A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y and Z Special characters and Numerics

This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.



  1. See application to application.
  2. See anything to anything.

An add-on module that allows information sharing across multiple jurisdictions to databases and data sources not consolidated into COPLINK Node.

A3-size paper
Paper that is 297 mm by 420 mm (11.69 in. by 16.54 in.).

A4-size paper
Paper that is 210 mm by 297 mm (8.27 in. by 11.69 in.). European standard letter-size paper.

A5-size paper
Paper that is 148 mm by 210 mm (5.83 in. by 8.27 in.).

See authentication, authorization, and auditing.

See ATM adaptation layer.

See application assembly optimization.

See AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol.


  1. See adaptive address space.
  2. See Advanced Administration System.

See architecture board.

abandonment reason
The reason a quote was rejected. Abandonment reasons can include Cannot Negotiate Further, Found Better Deal, and Unacceptable Demand.

See aggregate backup and recovery support.

abbreviated combined relation condition
In COBOL, a combined condition that omits a common subject or a common subject and common relational operator from a consecutive sequence of relational conditions. For example, (A and B) or (A and C) can be abbreviated A and (B or C).

abbreviated installation
A process in which the verification and i5/OS error recovery part of installation is done without restoring the saved version of the operating system. See also normal installation.

abbreviated trace
Optional format for CICS trace entries which summarizes the information in full trace entries. See also full trace.

A shortened form of a word or phrase that represents the full form of the term.

See activity based costing.

ABC classification
See activity-based costing classification.

See abnormal end of task.

abend dump
A dump that is produced when a program ends abnormally.

abend reason code
A 4-byte hexadecimal code that uniquely identifies a problem with a program that runs on the z/OS operating system.

See Agent Building and Learning Environment.

Able Agent Editor
A development tool that can be used to edit and debug ABLE agents.

Beans that are the building blocks of the Agent Building and Learning Environment. All ABLE agents are also AbleBeans.

ABLE Rule Language (ARL)
A rule-based programming language that is used to express business logic outside of program logic. ARL provides tight integration with Java objects, and the tooling provided with ABLE is based on the Eclipse platform.


  1. See asynchronous balanced mode.
  2. See activity based management.

See asynchronous balanced mode extended.

abnormal end of task (abend)
The termination of a task, job, or subsystem because of an error condition that recovery facilities cannot resolve during execution.

abnormal termination

  1. An exit that is not under program control, such as a trap or a segmentation violation.
  2. A system failure or operator action that causes a job to end unsuccessfully.

In data communications, a function called by a sending primary, secondary, or combined station that causes the recipient to discard and ignore all bit sequences transmitted by the sender since the preceding flag sequences or to discard and ignore all data transmitted by the sender since the previous checkpoint.

See area border router.

absolute address
An address that, without the need for further evaluation, identifies a storage location or a device. See also relative address.

absolute amount
The highest amount that can be discounted or added to the list price.

absolute coordinate
One of a pair of coordinates that identify the position of an addressable point with respect to the origin of a specified coordinate system. (I)(A) See also relative coordinate.

absolute device
A locating device, such as a tablet, that reports its position to the operating system as a set of numbers on a coordinate system.

absolute discount
A discount of a specified amount in a particular currency, as opposed to a percentage discount.

absolute mode
In storage management, a backup copy-group mode that specifies that a file or directory is considered for incremental backup even if the file or directory has not changed since the last backup. See also mode, modified mode.

absolute move
A method used to designate a new presentation position by specifying the distance from the designated axes to the new presentation position. The reference for locating the new presentation position is a fixed position as opposed to the current presentation position.

absolute path
The full path name of an object. Absolute path names begin at the highest level, or root directory (which is identified by the forward slash (/) or backward slash (\) character). See also relative path.

absolute path name
A string of characters used to refer to an object, starting at the highest level (or root) of the directory hierarchy. The absolute path name must begin with a slash (/), which indicates that the path begins at the root. See also relative path name.

absolute positional pattern
In REXX, the part of a parsing template that allows a string to be split by the specification of numeric positions. A positional pattern has no sign or has an equal sign.

absolute positioning
The positioning of an element of an overlay with respect to the overlay origin. If the element is part of a defined group, it is positioned with respect to the group origin. See also relative positioning.

absolute surcharge
A surcharge that is configured to apply persistently to certain orders.

absolute time
A time relative to a selected previous time from which the time scale (or measurement of time) begins. For example, if you want to start a batch job using absolute time and the time scale begins at midnight, specifying an absolute time of 07:00 would mean that the batch job runs at 7 a.m. If the timescale begins at 9 a.m. with an absolute time of 07:00, the batch job would run at 4 p.m.

absolute value
The numeric value of a number regardless of its algebraic sign (positive or negative).

absolute weight
The weight assigned to a particular criterion in relation to a scorecard.

abstract class

  1. A class with at least one pure virtual function that is used as a base class for other classes.
  2. In object-oriented programming, a class that represents a concept; classes derived from it represent implementations of the concept. An object cannot be constructed from an abstract class; that is, it cannot be instantiated. See also base class, concrete class, parent class.

abstract code unit (ACU)
A measurement used by the z/OS XL C/C++ compiler for judging the size of a function. The number of ACUs that comprise a function is proportional to its size and complexity.

abstract data type
A mathematical model that includes a structure for storing data and operations that can be performed on that data. Common abstract data types include sets, trees, and heaps.

abstract element
An element for which the attribute abstract in its XML schema declaration has the value true and which, therefore, cannot be used in an XML instance document. See also concrete element.

abstract factory
A class that mediates between concrete classes and neutral interfaces by returning the concrete class to an application and implementing a particular interface.


  1. A data type with a private representation and a public set of operations.
  2. In modeling, a description of any representation of an object, such as a user role or a specific deliverable that focuses on the object's key characteristics.

abstract schema
Part of the deployment descriptor for an entity bean that is used to define the bean relationships, persistent fields, or query statements.

abstract semantic type
A semantic type that only serves as the parent of other semantic types. Abstract semantic types categorize their child semantic types, but are never associated with real data.

abstract sensor value
An abstract representation of the typed data values that a class of sensor interfaces can potentially provide. The actual data values that a sensor provides are sensor values.

abstract syntax
A data specification that includes all distinctions that are needed in data transmissions, but that omits (abstracts) other details such as those that depend on specific computer architectures. See also Abstract Syntax Notation One, Basic Encoding Rules, transfer syntax.

Abstract Syntax Checker (ASC)
In OSI, a utility program for OSI Communications Subsystem that processes user-specified ASN.1 statements and generates (a) data structures in a user-selected programming language that define the format of the data used to communicate with peer application entities, and (b) the metatable that OSI Communications Subsystem uses to encode and decode the data passed between application entities.

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

  1. The international standard for defining the syntax of information data. It defines a number of simple data types and specifies a notation for referencing these types and for specifying values of these types. The ASN.1 notations can be applied whenever it is necessary to define the abstract syntax of information without constraining in any way how the information is encoded for transmission. See also Basic Encoding Rules.
  2. In open systems interconnection (OSI), a notation for defining data structures and data types. The notation is defined in international standards ISO 8824/ITU X.208 and ISO 8825/ITU X.209. See also abstract syntax.
  3. The international standard for defining the syntax of information data. It defines a number of simple data types and specifies a notation for referencing these types and for specifying values of these types. The ASN.1 notations can be applied whenever it is necessary to define the abstract syntax of information without constraining in any way how the information is encoded for transmission. See also Basic Encoding Rules.

abstract test
A component or unit test that is used to test Java interfaces, abstract classes, and superclasses; that cannot be run on its own; and that does not include a test suite. See also component test.

abstract type
A type that can never be instantiated and whose members are exposed only in instances of concrete types that are derived from it.

Abstract User Interface Markup Language (AUIML)
An XML implementation that provides a platform and technology-neutral method of representing windows, wizards, property sheets, and other user interface elements. It defines the purpose of the user interface, such that it can be described once and rendered to the user in multiple environments and on various devices.

Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT)
In Java programming, a collection of GUI components that were implemented using native-platform versions of the components. These components provide that subset of functionality which is common to all operating system environments. (Sun) See also Standard Widget Toolkit, Swing Set.

A/B testing

  1. A tool that runs A, B, C and D split tests that determine the impact of various settings on site revenues and conversions.
  2. See marketing experiment.

abuse of functionality
A technique that uses a website's own features and functionality to consume, defraud, or thwart access control mechanisms.

abuttal operator
In REXX, when two terms in an expression are adjacent and are not separated by an operator, they are said to abut. The effect of this operation is that the two terms are concatenated without a blank.


  1. See alternating current.
  2. See access certifier.

See alternating current.

Academy of Technology (AoT)
A society of IBM technical leaders organized to advance the understanding of key technical areas, to improve communications in and development of IBM's global technical community, and to engage clients in technical pursuits of common value.


  1. See application control block.
  2. See adapter control block.

ACB address space
In VTAM, the address space in which the access method control block (ACB) is opened. See also associated address space, session address space.

ACB-based macroinstruction
In VTAM, a macroinstruction whose parameters are specified by the user in an access method control block.

See application control block generation.

ACB macroinstruction
See ACB-based macroinstruction.

ACB name
A name that is specified either on the VTAM APPL definition statement or on the VTAM application program's access method control block (ACB) macroinstruction. See also network name.

See application control command.

See Administration Console for Content Platform Engine.


  1. In a user interface, a key or combination of keys that invokes an application-defined function.
  2. A logical entity that contains information for a connection to a database server and for the data marts associated with that connection.
  3. A set of software components that help developers quickly implement big data solutions and that help data scientists iterate and refine data analyses that produce more meaningful results.

A device that senses movement in Euclidian space based on gravitational pull. See also global positioning system, magnetometer, orientation.

See diacritic.

accent graphic
A graphic that represents a task or a topic, or both. An accent graphic is a graphic, not a widget.

accent mark
A diacritic that is used to mark the pitch of a syllable. See also diacritic.


  1. In configuration management, to update a stream to take changes that someone else has delivered.
  2. In source control management, to add any change set to a repository workspace. The change set can come from a stream or it can be attached to a work item. See also acquire.
  3. An action in which a listener receives a connection request.

acceptance test
See functional verification test.

accept calls
An inbound X.25 DTE attribute that determines whether or not the local node accepts a call from an adjacent node.

accepted cookie
A cookie that is accepted by a browser without restriction.

accepted term
A term in a business glossary that has been accepted as a new, valid term for general use within an organization by the business glossary administrator. See also candidate term.

accept operation
An operation that deletes the backup software package so that the previous operation cannot be restored.

accept reverse charging
An inbound X.25 DTE attribute that determines whether or not the local node pays for a call from an adjacent node.


  1. To obtain computing services or data.
  2. The ability to read, update, or otherwise use a resource. Access to protected resources is usually controlled by system software.

access ACL
An access control list (ACL) that provides protection for a file system object.

access analytics
A role engineering tool that combines the concept of risk analysis with the role mining process.

access-any mode
One of the two access modes that can be set for the ESS during initial configuration. It enables all host systems, attached to Fibre Channel and with no defined access profile, to access all logical volumes (LVOLs) on the ESS. With a profile defined in ESS Specialist for a particular host, that host has access only to volumes that are assigned to the worldwide port name (WWPN) for that host. See also EsconNet, FiconNet, pseudohost, worldwide port name.

access authority
One of a range of possible authority levels that control access to protected resources. See also authority.

access barred
In data communication, a condition in which a data terminal equipment (DTE) cannot call the DTE identified by the selection signals.

access bean
An enterprise bean wrapper that is typically used by client programs, such as JSP files and servlets. Access beans hide the complexity of using enterprise beans and improve the performance of reading and writing multiple EJB properties.

access certifier (AC)
A module that certifies users in an organization. The access certifier (AC) module provides a complete and flexible workflow for certifying permissions that are associated to a user through a specific role, according to the role-based access control (RBAC) standard and separation of duties (SoD) policies that are enforced by the IBM Security Identity Governance platform.

access collection
A group of objects that have data-level access control and to which users are granted role-based access. See also access group.

access control
In computer security, the process of ensuring that users can access only those resources of a computer system for which they are authorized.

access control domain (ACD)
A security definition that includes a list of roles, each representing a logical grouping of user and group accounts in a network.

access control entry (ACE)
An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of access rights, for a particular grantee, such as a machine, a user, or a group, and whether the right is allowed or denied. An ACE can also contain information about the source, whether directly applied, inherited, or from a security template.

access control group (ACG)
A grouping of objects, such as catalogs, hierarchies, or selections, with a defined set of role-based privileges for viewing or modifying the data on the entries within those objects.

access-controlled section
A defined area on a form that allows only certain users to edit the fields in the section. In addition to fields, an access-controlled section can include objects, layout regions, and text.

access control list (ACL)

  1. In computer security, a list associated with an object that identifies all the subjects that can access the object and their access rights.
  2. A list that identifies the IP address or range of addresses that allow or deny access to a service.

access control list facility (ACL facility)
A security feature that verifies access to objects.

access control list group (ACL group)
In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a group of users who have the same access privileges.

access definition
A declaration that identifies the start table, related tables, relationships, and selection criteria that define the data to archive, extract, edit, or compare.

access function
A user-provided function that converts the data type of text stored in a column to a type that can be processed by DB2 Net Search Extender and DB2 Text Search.

access governance core (AG core)
A module that manages digital identities and delineates and implements access rights based on the role-based access control (RBAC) model.

access group

  1. A logical organization of data model objects, devices and software over which a user is granted access. See also access collection.
  2. A type of member group used to define access control. See also site administrator.
  3. A collection of users who share permissions, notifications, and LDAP group properties. An access group can be mapped to an LDAP group. Users inherit the permissions of the groups to which they belong.

An attribute of a software or hardware product that is usable by individuals who have disabilities.

accessibility check
A test that determines the compliance of a web page against a checkpoint.

Accessibility of Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)
A specification that defines a set of semantic information for widgets, structures, and behaviors, to enable assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities. The specification ensures accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications.

Pertaining to an object for which a client has a valid designator or handle.

access ID
The unique identification of a user used during authorization to determine if access is permitted to the resource.

access intent

  1. In IMS, a subsystem's intended use of a database. This is in contrast to the sharing level of the database itself, which specifies how the database can be shared.
  2. Metadata that optimizes and controls the runtime behavior of an entity bean with respect to concurrency control, resource management, and database access strategies.
  3. In RACF, a subsystem's intended use of a protected resource.
  4. The resource type attribute that determines how a resource participates in a transaction when the resource has been placed under commitment control. The possible access intents are update, read-only, and undetermined access intent.

access intent policy
A grouping of access intents that governs a type of data access pattern for enterprise bean persistence.

access item
A point of access in an aircraft, such as an access panel, hatch, or door.

access key
In ESA key-controlled storage, a key associated with a storage access request. When key-controlled protection applies to a storage access, a store operation (write) is permitted only when the storage key matches the access key; a fetch (read) is permitted when the keys match or when the fetch-protection bit of the storage key is zero. In most cases, the access key for a storage operation is the program status word (PSW) key in the current PSW.

access level

  1. A level that indicates the actions a user is authorized to perform.
  2. In computer security, the level of authority a user has while accessing a secured file or library.
  3. A measure of the rights that a user has to view or edit an item. Access levels are calculated separately for every user and every item. See also grant level, security dimension.

access list
In RACF, the part of a resource profile that specifies the users and groups that can access the resource and the level of access granted to each. See also conditional access list.

access list entry token (ALET)
A token that serves as an index into an access list.

access management
The process of controlling access to IT services, data, or other assets.

access method

  1. A z/OS set of interfaces that moves data between storage and an I/O device in response to requests made by a program. An access method defines the organization of the data and the technique by which the data is stored and retrieved.
  2. The part of the distributed data management architecture which accepts commands to access and process the records of a file.
  3. A technique for moving data between main storage and input/output devices.
  4. An executable file used by extended agents to connect to and control jobs on other operating systems (for example, z/OS) and applications (for example, Oracle Applications, PeopleSoft, and SAP R/3). The access method is specified in the workstation definition for the extended agent. See also extended agent.
  5. A set of routines the database server uses to manipulate and/or access a table, index or other object.

access method control block
A control block that links an application program to Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) or Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM).

access method services (AMS)
A multifunction utility named IDCAMS that is used to manage catalogs, devices, and both VSAM and non-VSAM data sets.

access mode

  1. One of the modes in which a logical unit (LU) in a disk controller system can operate. The three access modes are image mode, managed space mode, and unconfigured mode. See also image mode, managed mode, unconfigured mode.
  2. A form of access permitted for a file.
  3. An attribute of a storage pool or a storage volume that specifies whether the server can write to or read from the storage pool or storage volume.

access model
A profile of the users who require access to the Netezza system and the permissions or tasks that they need.

access optimizer (AO)
A module that does risk analysis and role mining. Access optimizer (AO) is fully integrated with IBM Security Identity Governance role management features to support continuous role development and optimization as business processes evolve.

In computer security, an object that uses a resource. Users and groups are accessors.

accessor environment element (ACEE)
A control block that contains a description of the current user's security environment, including user ID, current connect group, user attributes, and group authorities. An ACEE is constructed during user identification and verification. See also ENVR object.

A fee for services that are performed in addition to hauling a load. For example, an accessorial can cover an unloading charge, a fuel surcharge, or an extra charge for a specific equipment type.

accessor method
A method that an object provides to define the interface to its instance variables. See also getter method, mutator method, setter method.


