collection of individual local area networks interconnected by medium access control (MAC) bridges.

bridge identifier
An 8-byte field, used in a spanning tree protocol, composed of the MAC address of the port with the lowest port identifier and a user-defined value.

bridge interface
A node and a server that run a core group bridge service.

A device that can provide the functions of a bridge, router, or both concurrently. A bridge/router can route one or more protocols, such as TCP/IP, and bridge all other traffic.

In LANs, the forwarding of a frame from one LAN segment to another. The destination is specified by the medium access control (MAC) sublayer address encoded in the destination address field of the frame header.

British Approvals Board for Telecommunications
The British standards organization responsible for approval of equipment to be attached to the public-switched telephone network (PSTN).

British thermal unit (Btu)
The amount of heat required to raise a pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

British thermal unit per hour (Btu/hr.)
An English unit of measure for heat produced in one hour.

See Business Rule Language Definition Framework.


  1. See Backup, Recovery, and Media Services.
  2. See business rule management system.

A communication channel that uses a wide frequency range divided into narrower bands that can be made available to different users for the simultaneous transmission of different signals (such as voice, video, and data). A broadband channel is capable of higher-speed data transmission than a voice-grade channel.

broadband LAN
A local area network in which data are encoded, multiplexed, and transmitted with modulation of carriers. A broadband LAN consists of more than one channel.

The simultaneous transmission of data to more than one destination. See also multicast, unicast.

broadcast address
In communications, a station address (eight 1's) reserved as an address common to all stations on a link.

broadcast data set
Under TSO, a system data set containing messages and notices from the system operator, administrators, and other users.

broadcast for bid tender
See broadcast for capacity tender.

broadcast for capacity tender
A tendering method that allows a shipper to offer a load to a list of carriers as a request for capacity. After carriers submit a bid, the shipper views the available capacity and selects a carrier. See also broadcast for review tender.

broadcast for review tender
A tendering method in which the shipper offers a load to multiple carriers at the same time. The shipper reviews the carriers and selects a carrier to take the load. See also broadcast for capacity tender.

broadcast job
A job that runs on all clones at once. Like any other job, it is handled by the scheduler. See also scheduler.

broadcast join
A join in which all partitions of a table are sent to all database partitions.

broadcast Locate search
See broadcast search.

broadcast meeting
In Notes, a meeting about which invitees are notified; they do not need to respond to the invitation. This option is useful when individual response will not affect the occurrence of the meeting.

broadcast message
A message sent to all workstations.

broadcast notification
A notification that is targeted to all of the users of a specific MobileFirst application. See also tag-based notification.

broadcast search
The simultaneous propagation of a search request to all network nodes in an APPN network. This type of search may be used when the location of a resource is unknown to the requester.

broadcast storm
A situation where one message that is broadcast across a network results in multiple responses. Each response generates more responses, causing excessive transmission of broadcast messages. Severe broadcast storms can block all other network traffic, but they can usually be prevented by carefully configuring a network to block illegal broadcast messages.

broadcast tender
A tendering method that allows a shipper to tender a single shipment to multiple carriers at the same time. The shipment is awarded to the first carrier who accepts the shipment, based on first receipt of a tender acceptance by Sterling TMS.

broken access control
A vulnerability that results from inadequate enforcement of restrictions for authenticated users. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access other users' accounts, view sensitive files, or use unauthorized functions.

broken authentication and session management
An issue that occurs when account credentials and session tokens are not properly protected. Attackers can compromise passwords, keys, session cookies, or other tokens, and can assume other users' identities.

broken case
A quantity that is less than the standard case quantity for a SKU.

broken data set
A data sets that does not conform to IBM data-set standards. Broken data sets are either missing or have invalid catalog entries, volume table of contents (VTOC) entries, or VSAM volume data set (VVDS) entries.

broken link
A link that returns an invalid response when selected.

broken pipe message
A message that occurs if the pipe becomes unsynchronized.


  1. A set of execution processes that host one or more message flows. See also execution group, message flow.
  2. In the Network Computing System (NCS), a server that manages information about objects and interfaces to the objects. A program that wants to become the client of an interface can use a broker to obtain information about servers that export the interface.

broker archive
A file that is the unit of deployment to the broker that can contain any number of compiled message flow and message set files and a single deployment descriptor. A separate broker archive file is required for each configuration that is deployed.

brokerlist section
A section in a customization definition document (CDD) that describes which BAR files are deployed, which execution group and broker the files are deployed to, and which tuning parameters the files use.

broker topology definition (BTD)
A description of the brokers, execution groups, and broker archive (BAR) files that are used in a runtime environment, and the actions that are required to implement the current broker topology (for example, deploying the BAR files for a new service).

broker topology definition document (BTDD)
An XML document that describes a broker topology definition.

See business role.

Approximately 1,000 yottabytes. See also geopbyte, yottabyte.


  1. To look at information without changing it.
  2. In message queuing, to copy a message without removing it from the queue. See also get, put.

browse cursor
In message queuing, an indicator used when browsing a queue to identify the message that is next in sequence.

browse diagram
A temporary, non-editable diagram that shows the results of a query on a context diagram element.


  1. A program that can be used to look at data but not change it.
  2. A window that displays a list of items, such as documents (transaction sets), interchanges, and translation objects.
  3. A client program that initiates requests to a web server and displays the information that the server returns.

browser artifact
A SAML profile that uses a SOAP back channel to exchange an artifact during the establishment and use of a trusted session between an identity provider, a service provider, and a client (browser).

browser-based client
A browser-based software program or computer that requests services from a server.

browser chrome
The borders of a web browser window, which include the frames, menus, toolbars and scroll bars. See also chromeless browser.

browser POST
A SAML profile that uses a self-posting form during the establishment and use of a trusted session between an identity provider, a service provider, and a client (browser).

browser thread
In Q replication, a Q Apply program thread that gets messages from a receive queue and passes the messages to one or more agent threads to be applied to targets.

brute force attack
An attack that uses a repetitive method of trial and error to obtain the user name and password for a valid account on a web application. If successful, the attacker can then access credit card numbers, cryptographic keys, profile data for confidential documents, and tools that are used to manage the user privileges and content of the web application.

brute force collision
A programming style that relies on computing power to try all the possibilities with a known hash until the solution is found.