  1. A type of merchandising association in which a suggested product is chosen as an addition to the currently displayed or selected product. See also cross-sell, merchandising association, up-sell.
  2. An item that can support a wireless device, such as a cell phone or a charger.
  3. An IBM designation for a separately orderable part that has no type number, is for purchase only, and does not receive normal IBM maintenance.

accessory script
A CGI script that processes SEARCH, POST, PUT, or DELETE requests. The accessory scripts process requests that are not explicitly mapped to a CGI script named on an EXEC directive.

accessory subscription
A subscription that can be assigned to users who have at least one existing subscription.

access path
The method that is selected by the database manager for retrieving data from a specific table. For example, an access path can involve the use of an index, a sequential scan, or a combination of the two.

access path journaling
A method of recording changes to an access path as changes are made to the data in the database file so that the access path can be recovered automatically by the system.

access path stability
A characteristic of an access path that defines reliability for dynamic or static queries. Access paths are not regenerated unless there is a schema change or manual intervention.

access permission

  1. A privilege that permits the access or use of an object.
  2. A group of designations that determine the users who can access a particular file and how the users can access the file. The access permissions are read, write, and run (execute). See also permission code.
  3. The object authority to a file in a high-performance file system.

access plan

  1. The set of access paths that is selected by the query optimizer to evaluate a particular SQL or XQuery statement. The access plan specifies the order of operations to resolve the execution plan, the implementation methods (such as JOIN), and the access path for each table that is referenced in the statement.
  2. In DB2 for i5/OS, the control structure produced during compile time that is used to process SQL statements encountered when the program is run.

access point

  1. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), either the point at which an abstract service is obtained, or a connection between a directory user agent (DUA) and a directory system agent (DSA).
  2. A cluster node that is being used as the primary source for replicated objects and for initiating changes to the object.
  3. A WiFi monitoring device that does not have any software installed on it.

access point group
A collection of core groups that defines the set of core groups in the same cell or in different cells that communicate with each other.

access policy
In role-based management, a list that identifies users who can access objects and their permissions.

access privilege
An authority that relates to a request for a type of access to data.

access procedure
The protocol used to gain access to a shared resource; for example, in a local area network, the shared resource is the transmission medium. The medium access protocol specified by the IEEE 802 standard are CSMA/CD token bus and token ring.

access profile
In role-based management, an entry in an access policy.

access program
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles the main communications with application programs in CICS or IMS systems.

access protocol
A protocol used between an external subscriber and a switch within a telephone network.

access register (AR)
A register through which one address space accesses the data in another address space or data space.

access register mode (AR mode)
The address space control mode in which the system uses general-purpose registers and the corresponding access register (AR) to resolve an address in an address space or a data space. See also address space control mode.

access request (AR)
A module that manages authorization workflows.

access right

  1. A security setting that controls access to the objects in an object store or workflow.
  2. A designation of the rights that users have, such as read, modify, create, delete, and admin (RMCDA).
  3. See permission.

access risk
A concept that measures the probability of encountering several types of vulnerabilities when access is granted to resources in a large company or organization. Different policies for reducing risk probability are based on access risk evaluation.

access risk control (ARC)
A module that defines SoD enforcements through the chain Business Processes - Activities - User Entitlements and is based on the RBAC model.

access risk controls for SAP (ARCS)
A module that defines SoD enforcements through the chain Business Processes - Activities - User Entitlements and is based on the RBAC model, according to the SAP authorization model.

access rule
A restriction that determines how and whether a user can view data.

access specifier
A specifier that defines whether a class member is accessible in an expression or declaration. The three access specifiers are public, private, and protected.

access table
In Contributor, a table that controls access to cells in cubes, whole cubes, and assumption cubes.

access token

  1. An object that contains security information for a process or thread, including the identity and privileges of the user account that is associated with the process or thread.
  2. A value used by the consumer to gain access to the protected resources on behalf of the user, instead of using the user’s service provider credentials.

access unit
A unit that allows attaching devices to access a local area network (LAN) at a central point, such as a wiring closet or an open work area.

access volume
A logical drive that allows the host-agent to communicate with the controllers in the storage subsystem.

See account matching.

accompany data set
In aggregate backup and recovery support (ABARS), a data set that is physically transported from the backup site to the recovery site instead of being copied to the aggregate data tape. It is cataloged during recovery.


  1. The billing account associated to the service provider for billing the telecom services.
  2. See identity.
  3. A logical grouping of configuration items that is used to control access. An account can represent a company in a data center that supports more than one company, a department, or other groupings.
  4. An entity that contains a set of parameters that define the application-specific attributes of a user, which include the identity, user profile, and credentials.
  5. A unit within the representation of an organizational structure. It can include resources, such as servers, access controls, and configurations.
  6. An encrypted name and password pair that facilitates authentication between individual agents and the Agent Manager.

See nonrepudiation.

accountability scorecard
A scorecard that Metric Studio automatically builds for each user which contains the metrics and projects they own.

account administrator
The person who controls and manages an account in a system.

account code

  1. A code that uniquely identifies an individual, billing, or reporting entity within chargeback and resource accounting.
  2. See cost code.

account code conversion table
An ASCII text file that contains the definitions that are required to convert the identifier values defined by the account code input field to the user-defined output account codes.

account configuration
The configuration of a multi-application account on target systems. It supports functions such as password policies (creation, expiration, or propagation). It also supports user lock and unlock policies. An account can be configured for many applications.

account data
The logon information required to verify an authentication service. It can be the user name, password, and the authentication service which the logon information is stored.

account data bag
A data structure that holds user credentials in memory while single sign-on is performed on an application.

account data item
The user credentials required for logon.

account data item template
A template that defines the properties of an account data item.

account data template
A template that defines the format of account data to be stored for credentials captured using a specific AccessProfile.

account document
A document that contains information, such as the user name and password, about an Internet connection.

account identity
An email address specified in a user account that is used as the identity to log on to the cloud service.

The process of collecting and reporting information about the use of services to apportion cost.

accounting bin location
A virtual location that temporarily holds the discrepant quantities discovered through the counting process. The accounting bin location holds the quantity until the discrepancy is resolved and the quantity is removed from the accounting bin location.

accounting code

  1. See general ledger code.
  2. A 15-character field, assigned to a job by the system when it is processed by the system, that is used to collect statistics for the system resources used for that job when job accounting is active.

accounting entry
A journal entry that contains statistics of system resources used for job accounting.

accounting level
A system value identifying the type of data to be recorded when job accounting is active.

accounting segment
The period of time during which statistics are gathered, beginning when the job starts or when the job's accounting code is changed, and ending when the job ends or when the job's accounting code is next changed.

accounting string
User-defined accounting information that is sent to DRDA servers.

accounting system
A utility that monitors various aspects of system operations; it collects detailed data on each transaction and provides tools for processing the data to produce different kinds of reports.

account manager (AM)
Personnel with both business and Internet experience who review website requests in terms of "OneIBM" alignment. They also work with website requesters to ensure that the requester has performed items necessary to achieve the stated business and marketing objectives.

account matching (ACCM)
A module that manages orphan accounts and account mismatching with company policies.

account payable feed (AP feed)
A feed that is used to process invoices for payments.

account report
A report that is used to show account level information for usage and charge.

account representative
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce responsible for creating contracts for accounts, and monitoring account activity. Account representatives are part of the sales organization, and can be involved in the creation of targeted sales promotions such as discounts and coupons.

account server limit
The maximum number of servers available to an account.

account user
Any individual that uses the resources of an account.

accrual fund
A method of funding which is used to allocate trade funds between a manufacturer and a retailer.

accrual invoice
A summary of the estimated charges between the shipper and a carrier. An accrual invoice allows an organization to accrue estimated charges for a shipment in its budget and then pay these charges later when the carrier submits an invoice.

accumulation conveyor
A conveyor system that is designed to permit the accumulation of cartons on the conveyor without causing undue stress to the cartons.

accumulation D-link
A D-link that consolidates data from a source D-cube to a D-cube based on text data.


  1. A printer hardware feature that supplies a separate storage area to hold data in raster form. It can be used either for composing a sheet of data that combines a large amount of variable and constant data, or for storing an electronic overlay in raster form so that the overlay is merged with variable data as the page is printed.
  2. A register in which one operand of an operation can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of that operation.
  3. A function that counts the occurrences of a field or generates increasing, sequential record, or line item numbers.

accumulator expansion
A feature that increases the storage capacity of the accumulator.

In a Watson system, a measure of the precision of the answers that are returned if all questions are answered, or the correctness of annotations that are produced by an annotator. For answers, accuracy can be measured in terms of how highly ranked the correct answer is in the final answer set. Therefore, "accuracy at one," measures how often the correct answer is the top ranked position. For some applications, the correct answer might have to be only in the top five (or top "n"), so accuracy at five (or accuracy at "n") might be the more appropriate measure. For annotators, accuracy is measured based on a review of the annotations that are produced when an annotator is run on a document or a set of documents.

accuracy analysis
The study of experiments run against IBM Watson. The goals of such analysis include understanding the behavior of the system as implemented (a control) and determining if and how changes to the implementation (the experiment) benefit or hinder the overall ability of the system to answer questions or annotate documents.

accuracy audit
The process of inspecting a carton to verify the accuracy of the picking, packing, and documentation associated with that carton.


  1. See access control domain.
  2. See active configuration directory.
  3. See automatic call distribution.
  4. See automatic call distributor.

ACD group
In telephony, the set of multiple agents assigned to process incoming telephone calls that are directed to the same dialed number. The routing of incoming calls to one of the agents in the ACD group is based on such properties as availability of the agent and length of time since the agent completed the last incoming call.

See Asynchronous Communications Device Interface.

ACD pilot number
In telephony, the common telephone number that calling parties can dial to route calls to one of multiple agents.

See active control data set.

See access control entry.

See accessor environment element.


  1. See Advanced Communications Function.
  2. See attribute configuration file.
  3. See active content filter.

See Advanced Communications Function for the Network Control Program.

See Advanced Communications Function for the System Support Programs.

See Advanced Communications Function/Trace Analysis Program.

See Advanced Communications Function for the Telecommunications Access Method.

See Advanced Communications Function for Virtual Telecommunications Access Method.

ACF/VTAM application program
A program that opens an access method control block ( ACB) to identify itself to ACF/VTAM and can issue ACF/VTAM macroinstructions.

ACF/VTAM definition
The process of defining the user application network to ACF/VTAM programs and modifying IBM-defined characteristics to suit the needs of the user.

ACF/VTAM definition library
The operating system files or data sets that contain the definition statements and start options filed during ACF/VTAM definition.


  1. See access control group.
  2. See adaptive code generation.

ACID property
One of the properties of a transaction: atomicity, consistency, isolation, or durability. See also atomicity, consistency, durability, isolation.

ACID transaction
A transaction involving multiple resource managers using the two-phase commit process to ensure atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable (ACID) properties. See also atomicity, consistency, durability, isolation.

See AFP Conversion and Indexing Facility.


  1. See acknowledgment character.
  2. See acknowledgment.

See even positive acknowledgment.

In binary synchronous communication, the odd-numbered, positive acknowledgment, which indicates that text was received without transmission errors.


  1. To respond to a poll, address, or message that a transmission has been received.
  2. In the X.25 API, to confirm that a data packet with the D-bit set has arrived.

acknowledged service
In communications, the service that provides for the establishment of a data link level connection. Acknowledged service provides for functions such as sequencing, flow control, and error recovery. See also unacknowledged service.

acknowledge timeout
The number of seconds that a station should wait for an acknowledgment from a remote station after sending data.


  1. A response that confirms the receipt of something, such as an order.
  2. A response that indicates successful processing. See also negative acknowledgment.
  3. The transmission of acknowledgment characters as a positive response to a data transmission.

acknowledgment character (ACK)
A transmission control character that is sent as an affirmative response to a data transmission.

acknowledgment reply
In architecture, a printer-to-host reply that returns printer information or reports exceptions. An acknowledgment reply can be positive or negative.

acknowledgment request
A request from the host for information from the printer.

acknowledgment-required flag
A flag that requests a printer to return an acknowledge reply. The acknowledgment-required flag is bit zero of an IPDS command's flag byte.


  1. See access control list.
  2. See application connectivity link.

ACL entry
A name and access level in a Notes database access control list that determines a user's access to the database.

ACL facility
See access control list facility.

ACL group
See access control list group.

See administrative command-line interface.

ACL monitor
In Domino, a document created in the Statistics & Events database that causes the Event task on a server to monitor a specific database for ACL changes.

See automated console operation.

acoustic panel
A panel bonded with a material to reduce operating noise from the devices in the rack.


  1. In a VTAM application program, to initiate and establish a session with another logical unit (LU). The acquire process begins when the application program issues a macroinstruction. See also accept.
  2. To assign a display station or session to a program.
  3. In VTAM, to take over resources that were formerly controlled by an access method in another domain or to resume control of resources that were controlled by that domain but released. See also release, resource takeover.

acquired activity
An activity that a program executing outside the process that contains the activity has gained access to, by issuing an ACQUIRE command. The activity remains acquired until the next sync point occurs. Acquiring an activity enables the program to read and write to the data-containers of the activity, read the data-containers of the process that contains the activity and issue various commands, including RUN and LINK, against the activity. See also acquired process.

acquired process
The process whose root activity a program currently has access to. A program acquires a process in one of two ways: either by defining it; or, if the process already exists, by issuing an ACQUIRE PROCESS command. The process remains acquired until the next sync point occurs. Acquiring a process enables the program to read and write to the data-containers of the process and root activity, and issue various commands, including RUN and LINK, against the process. A program can acquire only one process (root activity) or one descendant activity within the same unit of work. See also acquired activity.

acquire-program-device operation
An operation that makes a program device available for input or output operations. See also release-program-device operation.

In e-commerce, the financial institution (or an agent of the financial institution) that receives from the merchant the financial data relating to a transaction and authorizes the transaction.

acquisition policy
A policy that controls how data is collected from a sensor of a mobile device. The policy is defined by application code.

See additional coding-related required information.

See additional coding-related required information - PC mixed byte.

See automatic class selection.

See association control service element.

ACSE association
In OSI, an association that uses the services provided by association control service elements.

ACS installation exit
Installation-supplied code that is run after an automatic class selection (ACS) routine. The ACS installation exit provides capabilities beyond the scope of the ACS routine.

ACS interface routine
A procedure that calls an automatic class selection (ACS) routine from an ACS installation-exit routine.

ACS routine
See automatic class selection routine.

ACT alert
A suspicious activity report generated based on multiple incidents in a monitored area.

ACT alert list
A list that contains all generated ACT alerts.


  1. In an event definition, the value to record, the session attribute to populate, and the dimensions associated with the event.
  2. In profiling, an act that can be performed in response to a trigger. For example, automatic filling of user name and password details as soon as a sign-on window displays.
  3. In CDE, a desktop construct that provides a method for running applications, executing commands, and other activities such as printing, removing files, and changing directories.
  4. See Fixlet.
  5. A code snippet that can be explicitly invoked, or run in response to an event. See also feed, invoke.
  6. In a policy-enabled system, a type of unsolicited decision that specifies the operation or set of operations to run when a policy is evaluated, selected, and executed. In Policy Management for Autonomic Computing, only a single operation is supported.
  7. A business process that is generated in response to the processing of an event or a rule.
  8. The part of a standardization rule that specifies how the rule processes a record. See also condition, standardization rule.
  9. An operation that can be performed on either a resource of the resource class or on the resource class. See also resource, resource class.
  10. A permission for an aspect of system functionality. For example, the ability to set up notifications is defined as an action. Actions are grouped and assigned to users through roles. See also role.
  11. A series of processing steps, such as document validation and transformation.
  12. A defined task that a user performs.
  13. A set of Action Script commands that perform an operation or administrative task, such as installing a patch or rebooting a device.
  14. A defined task that an application performs on an object as a result of an event. See also rule.
  15. An activity that is run on a transition or a transaction. See also processing action.
  16. A unit of work that is typically part of a larger automation process. An action is an element within an Apache Ant build file, identified by a <target> tag. Actions can call scripts, executable programs, or other actions.
  17. A task that affects the performance of an individual metric. Metric Studio tracks the dates, resources, and status of actions and their relationship to a metric.

Providing grounds for legal action.

action bean
A logging bean used to log user activity during website visits. Action data is used to determine rule and campaign effectiveness.

Action class
In Struts, the superclass of all action classes.

action code

  1. A software-generated or hardware-generated code that indicates a recovery action. In printers, the hardware action code is byte 2 of the sense data.
  2. In SAA Basic Common User Access architecture, a number or letter assigned to an action in an action list.

action column
The action part of a decision table.

action definition (ACTNDEF)

  1. In real-time analysis, a definition of the type of external notification that is to be issued when the conditions identified in an analysis definition are true.
  2. A definition that includes an action type and a target in an interview.

action definition file
A JSON file that provides detailed information about a custom action that is used for page widgets. A definition file must be provided for each custom action in a custom widget package.

action ID
See action identifier.

action identifier (action ID)
A numeric identifier between 0 and 999 for an action.

Action Language for Foundational UML (ALF)

action list
An approved list of the actions, defined by a system administrator or some other workflow coordinator, that a user can perform in a workflow or document routing process.

action mapping
A Struts configuration file entry that associates an action name with an Action class, a form bean, and a local forward.

ActionMedia II (IBM PS/2 ActionMedia II)
An IBM MultiMedia solution that uses Digital Video Interactive (DVI) technology. Capture and playback adapters provide digital video and audio.

action message
A request for operator intervention from the operating system.

Action Message Retention Facility (AMRF)
A z/OS facility that, when active, retains all action messages except those specified by the installation.

action object
A subset of fields in the definition of an action.

Action Palette
An area containing folders and icons that can be selected to create state table actions.

action phrase
In the vocabulary, a phrase that specifies an action to be executed. An action phrase corresponds to a method that has no return value in the business object model (BOM).

action pin
In activity diagrams, an element that represents information or physical objects flowing into, or out of, action nodes.

action processor
Software within the Resilient REST API that can implement custom business logic and interact with external systems.

Action Ready report
A defined package of reports containing information on key performance indicators (KPIs), top performers, search results, geography, and more delivered by means of an Excel attachment.

action rule

  1. A business rule that can be edited in the rule editor. Action rules, decision tables, and decision trees are different representations of business rules.
  2. A rule in which the action is always performed. See also if-then rule, rule set.

action rule template
A partly completed action rule that can be used to create a series of rules with the same structure.

Action Script
Language used to perform an action on an endpoint.

action script
A script or program that connects to a Resilient message destination for the purpose of receiving and processing messages.

action service

  1. In OSI, a callable service that causes the OSI Communications Subsystem to take an action, such as a data transfer. See also callable service, extract service, set services.
  2. A service that triggers a process or notification to inform users about a situation.

action service handler
An entity that is responsible for the invocation mechanism of one or more action services.

action set

  1. In Eclipse, a group of commands that a perspective contributes to the main toolbar and menu bar.
  2. The leaf of a branch in a decision tree. Action sets consist of one or more actions to be carried out when the conditions defined in the rule are met.

actions profile
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of actions that can be associated with a specific project.

action statement
A fragment of a C language program that defines a way in which the generated lexical analyzer reacts to regular expressions that it recognizes.

action subroutine
In VisualAge RPG, logic written by the user to respond to a specific event.

action table
In X Toolkit, a table that specifies the mapping of externally available procedure strings to the corresponding procedure implemented by the widget class. All widget class records contain an action table.

action task
In a rule flow, a task that contains rule action statements. These action statements are executed each time the task is called.