See base station.

See basic sequential access method.


  1. See balanced scorecard.
  2. See binary synchronous communication.

BSC 3270 device emulation
A function of the operating system that allows a server to appear to a BSC host system as a 3274 Control Unit.

See binary synchronous communication adapter.

BSCEL support
See binary synchronous communication equivalence link support.

See binary synchronous communication remote job processing.

See Berkeley Software Distribution.

See bootstrap data set.

See Basic Security Manager.

See Binary JSON.


  1. In architecture, the distance between the character coordinate system X-axis values of the two extremities of a character shape.
  2. In font design, the distance in pels, measured in the inline (print) direction, between the toned pel closest to the character reference point and the toned pel furthest from the character reference point.

See below-specific protocol boundary.

See business transformation.

See Basic Telecommunications Access Method.

See business transformation/chief information officer.

See broker topology definition.

See broker topology definition document.

See Business Transformation Management System.

See Business Transformation Management Tool.

See business transformation operations process.

A shortened version of the business transformation operations process (BTOP) intended for some projects that do not require the full BTOP process.

B-tree index
An index that is arranged as a balanced hierarchy of pages and that minimizes access time by realigning data keys as items are inserted or deleted. See also forest of trees index.


  1. See business transaction services.
  2. See burster-trimmer-stacker.

BTS activity
One part of a process managed by CICS BTS. Typically, an activity is part of a business transaction.

The set of CICS regions across which related BTS processes and activities may execute.

See business transformation team.

See basic transmission unit.

See British thermal unit.

See British thermal unit per hour.

bubble chart
A chart that represents information on an x-y axis by color and size.


  1. One or more fields that accumulate the result of an operation.
  2. Cloud storage container used by Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3).

bucket interval
A parameter that specifies how frequently a new database is created when a historian is used to store the data. Device data can be stored in daily, weekly, or monthly databases.


  1. An object that coordinates the expenses of plans, programs, and projects in the form of allocations, forecasted or committed spending, and actual expenses.
  2. A set of financial commitments including revenue and expense based on the telecom spend.


  1. A storage area used by MERVA programs to store a message in its internal format. A buffer has an 8-byte prefix that indicates its length.
  2. A reserved segment of memory used to hold data while it is being processed. See also buffer overflow.
  3. To allocate and schedule the use of temporary storage areas.
  4. An area of storage that compensates for the different speeds of data flow or timings of events by temporarily holding a block of data that is waiting to be processed or written to an I/O device.
  5. An area that surrounds a map item to a specified distance. A buffer is useful for proximity analysis, for example to see what is within five miles of an item.

buffer address
In 3270 data stream, the address of a location in the character buffer (screen image).

buffered disk I/O
Disk I/O that is controlled by the operating system instead of by an application. With buffered disk I/O, the operating system stores data in the kernel portion of memory before periodically writing the data to disk. See also disk I/O, unbuffered disk I/O.

buffered logging
A type of logging that holds transactions in a memory buffer until the buffer is full, regardless of when the transaction is committed or rolled back.

buffered page
A page kept in printer control storage, waiting to be printed.

buffer group
In VTAM, a group of buffers associated with one or more contiguous, related entries in a buffer list. The buffers may be located in discontiguous areas of storage, and may be combined into one or more request units.

buffer handler
An internal component of IMS that maintains buffer pools. When a buffer is needed, the buffer handler selects the buffer at the bottom of the use chain.

buffer invalidation
A technique for preventing the use of invalid data in an IMS Sysplex data sharing environment. The technique involves marking all copies of data in IMS buffers invalid once a sharing IMS subsystem has updated that data.

buffer length
The maximum length of a data segment that can be stored in a given buffer.

buffer list
In VTAM, a contiguous set of control blocks (buffer list entries) that allow an application program to send function management data (FMD) from a number of discontiguous buffers with a single SEND macroinstruction.

buffer list entry
A control block within a buffer list that points to a buffer containing function management data (FMD) to be sent.

buffer lookaside
For shared VSO DEDB areas, an option that tells IMS to check the private buffer pools for requested data before retrieving data from the coupling facility.

buffer loop
On the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the loop of continuous forms paper formed between the burster and trimmer assemblies.

buffer overflow
An exploitation technique that alters the flow of an application by overwriting parts of memory. Buffer overflows are a common cause of malfunctioning software. See also buffer.

buffer pool
An area of memory into which data pages are read and in which they are modified and held during processing. See also address space.

buffer-to-buffer credit (BB credit)
The number of frames that can be sent to a recipient when buffer-to-buffer flow control is in use. See also buffer-to-buffer flow control, end-to-end credit.

buffer-to-buffer flow control
Management of the frame transmission rate in either a point-to-point topology or in an arbitrated loop. See also buffer-to-buffer credit.

An error in a program or a logic problem in the intent of the program.


  1. A specification for the acquisition, transformation, and delivery of data. See also dimension build, fact build.
  2. To create or modify resources, typically based on the state of other resources. A Java builder converts Java source files into executable class files, for example, and a web link builder updates links to files whose name or location has changed.
  3. To convert a product from source code to a binary or executable software product.
  4. A general descriptor of a person's body type, for example, a person may have a thin or heavy build.
  5. The process during which a build program produces one or more derived objects. This may involve actual translation of source files and construction of binary files by compilers, linkers, text formatters, and so on.

build avoidance
The ability of a ClearCase build program to fulfill a build request by using an existing derived object instead of creating a new one by executing a build script.

build configuration
The metadata that describes how an application is built, including compiler parameters and dependencies. See also launch configuration.

build definition
An object that defines a build, such as a weekly project-wide integration build.

build definition file
An XML file that identifies components and characteristics for a customized installation package (CIP).

build descriptor option
In a build descriptor part, a property that helps control generation or preparation.

build descriptor part
An EGL part that controls the generation process through option-and-value pairs that specify how to generate and prepare output.

build engine
The representation of a build system that runs on a dedicated server.


  1. A reusable component that dynamically generates Java and JSP code based on the context in which it is called. For example, it can add a button to a JSP page, link fields in a form to an XML variable, or create a web service. See also builder skeleton, model.
  2. A tool that builds and compiles code.
  3. A module in CICS that, in conjunction with other builders, makes the autoinstall process possible, allows the terminal control table (TCT) to be changed dynamically on a running CICS system, and reduces the times needed for warm and emergency restart on systems that use autoinstall.

builder call
A particular invocation of a builder. When a builder is added to a model, a call is added to that builder (builder call), not the builder itself. A model is made up of an ordered list of builder calls.

builder call argument
A value passed to a builder when it is invoked programmatically. In many situations, the arguments are similar to the builder call inputs.

builder call editor
In Web Experience Factory Designer, the user interface associated with each builder. These wizard-like editors help developers create and edit builder calls during the implementation of the model.

builder call list
The description of the overall generation behavior of a model through an ordered sequence of builder calls.

builder call name
The name of the builder call, not the name of the builder being called. See also builder name.

builder definition (Bdef)
The description of both the generation behavior and user interface of a builder. This file is used to create the builder call editor dialog. It contains constraints and default values for the arguments in the builder call being constructed.

builder input
The set of parameters that the builder takes as inputs. These builder inputs allow a builder to be configured to produce a specific result or output. For example, most builders have a Name input whose value appears in the builder call list.

builder name
The name of the entire builder component. See also builder call name.

builder picker
A dialog in Web Experience Factory Designer that lists the available builders by category or in an alphabetically-ordered list. The primary purpose of the builder picker is to provide a convenient way to select a new builder to add to a model.

builder picker category
The grouping of available builders within the builder picker according to function.

builder skeleton
A builder that is used to create other builders. The builder skeleton takes a base model and related profiled inputs and automatically generates the additional code required to create a builder based on the model. See also builder.

building block
The model of an image that is created by combining models of a base operating system and software bundles. Each building block contains a semantic and functional model that describes the contents of the components, for example, the installed products, supported operating systems, prerequisites, and requirements.

build item
A component in the model, such as a subassembly or system.

A collection of scripts that prepare your code to run on Bluemix. Buildpacks examine deployed applications, then download and configure any dependent applications.

build path
The path that is used during compilation of Java source code to find referenced classes that are located in other projects.

build plan
An XML file that defines the processing necessary to build generation outputs and that specifies the machine where processing takes place.

build position
A position within a model build hierarchy that a build item is associated with.

build request
A request from the client to perform a build transaction.

build server

  1. A server system that client systems use to perform builds. A build server receives requests from build clients to create executable files from source code sent from the build clients.
  2. The computer on which the app build and deployment processes are run. The build server can be used to build and configure the mobile apps.

build style
A set of actions that provide push and build operations for IBM i projects.

build time data
Objects that are not used by the translator, such as EDI standards, record oriented data document types, and maps.

build transaction
A job that is started on MVS to perform builds after a build request has been received from the client.

In programming languages, pertaining to a language object that is defined in the programming language specification.

built-in cast
A cast that is built into the database server. A built-in cast performs automatic conversions between different built-in data types.

built-in data type

  1. A data type that IBM supplies. Among the built-in data types for DB2 for z/OS are string, numeric, XML, ROWID, and datetime. See also distinct type.
  2. A data type defined by the database server. See also data type.

built-in format
Application data in a message for which the queue manager defines the meaning. See also application-defined format.

built-in function

  1. A predefined, SQL-invoked function that provides some basic arithmetic and other operations, such as cos(), log(), or today().
  2. A function that is predefined by the compiler and whose code is incorporated directly into the compiled object rather than called at run time. See also function.
  3. A special calculation formula set up specifically for planning. For example, some built-in functions include depreciation, discounted cashflow, forecasting using different drivers, and stock purchase prediction based on future sales.
  4. A function that is defined by the database manager. See also function, routine, user-defined function.

built-in function reference
In CL, a built-in function name, having an optional, and possibly empty, argument list that holds the value returned by the built-in function.

built-in global variable
A global variable that is defined by the database manager. See also database global variable, global variable, special register, user-defined global variable.

built-in procedure
A procedure that is defined by the database manager. See also external procedure, procedure, routine, SQL procedure, user-defined procedure.

built-in self-test (BIST)
An internal testing routine that validates the basic operations of a hardware component.

built-in shell command
A command that is implemented as part of a shell program. Certain commands are built into the shell in order to improve the performance of shell scripts or to access the shell's internal data structures and variables.

built-in special element
A special element that is defined in the variable itself, rather than in the variable's axis expression.

built-in storage location
In DFSMSrmm, one of the following storage locations: LOCAL, DISTANT, and REMOTE.

bulk area
The storage of high volumes of SKUs that represent a specific space on the floor of the warehouse. Typically SKUs stored in this area would be sturdy enough to stack multiple pallets high, permitting better utilization of warehouse space.

bulk decryption
See block decryption.

bulk encryption
See block encryption.

bulk input
The process of adding a large number of tape cartridges to the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS).

A command line utility that is used for bulk-loading large amounts of data in LDIF format.

bulk loader
A program supplied with a relational database management system that allows fast loading of records into a database.

bulk output
The process of removing a large number of tape cartridges from the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS).

bulk rack storage
The storage of cartons or pallets on shelves or racks.

bulk resource
A resource that is taken in quantity from a pool of generic resources. For example, a task might require 10 landscapers or 10 liters of water.