  1. To establish a new storage management policy for the storage management subsystem (SMS) complex by loading the contents of a source control data set (SCDS) into SMS address-space storage and into an active control data set (ACDS), or loading the contents of an existing ACDS into SMS address-space storage.
  2. To allocate static storage for a program.
  3. To validate the contents of a policy set and then make it the active policy set.
  4. To make a resource ready to perform its function. See also deactivate.

activated processor core
A processor core that is managed or used by a product, regardless of whether the capacity of the processor core can be limited through virtualization technologies.

activate link
In SNA, a command used to initiate link activation.

activate logical unit (ACTLU)
In SNA, a command used to activate a logical unit.

activate physical unit (ACTPU)
In SNA, a command used to activate a physical unit.


  1. The attachment of an activity to perform one of a series of processing steps. In order to perform all its processing, an activity may need to be activated several times. In between, it "sleeps". See also pseudoconversational.
  2. In Java, the process of transferring an enterprise bean from secondary storage to memory. (Sun) See also passivation.
  3. A complex process that sets up a new version of a questionnaire definition as a live project in either Test or Active mode.
  4. A processing step that prepares a program to be run. Activation can include allocating and initializing static storage for programs in a job and completing some portions of binding.

activation code
A password that activates inactive processors or memory in Capacity Upgrade on Demand. Each activation code is uniquely created for a system and requires the system vital product data (VPD) to ensure correctness. See also Capacity Upgrade on Demand.

activation condition
A Boolean expression in a node within a business process that specifies when processing is to begin.

activation group
A substructure of a job in which Integrated Language Environment (ILE) programs and service programs are activated. This substructure contains the resources necessary to run the program. These resources include: static and global program variables, dynamic storage, temporary data management resources, certain types of exception handlers and ending procedures.

activation group number
A 4-byte number that uniquely identifies an activation group within the job.

activation key
See license key.

activation kit
See product activation kit.


  1. Pertaining to a node or device that is connected or is available for connection to another node or device.
  2. Pertaining to the status of an executed contract, executed amendment contract, or object during its effective date range. A contract remains in this status until it expires, is put on hold, or is terminated.
  3. In VTAM, pertaining to a major or minor node that has been activated by VTAM. Most resources are activated as part of VTAM start processing or as the result of a VARY ACT command. See also pending active session.
  4. In cross-site mirroring, the configuration state of a mirror copy that indicates geographic mirroring is being performed.
  5. Pertaining to a resource that is currently operational. See also inoperative.
  6. Pertaining to a file, page, or program that is in main storage or memory, as opposed to a file, page, or program that must be retrieved from auxiliary storage.

Pertaining to a storage array configuration in which two (or more) storage controllers work together to process inputs/outputs (I/Os).

active agent

  1. An agent that is processing a request for an application. See also idle agent.
  2. An add-on module that automates repetitive or periodic queries based on user-defined parameters.

active alert
An alert that is active and needs to be handled.

Active Alerts by Category widget
A widget that provides an aggregated view of total active alerts by severity. From the widget, users can navigate to a list of active alerts to troubleshoot issues with monitored servers.

active application

  1. The application subsystem that is currently in an extended recovery facility (XRF) session with a terminal user. See also alternate application.
  2. The application that is affected by all commands issued until another application is selected.

active application description
An application description that is complete and ready for use in planning or scheduling. See also pending application description.

active attack
In computer security, an assault on a network that involves an intruder who tries to break into or take over a computer that belongs to someone else. Spoofing is an example of an active attack.

active button
A button that allows the user to toggle between basic and refined searches. The active button arrow points to the active window.

active case
A case that has been entered by an operator but not forwarded to another user in file form.

active change set
A change that is in the Draft, Pending, or Approved state.

active coded font
In architecture, the coded font that is currently being used by a product to process text.

active configuration
The storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration currently used to control the managed storage in the installation. The definition of this configuration is in the active control data set (ACDS). See also SMS configuration.

active configuration directory (ACD)
The directory in which a copy of the ODM object classes are stored. Daemons, scripts, and utilities refer to the ODM data stored in the ACD at run time. See also default configuration directory, dependent resource groups, Object Data Manager, staging configuration directory.

active content filter (ACF)
A filter that prevents users from embedding malicious content in Communities and Bookmark input fields.

active context handle
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC) applications, a context handle that the RPC has set to a non-null value and has passed back to the calling program. The calling program supplies the active context handle in any future calls to procedures that share the same client context.

active control data set (ACDS)
A Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) linear data set that contains a source control data set (SCDS) that has been activated to control the storage management policy for the installation. The ACDS is shared by each system that is using the same SMS configuration to manage storage. See also communications data set, control data set, source control data set.

active data

  1. Data that can be accessed without any special action by the user, such as data on primary storage or migrated data. Active data also can be stored on tape volumes. See also inactive data.
  2. For tape mount management, application data that is frequently referenced, small in size, and managed better on a direct access storage device (DASD) than on tape.

active-data pool
A named set of storage pool volumes that contain only active versions of client backup data. See also server storage, storage pool, storage pool volume.

Active Directory (AD)
A hierarchical directory service that enables centralized, secure management of an entire network, which is a central component of the Microsoft Windows platform.

Active Directory credential
The Active Directory user name and password.

Active Directory group (AD group)
A predefined group of administrators with extensive system access privileges.

Active Directory password synchronization
An IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On feature that synchronizes the ISAM ESSO password with the Active Directory password.

active environment group
A collection of mapping structured fields, positioning controls, and data descriptors that define the environment for a page. These structured fields form an internal object in a composed text page, page definition, or overlay.

active file
A file on a tape or diskette volume with an expiration date later than the system date.

active file system
A file system to which space management has been added. With space management, tasks for an active file system include automatic migration, reconciliation, selective migration, and recall. See also inactive file system.

active gateway
A gateway that is treated like a network interface in that it is expected to exchange routing information. If it does not do so for a period of time, the route associated with the gateway is deleted. See also passive gateway.

active grab
In Enhanced X-Windows, a grab actually owned by the grabbing client. See also grab, passive grab.

active group job
A group job that was not suspended by the Transfer to Group Job (TFRGRPJOB) command.

active host

  1. The logical partition that acts as the current administration host, the current management host, or the current data host.
  2. The host server that is currently managing the hardware of the appliance.

active IMS
An IMS that performs production work See also tracking IMS.

active IRLM
The internal resource lock manager (IRLM) that supports the active IMS subsystem in an XRF complex. See also alternate IRLM.

active library
The library from which IMS draws its execution information when online change is used.

active link
A link that is currently available for transmission of data.

active log

  1. The primary and secondary log files that are currently needed for recovery and rollback. See also archive log.
  2. A data set with a fixed size where recovery events are recorded as they occur. When the active log is full, the contents of the active log are copied to the archive log.

active log file
The subset of files that consists of primary log files and secondary log files that are currently required by the database manager for rollback and recovery.

actively coupled
Pertaining to computers that meet all the criteria to be considered a qualified Parallel Sysplex.

active management server
A management server from which the storage environment can be monitored and managed. The active management server replicates its database to the standby server.

active member state
A state of a member of a data sharing group. An active member is identified with a group by the cross-system coupling facility (XCF), which associates the member with a particular task, address space, and MVS system. A member that is not active has either a failed member state or a quiesced member state.

active monitor
In a token-ring network, a function performed at any one time by one ring station that initiates the transmission of tokens and provides token error recovery facilities. Any active adapter on the ring has the ability to provide the active monitor function if the current active monitor fails.

active node
In Linux-HA, the node that controls the resource group.

active open
In TCP/IP, the state of a connection that is actively providing a service. See also passive open.

active option set
In an option set group, the option set that a new scenario uses or that a scenario in progress switches to, if switching becomes necessary.

active partition
In BMS, the partition that contains the cursor. It can be scrolled vertically. While a partition is active, the cursor wraps round at the viewport boundaries, and any input key transmits data from that partition only.

active pick location
The primary pick location for single or loose items. For quantities less than a pallet or case load, the active pick locations are assigned if a SKU exists in the active locations.

active policy set
The activated policy set that contains the policy rules currently in use by all client nodes assigned to the policy domain. See also policy domain, policy set.

active position
The character position at which the symbol representing the next graphic character will be imprinted, or relative to which the next control function will be executed. In general, the active position is indicated on a display by a cursor (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

active program
Any program that is loaded and ready to be executed.

active queue
In PSF, a queue containing PPQ entries whose page, represented by the form ID, has not yet reached the stacker.

active queue manager instance
The instance of a running multi-instance queue manager that is processing requests. There is only one active instance of a multi-instance queue manager.

active radio frequency identification
A second authentication factor and presence detector. See also radio frequency identification.

active record
An active subfile record or any record format that is currently shown on a display. See also inactive record.

active report
A report output type that provides a highly interactive and easy-to-use managed report that users can consume offline. Active reports are built for business users, allowing them to explore their data and derive additional insight.

active routine
The currently executing program or sequence of instructions called by a program.

active selling catalog
A representative of a category hierarchy that is used by customers. Only one selling catalog can be active at a time.

Active Server Page (ASP)
An HTML page that includes embedded programming code written in scripting languages like VBScript or Jscript that is processed on a web server before the page is sent to the user. ASP is a Microsoft technology.

active session
Any session in which a visitor is exploring the web application. Each page that the visitor sees is added to the active session.

active site
In a Remote Site Recovery (RSR) environment, the data-processing center containing active IMSs.

active site analytics
The instrumentation of pages with metadata that is embedded in themes and skins to provide data to website analytics and search engine optimization tools.

active sort table
A system-supplied sort table that contains the collating sequences for all defined double-byte characters in a double-byte character set. These tables are maintained by the character generator utility function of the Application Development ToolSet feature.

active stock
The collection of items stored in the active pick location.

active storage node
In a storage set, the storage node that is currently being used to load data.

active subfile
A subfile in which a write operation is issued to the subfile record format or to the subfile control record format when the DDS Subfile Initialize (SFLINZ) keyword for display files is in effect.

active subfile record
A record that is added to the subfile by a write operation, or a record that was initialized by the DDS keyword SFLINZ. See also inactive subfile record.

active subsystem
See active IMS.

active supplier
A supplier user that is currently logged on to Emptoris Sourcing.

active system
In a high-availability (HA) cluster, the system that has all of its services running.

active task

  1. A CICS task that is eligible for dispatching by CICS.
  2. During emergency restart, a task that completed an LUW and started another, but that did not cause any records to be written to the system log during the second LUW.

active version
The most recent backup copy of a file stored. The active version of a file cannot be deleted until a backup process detects that the user has either replaced the file with a newer version or has deleted the file from the file server or workstation. See also backup version, inactive version.

active window
The window with which a user is currently interacting. This is the window that receives keyboard input. It is distinguishable by the unique color of its title bar and border.

active workbook
The workbook that is topmost in the application.

active worksheet
The worksheet that is topmost in the active workbook.

ActiveX control
A software add-on for Microsoft Internet Explorer that uses ActiveX to provide enhanced features for the browser.

ActiveX Data Object (ADO)
A programming model that defines an application level interface to OLE DB. It exposes all of the functionality of the underlying OLE DB data provider to the consumer application in an easy-to-use and productive way.

ActiveX value object
A Microsoft Common Object Model (COM)-compliant object that contains a client-side copy of an opaque type and its support routines.

Activities member
A person whose access privileges allow for saving, retrieving, and deleting documents in an activity.

Activities to-do item
An activity resource used to manage the work needed to complete an activity goal. Activities to-do items can appear in the Notes calendar.


  1. Work that a company or organization performs using business processes. An activity can be atomic or non-atomic (compound). The types of activities that are a part of a process model are process, subprocess, and task.
  2. A database entity that uses database resources during its lifetime, which can span one or more requests. A cursor and a procedure are examples of activities.
  3. A set of actions designed to achieve a particular result. An activity is performed on a set of targets on a specific schedule. Activities are usually defined as part of plans. See also activity plan.
  4. A message about changes that are occurring in a resource.
  5. A function that a user can perform, or a list of functions that other users performed.
  6. In OSI, a logical unit of work into which peer application entities can separate the data that they exchange.
  7. In social media, an action or event posted by a user on their profile. For example, a user might post a status on their profile that they have read a book. That posting would be considered an activity.
  8. An action designed to achieve a particular business process. An activity is performed on a set of targets on a specific schedule.
  9. A group of actions, which are guided by an operator, a software system, or both, that determines the part of a process to run. In the ARC context, an activity can have a hierarchical structure. In the PD context, an activity is the basic element that is used to define and configure the behavior of an authorization workflow (ARM workflow). See also business process.
  10. A time interval in a scheduling problem. Typical examples include the filling or emptying of capacity resources such as tanks or inventories, or the use of physical resources such as trucks, machines, or people.
  11. A unit of work or a building block that performs a specific, discrete set of tasks. See also task.
  12. In BTS, one part of a process managed by CICS business transaction services. Typically, an activity is part of a business transaction. A program that implements an activity differs from a traditional CICS application program only in its being designed to respond to BTS events.
  13. In System Manager, a change management operation initiated by the central site, for example, sending an object, deleting a file, and installing a PTF. An activity is a single stop within a change request.
  14. An element of a process, such as a task, a subprocess, a loop, or a decision. Activities are represented as nodes in process diagrams.
  15. A discrete task that can be completed by a person or a system while the process runs.
  16. In a workflow, the smallest unit of work. When a request requires approval, information, or additional actions, the workflow for that request generates the appropriate activities. These activities are added to the to-do lists of the appropriate user.
  17. An object that tracks the work required to complete a development task. An activity includes a text headline, which describes the task, and a change set, which identifies all versions that developers create or modify while working on the activity.

activity based costing (ABC)

  1. An accounting method used to measure the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects.
  2. A costing model that identifies the activities that are part of a product or service and assigns the cost of each activity based on the use of resources.

activity-based costing classification (ABC classification)
The unit value of a item multiplied by annual usage.

activity based management (ABM)
A method for managing activities to increase both their value to customers and company profit.

activity-based reporting engine (ARE)
A component that records billing activities that are performed within the fulfillment process. This engine provides the external system with a list of all billing activities, along with the associated code, references, and units of work.

Activity Builder
A feature in the Management Center that presents a graphical interface where users can create Web and Dialog activities.

activity completion event
An atomic event that fires when an activity completes.

activity condition
In System Manager, the criteria that must be met before the activity can start running.

Activity Decision Flow (ADF)
The format in which models are exported from WebSphere Business Integration Workbench into WebSphere Business Modeler.

activity group
A group that performs physical activities to fulfill an order.

activity identifier
A means of uniquely referring to an instance of a BTS activity. Activity identifiers are assigned by CICS.

activity keypoint
A record of task and transaction definition status on the system log made on a periodic basis to facilitate the identification of transaction backout information during emergency restart. In the event of an uncontrolled shutdown and subsequent emergency restart, activity keypoints can shorten the process of backward scanning through the system log. Activity keypoints are written automatically by the system (system activity keypoints) or by the user (user activity keypoint).

activity kit
A set of support materials such as presentations or educational modules, to prepare and equip IBM volunteers to assist schools or community agencies.

activity level
A characteristic of a subsystem that specifies the maximum number of jobs that can compete at the same time for the processing unit.

activity log

  1. A log that records normal activity messages that are generated by the server. These messages include information about server and client operations, such as the start time of sessions or device I/O errors.
  2. An audit trail of every function that has altered the data in the active ledger.

activity plan
A group of activities where the execution can be scheduled, submitted, and monitored. See also activity.

activity report
A report that shows the details of deployment and installation of software products and their patches or fixes on multiple data center systems.

activity sequencing
A planning process that is used to identify dependencies among the activities in a project schedule.

activity set
A grouping of physical activities that are performed to fulfill an order.

activity stream

  1. A log of all the activity within a given space over the last 30 days.
  2. A view of the IBM Connections home page that filters the latest news stories and updates from across IBM Connections in list format, making it easy to scan through the entries and identify important updates.

Activity Streams
An open format specification that syndicates activities in a social media network.

activity template
A structured collection of tasks that can be reused in specific process workflows.

activity threshold
A threshold that applies to an individual activity. If an activity exceeds the upper boundary of the threshold tracking that activity, the corresponding action is executed and applied once to that activity. See also aggregate threshold.

activity trail
A record of operations that is used to identify which activities were done, the order in which they were done, and who performed them.

See activate logical unit.

See action definition.


  1. A representation of a user of a system, or an external component that sends information to, or receives information from, the system.
  2. In UML, a person or device that interacts with a system.

See activate physical unit.

Pertaining to the project data such as costs, dates, and work that have occurred, as opposed to those that are scheduled, or planned.

actual argument
In Fortran, the data passed to a called routine at the point of call. See also dummy argument.

actual configuration item
A configuration item with the attributes and relationships assigned by a discovery program See also authorized configuration item.

actual decimal point
In COBOL, the physical representation of the decimal point position in data using either of the decimal point characters (. or,). The actual decimal point appears in printed reports and requires a position in storage. See also assumed decimal point.

actual duration
At a workstation, the actual time in hours, minutes, and seconds it takes to process an operation from start to finish.

A set of data that can be collected, such as forecast, budget, or actuals. An actuality often defines a period.

actual result
The behavior produced/observed when a component or system is tested. (ISTQB)

The commodity (physical or service) that underlies a future or forward contract.

actual start time
The time that a IBM Workload Scheduler job instance or job stream instance actually starts. See also earliest start time, latest start time, planned start time, scheduled time.

actual UCB
The unit control block (UCB) used for all I/O operations as viewed with a virtual address that is the same in every address space. The actual UCB can reside in common storage either above or below 16 MB. See also captured UCB, unit control block.

actual weight
The measured weight of an item, carton, or shipment.


  1. A device that causes mechanical motion.
  2. The device within an auxiliary storage device that moves the read/write heads.


  1. See autocall unit.
  2. See automatic calling unit.
  3. See abstract code unit.

acute accent
One of the accent marks in Latin script (´). See also ogonek.

See all-commodity volume.

ACV percentage
See historical store participation.

See Active Directory.

ad allowance
A sum of money paid to a retailer from running a series of advertisements for the manufacturer. The allowance is determined by the quantity of product purchased from a manufacturer.

adaptation methodology
The guiding process for creating a domain solution based on the IBM Watson platform, from domain analysis and goal setting through to a deployment of the system in a production environment.