A general-purpose message that can be sent to one or more persons. Bulletins are created through the communications module in the application.

bulletin board

  1. A graphic object that simulates a real-life bulletin board in that it displays text and graphic information in the form of messages to the user from client applications that are currently running.
  2. The mechanism by which the Tivoli Management Framework and Tivoli applications communicate with Tivoli administrators. The bulletin board collects notices in notice groups. Administrators can access the bulletin board from the Tivoli desktop. The bulletin board is an audit trail for important operations that the administrators perform.


  1. A kit item that can contain both products and services.
  2. A packaged collection of software products that is purchased as one item and that has its own product identifier (PID).
  3. Catalog merchandise that provides single-click function for referring to multiple items. More formally, a bundle is a composite catalog entry consisting of at least one code. See also dynamic kit, kit, package, prebuilt kit.
  4. To package a collection of individually orderable components or products into a single offering, often for promotional purposes. Software manufacturers typically offer a single license to cover all components of a bundled offering.
  5. A set of findings that the user creates. Bundles can be exported and shared between people and applications.
  6. In the OSGi service platform, a Java archive file that contains Java code, resources, and a manifest that describes the bundle and its dependencies. The bundle is the unit of deployment for an application. See also bundle cache, bundle repository, enterprise bundle archive, subagent.
  7. An object that allows a user to package, organize, and optionally provide additional information about the reports that can be sent to the recipients.
  8. A group of journal entries that are deposited together by the system.
  9. A collection of CICS resources, artifacts, references, and a manifest file that can be installed as a unit. See also CICS bundle, management bundle.
  10. A set of tokens that are transferred between nodes in a simulation as a complete group.

bundle cache
A cell-wide store, or server-wide store for single-server systems, of bundles that OSGi applications refer to and that have been downloaded from both internal and external repositories. See also bundle, bundle repository.

bundle component

  1. A product that is comprised of multiple products.
  2. A part of a bundle that is defined within a definition by having the same recipient identifier and distribution description as that distribution, and each bundle component is specific to a report that is defined in the OnDemand database.

bundled bid
A bid that is placed by suppliers for multiple items rather than a separate bid for each item. Bundled bids are available only with RFQs, RFPs and reverse auctions. The buyer can choose to ignore them when performing scenario analysis on the returned bids.

bundle definition table (BDT)
An ODF database table that carries information to define the bundle components within a distribution. BDT rows are maintained by using the BL and BM panels.

bundled subscription
A specific set of subscriptions provisioned to one or more users.

bundle fulfillment mode
A fulfillment option that determines whether bundle components should be shipped and delivered together or independently.

bundle item
An item that is part of a bundle.

bundle manifest
A special file that describes the resources, location of supporting artifacts, application prerequisites, and services that are included in a bundle to deploy part or all of a CICS application.

bundle price
The combined price of several related products.

bundle priority
A process by which identical resources are exposed in different bundles and the code generator defines the priority.

bundle product
A product that comprises a parent product and one or more component products.

bundle query table
An ODF database table that holds information that is used by the print processor to select segments of reports for printing.

bundle repository
A common store of OSGi bundles that can be shared by multiple OSGi applications. See also bundle, bundle cache.

A process during which the user assigns a component to a product.

burndown chart
In agile software development, a tool for measuring progress in which the number of remaining tasks are plotted against the estimated number of total tasks for the day, iteration, or other period.

burndown report
See burndown chart.


  1. In data communication, a sequence of data counted as one unit in accordance with some specific criterion or measure.
  2. To create several report results by running a single report once. For example, the user can create a report that shows sales for each employee, and run it once, sending different results to regional managers by bursting on region.
  3. To separate continuous-forms paper into individual sheets.
  4. A sudden sharp increase in the rate of incoming events or flows such that the licensed flow or event rate limit is exceeded.

bursted report
A report in which the details are expanded.

A device to detach from one another previously-perforated forms or formsets of continuous stationery. (T)

burster-trimmer-stacker (BTS)
An optional printer feature that separates continuous forms into separate sheets, trims the carrier strip from both edges of the paper, and stacks the sheets. The BTS also identifies jobs by offsetting the stacking. See also job offset.

burst key
The dimension or level of a query in the report specification that is used to create, or burst, a set of report results.

burst page
On continuous-form paper, a page of output that can be separated at the perforations.

burst report
A report that generates multiple output files during a single run by using multiple input parameters taken from break groups in the report.


  1. In a processor, a physical facility on which data is transferred to all destinations but from which only addressed destinations can read in accordance with appropriate conventions.
  2. Interconnecting messaging engines that manage bus resources.
  3. A facility for transferring data between several devices located between two end points, only one device being able to transmit at a given moment.
  4. One or more conductors used for transmitting signals or power.
  5. A computer configuration in which processors are interconnected in series.

bus expansion
An expansion unit that attaches to a system for the purpose of increasing the number of buses on the system and which allows for additional I/O processor cards to be attached.

bus extension card (BEC)
The bus extension driver card or the bus extension receiver card.

bus extension driver card (BED card)
The card, connected by a cable to a bus extension receiver (BER) card, that is used to route data from one card enclosure to another card enclosure. The direction of data can be from the processing unit to an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures, or from an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures to the processing unit. See also bus extension receiver card.

bus extension receiver card (BER card)
The card, connected by a cable to a bus extension driver (BED) card, that is used to route data from one card enclosure to another card enclosure. The direction of data can be from the processing unit to an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures, or from an input/output processor in one of the card enclosures to the processing unit. See also bus extension driver card.

business action

  1. An activity defined for business objects.
  2. For RosettaNet, a message with content of a business nature such as a Purchase Order Request or a Request For Quote. The exchange of business actions and business signals comprise the message choreography necessary to complete a business activity specified by a PIP.