  1. The server-side code of a MobileFirst application. Adapters connect to enterprise applications, deliver data to and from mobile applications, and perform any necessary server-side logic on sent data.
  2. See network interface.
  3. A mechanism for connecting two unlike parts or machines, or for electrically or physically connecting a device to a computer or to another device.
  4. An intermediary software component that allows two other software components to communicate with one another.
  5. An add-on that allows the system to interact with an external system, such as a source control system, debugging database, or testing system. An adapter can be configured to collect information for storage in the Bill of Materials (BOM) or to push information back to other information systems.

adapter clause
A clause in a firewall rule that attaches the rule to a specific adapter.

adapter code
In X.25 communications, the X.25 Interface Co-Processor/2 Protocol Code that controls the frame-level and packet-level communication processing.

adapter container
An entity in IBM Sterling B2B Integrator that contains service adapters.

adapter control block (ACB)
In NCP, a control block that contains line control information and the states of I/O operations for BSC lines, SS lines, or SDLC links.

adapter file
See target definition file.

adapter foundation classes (AFC)
A common set of services for all resource adapters. The adapter foundation classes conform to, and extend, the Java 2 Connector Architecture JCA 1.5 specification.

adapter handler
In System i Access, a program that controls the operation of a communications adapter. For example, the twinaxial adapter handler controls the operation of a twinaxial adapter that is used to connect a personal computer to a System i platform for System i Access functions.

adapter load balancing
The ability of several adapters in a team to be active simultaneously, with the outbound-traffic load balanced across all the adapters in the team; spreading tasks among adapters improves performance by preventing uneven distribution of workload. If one adapter in the team fails, the outbound traffic is redistributed across the remaining active adapters in the team. See also teaming.

adapter object
An object used in the TX Programming Interface that represents a resource adapter.

Adapter Status Monitor
An entity that displays summary information about Sterling B2B Integrator adapters that are running on Sterling B2B Integrator servers. Adapter and perimeter server properties can also be viewed through the Adapter Status Monitor.

adapter support software
The software used to operate adapters in a PC system and provide a common interface to application programs.

adaptive address space (AAS)
A flexible address space model that allows the developer to choose address space configurations to maximize performance. See also mostly global address space, mostly private address space.

adaptive code generation (ACG)
A technology that enables a program that uses processor features of a given system model to continue to work correctly when the program is moved to another system model that does not have all the processor features of the original model.

adaptive compression
Data row compression that encompasses classic row compression and the compression that is provided by automatically maintained page-level dictionaries. See also classic row compression.

adaptive pacing
See adaptive session-level pacing.

adaptive rate-based congestion control (ARB congestion control)
An exchange of information between connection endpoints that is used to estimate congestion as part of the ARB algorithm.

adaptive session-level pacing
A form of session-level pacing in which session components exchange pacing windows that may vary in size during the course of a session. This allows transmission within a network to adapt dynamically to variations in availability and demand of buffers on a session-by-session basis. Session-level pacing occurs within independent stages along the session path according to local congestion at the intermediate and endpoint nodes. See also fixed session-level pacing, session-level pacing.

adaptive session pacing
See adaptive session-level pacing.

adaptive subfile backup
A type of backup that sends only changed portions of a file to the server, instead of sending the entire file. Adaptive subfile backup reduces network traffic and increases the speed of the backup.

See associated data.

See automatic direction of application updates.


  1. See automatic data collection.
  2. See automatic dictionary creation.

See address constant.

ad copy
The information, images and other media used to support a marketing activity. Also referred to as sales collateral.

add authority
A data authority that allows the user to add entries to an object; for example, to add job entries to a job queue or to add records to a file. See also delete authority.

An authored amendment contract that adds information to an executed contract.


  1. An additional menu item that a user can add to provide functions which enable query data to populate spreadsheets.
  2. A third-party application that adds new function to the System i Access for Windows licensed program.

additional coding-related required information (ACRI)

  1. A specification that is required by an encoding scheme to complete its definition, which extends beyond the character set and code page elements.
  2. The information, in addition to encoding scheme identifier, code page, and character set global identifiers, that is required to complete the definition associated with using particular encoding schemes. An example is the ranges of valid first bytes of double-byte code points in a PC Mixed single-byte and double-byte code.

additional coding-related required information - PC mixed byte (ACRI-PCMB)
A CDRA identifier that defines the ranges of valid first bytes of double byte code points in a PC Mixed SB/DB encoding scheme.

additional heap
A heap created and controlled by a call to call to the CEECRHP callable service.


  1. A service or feature that is not included in a package but that may be ordered later.
  2. See service.
  3. See service.

add-on extension
A set of modules that contain custom metadata and data that is stored in object stores. The custom metadata includes classes that are derived from base Content Engine classes. These add-on extensions provide the core object model, history, and analytics support for IBM Case Manager.


  1. A unique code or identifier for a register, device, workstation, system, or storage location.
  2. The second part of a two-part user identification used to send distributions.

addressable point

  1. Any point in a presentation surface that can be identified by a coordinate from the coordinate system of the presentation medium.
  2. In computer graphics, any point of a device that can be addressed. See also print position.

addressable position
See addressable point.

address aliasing
See network address translation.

address book
A collection of shipping and billing addresses owned by a customer. These are useful for a customer who wants to purchase gifts and ship them to different addresses.

address class
In Internet communications, the categorization by the part of an IP address that distinguishes the network address from the host address. Class A addresses allocate 7 bits to the network ID and 24 bits to the host ID. Class B addresses allocate 14 bits to the network ID and 16 bits to the host ID. Class C addresses allocate 21 bits to the network ID and 8 bits to the host ID. Class D addresses contain 1110 in the first 4 bits and identify the address as a multicast. The remaining 28 bits in the class D address specify a particular multicast group.

address constant (adcon)
A field containing an address, a length, or an offset.

addressed direct access
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record identified by its relative byte address.

addressed sequential access
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record in its entry sequence relative to the previously retrieved or stored record.

address expansion
The process by which the full name of a financial institution is obtained using the SWIFT address, telex correspondent's address, or a nickname.

address extension
In X.25 communications, the optional International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)-specified facilities, available on networks that conform to the 1984 version of X.25.

address family
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a set of related communication protocols that use a common addressing mechanism to identify end points, for example, the U.S. Department of Defense Internet Protocols.

address field
The part of a packet containing addressing information.

address hygiene
A process that normalizes and standardizes address information to correct possible errors and transpositions and to enable optimal matching and linking between entities. Additional address correction software can be used to enhance the address hygiene process. See also data quality management, pipeline.

address identifier
In fibre-channel technology, an address value used to identify the source (S_ID) or destination (D_ID) of a frame.


  1. The assignment of addresses to the instructions of a program.
  2. A method of identification in which the sending or control station selects the station to which it is sending data.

addressing context
An XML document that CICS uses to store WS-Addressing message addressing properties (MAPs) before they are sent in SOAP request messages and after they are received in SOAP request and response messages.

addressing mode (AMODE)
The attribute of a program module that identifies the addressing range in which the program entry point can receive control.

address list
A list that associates users' names with their network and user addresses. The xtalk command uses this list to make outgoing X.25 calls without the caller having to know the addresses. There is one address list for the system and one for each user.

address-mapper function
In MPTN architecture, a component that maps nonnative transport-user addresses to a form used in the native transport network.

address mapping table (AMT)
A table that provides a current mapping of node addresses to hardware addresses.

address mask
For internet subnetworking, a 32-bit mask used to identify the subnetwork address bits in the host portion of an IP address. See also subnet mask.

address poisoning
A hacking technique that redirects data to a different system (for snooping packets) or to nonexistent addresses.

address pool
In data communications, a collection of multipoint addresses. Each address can be associated with an individual communications session.

address resolution
A method for mapping network-layer addresses to media-specific addresses. See also Address Resolution Protocol, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
A protocol that dynamically maps an IP address to a network adapter address in a local area network. See also address resolution, gratuitous ARP, IP address takeover, IP address takeover via IP aliases, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

address role
The purpose of an address within an organization or individual profile, for example: corporate, legal, ship-to, bill-to.

address space
The range of addresses available to a computer program or process. Address space can refer to physical storage, virtual storage, or both. See also allied address space, buffer pool, virtual address space.

address space connection
The result of connecting an allied address space to DB2. See also allied address space, task control block.

address space control mode
The mode, determined by the program status word, that indicates where to find referenced data. Three types of address space control modes are primary, secondary, and access register. VTAM macroinstructions must be invoked in primary address space control mode. See also access register mode.

address space identifier (ASID)
A unique, system-assigned identifier for an address space.

address space manager (ASM)
A component in an APPN or LEN node that assigns and frees session addresses.

address switch
A switch on a device that the user sets to represent the address of that device.

address translation
See network address translation.

address type
In data communications, a value used to define the format and contents of an address field. Address types are associated with the originator address, the recipient address, and the reply-to address information. The address types supported by a system are defined when the mail server framework is configured. The value associated with an address type must be unique.

See Activity Decision Flow.

AD group
See Active Directory group.

adhesive label
In printing, a special-application medium; typically consists of paper labels coated on one side with an adhesive mixture, that are temporarily affixed to backing material.

ad hoc action
An unplanned action, such as starting an activity or a set of activities, that occurs while a process is running.

adhoc candidate
A contractor or consultant that is added to orders for specific tasks.

ad hoc collection log
A standalone collection log, created by a paralegal that is associated with a legal request but not a collection plan.

ad hoc conference
A call that was not arranged or scheduled in advance.

ad hoc interview log
A standalone interview log that is created by a paralegal and that is associated with a legal request but not a virtual interview plan.

ad hoc inventory receipt
A record of physical inventory that arrived at a specific fulfillment center at a specific time, and was not expected inventory. See also inventory receipt.

ad hoc job
A job that is inserted into the current production plan. These jobs are unique to the plan, and are not saved in the database. See also plan.

ad hoc move
An unplanned move of inventory in a warehouse.

ad hoc prompt dependency
A prompt dependency that is defined within the properties of a job or job stream and is unique to that job or job stream. See also prompt dependency.

ad hoc report
A report that is created for one-off business needs so that report developers are not required to create and maintain large numbers of unique reports.

ad hoc start event
An event that is triggered by a user's interaction with the process, such as through the process portal. The ad hoc start event requires an active process to be triggered. See also start event.

ad hoc task
A task that is performed as a result of external conditions that are not part of the regular task sequence.

adjacent control point
A control point (CP) that is directly connected to an APPN, LEN, or composite node by a link.

adjacent destination node
In OSI, a destination node that is also an adjacent node--that is, attached to the same subnetwork as the local node. See also nonadjacent destination node, relay open system.

adjacent domain
A domain that is physically connected to another domain by a single cross-domain link or by a shared local communication controller.

adjacent link station (ALS)
In SNA, a link station directly connected to a given node by a link connection over which network traffic can be carried. Several secondary link stations that share a link connection do not exchange data with each other and therefore are not adjacent to each other. See also link station.

adjacent NCP
A network control program (NCP) that is connected to another NCP by subarea links with no intervening NCPs.

adjacent network
An SNA network that is joined to another SNA network by a common gateway NCP.

adjacent node

  1. A node in the network with which the local can communicate and that is defined in the network map. See also secondary node.
  2. In OSI, a node that is attached to the same subnetwork as the local node. An adjacent node can be either a destination node or a relay node.

adjacent SSCP table (ADJSSCP)
A table that contains lists of the system services control points (SSCPs) that VTAM can be in session with or can use to reach destination SSCPs in the same network or in other networks. The table is filed in the VTAM definition library.

adjacent subarea
In an SNA network, a subarea that is connected to another subarea by one or more links, with no intervening subareas. See also subarea.

See adjacent SSCP table.

The process of deciding to exclude a violation from, or reinstate a violation to, the service level objective (SLO) for an associated service level agreement (SLA).

adjusted quantity
The current quantity of a special resource, taking the deviation into account.

adjustment dimension
A dimension that is used to eliminate intercompany balances or internal profit.

ADL file
See application description language file.

See application data model.

See administration management domain.

ADM expenditure
The one time, up-front investment expense for full application development and deployment of the application.

admin domain
See administrative domain.

A stand-alone module that is used by system administrators to manage system resources.

administration bag
In the IBM MQ Administration Interface (MQAI), a type of data bag that is created for administering IBM MQ by implying that it can change the order of data items, create lists, and check selectors within a message.

administration client

  1. A web-based application that is used to administer a case management system. The administration client stores settings for the case deployment profile in a profile.
  2. The IBM Content Navigator-based user interface that is used to perform tasks in IBM Enterprise Records.

administration console

Administration Console for Content Platform Engine (ACCE)
A web-based application that is used to administer the FileNet P8 domains.

administration database
The database of the MobileFirst Operations Console and of the Administration Services. The database tables define elements such as applications, adapters, projects with their descriptions and orders of magnitude.

administration host
The logical partition that hosts the coordinator partition, the database catalog, and the single-partition tables.

administration interface
A menu-driven interface to assist with the configuration and administration of software.

administration job
An administration task that runs on job servers and is monitored by the Contributor Administration Console. Some examples of jobs are reconcile jobs, publish jobs, and links.

administration knob (admin knob)
Several programmatic settings that are used to point at installed web services, define harvest settings, and determine MIME type settings.

administration link
A scalable link that enables an administrator to move data between Contributor applications. An administration link can contain multiple applications and cubes as the sources and targets of the link.

administration machine
A computer that is used to operate the Contributor Administration Console.

administration management domain (ADMD)
In OSI X.400, a public organization that handles a management domain.

administration notification log
A list of messages that helps an administrator to resolve minor issues. See also contact.

administration notification message
An alarm, error message, warning, attention message, or informational message that is written by the database manager, replication programs, user applications, or the health monitor to a notification file or event log. See also contact.

administration process
A Domino server task (Adminp) that automates many administrative tasks. An administrator initiates the tasks, and the administration process completes them. Some of the tasks that the administration process can automate are recertifying Notes IDs, renaming and deleting references to Notes users and groups, creating replicas of databases, and moving databases.

administration queue
In Q replication and event publishing, a WebSphere MQ queue that is used by the Q Apply program, Q Capture program, and subscribing applications to communicate.

administration server

  1. The Domino server assigned to apply administration process updates to a primary replica.
  2. The database and web interface that software asset managers use for maintaining information about license entitlements and instances of installed products.
  3. A server that contains the planning components package (COM+ package) and maintains control of the online application. The user connects to this machine when the Contributor Administration Console is first run.

Administration Services
An application that hosts the REST services and administration tasks. The Administration Services application is packaged in its own WAR file.

administration system
A central server that is used to manage many of the properties used by iSeries Access for Windows clients.

administrative agent
A program that provides administrative support without requiring a direct connection to a database.

administrative authority
A set of defined related privileges. When administrative authorities are granted to a person's ID, the person has all of the privileges that are associated with that administrative authority.

administrative CLI
See administrative command-line interface.

administrative client

  1. A program that runs on a file server, workstation, or mainframe that administrators use to control and monitor the server. See also backup-archive client.
  2. In OnDemand, the program that provides administrators with functions to maintain groups, users, printers, applications, application groups, storage sets, and folders.

administrative command-line interface (ACLI, administrative CLI)
A command-line interface used to administer all aspects of the SAN File System. The ACLI runs on all engines that host metadata servers and the administrative server.

administrative command schedule
A database record that describes the planned processing of an administrative command during a specific time period. See also central scheduler, client schedule, schedule.

administrative console

administrative domain (admin domain)

  1. A logical collection of resources that is used to separate responsibilities and manage permissions. See also permission.
  2. A collection of hosts and routers, and the interconnecting networks, that are managed by a single administrative authority.

Administrative Facility
In OSI, an interactive, menu-driven utility provided by OSI Communications Subsystem with which users define and maintain their network layout, installed protocols, available application entities, and other information used by OSI Communications Subsystem.

administrative group
A group of related computers. An administrator can create administrative groups to organize target systems into meaningful categories, and to facilitate deployment of software to multiple computers.

administrative log
A log that maintains a history of routine activities and error conditions that are generated by the administrative servers.

administrative organization (admin organization)
The organization to which a local schedule applies, however the scope of application depends on how the local schedule is configured.

administrative policy
A policy in a Domino directory that defines standard settings across clients. 

administrative privilege class
See privilege class.

administrative repository
A database that contains configuration, problem, change, and inventory information needed to administer the information system. The repository can be used to perform the functions of configuration management, problem management, and change management.

administrative right
A level of authority possessed by a process.

administrative role (admin role)
A job function that identifies the tasks that a user can perform and the resources to which a user has access.

administrative server
A set of servlets running within a customized instance of WebSphere Application Server that handles all administrative requests from the SAN File System console or from the administrative command line interface (ACLI). The administrative server also enforces administrative permissions, which restrict the use of tasks that are permitted for a specified administrator. See also SAN File System console.

administrative session
A period of time during which an administrator user ID communicates with a server to perform administrative tasks. See also client node session, session.

administrative share
A network resource that is hidden from users without administrative privileges. Administrative shares provide administrators with access to all resources on a network system.

administrative system
The hardware component from which software is installed on the management server and other administrative actions are taken.

administrative topic object
An object that allows you to assign specific, non-default attributes to topics.

administrative VOB
A versioned object base (VOB) that contains global type objects. Local copies of global type objects can be created in any VOB that has an AdminVOB hyperlink to the administrative VOB that defines the global type object.


  1. A person responsible for administrative tasks such as access authorization and content management. Administrators can also grant levels of authority to users.
  2. In OnDemand, a person authorized to maintain the system. For example, an OnDemand administrator can add, update, and delete users and folders.

administrator client
A web-based interface for configuring and managing IBM Intelligent Video Analytics.

Administrator client
A version of the Notes client used by administrators to administer Domino servers.

administrator command
A command used to manage IBM MQ objects, such as queues, processes, and namelists.

administrator permission
The authority granted to an administrator to give them access to create, configure, and delete resources or users. This authority is granted by membership of a user role group.

administrator privileges
A right that is granted to database users by the administrator. Administrator privileges permit a basic user to administer the database and its objects.

administrator profile
Data that describes a DirectTalk user. Information in an administrator profile includes ID, password, language preference, and access privileges.