Business Action Language (BAL)
A business rule language that uses an intuitive and natural language-like syntax for writing business rules.

business activity

  1. For RosettaNet, one or more discrete activities encapsulated by PIP and as specified by the business analysts during development of the PIP blueprint. The exchange of business actions and business signals comprise the message choreography necessary to complete a business activity specified by a particular PIP. For example, PIP 3A4 (Manage Purchase Order) specifies three separate business activities: Create Purchase Order, Change Purchase Order, and Cancel Purchase Order.
  2. See activity.

business activity monitoring (BAM)
The collection and presentation of real-time information that describes a business process or a series of activities spanning multiple systems and applications.

business agility
The ability of a business to respond quickly and seamlessly to the constantly changing business environment.

business analyst

  1. A specialist who analyzes business needs and problems, consults with users and stakeholders to identify opportunities for improving business return through information technology, and transforms requirements into a technical form.
  2. A decision management user role that is responsible for modeling rule application projects.

Business Analytics and Optimization (BAO)
A service offering that helps clients gain greater perspective and predictability for business decisions. Business Analytics and Optimization means that clients can operate at a greater level of intelligence.

business application
Any set of CICS resources that represent a meaningful entity to an enterprise or a user (such as Payroll).

Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)
A programming interface that is used to access SAP databases from with SAP or other development platforms. BAPI is used to achieve integration between the R/3 System and external applications and legacy systems.

Business Application Services (BAS)
The component of CICSPlex SM that provides the ability to define and manage business applications in terms of their CICS resources and associated CICS systems. BAS provides a central definition repository for CICS systems, complete with installation facilities and the ability to restrict a CICSPlex SM request to those resources defined as being part of the business application.

business architecture
A set of related elements that represents the organizational and behavioral structure of a business.

business associate
Under the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), an organization or person working in association with or providing services to a covered entity who handles or discloses Personal Health Information (PHI) or Personal Health Records (PHR). See also business associate agreement, covered entity, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.

business associate agreement
Under the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), a contract between a covered entity and a business associate that protects personal health information (PHI) in accordance with HIPAA guidelines. See also business associate, covered entity, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.

business-as-usual (BAU)

business calendar

  1. A working calendar, configured by either the buyer or the seller organization, that specifies nonworking days, such as holidays and special events.
  2. A calendar that is used to model noncontiguous time intervals (intervals that do not proceed in a sequential manner). For example, a business calendar that defines regular working hours might refer to the non-overtime regular working hours of Monday to Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

business card
A snapshot of an IBM Connections user's profile and contact details with links to the user's work in IBM Connections applications.

business case
A template used in the Business Transformation Management System (BTMS) to provide information on the business case for a program (during BT portfolio management) or project (during BT operations process phases). It includes information on the value areas (cost avoidance, cost reductions, incremental revenue, revenue shift to web base, etc.) and quantification of value over the life of the investment.

business component

  1. A part of an enterprise that has the potential to operate independently, in the extreme as a separate company, or as part of another company.
  2. A component that defines the structure, behavior, and information displayed by a particular subject, such as a product, contact, or account, in Siebel Business Applications.

business constraint
A model of a real world constraint on purchasing activities. Business constraints are a mechanism to add limiting conditions within a scenario. The conditions could be based on existing business contracts, procurement policies, or business rules. For example, a favorite supplier rule, award limit rule, supplier count rule, total cost rule etc can be defined in a scenario.

business context
A collective reference graph of the process variables and managed object instances that are included in a process.

business continuity
The capability of a business to withstand outages and to operate mission-critical services normally and without interruption in accordance with predefined service-level agreements. See also business continuity solution.

business continuity solution
A combination of hardware, software, and services that ensures business continuity. The business continuity solution must address data, operational environment, applications, the application hosting environment, and the user interface. See also business continuity.

business customer
An organization that purchases products or services from an enterprise in a B2B scenario.

business customer contact
The contact information for an individual at a B2B customer location.

business data modeling
A technique for describing the data streams, lookup tables, views, and rules that depict how a business functions.

business design assurance (BDA)
Process which provides a structured approach to linking and validating business process designs to business rules, business strategies and objectives and related application architectures.

business dimension
A category of data, such as products or time periods, that an organization might want to analyze. See also multidimensional, multidimensional analysis.

business ecosystem
A business community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals. This community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. A business ecosystem contains business services networks, which contain business process, relevant to the transactions in that network.

business entity
In web services programming, a data structure type that contains information about the business that has published the service. The business entity is specified when the service is registered.

business event

  1. An occurrence of significance to a business. Application events and system events can be business events.
  2. A significant occurrence in a business process, generally identified by a business analyst, that warrants monitoring over time to reveal a key performance indicator (KPI).
  3. An event that occurs during a business process. See also application event.

Business Event Language
A business rule language that expresses event rules. See also business rule language.

Business Events Language (BEL)
A business rule language that uses an intuitive and natural language-like syntax for writing event rules.

business glossary
The controlled vocabulary and associated enterprise-wide information about governance policies and rules that define business semantics that, in turn, reveal or aid the operational needs of the business. See also category, information governance policy, policy, term.

business graph
A wrapper that is added around a simple business object or a hierarchy of business objects to provide additional capabilities, such as carrying change summary and event summary information related to the business objects in the business graph. See also business object.

Business Graphics Utility (BGU)
The IBM licensed program that can be used to design, plot, display, and print business charts.

business group

  1. A place to collect any elements to group together. Different business groups can be created for companies, processes, parts of processes, or any other grouping.
  2. The highest level in the organization hierarchy which has no accounting impact. It can consist of a single company or multiple companies.

business information executive (BIE)

business integration system
An integration broker and a set of integration adapters that allow heterogeneous business applications to exchange data through the coordinated transfer of information in the form of business objects.

business intelligence (BI)
The consolidation and analysis of data collected in the day-to-day operation of a business, which is then used as a basis for better business decisions and competitive advantage.

Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT)
An Eclipse-based open source reporting system for web applications.

business intelligence asset (BI asset)
An information asset that is used by business intelligence (BI) tools to organize reports and models that provide a business view of data. These assets include BI reports, BI models, BI collections, and cubes.

Business Intelligence Bus (BI Bus)
An application programming interface (API) that uses SOAP and other standard protocols for message encoding, transport, and security. Using any compliant toolkit, the BI Bus can be integrated with other web portals and software applications.

business item
A business document, work product, or commodity that is used in business operations. Examples of business items are a manufacturing order, system board, power supply, and memory chip (in a PC assembly process), itinerary and customer information record (in a trip reservation process), and passenger (in a transportation process). See also business object.

business item instance
A particular occurrence or example of a business item. If there is a business item called Invoice, then an example of a business item instance would be "Invoice #1473.

business item template
A category used to model a group of business items that share common properties. After these properties are defined in the template, they are inherited by all business items using the template. For example, an organization may define a number of forms to be used in human resource processes, all of which have fields for date, employee number, HR form number, and HR administrator.

business key
A level attribute or dimension table column that identifies each member of a hierarchy, level, or row of dimension data.

business lineage
The lifecycle of a unit of data, such as a table or a column, between information assets. Business lineage excludes data transformations that data lineage typically includes. See also data lineage.

business logic

  1. The part of a distributed application that is concerned with the application logic rather than the user interface of the application. See also presentation logic.
  2. The codified procedures in a business software system that implements the day-to-day operations of an organization (such as processing an order, payroll management, and so on). Business logic typically includes industry-standard procedures for business operations and customizations reflecting an organization's unique business policies.

business logic tier
The set of components that reside between the presentation and database tiers. This logic tier hosts the enterprise bean containers, which run the business logic.

business management
In System Manager, the discipline that encompasses inventory management, security management, financial administration, business planning, and management services for all enterprise-wide information systems.

business measure
A description of a performance management characteristic that you want to monitor. Business measures include instance metrics, aggregate metrics (also called measures), and key performance indicators (KPI).

business method

  1. A method of an enterprise bean that implements the business logic or rules of an application. (Sun)
  2. A method added to a type in a business object model. Business methods extend the original type without altering its source.

business model
A sample commerce solution that includes an organization structure, default user roles and access control policies, one or more starter stores, administration tools, and business processes that demonstrate best practices.

business name
A descriptive name for an object. Assigning a business name enables analysis software to make reports more comprehensible by using the business name in place of the business key.

business network
A decentralized peer-to-peer architecture that has nodes consisting of market participants (such as banks and securities firms). Members exchange items of value through a ledger, which each member possesses and whose content is always in sync with the others.

business object

  1. An abstract representation of the fields that belong to the event and action definitions.
  2. A software entity that represents a business entity, such as an invoice. A business object includes persistent and nonpersistent attributes, actions that can be performed on the business object, and rules that the business object is governed by. See also business graph, business item, data object, private business object, Service Data Objects.
  3. The definition of a data object. For example, the business object triPeople defines a person structure and includes the person's given name, surname, and primary address.
  4. A single instance of a class that includes, but is not limited to, an organization, price, and contract.

Business Object Document (BOD)
A representation of a standard business process that flows within an organization or between organizations. BODs are defined by the Open Applications Group using XML.

business objective
A high-level business goal. Because business objectives are typically abstract, they are difficult to measure and are therefore translated into more measurable lower-level business goals.

business object map
An artifact that assigns values to the target business objects based on the values in the source business objects.

business object model (BOM)

  1. A representation of the core concepts of a business and their logical connections. The business object model is the basis for the vocabulary used in business rules. The elements of a business object model (BOM) map to those of a corresponding execution object model.
  2. A model that defines how a system organizes its processes when interacting with business objects. An example of a business object model is the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component model.

business operational view
For RosettaNet, the first section of every PIP specification, which describes the business-related aspects of the PIP. This is information captured from business analysts during development of the PIP. The BOV is the PIP Blueprint as approved by the RosettaNet members.

business operations
The ways in which an organization operates, including its processes and organizational structure. For example, an organization might have a management structure and processes defined for everything from taking vacation days to submitting travel expenses.

business owner
The person who creates a community and any subcommunities within that community.

business partner
A company that has a partnership with a sponsor company. See also sponsor.

business performance management (BPM)
The monitoring, management, and tuning of business performance in real time through the analysis of business relevant information.

business planning
A series of processes that analyze the IBM portfolio, compare it to the competitive landscape, use strategy to derive direction, and finally decide upon the best transformation opportunities to ensure that IBM remains competitive in the marketplace.

business policy

  1. A policy that is attached to an object in the ontology known as the business policy target. It optionally specifies a set of conditions that must be met for the business policy to apply. The policies declare a set of assertions that must be satisfied when the conditions are met.
  2. A set of rules that define business processes, industry practices, or the scope and characteristics of business offerings.

business policy target
An object in the ontology suitable for attaching business policies.

business process

  1. A group of activities. See also activity.
  2. A defined set of business activities that represent the required steps to achieve a business objective. A business process includes the flow and use of information and resources.

business process as a service (BPaaS)
A horizontal or vertical business process that is delivered through the cloud services model.

business process container
A process engine that contains process modules.

business process context
A state of a business process at a particular point in a business process. The business process context is modified as the business process moves from activity to activity.

business process definition (BPD)
A reusable model of a process that defines the common aspects of all runtime instances of that process model. See also process.

business process editor
A facility in Sterling B2B Integrator that is used to create, modify, or delete a business process

Business Process Execution Language (BPEL)
An XML-based language for the formal specification of business processes and business interaction protocols. BPEL extends the web services interaction model and enables it to support business transactions.

Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS)
See Business Process Execution Language.

business process executive (BPE)
Key role in the Business Transformation Management System that works to align processes and applications with corporate strategy and the IT infrastructure.

business process instance
A business activity performed on a set of targets, on a specific schedule, within a business process model.

business process management (BPM)
The services and tools that support process management (for example, process analysis, definition, processing, monitoring and administration), including support for human and application-level interaction. BPM tools can eliminate manual processes and automate the routing of requests between departments and applications.

business process model

  1. A paradigm that controls the business workflow of transactions.
  2. An automated business process that uses drag-and-drop technologies to link activities in a digital, graphical representation of the related task.