Administrator role
See authorization role.

administrator user
A user account that bypasses all access rights checks. This account is used only when absolutely necessary, such as in initial configuration tasks or if no other users can log in.

admin knob
See administration knob.

admin organization
See administrative organization.

admin role
See administrative role.

admin service
A Java virtual machine (JVM) service that starts and stops modules on remote machines.

admission control

  1. A policy decision that is applied initially to QoS reservation requests for controlling the admission of network traffic into the network. Admission control is the process of ensuring that the load on the network links is manageable.
  2. The process used by the server to ensure that its bandwidth needs are not compromised by new asset requests.

See ActiveX Data Object.

Adobe Document Structuring Conventions
A standard subset of conventions that allow PostScript page descriptions to be accepted as input by many programs and resource managers.

Adobe Font Metrics file
A file containing PostScript font information that SCRIPT/VS uses to format documents for PostScript devices.

adopted authority
Authority given to the user by the object while the object is running. The object must be created with owner authority. These object types can have adopted authority: program, service program, and SQL package.

adopted region
A CICS region that is incorporated into a platform, but that was originally defined outside the platform environment. See also created region, created region type.

adopted region type
A container for CICS regions that is incorporated into a platform, enabling the regions to be managed as a unit in the platform. See also created region, created region type.

adoption item
A development work item that tracks when changes by one team must be adopted by another team.

See area data set.

See Analog Display Services Interface.

ADSI telephone
A 'smart' telephone capable of interpreting and returning ADSI data.

See asymmetric digital subscriber line.

See automatic data set protection.

ADSP attribute
See automatic data set protection attribute.

Advanced Administration System (AAS)
The primary mechanism that is used for field ordering and order placement.

advanced assistance level
The type of displays that provide the same functions as the intermediate assistance level. However, the displays contain as much information as possible by not displaying the allowed function keys and options.

Advanced Communications Function (ACF)
A group of IBM licensed programs that use the concepts of Systems Network Architecture (SNA), including distribution of function and resource sharing.

Advanced Communications Function for the Network Control Program (ACF/NCP)
See Network Control Program.

Advanced Communications Function for the System Support Programs (ACF/SSP)
See System Support Program.

Advanced Communications Function for the Telecommunications Access Method (ACF/TCAM)
See Telecommunications Access Method.

Advanced Communications Function for Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (ACF/VTAM)
An IBM licensed program that controls communication and the flow of data in an SNA network. It provides single-domain, multiple-domain, and interconnected network capability.

Advanced Communications Function/Trace Analysis Program (ACF/TAP)
An SSP program service aid that assists in analyzing trace data produced by VTAM, TCAM, and NCP and provides network data traffic and network error reports.

advanced data distribution
An optional gateway component that can be used by a trading partner to initiate a communications session. Unlike a standard communications session where Gentran Server for Windows contacts a VAN or trading partner, Advanced Data Distribution is passive, waiting for a trading partner to contact the user.

Advanced DBCS Printer Support
The IBM licensed program that provides support for printers capable of printing double-byte character sets (DBCS).

advanced disposition schedule
IBM Enterprise Record schedule that is a full-featured disposition schedule. An advanced disposition schedule is defined separately from the record categories to which it is applied and supports a more flexible configuration.

advanced disposition sweep
A sweep that finds records that are ready to start moving through the various phases of their disposition schedules.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
A data encryption technique that improved upon and officially replaced the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

advanced entry workload license charges (AEWLC)

Advanced File Transfer (AFT)
A centralized, dynamic file-exchange platform for secure transfer of files within and between organizations. It provides end-to-end visibility of file movement in an event-driven, process-oriented, highly scalable SOA framework.

advanced formula calculation account (AFC account)
An account used for complex calculations including built-in logic and formulas.

advanced function common control unit (AFCCU, afccunit)
A controller that converts Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IPDS) into a presentation format that is usable by the COM and that transfers the setup data, document pages, and text-related information to COM.

Advanced Function Image and Graphics
In certain IBM printers, a feature that can decompress compressed graphics in GOCA format DR2 vector graphics data stream) and images in IOCA format (IO1 image data stream).

Advanced Function Presentation (AFP)
A set of licensed programs, together with user applications, that use the all-points-addressable concept to print data on a wide variety of printers or to display data on a variety of display devices. AFP includes creating, formatting, archiving, retrieving, viewing, distributing, and printing information.

Advanced Function Presentation application programming interface (AFP API)
An AFP program that creates the AFP data stream from COBOL or PL/1.

Advanced Function Presentation data stream (AFPDS)
A presentation data stream that is processed in AFP environments. MO:DCA-P is the AFP interchange data stream. IPDS is the AFP printer data stream.

advanced function printing (AFP)
The ability of programs to use the all-points-addressable concept to print text and images on a printer. AFP supports Advanced function printing data stream (AFPDS), Intelligent printer data stream (IPDS) and SNA character string (SCS).

advanced implementation
When implementing national language support, the addition of one or more of the following capabilities to a product: cultural sort, large character set (support for multibyte character set standards, such as Unicode or ISO/IEC 10646), multilingual option, character data integrity, linguistic functions such as spell checking, grammar, and hyphenation. See also basic implementation, linguistic function.

Advanced Integration service
A service that represents and interacts with a corresponding service in Integration Designer. See also integration service, service.

advanced intelligent network (AIN)
A telephone network that expands the idea of the intelligent network to provide special services more efficiently: for example, by giving users the ability to program many of the services themselves.

advanced management module (AMM)
A hardware unit that provides system-management functions for all the blade servers in a BladeCenter chassis.

Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)
An open-source wire protocol that is used to receive, queue, route, and deliver messages.

Advanced Network Exchange (ANX)
A private, IP-based physical network that acts as a bridge between noncompatible standards for communications and data formats. The ANX is the preferred communications method among automotive industry trading partner companies and is used by subscribers as an electronic transaction system.

Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN)
An extension to SNA that features distributed network control, dynamic definition of network resources, automated resource registration, and automated directory lookup. This network architecture supports the routing of data in a network between two or more Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communication (APPC) systems that do not need to be directly connected.

Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking network node (APPN network node)
A node that offers a broad range of user services, including distributed directory services, intermediate routing services within an APPN network, and other services.

advanced persistent threat (APT)
A multiphase, and long term network attack in which unauthorized users gain access to, and harvest, valuable enterprise data.

advanced planning system (APS)
A system that plans ahead.

advanced printer function (APF)
A function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that allows a user to design symbols, logos, special characters, large characters, and forms tailored to a business or data processing application.

Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC)
An implementation of the SNA LU 6.2 protocol that allows interconnected systems to communicate and share the processing of programs. See also APPC/MVS, LU type 6.2.

Advanced Program-to-Program Communication/IMS (APPC/IMS)
A part of IMS Transaction Manager that uses the common programming interface, which allows IMS application programs to communicate with other programs by using LU 6.2.

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Advanced Rule Language (ARL)
An executable rule language that is used by the decision engine. Rules that are compiled into Advanced Rule Language (ARL) can reference any execution object and can invoke methods on these objects.

advanced search
A search function to search for a case within a specific case type or by using more complex criteria. Case workers can use the advanced search to find cases in a specific case type or to narrow the search based on various properties.

advanced selection
See selection.

advanced shipment notification (ASN)
An electronic file that contains details about the smart meters, such as the meter serial number, attributes, pallet numbers, and box numbers. An ASN file is provided by the manufacturer in XML or text format.

advanced ship notice (ASN)
The notification of a shipment that contains all of the information related to the shipment, including purchase orders (PO) fulfilled, actual ship date, and expected delivery date.

Advanced System Management interconnect (ASM interconnect)
A feature of IBM service processors that enables users to connect up to 24 servers to one service processor, thus eliminating the need for multiple modems, telephones, and LAN ports. It provides such out-of-band management functions as system power control, service-processor event-log management, firmware updates, alert notification, and user profile configuration.

Advanced System Management interconnect network (ASM interconnect network)
A network of IBM servers created by using the ASM interconnect feature. The servers are connected through RS-485 ports. When servers containing integrated system management processors (ISMPs) and ASM processors are connected to an ASM interconnect network, IBM Director can manage them out-of-band.

Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI)
A graphical interface that is part of the service processor firmware. The ASMI manages and communicates with the service processor. The ASMI is required to set up the service processor and to perform service tasks, such as reading service processor error logs, reading vital product data, and controlling the system power.

Advanced System Management PCI adapter (ASM PCI adapter)
An IBM service processor that is built into the Netfinity 7000 M10 and 8500R servers. It also was available as an option that could be installed in a server that contained an ASM processor. When an ASM PCI adapter is used with an ASM processor, the ASM PCI adapter acts as an Ethernet gateway, while the ASM processor retains control of the server. When used as a gateway service processor, the ASM PCI adapter can communicate with other ASM PCI adapters and ASM processors only.

Advanced System Management processor (ASM processor)
A service processor built into the mid-range Netfinity and early xSeries servers. IBM Director can connect out-of-band to an ASM processor located on an ASM interconnect; an ASM PCI adapter, a Remote Supervisor Adapter, or a Remote Supervisor II must serve as the gateway service processor.

advanced threat protection (ATP)
A form of security protection that detects network anomalies and flags abnormal events to address more complex attacks and safeguard key assets and data.

advanced time
See Daylight Saving Time.

advanced transit time
The maximum amount of days a carrier service allows for delivery.

advance shipment notice (ASN)
The notification to the receiving warehouse of a shipment in transit to the warehouse. It also details what the shipment contains and expected time of arrival.


  1. An application that provides a recommendation or suggestion that is based on input from the user. Advisors do not perform functions or change system values.
  2. In Performance Tools, a tool used to analyze data collected by the performance monitor function of the operating system. The advisor analyzes a collection of performance data and produces a list of conclusions and recommendations to improve system performance.

A document that contains information and analysis about a threat or vulnerability.

advisory lock

  1. A type of lock that a process holds on a region of a file that signals any other process to not use or lock the region or an overlapping region. Other processes are not forced to comply.
  2. A type of lock that a process holds on a region of a file preventing any other process from locking the region or an overlapping region. See also enforced lock.

ad zone
A collection of stores that offer the same advertised promotion.

See application entity.

See Automated Export System.

See AppleTalk Echo Protocol.

See Advanced Encryption Standard.

A perceptible aspect of a graphic element that adds dimensionality to the visualization. Examples include color, patterns, and shapes.

AE title
See application entity title.

See advanced entry workload license charges.

See adapter foundation classes.

AFC account
See advanced formula calculation account.

See advanced function common control unit.

See advanced function common control unit.

affiliate program
A technique that affiliate merchants use to pay commissions to smaller affiliates in order to control costs.


  1. Two or more container group instances running on the same network node. See also anti-affinity.
  2. An association between objects that have some relationship or dependency upon each other.
  3. In server processing, a property of a request that indicates how important it is that successive requests are allocated to the same server process and thread.

affinity score
A score that encapsulates the relative probability of a recommended product that has a specific affinity with a target product.

affinity weight
A setting that controls the weighting of four key data points in the product cross-sell algorithm.

affirmative consent
Permission that is granted by an individual to a company that allows the company to send messages to the individual.

A dependent element of a name that is added to the beginning (as a prefix), middle (as an infix), or end (as a suffix) of a name and that modifies its meaning. An affix can be directly attached to the name (such as "Mac" in "Macintosh"), separated from the name stem by punctuation (such as "O" in "O'Connell"), or separated from the name stem by white space (such as "Abd" in "Abd Allah"). Affixes are most common in surnames and can sometimes identify ethnic origins. See also name stem, title, affix, and qualifier.

See Association française de normalisation.


  1. See advanced function printing.
  2. See Advanced Function Presentation.

See Advanced Function Presentation application programming interface.

AFP Conversion and Indexing Facility (ACIF)
An Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) program that converts a print file into a Mixed Object Document Content Architecture-Presentation (MO:DCA-P) document, creates an index file for later retrieval and viewing, and retrieves resources used by an AFP document into a separate file.

See Advanced Function Presentation data stream.

AFP Font Collection
A product that includes the Type Transformer program, a set of utilities, and a single font source for all AFP platforms: OS/390, z/OS, VM, VSE, OS/400, AIX, and Windows.

AFP Reblocking Program
A program that converts an MO:DCA file to a format that PSF can use after a user has uploaded the file from a Windows or AIX system to a z/OS or VM system.

AFP resource
One of the resources that are used to produce printed output, including form definitions, page definitions, fonts, overlays (electronic forms), and page segments (graphic images).

AFP statistics report (AFPSTATS)
A report that contains summary data about the resources used to print a document. The AFPSTATS report is used to indicate in which libraries PSF found a resource, diagnose some resource selection problems, obtain statistical data about how a print file is printed, and diagnose some print file printing performance problems.

See AFP statistics report.

AFP Toolbox
An IBM product that assists application programmers in formatting printed output. Without requiring knowledge of the AFP data stream, AFP Toolbox provides access to sophisticated AFP functions through a callable C, C++, or COBOL interface. AFP Toolbox is available on OS/390, z/OS, AIX, and OS/400 platforms.

AFP Upload
An optional feature of PSF for z/OS that lets you submit a job to InfoPrint for AIX for printing on any printer supported by PSF for z/OS.

AFP Viewer plug-in
A program that runs on a Windows workstation and is used for viewing files in Advanced Function Presentation (AFP) format from a web browser.

AFP Workbench for Windows
A platform for the integration of AFP enabling applications and services. The Viewer is a Workbench application that runs under Microsoft Windows.

AFP Workbench Viewer
An IBM-licensed product that lets you display AFP and ASCII files at your Windows workstation in the same format they are printed.

See Andrew File System.

See Advanced File Transfer.

AFT community
An organization of protocols and options that are available to member AFT partners.


  1. A business object that contains all of the entity data after changes have been made to it during an update operation. An after-image contains the complete business object rather than only the primary key and those elements that were changed. See also delta business object.
  2. See after-value.
  3. The contents of a record in a physical file after the data is changed by a write or an update operation.
  4. A record of the contents of a data element after it has been changed. After-images are used for forward recovery.

after trigger
A trigger that is specified to be activated after a defined trigger event (an insert, an update, or a delete operation on the table that is specified in a trigger definition). See also before trigger, instead of trigger, trigger, trigger activation, trigger activation time.

In data replication, the updated value of a source-table column after an SQL insert or update has been applied to the table. See also before-value.

AFT Partner
An individual profile that belongs to a community, with selected options within the structure of the community.

AG core
See access governance core.

To change one or more date values in order to simulate data from a different time, whether in the past or the future. Aging is accomplished by replacing the date with a date indicated by a literal, by changing only the year portion of a date value, or by incrementing or decrementing a date value by a specified number of days, weeks, months, and years. See also incremental aging, semantic aging, target aging.

A governing body or council in a jurisdiction that issues citations.

agency code
The code by which BrassRing and its users track an agency that has access to an agency site(s). Detailed agency information such as fee structure, referral rights period, location and specialization can be added.

agency contact
The recruiter within the agency who has access to an agency site and can view job postings assigned to him/her, and submit candidates for those postings.

agency liaison
Person who facilitates IBM's relationship with its interactive agencies worldwide, and is responsible for managing the worldwide interactive project portfolio, including forecasting IBM interactive spending and monitoring purchase order commitments against forecast; leveraging knowledge of agency assignments, workload and performance across the company.

agency site
A portal that is used by agencies for recruiting.

agency site user
See agency contact.

agency user
See agency contact.

A logical workspace where rule instances that have conditions matching objects in the working memory are put.

agenda step
A read-only step in an interview that provides information to the user.


  1. An entity that represents one or more managed objects by sending notifications regarding the objects and by handling requests from servers for management operations to modify or query the objects.
  2. A component that contains the business logic that is applied to incoming events, and that is usually bound to an entity. See also Java agent, rule agent.
  3. Any hardware component that is managed by the SiteProtector system. Hardware components include appliances, scanners, network sensors, server sensors, and desktop sensors.
  4. In telephony, a customer service person whose job is to handle incoming or outgoing telephone calls.
  5. A server program that receives virtual connections from the network manager (the client program) in an SNMP-TCP/IP network-managing environment. An agent is the interface to a managed device.
  6. In the two-phase commit protocol, a node at the bottom of the transaction program network hierarchy.
  7. In Q replication, one of the threads of the Q Apply program that is started by the Q Apply browser. It receives transactions from the browser and applies this data to target tables. One or more agents can exist for each browser.
  8. A thread on a server that manages the requests made by an application. See also engine dispatchable unit.
  9. In a two-phase commit sync pointing sequence, a task that receives sync point requests from an initiator.
  10. The function that manages the parsing and routing of distributed data management (DDM) commands and replies.
  11. A distributed process that executes data management services. Agents receive data management service requests from a management server.
  12. See BigFix agent.
  13. In a z/OS environment, the structure that associates all processes that are involved in a unit of work.
  14. A program that runs on a remote computer and communicates with the IBM UrbanCode Deploy server. Agents run processes on deployment target systems.
  15. A process that performs an action on behalf of a user or other program without user intervention or on a regular schedule, and reports the results back to the user or program. See also common agent, subagent.
  16. An installed component that runs operations on a computer in a customer environment.
  17. A program that performs a series of automated tasks according to a set schedule or at the request of a user. An agent consists of three components: the trigger (when it acts), the search (what documents it acts on), and the action (what it does).
  18. Software that is installed to monitor systems. An agent collects data about an operating system, a subsystem, or an application.
  19. A function that represents a requester to a server.
  20. In testing, a process deployed on one or more computers to run stubs, test engine instances, and probes on demand.
  21. A server that responds to request for management data from a network manager.

Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE)
A Java framework and toolkit for constructing and deploying intelligent agents.

agent code
An open-systems standard that interprets Common Information Model (CIM) requests and responses as they are transferred between the client application and the device.

Agent Controller
A daemon process that resides on each deployment host and provides the mechanism by which client applications either launch new host processes or attach to agents that coexist within existing processes on the host.

agent descriptor
An agent.adsc file in which an intuitive and natural syntax is used to write the business logic for an agent.

agent form
A workspace area in which search input can be entered and agent task attributes can be set up.

agent group
A group of management agents that run the same policy or policies. Each management agent is associated with one or more listening and playback components.

agent ID
The identifier for a specific instance of the common agent software installed on a managed system. The agent ID is the same as the name of the directory in which the common agent software is installed. See also globally unique identifier.

Pertaining to a method of data collection where data is collected from traffic on networks that are monitored by Web Response Time rather than a domain-specific agent or Data Collector plug-in.

Agent Lifecycle Service
A service that is used to manage agents. Agents can be created, started, suspended, resumed, and destroyed through this service.

agent manager

  1. A network service that provides authentication and authorization and that maintains a registry of configuration information about the common agents and resource managers in a user's environment.
  2. A manager that manages the command and control activities of agents, such as the command to start or stop collecting event data.
  3. The background server program that manages and runs agents on a server.