Business Process Modeling Lanaguage activity (BPML activity)
A set of steps in a business process that provide directions for how data should be handled.

Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)
An XML-based language that describes business processes designed by the Business Process Management Initiative (www.bpmi.org).

Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
A standardized graphical notation for creating diagrams of business processes.

business process outsourcing (BPO)
The outsourcing of a business activity to a service provider, for example, the outsourcing of human resources and benefits management.

business process sketch
A diagram that illustrates a directed flow of activities that are specified by using a subset of Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). Two types of processes are supported: simple and business-to-business.

Business Process Specification Schema (BPSS)
A specification that enables Sterling B2B Integrator to define business processes according to a trading partner agreement.

business process version
An iteration of a business process that is checked in to Sterling B2B Integrator.

business question
A question that is answered in a business report regarding specific information about the success of different campaigns, activities, and the customers who are using the store.

business report
A report that shows trends in allocation of resources such as systems and tiers in the data center, over specified periods of time.

business resiliency
See business continuity.

business role (BRole)
Any combination of application permissions, IT roles, and other business roles. Different business roles can be defined within the same organization unit.

business rule

  1. An advanced expression used to perform calculations or otherwise manipulate the value of attributes. For example, a business rule could be a formula that can check the quality of requirements, implement a complete workflow, or aggregate sales figures for a large corporation. See also expression.
  2. A conditional statement that defines how events are processed and which activities trigger an event alert.
  3. A user-defined script to be included in the consolidation process.
  4. A policy, constraint, or required operation that applies to a specific set of business conditions or dependencies. An example of a business rule for a bank is that a credit check is not required when opening an account for an existing customer.
  5. A configurable rule that specifies in detail how an order management system handles installation, inventory, pricing, promotions, services, and organizations.
  6. A constraint on optimization that allows rules to describe strategies or policies that are important in guiding the outcome of the optimization to suit the customer’s needs.
  7. A representation of how business policies or practices apply to a business activity.

business rule application
An application in which the decision-making process is automated and managed by using business rules.

business rule group
A set of scheduled business rules that are available as a service that can be invoked. The business rule group also provides the organizational structure for managing the set of business rules.

business rule language
A language for expressing rules with natural language terms and syntax. See also Business Event Language, rule agent.

Business Rule Language Definition Framework (BRLDF)
A framework for defining custom business rule languages, using XML schemas and property files.

business rule management
The practices that control and manage business rules through their life cycles.

business rule management system (BRMS)
A system designed to modify and manage business logic independently from the applications within an organization.

business rules data
Product attribute data and category data that enables exclusionary rules processing for category, price, margin, and other product attribute driven business rules.

business scenario
An account or synopsis of a projected course of action or events. The scenario defines and documents a major end-to-end business transaction, speaks to how people and organizations interact to execute the defined process, the business transaction, and how they will ultimately utilize systems and applications that support the end-to-end process design. Used in the business design assurance process to define the interactions of the users with the systems.

business schedule
A series of periods that indicate how a business divides a time line into different operational states. The level of service that is guaranteed during each schedule state can be varied.

business service

  1. In web services programming, a data structure type that contains information about groups of web services. The business service structure is specified when a service is registered.
  2. An abstract representation of a business function, hiding the specifics of the function interfaces.

business service definition
A representation of the WSDL PortTypes in a business service. A business service definition describes a specific set of business service operations that are used to perform related business functionality.

business service object
A representation of an XML schema file (.xsd). There are inline XML schemas and schema types within WSDL files. A business service object is a collection of business service object definitions and business service object templates.

business service object definition
A representation of the WSDL ComplexType in an inline schema, or the XML schema type (SimpleType, ComplexType, Anonymous ComplexType, or Anonymous SimpleType) in an XML schema file. There are inline XML schemas and schema types within WSDL files. A business service object definition is similar to a business item and is used to define the business data that is required when a business service operation is invoked.

business service operation
A representation of the WSDL Operation in a business service definition. A business service operation describes a business function and includes the business service object definitions that are required when the operation is invoked. A business service operation also describes the business service object definitions that result from completing the business service operation. For example, a Product Search business service operation requires a Product name (a business service object definition) and returns a Product business service object definition. Business service operations can be added to process diagrams as non-editable services.

business services network
A collection of business processes, services, subscribers, and policies that enable, control, or consume a portfolio of business services. The business services network can span enterprise boundaries and geographies or be confined to a single physical network or entity.

business signal
A message exchanged between two RosettaNet network applications to communicate certain events within the execution of a PIP instance. Examples of signals include "receipt and successful validation of a message" (Receipt Acknowledgement) and "receipt of a message out of sequence" (General Exception). A signal is used to communicate an exception condition within the normal message choreography of a PIP.

business situation
A condition that might require business action. Examples of business situations are a declining sales volume or an unacceptable amount of time to respond to a customer.

business space
A collection of related web content that conveys insight into the business and gives users the ability to react to changes in the business.

business subtype
A subtype of a type in a business object model (BOM). Business subtypes are used to extend an object model using business methods and business properties.

business system
A group of diverse but interdependent applications and other system resources that interact to accomplish specific business functions.

business-to-business (B2B)
Refers to Internet applications that exchange information or run transactions between businesses. See also business-to-consumer.

business-to-consumer (B2C)
Refers to the subset of Internet applications that exchange information or run transactions between businesses and consumers. See also business-to-business.

business-to-employee (B2E)
A business model that supports electronic communications between a business and its employees.

business-to-individual (B2I)
Refers to a business model in which the focus of marketing and communications is on the individual consumer based on insights into their behavior and preferences.

business transaction
A self-contained business function, for example, the booking of an airline ticket. A business transaction might be implemented as multiple user transactions or activities. See also business transaction services.

business transaction services (BTS, CICS BTS)
An application programming interface and set of services for implementing complex business transactions in CICS. See also business transaction.

business transformation (BT)

business transformation/chief information officer (BT CIO)

business transformation initiative
A set of programs or projects (process and IT) to achieve a business objective.