Agent Naming Service
A service that provides the creation of a globally unique name among all other pieces in the distributed platform.

agent node
A client node that has been granted proxy authority to perform operations on behalf of another client node, which is the target node.

agent pool
For Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that can host multiple services and agents.

agent private memory
Memory that is allocated for a database agent when the agent is assigned as the result of a connect request or a new SQL request in a parallel environment. The memory is used only by the specific agent. See also private sort.

agent recovery service
A service of the agent manager that provides error logging for agents that are unable to communicate with other agent manager services.

agent relay
A communication proxy for agents that are located behind a firewall or in another network location.

agent role
In systems management, a role assumed by a user in which the user is capable of performing management operations on managed objects and of emitting notifications on behalf of managed objects.

agent site
In the Data Warehouse Center, the location, defined by a single network host name, where a warehouse agent application is installed. See also default agent site, remote agent site.

agent subtab
A subtab from which the user can change attribute options to define a search criteria.


  1. See consolidate.
  2. A calculation that returns a single result value from several relational data rows or dimensional members. Typical examples are total and average.
  3. To collect related information for processing and analysis.
  4. In Transaction Tracking, a node in a transaction topology.
  5. A structured collection of data objects that form a data type..
  6. An average of all response times that are detected by the monitoring software over a specific time period.
  7. In C++, an array or a class with no user-declared constructors, no private or protected non-static data members, no base classes, and no virtual functions.
  8. An object, stored in one or more storage pools, consisting of a group of logical files that are packaged together. See also logical file, physical file.

aggregate analysis engine
An analysis engine that is implemented by configuring a collection of component analysis engines. See also analysis engine.

aggregate backup
The process of copying an aggregate group and recovery instructions so that a collection of data sets can be recovered later as a group.

aggregate backup and recovery support (ABARS)
A function that backs up a user-defined related group of data sets, called an aggregate, and recovers those data sets on the same system or on a recovery system.

aggregate bandwidth
Total throughput, in megabits per second, that moves through a server or server subsystem. See also throughput.

aggregate data sets
In aggregate backup and recovery support (ABARS) processing, data sets that have been defined in an aggregate group as being related.

aggregate data transfer rate
A performance statistic that indicates the average number of bytes that were transferred per second while processing a given operation.

aggregate function
A function that optionally accepts arguments and returns a single scalar value that is the result of an evaluation of a set of like values, such as those in a column within a set of one or more rows. See also function, routine.

aggregate group

  1. In DFSMShsm, a collection of related data sets and control information that has been pooled to meet a defined backup or recovery strategy.
  2. A collection of data objects that form a data type, so that the data can be referred to collectively or individually. Aggregate group is used in conjunction with the storage of direct access storage device (DASD) data, not within an object access method (OAM) environment.

aggregate interface
The logical grouping of Ethernet interfaces, connected to the same subnet, that provide higher levels of availability and bandwidth from the networking substrate. See also link aggregation.

aggregate level
A work breakdown structure (WBS) element that shows the aggregated or rolled-up total of their child elements.

aggregate line speed
The maximum possible speed that data can be transmitted using a communications controller. The speed is determined using the sum of the speeds of the communications lines attached to the communications controller.

aggregate metric
A metric that is calculated by finding the average, maximum, minimum, sum, or number of occurrences of an instance metric across multiple runs of a process. Examples of aggregate metrics are an average order amount, a maximum order amount, a minimum order amount, the total order amount, or the number of occurrences of $500 for an order amount. See also measure, metric.

aggregate object
Any object that contains child objects. Because an aggregate object is not monitored directly, it does not receive events directly. Rather, it receives only the events that are propagated by its children. See also real object.

aggregate record
A summary of instance data from all transactions that match a defined pattern.

aggregate recovery
The process of recovering a user-defined group of data sets that were backed up using aggregate backup.

aggregate relationship
The relationship among top level artifacts in an application diagram. These are computed from the relationships among lower level artifacts. The number of aggregate relationships is less than the total number of primary relationships.

aggregate resource
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, an object that represents a collection of real resources.

aggregate rule
A separate aggregate function that can be set up for use in specific dimensions to override the regular aggregate. See also multidimensional aggregation, multilevel aggregation, regular aggregate.

aggregate support function
One of a group of user-defined functions that the database server uses to calculate a user-defined aggregate.

aggregate table
In SQL replication, a read-only replication target table that contains aggregations of data from the source table. This data is based on SQL column functions such as MIN, MAX, SUM, and AVG.

aggregate threshold
A threshold that applies to a group of activities. If an activity in that group exceeds the boundary set by the threshold, the corresponding action is applied to that activity. See also activity threshold.

aggregate topology
A transaction topology that displays all known and implied transactions that might not all be related. See also instance topology.

aggregate type
A user-defined data type that combines basic types, such as char, short, and float, into a more complex type, such as structs, arrays, strings, or sequences.

aggregate usage code
A QMF usage code that is used to request a DB2 aggregate function.


  1. See import.
  2. A setting in an internal event trigger that determines which type of product entity is affected by the disposition action.
  3. A composition technique for building a new object from one or more existing objects that support some or all the required interfaces of the new object.
  4. The process of reading data across one level in a hierarchy or auto-level hierarchy and summarizing it. See also multidimensional aggregation, multilevel aggregation.
  5. The process of collecting, interpreting, and sorting data from various locations into a single file.
  6. The structured collection of data objects for subsequent presentation within a portal.

aggregation agent
An agent that stores the tracking data from multiple Data Collector plug-ins and other monitors and computes aggregates for use by the Transaction Reporter. Aggregation agents include the Transaction Col-lector and Web Response Time agent.

aggregation count
A value that indicates after how many occurrences an action to an event takes place.

aggregation KPI
A KPI value that is calculated by applying an aggregation function to a specific data source property.

aggregation period
The time period, measured in minutes, over which monitoring occurs.

aggregation variable
An aggregate function that is placed in a report. Its value appears as part of the break footing, detail block text, or final text when the report is produced.


  1. A program that regularly scans a set of sources and presents a summary of information. See also leaderboard, trend.
  2. A software component responsible for displaying the navigation and portlets available to a user.

Pertaining to a framework for working that was originally created to improve software development by shifting its focus to user requirements using rapid, iterative development and prototyping.

agile heartbeat
An agile software development life cycle.

agile modeling (AM)
A flexible software development methodology in which modeling is sufficient as soon as it allows for further development to proceed.

agile programming
See agile software development.

agile software development
A software development methodology that focuses on collaboration and quality to produce complete product increments at regular intervals, called iterations or sprints.

The process of increasing a job's priority.

See application group name.

See automatic guided vehicle.

See Authentication Header.

See Automotive Industry Action Group.

See application interface block.

AIB mask
A mapping that an application program uses to interpret the application interface block (AIB).

See asynchronous index cleanup.


  1. See attention identifier.
  2. See automatic initiation descriptor.
  3. See automatic initiate descriptor.

AID key
See attention identifier key.

See application identity mapping.

See advanced intelligent network.

airplane mode
A feature that suspends device signal transmission, disabling the device's capacity to place or receive calls or use text messaging, while still permitting use of functions that do not require signal transmission.

See autoinstall terminal model.

See APPN Implementors Workshop.

A UNIX operating system developed by IBM that is designed and optimized to run on POWER microprocessor-based hardware such as servers, workstations, and blades.

AIX 5L operating system
IBM's implementation of the UNIX operating system. AIX 5L is particularly suited to support technical computing applications, including high function graphics and floating point computations.

AIX operating system
IBM's implementation of the UNIX operating system. The RISC System/6000 system, among others, runs the AIX operating system.

AIXwindows Environment
A software graphical user interface environment based on OSF/MOTIF consisting of the AIXwindows Toolkit, graphics libraries, window manager, and desktop running on a compatible operating system.

AIXwindows Toolkit
An object-oriented collection of C language data structures and subroutines that supplement the Enhanced X-Windows Toolkit and simplify the creation of interactive client-application interfaces. See also Enhanced X-Windows Toolkit.

A design approach and a set of techniques for delivering rich Internet applications (RIAs) using open web formats, for example, HTML, CSS and JavaScript; and rendering using a browser engine.

See also known as.

See AssemblyLine.

See arbitrated loop physical address.


  1. A video display that is initiated by an alert.
  2. An audible or visual signal at a device, such as a display station or printer, that is used to notify the user that a predefined condition exists.
  3. Any condition that DirectTalk considers worthy of documenting with an error message. Strictly speaking, the term alarm should include only red (immediate attention) and yellow (problem situation) conditions, but it is also used to refer to green (a red or yellow message has been cleared) and white (information) conditions.
  4. For Domino administrators, a document generated in the Statistics database indicating that a server statistic has exceeded a specified threshold. For example, an alarm can notify an administrator if disk space on server drive C drops below 10 percent.

alarm level
See response level.

alarm listener
A type of asynchronous bean that is called when a high-speed transient alarm expires.

The compressing and expanding algorithm used in Europe, Latin America, and other countries when converting from analog to digital speech data. See also mu-law.


  1. To cause the user's terminal to give some audible or visual indication that an error or some other event has occurred.
  2. A notice that describes replication events and conditions. The Replication Alert Monitor sends alerts to an email address or to a pager.
  3. A message or other indication that informs buyers the increase or decrease in the risk scores of suppliers.
  4. Information about the state of an object or about an action that the user needs to take.
  5. The video metadata record that is created when a predetermined alert definition is detected in a video stream. The record contains the information necessary to play back the video when the alert is triggered.
  6. Information about system events. Examples are planned or unplanned server shutdowns. Alerts are shown to all users when they log in.
  7. An informational event that requires user action. See also event.
  8. A notification that signals an event or key performance indicator (KPI) status change.
  9. A message or other indication that signals an event or an impending event that meets a set of specified criteria. See also alert summary, attribute alert, event alert, role alert, role alert rule, rule.

alert character
A character that in the output stream causes a terminal to alert its user by way of a visual or audible notification. The alert character is the character designated by a '\a' in the C and C++ languages. It is unspecified whether this character is the exact sequence transmitted to an output device by the system to accomplish the alert function.

alert condition
A problem or impending problem for which information is collected and possibly forwarded for problem determination, diagnosis, or resolution.

alert controller description
A controller description that defines the system to which alerts will be sent on an alert controller session.

alert controller session
A type of SSCP-PU session on which alerts can be sent to a system that is designated as an alert focal point.

alert definition

  1. The statement of criteria that trigger an alert.
  2. See alert policy.

alert description
Information in an alert table that defines the contents of a Systems Network Architecture (SNA) alert for a particular message ID.

alert detail
Information that is contained in an alert message. The alert message provides a link that contains details pertaining alert message.

alert filter
A filter that is used to route and process Systems Network Architecture (SNA) alerts in a network and automates operations for local alerts or received alerts within a network.

alert focal point
The system in a network that receives and processes (logs, displays, and optionally forwards) alerts. An alert focal point is a subset of a problem management focal point.

alert forwarding
A function that ensures that alerts are sent, even if a managed system experiences a catastrophic failure, such as an operating-system failure.

alert-forwarding profile
A profile that specifies where remote alerts for the service processor should be sent.

alert ID
The description and ID for a specific alert. The alert ID appears before the description in a detail report header.

alert ID number
A value created from specific fields in the alert using a cyclic redundancy check. A focal point uses this value to refer to a particular alert, for example, to filter out duplicate alerts.

alerting event
An event that triggers recurring event notifications until it is cleared.

alert monitor
In IBM MQ for z/OS, a component of the CICS adapter that handles unscheduled events occurring as a result of connection requests to IBM MQ for z/OS.

alert policy
The statement of criteria that trigger an alert.

alert standard format
A specification created by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) that defines remote-control and alerting interfaces that can best serve a client system in an environment that does not have an operating system.

alert summary
One or more alerts that share an alert type, a description, a severity, a status, a resolution rule, a resolution score, or a relationship score. See also alert.

alert table
An object consisting of alert descriptions that define the contents of a Systems Network Architecture (SNA) alert for particular error conditions. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *ALRTBL.

alert trigger
A predefined key performance indicator (KPI) value change that causes an alert notification to be displayed in the Alerts window in the Operations view.

alert type
An alert that indicates the severity or the type of the problem being reported.

See access list entry token.

See Action Language for Foundational UML.

algorithm mapping
A process by which service providers can define the mapping of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) algorithms to cryptographic algorithms that are used for XML digital signature and XML encryption.


  1. An alternative name used to identify a database, a module, a nickname, a sequence, a table, a view, or another alias. An alias can be used in SQL statements to refer to an object in the same DB2 system or subsystem or in a remote DB2 system or subsystem. See also alias chain, database alias, database name, public alias, server name.
  2. In Notes, a shortened form of a user name that can be used in any Notes application where directory lookup and type-ahead are supported, such as mail. Unlike the Notes user name and alternate name, aliases cannot appear in access control lists and execution control lists.
  3. A pointer to another directory object. Aliases can be used within LDAP to reference entries anywhere within the directory tree.
  4. In EGL generation, a name that is placed in the output source file in place of the name that was in the EGL source code. In most cases, the original name is aliased because it was not valid in the target generation language.
  5. In an internet, a name assigned to a server that makes the server independent of the name of its host system. The alias must be defined in the domain name server.
  6. An alternative name for an integrated catalog facility (ICF) user catalog, a file that is not a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) file, or a member of a partitioned data set (PDS) or a partitioned data set extended (PDSE).
  7. An assumed or actual association between two data entities, or between a data entity and a pointer.
  8. In an SQL query or in a form-specification file, a single-word temporary alternative name that is used in place of a qualified table name (for example, t1as an alias for owner.table_name). Aliases are often used in complex subqueries and are required for a self-join.
  9. The user name for a server in an implementation repository.
  10. A unique, publicly visible short name that is used in desktop and command-line clients, Git repository paths, and tracking and planning features. For users who have a Jazz ID, that ID is their alias.
  11. An alternative name used instead of a primary name.

alias address
An alternative address for a network interface that can be used in place of the real address. See also network address translation.

alias address identifier

  1. A set of alternative volume addresses for a single volume that are used in the parallel access volume (PAV) function.
  2. One or more address identifiers that can be recognized by a node port (N_port) in addition to its N_port identifier. Alias address identifiers are used to form groups of N_ports so that frames can be addressed to a group rather than to individual N_ports.

alias AL_PA
An arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA) value recognized by a loop port (L_port) in addition to the AL_PA assigned to the port. See also arbitrated loop physical address.

alias chain
A series of aliases that refer to one another in a sequential, non-repeating fashion; that is, cycles are not allowed. See also alias.

alias entry
The correlation of an alias with the physical entry name of a user catalog or a data set that is not a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set.

alias ID
Identification that enables users to perform queries across object stores. Content Platform Engine uses alias IDs to identify classes and properties that are semantically the same.


  1. A compilation process that attempts to determine what aliases exist, so that optimization does not result in incorrect program results.
  2. In TCP/IP host table processing, a process used to convert internet addresses to host names or host names to internet addresses.
  3. A capability of TCP/IP that allows multiple IP addresses to be configured on a physical network interface. The second and subsequent addresses on an interface are the alias addresses. See also IP address takeover, IP address takeover via IP aliases.
  4. In a TCP/IP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) application, a process used to convert SNA distribution services (SNADS) names in the origin and destination fields of a distribution to SMTP names. System and personal are the two types of aliasing on the System i platform.

alias name
A name that is used to represent all or part of a command. See also name translation.

alias name translation facility
A function for converting logical unit names, logon mode table names, and class-of-service names used in one network into equivalent names used in another network.

alias queue
An IBM MQ object, the name of which is an alias for a base queue or topic that is defined to the local queue manager. When an application or a queue manager uses an alias queue, the alias name is resolved and the requested operation is performed on the associated base object.

alias queue object
An IBM MQ object, the name of which is an alias for a base queue defined to the local queue manager. When an application or a queue manager uses an alias queue, the alias name is resolved and the requested operation is performed on the associated base queue.

alias server
A fabric software facility that supports multicast group management.

alias service
A service that is used to manage, generate and store alias information.

alien #
See alien number.

alien number (alien #)
An immigration ID card number.

aligned value
A value that is used to interpret equivalent native values from different data sources. For example, the value Male can be used to align the native values M or Ma.


  1. In DCF, the horizontal placement of text in a column or cell.
  2. The storing of data in relation to certain machine-dependent boundaries.

all activity
An activity that contains two or more complex child activities and executes each of them simultaneously.

all authority
An object authority that allows the user to perform all operations on the object except those limited to the owner or controlled by authorization list management authority. The user can control the object's existence, specify the security for the object, and change the object. See also exclude authority.

all-commodity volume (ACV)
The total annual sales volume of a retailer in a given geography, expressed as a percentage or share of the total market for that commodity.

all-days cyclic period
A cyclic period where all days are counted when calculating the interval.

In mainframe computing, a relationship that is created between a device and one or more channel paths during the processing of certain conditions.


  1. IBM maintains development and marketing relationships (alliances) with the industry's leading software developers, allowing us to offer complete solutions to customers by matching IBM technologies with independent software vendors (ISV) application and enabling software.
  2. A long-term partnership formed between IBM and one or more other companies to develop and deliver a technology, product, or service. The participants in an alliance share the risks, the benefits, the revenue, and the expenses.

alliance portfolio
The alliance portfolio maps the internal business processes against each of the strategic alliance solutions (Ariba, i2, SAP, Siebel) to show coverage and utilization.

allied address space

  1. An area of storage that is external to DB2 and that is connected to DB2. An allied address space can request DB2 services. See also address space, address space connection.
  2. A z/OS address space that is connected to IBM MQ for z/OS.

allied agent
An agent that represents work requests that originate in allied address spaces. See also system agent.

allied thread
A thread that originates at the local DB2 for z/OS subsystem and that can access data at a remote DB2 for z/OS subsystem.

all-member warm start
A warm start that is specified by the operator that occurs when no other no other members of the configuration are active or there is only one member in the configuration.

all object authority
A special authority that allows users to use all system resources without having specific authority to the resources.

Pertaining to products that are available to be designated for orders.