Business Transformation Management System (BTMS)
An integrated management system framework to manage the IBM portfolio to meet the needs of IBM and the marketplace. The IBM portfolio consists of planned solutions, in-flight solutions, deployed solutions, and solutions that have been sunset.

Business Transformation Management Tool (BTMT)
A workflow tool developed by the BT-CIO to manage development of solutions, projects, and assets through the Solution Development processes of BTMS. BTMT is used to accomplish the following: initiate web marketing activity, request a new web site, begin new development of any type of asset (application, tool, team room, data repository, form, or infrastructure system service), deploy any type of asset, manage an asset once deployed, or request an IT Funding Request (IPP#).

business transformation operations process (BTOP)

business transformation team (BTT)

business unit

  1. A unit in the CIO representing a major business area. Business units lead end-to-end transformation in their business area and are accountable for results tied to performance. Units execute their strategy and implement process changes necessary to drive performance and simplification. Examples include: Server and Storage Systems Group, Sales and Distribution, Software Group, IBM Research, Technology Group, Global Services, IBM Global Financing, Corporate Functions, and Personal Computer Division.
  2. A group within a buyer organization.

business user
In WebSphere Commerce, someone who uses IBM Management Center for WebSphere Commerce, or WebSphere Commerce Accelerator.

business value
The component of a policy expression that indicates the relative economic value of the decision of a policy. Business value is used to determine which policy is selected among conflicting policies.

business volume discount
A discount that suppliers can provide to buyers if the business allotted to them exceeds a certain amount (in currency).

bus-level partitioning
The dedicated allocation of an entire bus and all accompanying resources (input/output processors and input/output devices) to a particular logical partition. See also IOP-level partitioning.

bus master
A device or subsystem that controls data transfers between itself and a subordinate. See also DMA slave.

bus member
An application server or server cluster that hosts one or more messaging engines in a service integration bus.

bus network
A local area network in which there is only one path between any two data stations and in which data transmitted by any station is concurrently available to all other stations on the same transmission medium.

bus topology
A physical arrangement of application servers, messaging engines and queue managers and the pattern of bus connections and links between them.

busy icon
See busy pointer.

busy pointer
A pointer or cursor that indicates that a window or page is loading.


  1. A mechanism on a pointing device, such as a mouse, used to request or start an action.
  2. A graphic that executes an action when clicked.


  1. On the sell-side, a defined role in WebSphere Commerce that handles negotiations and ordering, keeps track of inventory, makes purchase order decisions, tracks reasons for returns, and tracks expected inventory records and receipts.
  2. On the buy-side, a defined role in WebSphere Commerce that makes purchases from the seller's website on behalf of a customer account. Typically, purchases are made under one or more agreements negotiated with the Seller.
  3. An organization that purchases products from an enterprise or other seller organizations.

buyer administrator

  1. A buyer user with administrative privileges. See also buyer user.
  2. A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the information for the buying organization. The buyer administrator creates and administers the suborganizations within the buying organization and manages the various users, including approving users as buyers (buy-side).

buyer approver
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that approves orders made by the buyer (buy-side) before the order is submitted for purchase with the seller.

buyer journey
See client journey.

buyer organization

  1. See purchasing organization.
  2. An organization that places purchase orders (PO) to vendors.

buyer survey
An internal survey that is sent to members of the buyer organization. A buyer organization typically uses a buyer survey to gather information prior to creating an RFI, RFQ, RFP or auction.

buyer user
A user who belongs to a buyer organization, and purchases products from a storefront on behalf of that buyer organization. See also buyer administrator.

buying allowance
A sum of money paid to a retailer that is determined by the quantity of product cases purchased by the retailer.

buy-one-get-one free (BOGO)
A promotion tactic often used to give consumers an incentive to buy and stock up on a product.

See better/worse.

See backup-while-open.

Generic term for BIE, BPE, or BTE

To eliminate a station or an access unit from a ring network by allowing the data to flow in a path around it.

bypass plug
Allows power to flow through an unused outlet in the power control compartment.

byte (B)
A string that represents a character and usually consists of eight binary digits that are treated as a unit. A byte is the smallest unit of storage that can be addressed directly.

byte array
A segmented list of bytes which grows automatically when elements are added.

byte boundary
Memory addressing based on 8-bit intervals. Each memory location contains an 8-bit value that can range from 0 to 255 in decimal notation.

Machine-independent code generated by the Java compiler and executed by the Java interpreter. (Sun)

byte-level differencing
The process of comparing the software package to be installed and the base software package. See also delta install.

byte multiplexer channel
A multiplexer channel that interleaves bytes of data.

byte order
In Enhanced X-Windows, the order of bytes as defined by the server for pixmap or bitmap data. Clients with different native byte ordering must swap bytes as necessary.

byte ordering
The arrangement of bytes under specific machine architectures. Two common methods of byte ordering are big endian and little endian.

byte order mark (BOM)
A marker that consists of a Unicode character code that is placed at the beginning of a data stream, typically in a text file. The marker can be used to indicate the byte order and encoding of the data stream. An example of a byte order mark is the UTF-16BE (big endian) BOM 0xFEFF.

byte-oriented stream
A byte-oriented stream refers to a stream which only single byte input/output is allowed.

byte reversal
A technique in which numeric data is stored with the least significant byte first. The least significant byte is the lowest byte in a number, located at the far right of a string.

byte stream

  1. A sequence of bytes without any organizing structure.
  2. A simple sequence of bytes stored in a stream file. See also record data.

byte type
In FORTRAN, a binary character operated on as a unit and usually shorter than a computer word.