  1. In Network Computing System (NCS), to create a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) handle that identifies an object.
  2. To set aside inventory for a specific order.
  3. To assign a resource to a specific task.

allocated adjustment
An adjustment to the results of the difference between the original value calculated for a closed period and the value that would be currently calculated based on the new data.

allocate data set
In aggregate backup and recovery processing, a data set name that is listed in the selection data set. The space for this data set is allocated and the data set is cataloged at the recovery location, but the actual data is not restored.

allocated cursor
A cursor that is defined for procedure result sets by using the SQL statement ALLOCATE CURSOR.

allocated length
For variable-length character fields or variable-length graphic fields, the length that indicates the portion of the variable-length field that should be reserved in the fixed portion of the physical file member.

allocated memory
The amount of RAM reserved for different programs and applications.

allocated storage
The space that is allocated to volumes but is not yet assigned. See also assigned storage.

allocate list
An optional list in the selection data set that identifies the allocate data sets.


  1. The establishing of correspondences between a given logical structure and a given physical structure.
  2. The distribution of the costs of a shipment to the orders that are part of that shipment. The shipment costs can be allocated to orders based on weight or distance traveled.
  3. The process of temporarily connecting a program to a data set, file, or device.
  4. The assigning of various types of programs and record categories to system storage locations, such as main storage or disk storage.
  5. The distribution of data, specified at a summary level of a dimension, to lower levels. For example, the measures used to forecast quarterly sales revenue can be distributed to the month and day levels.

allocation tree
A data structure that represents a hierarchical relationship among transaction programs and other resource managers in a two-phase commit operation. The root node of the tree is the application that starts the transaction, which may not be the initiator of the commit request in a peer-to-peer communication protocol like LU 6.2.

The ability of an instance of a class to be managed as an instance of one or more different but compatible managed object classes.

all-or-none set
A set that contains two or more single items. Suppliers provide bids for the items as a group and do not enter bids for individual items.

allowable discrepancy
The variance in dates that is permitted between the requested ship date and the actual ship date.

A discount given to a retailer by a manufacturer in the form or monies, product discounts, shipping discounts, and so on.

allow backhaul
A Boolean field that indicates if a product can be returned to the supplier on the supplier’s truck in the case of an unsold or broken product.

allowed user
A subset of the users defined in a remote directory, such as SiteMinder or Windows Active Directory, that are allowed access to SPSS Predictive Enterprise Services. Allowed users are defined when only a few users in a remote directory need access to the application.

allow rule
A rule that allows a transaction to proceed without being approved by a member of an approval group and without evaluation of additional rules, provided the rule's conditions are met.

all-points addressability
The capability to address, reference, and position text, overlays, and images at any defined position or picture element (pel) on the printable area of a page. This capability depends on the ability of the hardware to address and to display each picture element.

all-points-addressable (APA)
Able to address, reference, and position text, overlays, and images at any defined position or picture element (pel) on the printable area of the paper. This capability depends on the ability of the hardware to address and to display each picture element.

all-points-addressable graphic
A graphic that can be addressed to any point on the screen. Each pixel is identified by its own specific address.

all-points-addressable mode (APA mode)
A video mode in which each pixel can be controlled.

all-stations address
See broadcast address.

See allied address space.

See application lifecycle management.

Pertaining to the set of letters and symbols, excluding digits, used in a language. This set usually consists of the uppercase and lowercase letters plus special symbols (such as $ and _) allowed by a particular language.

alphabetic character
A letter or other symbol, excluding digits, used in a language. Usually the uppercase and lowercase letters A through Z plus other special symbols (such as $ and _) allowed by a particular language.

In COBOL, a user-defined word, in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph of the Environment Division, that names a character set or collating sequence.

Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits, and usually other characters, such as punctuation marks.

alphanumeric character
A lowercase or uppercase letter, number, or special symbol.

alphanumeric cursor
In the GDDM function, a physical indicator on a display. The alphanumeric cursor may be moved from one hardware cell to another.

alphanumeric edited item
In COBOL, an alphanumeric data item with a PICTURE character string that contains at least one B, 0, or /.

alphanumeric set
Character set composed of uppercase and lowercase letters and numbers, not symbols.

alphanumeric string
In DCF, a sequence of characters consisting of the letters A through Z and the numerals 0 through 9.

alphanumeric weight (AW)
In cultural sorting, the sort weight value attributable to a basic letter such as a, b, and c. See also case weight, diacritical weight, indifferent weight, level 1, mark weight, special weight.

See automatic license plate recognition.

already-verified indicator
An indicator that is in the attach function management header. The indicator means that the ID-password confirmation has already been verified. Therefore the conversation request is sent with a user ID but without a password.

See adjacent link station.

also known as (AKA)
A nickname or alias.

The key to the left of the space bar on a keyboard. Some keyboards also have an Alt key to the right of the space bar. Alt keys are usually combined with other keys to produce different functions.

alternate-access mapping
A mapping that connects URLs presented by IBM StoredIQ Platform to internal URLs received by Windows SharePoint Services. An alternate-access mapping is required between the server name and optional port that is defined in the SharePoint volume definition and the internal URL of the web application.

alternate application
The subsystem that is prepared to take over a particular active application's extended recovery facility (XRF) sessions with terminal users in case the application fails. See also active application.

alternate code point
A syntactic code point that permits a substitute code point to be used. For example, the left brace ({) can be represented by X'B0' and also by X'C0'.

alternate console
A twinaxial console that acts as a backup console and is used only to determine why the system console failed. An alternate console cannot be used to install the system. The alternate console can manage the system only when the system console is defined as the twinaxial console during a manual IPL. See also backup console, twinaxial console.

alternate drill-down path

  1. An alternate path traced from the root category, through a drill category, leading to a low-level category. Certain tasks, such as partitioning and allocating, cannot be performed on alternate drill-down paths.
  2. In a cube, an alternate path within a dimension that leads to child categories.

alternate entry point
A load module or program object alias for which the entry point is not the primary entry point. Other program attributes can differ within a defined alias from those of the primary entry point. See also primary entry point.

alternate exception action
In IPDS architecture, a defined action that a printer can take when a clearly defined, but unsupported, request is received. Control over alternate exception actions is specified by an Execute Order Anystate Exception-Handling Control command.

alternate facility
In distributed transaction programming, an IRC or SNA session that is obtained by a transaction by means of an ALLOCATE command. See also principal facility.

alternate Hardware Management Console (alternate HMC)
A System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) that is paired with the primary HMC to provide redundancy. See also Hardware Management Console, primary Hardware Management Console.

alternate hierarchy
See special category.

alternate HMC
See alternate Hardware Management Console.

alternate IMS
In an Extended Recovery Facility (XRF) environment, the IMS that monitors the active IMS and takes over production work when the active IMS fails.

alternate index

  1. In CICS, an index based on an alternate key. It allows the file to be processed in a secondary key order.
  2. For VSAM key-sequenced data sets and entry-sequenced data sets, an index of alternate keys that provides a path for secondary access to the data set. If the records have alternate keys, the alternate index is built when the data set is created. See also secondary index.
  3. In z/OS Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a collection of index entries related to a given base cluster and organized by a key other than the prime key of the associated, base-cluster, data records. An alternate index provides an alternate directory for locating records in the data component of a base cluster.
  4. A subordinate index in a hierarchy of indexes.

alternate-index cluster
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the data and index components of an alternate index.

alternate-index entry
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a catalog entry that contains information about an alternate index. An alternate-index entry points to a data entry and an index entry to describe the alternate index's components, and to a cluster entry to identify the alternate index's base cluster. See also alternate-index record, base cluster, cluster entry.

alternate-index file
A file that supports keyed forms of access to the records of a base file.

alternate-index record
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a collection of alternate-index entries used to sequence and locate one or more data records in a base cluster. Each alternate-index record contains an alternate-key value and one or more pointers. When the alternate index supports a key-sequenced data set (KSDS), the pointer is the prime key value of each data record. When the alternate index supports an entry-sequenced data set (ESDS), the pointer is the relative byte address (RBA) value of the data records. See also alternate key, alternate-index entry, key.

alternate installation device
A tape device that is used to load Licensed Internal Code from the tape device to the load-source disk unit during a restore or installation operation. The alternate installation device can be on a different bus unit or on a different input/output processor (IOP) than the load-source disk unit.

alternate installation IPL
A special type of installation IPL (a D-mode IPL) in which the system uses the installation device to IPL itself. The system then copies the Licensed Internal Code from the alternate installation device to the load-source disk unit.

alternate IPL
The process of loading code into main storage from a designated input/output device instead of from the load-source disk unit for the system, and of preparing for system operations. An alternate IPL is a type D IPL.

alternate IRLM
The internal resource lock manager (IRLM) supporting the alternate IMS subsystem in an Extended Recovery Facility (XRF) complex. See also active IRLM.

alternate key

  1. In VSAM, a field, other than the primary key, of fixed length and position in a record. A set of alternate keys is used to build an alternate index that provides an alternative or secondary path for access to the data set. There can be any number of alternate keys in a record and they need not be unique.
  2. In z/OS Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), one or more bytes within a data record used to identify the data record or control its use. Unlike the prime key, the alternate key can identify more than one data record. It is used to build an alternate index or to locate one or more base data records using an alternate index. See also alternate-index record, key field.

alternate layer
Any of the keyboard layers which is not automatically invoked when the keyboard is powered on (see IBM Corporate Standard C-S 2-0161-008: Keyboard National Requirements). See also primary layer, secondary group layout.

alternate mail
A mail system other than Notes mail.

alternate mark inversion (AMI)
A T1 line coding scheme in which binary 1 bits are represented by alternate positive and negative pulses and binary 0 bits by spaces (no pulse). The purpose is to make the average dc level on the line equal to zero.

alternate medium source
In certain printers, the ability to select medium from more than one source (bin).

alternate name
An additional name for a Domino user.

alternate name parse
A possible variation of a name, which is used to improve name analysis and scoring.

alternate path
A channel that an operation can use after a failure. See also primary path.

alternate path retry (APR)
A facility that allows a failed I/O operation to be retried on another channel assigned to the device performing the I/O operation. It also provides the capability to establish other paths to an online or offline device.

alternate PCB
See alternate program communication block.

alternate program communication block (alternate PCB)
A telecommunication-program program communication block (TP PCB) that is defined by the user and can be used to describe output message destinations other than the terminal that originated the input message. See also alternate response PCB, express alternate PCB, input/output program communication block, modifiable alternate PCB.

alternate record key
In COBOL, a key, other than the prime record key, whose contents identify a record within an indexed file.

alternate response PCB
A program communication block (PCB) that defines a logical terminal and can be used instead of the I/O PCB when required to direct a response to a terminal in response mode, conversational mode, or exclusive mode. See also alternate program communication block.

alternate retention
A variable retention period defined within one records management disposition schedule. The alternate retention is based on property values.

alternate route
A secondary or backup route that is used if normal routing is not possible.

alternate screen size
An option that permits the size of a display screen to be defined differently from the standard size.

alternate tape volume
In DFSMShsm, copies of original tape volumes created during tape copy processing. The volumes can be stored either on-site or off-site for use later in the event of a disaster. During the tape-replacement processing, these volumes can replace the original volumes that might be lost.

alternate tape volume reference
In DFSMShsm, additional fields in the tape table of contents (TTOC) record that contain information about the alternate tape volume. These fields provide the information necessary to refer to the alternate tape volume.

alternate user authority
The ability of a user ID to supply a different user ID for security checks. When an application opens an IBM MQ object, it can supply a user ID on the MQOPEN, MQPUT1, or MQSUB call that the queue manager uses for authority checks instead of the one associated with the application.

alternate user security
On z/OS, the authority checks that are performed when an application requests alternate user authority when opening an IBM MQ object.

alternating array
In RPG, two arrays that are loaded together.

alternating current (AC)
An electric current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals.

alternating table
In RPG, two tables that are loaded together.

alternative association
An association between items that is used to identify alternative items for purchase.

alternative collating sequence
A user-defined collating sequence that replaces the standard EBCDIC collating sequence.

alternative console
A display device assigned by the operating system to function as the console if the console is not working. The system searches for an alternative console when contact with the system console fails.

alternative cylinder
A cylinder on the disk that is reserved by the system then made available in place of a cylinder that is damaged or defective.

alternative item
An item suggested for purchase when inventory is not available for the original item.

alternative line
A second switched line to which a remote controller can be attached if the first communications line is not available.

alternative quote
A quote that is one of several quotes that are independent of each other, but are associated with a single opportunity.

alternative sector
A sector on the disk that is reserved by the system and then made available when a sector is damaged or defective.

alternative service
An option that allows for an alternative service that is similar to the original service to be offered along with the original service to the customer.

alternative shift
In System i Access, an operation that defines a different set of characters or functions for the keyboard when the Alt key is pressed; for example, the Backspace key may represent the clear function when the Alt key is pressed.

alternative text (alt text)
Text that is placed within the IMG element to describe the purpose of the image. If the image is not displayed, the alternative text can be presented instead. See also long description.

alternative transport class
In OSI, a transport class that an application entity will accept for use in an association. See also preferred transport class.

The key to the right of the space bar on a keyboard. Alt-Gr keys provide access to characters engraved on the front face of a key. Alt-Gr keys are usually combined with other keys to generate different graphic characters.

alt text
See alternative text.

See arithmetic logic unit.


  1. See agile modeling.
  2. See account manager.

See arbitrary MAC addressing.

ambient light
In three-dimensional graphics, light that reflects off one or more surfaces in the scene before arriving at the target surface. Ambient light is assumed to be nondirectional, and is reflected uniformly in all directions by the reflecting surface. In Graphics Library, ambient light is simulated by use of ambient terms in the lighting equation, rather than computing the reflections.

ambiguous cursor
A database cursor for which DB2 cannot determine whether it is used for update or read-only purposes.

ambiguous software
Software that has an executable that looks like another executable, or that exists in more than one place in a catalog (Microsoft Word as a standalone product or bundled with Microsoft Office).

amended contract
An executed contract that has an activated amendment.

Any change or alteration that is made to a master agreement.

amendment attachment
A contract attachment that is added to an authored amendment contract.

amendment clause
A clause that is applied to, or edited in, an authored amendment contract.

amendment contract
A contract that is created for the purpose of changing an executed contract. See also contract.

amendment impact
An amendment clause or amendment attachment that has an effect on a contract clause or contract attachment, respectively. The impact is either automatic (by copying the component from the executed contract to the authored amendment contract) or selected by an internal user manually.

amendment line
A contract line that is applied to, or edited in, an authored amendment contract.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A private, nonprofit organization whose membership includes private companies, U.S. government agencies, and professional, technical, trade, labor, and consumer organizations. ANSI coordinates the development of voluntary consensus standards in the U.S.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
A standard code used for information exchange among data processing systems, data communication systems, and associated equipment. ASCII uses a coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters. See also Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

See alternate mark inversion.

See advanced management module.

See addressing mode.

The process of paying off a debt over time through regularly scheduled payments.

See application message protocol data unit.

The & character. In SCRIPT/VS, the ampersand identifies a character string as a symbolic name. If the symbolic name is defined, SCRIPT/VS replaces the symbol with its value (unless symbol substitution is off).

See Asymmetric Massively Parallel Processing.

See Advanced Message Queuing Protocol.

AMQP channel
A type of channel that provides a level of support for AMQP 1.0-compliant applications. MQ Light clients or other AMQP 1.0 compatible clients can be connected to an IBM MQ AMQP channel.

See authority mask register.

See Action Message Retention Facility.


  1. See Automated Manifest System.
  2. See Application Management Services.
  3. See Application Management Specification.
  4. See access method services.

See address mapping table.

Pertaining to data that consists of continuously variable physical quantities. See also digital.

analog device
An instrument that provides continuous results, such as a pressure gauge.

Analog Display Services Interface (ADSI)
A Bellcore signaling protocol used with existing voice networks. ADSI supports analog transmission of voice and text-based information between a host or switch, voice mail system, service bureau, or similar, and a subscriber's ADSI-compatible screen telephone. A single voice-grade telephony channel is shared between voice and data, using a technique by which the channel is taken over for the transmission of modem-encoded data.

analog video
Video in which the information that represents images is in a continuous-scale electrical signal for amplitude and time.

The phase of data collection whereby raw data is cleaned, tabulated, analyzed, and so on.

analysis attribute
A characteristic or trait pertaining to a chart item. Analysis attributes are never displayed on charts.

analysis database
A database that InfoSphere Information Analyzer uses when it runs analysis jobs and where it stores the extended analysis information. The analysis database does not contain the InfoSphere Information Analyzer projects, analysis results, and design-time information; all of this information is stored in the metadata repository.

analysis definition
In real-time analysis, a definition of the evaluations to be performed on specified CICS resources, the intervals at which those evaluations are to be performed, and the actions to be taken when a notif condition occurs.

analysis engine
A program that analyzes artifacts, such as documents, and infers information about them. Analysis engines are constructed from annotators. See also aggregate analysis engine, custom text analysis engine, hybrid analysis engine, loosely coupled analysis engine, primitive analysis engine, tightly coupled analysis engine.

analysis group
In real-time analysis, a group of one or more analysis definitions, status definitions, or both.

analysis point monitoring (APM)
In real-time analysis, resource monitoring across multiple CICS system within a CICSplex that results in a single notification of a condition, rather than one notification for each system.

analysis point specification
In real-time analysis, a specification that identifies the CMAS that are to be responsible for analysis point monitoring.

analysis repository
A persistent storage area for analysis-ready information.

analysis specification
In real-time analysis, a specification that establishes system availability monitoring or MAS resource monitoring within a group of CICS systems.

analytic engine
The query engine that executes queries against fact and dimension tables. The engine can quickly recalculate metric values at different levels of a hierarchical dimension.

analytic profile
A profile that determines the set of analytic algorithms and associated configuration that the Smart Surveillance Engine (SSE) uses to process the incoming video stream to produce event or alert metadata.


  1. The science of studying data in order to find meaningful patterns in the data and draw conclusions based on those patterns.
  2. A sophisticated and systematic use of business data to ensure fact-based decision making.

analytic server
See listener server.

analyze component
The autonomic manager component that correlates and models complex situations to understand the current system state. See also autonomic manager.

anamorphic scaling
In architecture, scaling an object differently in the vertical and horizontal directions.

The use of a word as a regular grammatical substitute for a preceding word or group of words. For example, in the following sentence, "it" and "do" are examples of anaphora in the sentence "I know it and he does too."


  1. A member that exists at a higher level than another member in a hierarchy and is connected by a series of parent-child relationships.
  2. The object from which another object derives its attributes.
  3. In Enhanced X-Windows, a widget that has inferior widgets. In other words, an ancestor is the superior or predecessor of an inferior widget. If W is an inferior of A, then A is an ancestor of W.

ancestor classification
All of the classifications that precede a particular classification within a hierarchy.


  1. An agent that enables discovery programs to access data from machines that have firewalls or another kind of protections.
  2. The first item that is clicked when using multiple select actions to select a range of items.

anchor class
A collection of products with similar anchor prices.

anchor control
In the GUI designer tool suite of VisualAge RPG (a feature of the WebSphere Development Studio Client licensed program), when the user has selected a group of controls in the design window, the attributes of the anchor control, such as position, size, and alignment, are applied to the other selected controls in the group.

anchored data type
A data type that is defined to be continuously the same as the data type of the object referenced in the ANCHOR clause.

anchor point
The point in a document that signals to ACIF the beginning of a group of pages, after which it adds indexing structured fields to delineate this group.

anchor price
A pre-established price point around which price fluctuations are determined.

ancillary equipment
See auxiliary equipment.

A step in the workflow that acts as a collector for an AND-split step. An AND-split step results in the workflow simultaneously following multiple routes; the AND-join step subsequently brings the workflow back into a single path.

AND operation
See conjunction.

AND relationship
The specification of conditioning indicators so that the operation is performed only when all conditions are met.

Andrew File System (AFS)
A distributed file system for large networks that uses a set of trusted servers to present a homogeneous, location-transparent file name space to all the client workstations.

A mobile operating system created by Google, most of which is released under the Apache 2.0 and GPLv2 open source licenses. See also mobile device, mobile operating system.

Android application package
The client application artifact for an Android application. The Android package is an archive file with an extension of .apk

Android emulator
A virtual mobile device application that can be used to prototype, develop, and test Android applications without using a physical device. See also Android Virtual Device.

Android Virtual Device (AVD)
An emulator configuration that can be used to model an actual device by defining the hardware and software options to be emulated. See also Android emulator, AVD Manager.

A step in the workflow where there are multiple outgoing routes that the workflow can take simultaneously. An AND-split step must have a corresponding AND-join step.

An annotation type that is composed of two intersecting lines and the specified degree of space between them.

angle bracket
Either the left angle bracket (<) or the right angle bracket (>). In the portable character set, these characters are referred to by the names <less-than-sign> and <greater-than-sign>.

See automatic number identification.

Pertaining to alphabetic, numeric, or katakana characters.

annealing display type
A visualizer module that displays landscape objects in a manner that allows a minimal distance between objects while maintaining groups of associated objects.

To add metadata to an object to describe services and data.

annotated XML schema
An XML schema composed of XML schema documents that use annotation elements and attributes that are specific to XML document decomposition. An annotated XML schema is used by decomposition procedures to specify the mapping of XML data to database tables and columns.


  1. An added descriptive comment, note, line, or shape.
  2. In speech recognition, an alphanumeric string used to mark a grammar when it is defined. When the grammar is used in an application, both the word and the alphanumeric string are returned to the application.
  3. Information about a span of text. For example, an annotation could indicate that a span of text represents a company name. In the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA), an annotation is a kind of feature structure. See also common analysis structure.
  4. An added descriptive comment or explanatory note.

annotation data
A representation of an annotation in a form suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or automatic means.

annotation link
In MO:DCA, a link type that specifies the linkage from a source document component to a target document component that contains an annotation.

annotation object
In MO:DCA, an object that contains an annotation. Objects that are targets of annotation links are annotation objects.

annotation query language (AQL)
A query language that is used for text-based information extraction.

annotation security
One or more settings that define how users can interact with annotations.

annotation tag
A tag that can be inserted into source code like a Javadoc comment. In EJB beans they provide metadata that is used to generate other application artifacts. See also doclet.

annotation tool
A tool that allows the presenter to emphasize specific content in a presentation with an arrow pointer or highlighter.

A software component that defines a set of vocabularies and rules which describe the language used to describe objects in a given domain and how they interact. An annotator is the analysis logic component in an analysis engine.

announcement-only greeting
In voice mail, a greeting that does not give the caller an opportunity to leave a voice message.

A deviation from the expected behavior of the network.

anomaly detection
The process of monitoring and isolating activity that falls outside of normal patterns across time, location, and user and traffic behavior.

The process that removes the association between a data set and the data subject.

To disguise field names or values when working with confidential data, such as employee records or patients' medical records.

anonymous access
A type of access that allows users and servers to access a server without first authenticating with it.

anonymous command execution
Execution of commands on a target system as either system account (for managed systems running Windows) or root (for managed systems running Linux).

anonymous device
A WiFi enabled device whose owner has not registered or opted-in.

anonymous host
See pseudohost.

anonymous partner
A mechanism that supports the representation of many trading partners (or individual users) without needing to configure an organization (identity representation in the system), specific certificates, and exchange details for each one.

anonymous union
An unnamed object whose type is an unnamed union.

anonymous user
A user who does not use a valid user ID and password to log in to a site. See also authenticated user, registered user.

See automatic number plate recognition.

See automatic network routing.

See American National Standards Institute.

ANSI carriage control character
A character that specifies that a write, space, or skip operation should be performed before printing the line that contains the carriage control. ANSI carriage control characters are encoded in ASCII or EBCDIC.

ANSI Clear
A communications standard that uses the asynchronous protocol to transfer EDI data. The ANSI Clear standard is commonly used by the health care industry to transfer data, such as supply orders.

ANSI control character
A control character as defined by the FORTRAN standards of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It appears at the beginning of each record.

In telex, the response from the dialed correspondent to the WHO R U signal.

answerback code
A group of up to 6 letters following or contained in the answerback. It is used to check the answerback.

answer consequence
A consequence or a result of answering a certain question.

answer constraint
A limitation for submitting a response.

answer key
A single XML file that contains questions and their allowable answers for an IBM Watson system. See also ground truth, question set.

answer scoring
The process of associating a set of values with each possible answer.

answer type
A data type defined by internal users for the suppliers to provide answers. It could include numbers, characters or dates.

See Apache Ant.

A part of an association rule that specifies a precondition for the rule. This is a condition that must be present in a record for the rule to apply to it. See also consequent, Continuous Association Rule Mining Algorithm.

Two or more container group instances that run on different network nodes to ensure higher availability for an app. See also affinity.

To apply techniques to smooth the edges of lines after scan conversion. Common techniques include adjusting pixel positions or setting pixel intensities according to the percent of pixel area coverage at each point.

A technique used to smooth the edges of lines and polygon edges after scan conversion. Common techniques include adjusting pixel positions or setting pixel intensities according to the percent of pixel area coverage at each point.

A resource distribution policy for service labels on IPAT via IP aliases networks to ensure that all resources of this type are allocated on the first physical resource that is not already serving, or serving the least number of, a resource of the same type. See also collocation, collocation, distribution preference.

An answer set in which the returned rows do not meet the condition of the join predicate.

An inferior process pattern that teams follow or a design solution that teams commonly make. Antipatterns are used to reinforce better planning and provide a problem solving reference point.

Pertaining to software that detects and prevents the delivery of unsolicited email.

antivirus server
A server program that is used to prevent, detect, and remove malicious software.

Ant with Enterprise Extensions
A set of extensions to Apache Ant that makes it possible to build z/OS-based applications using Ant.

See Advanced Network Exchange.

Communication between a single sender and the nearest receiver in a group. See also unicast.

The form of an accept request that completes the establishment of a session by accepting any unspecified queued CINIT request. See also continue-any mode.

An IBM implementation of the Multiprotocol Transport Network (MPTN) architecture, such as AnyNet/2 and AnyNet/MVS. AnyNet capability allows applications and associated services that use application programming interfaces, such as sockets, ICF, or CPI-Communications, the flexibility to use alternative network protocols, such as SNA or TCP/IP, and a variety of subnetwork types, such as a LAN, frame-relay, and ISDN.

AnyNet product family
A group of IBM products that implement the multiprotocol transport networking (MPTN) architecture, thus enabling application programs to communicate independently of the underlying network transport protocol.

anything to anything (A2A)
A data transformation from any data format to any other data format.

anywhere heap
The Language Environment heap controlled by the ANYHEAP runtime option. It contains library data, such as Language Environment control blocks and data structures not normally accessible from user code. The anywhere heap may reside above 16MB.


  1. See Automated Operator.
  2. See access optimizer.

See Automated Operator Interface.

See application-owning region.

See Academy of Technology.


  1. See application program.
  2. See application process.

See all-points-addressable.

Apache Ant
A Java-based open-source tool from Apache Software Foundation that is used to automate build processes.

Apache Hadoop
An open-source storage and large-scale processing software framework that is trademarked by the Apache Software Foundation and licensed under the Apache License 2.0.

Apache HTTP Server
An open-source web server. IBM offers a web server, called the IBM HTTP Server, which is based on Apache.

Apache Kafka
A publish-subscribe distributed messaging system.

APA mode
See all-points-addressable mode.

See authorized program analysis report.

APAR media
The diskette or the tape to which the user collects APAR information.

apartment number (apt #)
The numeric segment of an apartment location.

See Application Program Driver.

See application-layer protocol data unit.

apex option
A customization option that restricts access to selected information in the cube. The apex option omits the ancestors and siblings of a category from the dimension view.


  1. See advanced printer function.
  2. See application processing function.
  3. See authorized program facility.

Pertaining to a program that is authorized by the authorized program facility (APF) to access restricted functions, such as supervisor calls (SVC) or SVC paths.

AP feed
See account payable feed.

See application programming interface.

API content model
A model that describes how XML documents, and their extended metadata, are represented.

API-crossing exit
A user written program that is similar in concept to an API exit. It is supported only for CICS applications on IBM MQ for z/OS.

API end point
A hook in the application that is triggered after a specific action. An API end point is used to customize the application.

API exit
A user-written program that monitors or modifies the function of an MQI call. For each MQI call issued by an application, the API exit is called before the queue manager starts to process the call and again after the queue manager has completed processing the call. The API exit can inspect and modify any of the parameters on the MQI call.

API reference
REST API documentation where certain services can be created, read, updated, and deleted.

API resource
A unit of a REST API that can be invoked. An API resource comprises an HTTP verb and a URL path that is subordinate to the context root of the API.

API stub
A piece of glue code that enables the binder to resolve zRule Execution Server for z/OS API calls that COBOL applications make. For example, HBRBSTUB is an API stub that is used for COBOL applications that run as batch applications and HBRCSTUB is an API stub that is used for COBOL applications that run as CICS applications. See also glue code.

See A programming language.

See analysis point monitoring.

See Apple Push Notification service.


  1. A web or mobile device application. See also mobile application, web application.
  2. In IBM Connections Communities, portable, reusable code or a piece of dynamic content that can be placed into a web page, receive input, and communicate with another app.

See Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.

APPC controller
A controller that defines peer systems within a network for advanced program-to-program communications.

See Advanced Program-to-Program Communication/IMS.

A session environment in support of LU 6.2 transaction scheduling and communications. APPC/MVS is the MVS implementation of APPC. See also Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.


  1. Data that is added to the end of existing data.
  2. To attach a file or field to the end of another file or field.

An application program routine provided to assist in handling a specific occurrence.

A component that receives logging requests from a logger and writes log statements to a specified file or console. See also logger.

append link
In MO:DCA, a link type that specifies the linkage from the end of a source document component to a target document component that contains an append.

append object
In MO:DCA, an object that contains an append. Objects that are targets of append links are append objects.

app ID
A GUID that is assigned to a Bluemix mobile application. See also globally unique identifier.

Apple profile
An XML file that contains configuration information, including email settings, network settings, or certificates for Apple devices, for automatic configuration of a user's device.

Apple Push Notification service (APNs)

A program that performs a specific task and is typically portable between operating systems. Often written in Java, applets can be downloaded from the Internet and run in a web browser.

A network protocol developed by Apple Computer, Inc. This protocol is used to interconnect network devices, which can be a mixture of Apple and non-Apple products.

AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP)
In AppleTalk networks, a protocol that (a) translates AppleTalk node addresses into hardware addresses and (b) reconciles addressing discrepancies in networks that support more than one set of protocols.

AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP)
In AppleTalk networks, a protocol that provides a node destination test function by means of a send and receive transaction where the packet received at the source node is identical to the packet sent to the destination node.

AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)
In AppleTalk networks, a protocol that provides client/server request and response functions for hosts accessing the Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) for zone information.

applet client
A client that runs within a browser-based Java runtime environment, and is capable of interacting with enterprise beans directly instead of indirectly through a servlet.

Applet Viewer
An application, which is part of JDK, that demonstrates how an applet will look and behave.

A hardware device with integrated software that is dedicated to a specific task or set of business requirements.

appliance template
A file that is specific to an operating system that contains the global settings required for integrating Emptoris products through the Suite Installer.

Applicability Statement 1 (AS1)
An EDI protocol for securely exchanging data over the Internet, by using SMTP as a transport mechanism.

Applicability Statement 2 (AS2)
An EDI protocol for securely exchanging data over the Internet, by using HTTP as a transport.

Applicability Statement 3 (AS3)
An EDI protocol for securely exchanging data over the Internet, by using FTP as a transport.

Someone who applies for an open job requisition.

applicant tracking system (ATS)
A software application that enables the electronic handling of recruitment needs. Typically ATSs are comprised of one or more candidate portal(s), a recruiter portal for candidate data mining and candidate processing, and a hiring manager portal. ATSs generally also include candidate correspondence and interview scheduling functionality, plus ad hoc reporting and a metrics dashboard. See also recruitment management system, talent management system.


  1. A component of the Internet of Things Foundation that has a connection to the internet and can interact with data from devices and control the behaviour of those devices in some manner.
  2. In a CICS cloud environment, a management bundle used to describe and create the CICS bundles that contain the resources and policy that comprise a business application. The application can use versioning and is bound to a platform by using an application binding. See also application binding, management bundle, platform.
  3. A Notes database containing both data and programming (in LotusScript) for displaying and manipulating data.
  4. An object that functions as a virtual folder to organize shortcuts to other objects, external files, and URLs in a logical, job-specific or project grouping.
  5. A system that provides the user interface for reading or entering the authentication credentials.
  6. A measurable and controllable unit of work that completes a specific user task, such as the running of payroll or financial statements. The smallest entity that an application can be broken down into is an operation. Generally, several related operations make up an application.
  7. A container that allows a relationship manager to seek approval for risk appetite limits and credit facilities of a customer or customer group within the bank internal authorities. Applications have different types to reflect the different portfolios of customers, such as financial institutions and corporates, and different business processes and policies applied.
  8. See workload application.
  9. In OnDemand, an object that describes the physical attributes of a report or input file, such as the type of data found in the input file, the code page, and whether the input data contains carriage control characters. An application also contains instructions that the data indexing and loading programs use to process the input data.
  10. One or more computer programs or software components that provide a function in direct support of a specific business process or processes. See also application monitoring, application server, multitiered application.
  11. In ShowCase Essbase, a management structure containing one or more ShowCase Essbase databases and related files that control many system variables such as memory allocation and autoload parameters.
  12. Software that processes the messages that are uploaded to Global Mailbox.
  13. A product created using the IBM TRIRIGA Application Platform.

application adapter
An adapter that integrates external business applications with Sterling B2B Integrator.

application assembly
The process of creating an enterprise archive (EAR) file containing all the files related to an application as well as an Extensible Markup Language (XML) deployment descriptor for the application.

application assembly optimization (AAO)
IBM's patented method of process automation for development, enhancement, testing and maintenance of applications. It provides a highly standardized model that uses lean processes, automation, collaboration and innovative measurements to achieve performance objectives within application development and management organization.

Application Assembly Tool
See Application Server Toolkit.

application association
In OSI, a cooperative relationship between two application entities that enables them to exchange data.

application binding
In a CICS cloud environment, a management bundle that defines an association that maps, or binds, an application to a target platform. An application binding can use CICS bundles to provide additional CICS resources and policy for the applications deployed to them. See also application, CICS bundle, management bundle, platform.

application boundary
During the save-while-active operation, a point in time when all of the objects that a particular application is dependent on are: 1) at a consistent state in relationship to each other, and 2) in a state where the application can be started or started again.

Application Center
A MobileFirst component that can be used to share applications and facilitate collaboration between team members in a single repository of mobile applications. See also Company Hub.

Application Center installer
An application that lists the catalog of available applications in the Application Center. The Application Center Installer must be present on a device so that one can install applications from your private application repository.

application client

  1. In Java EE, a first-tier client component that runs in its own Java virtual machine. Application clients have access to some Java EE platform APIs, for example JNDI, JDBC, RMI-IIOP, and JMS. (Sun)
  2. A program that is installed on a system to protect an application. The server provides backup services to an application client.

application client module
A Java archive (JAR) file that contains a client that accesses a Java application. The Java application runs inside a client container and can connect to remote or client-side Java EE resources.

Application Client project
A structure and hierarchy of folders and files that contain a first-tier client component that runs in its own Java virtual machine.

application connectivity link (ACL)
A service that transmits out-of-band information between DirectTalk and the Siemens Hicom 300 switch.

application context

  1. In event processing, the filtering options defined in the capture specification for application events. These options define the environment for the event capture.
  2. In a CICS cloud environment, data that identifies tasks that are running in the context of the application and platform when a CICS resource is declared as an application entry point for an application.
  3. In OSI, a set of rules for two application entities to use for an association that provides a means for agreement on the type of processing to be done. Included are the set of application service elements and their options that are to be used for the association. The application context is negotiated by the ACSE when it establishes the association.

application context data
In a CICS cloud environment, metadata that identifies the operation, application, application version, and platform in which the application is running.

application context name
In OSI, a name that specifies the application context to be used for an association and the kind of work that an application does. In OSI, application context names are in object ID format. For applications that are defined by the ISO, such as FTAM, the ISO specifies application context names. For other applications, the application context names are specified by the user.

application control block (ACB)
A control block that is created from the output of DBD and PSB generation and placed in the ACB library for use during online and database batch (DBB) region type execution of IMS.

application control block generation (ACBGEN)
The process by which application control blocks are generated.

application control command (ACC)
A MERVA Link USS command that provides a means of operating MERVA Link USS in USS shell and MVS batch environments.

application controller

  1. A PowerHA SystemMirror entity that is used in the management of an application included in a resource group. The application controller specifies the scripts to start, stop, and (optionally) monitor an application.
  2. See objective analyzer.

application data
In event processing, the predicates in the capture specification used for filtering on application data specified in a CICS command.

application data model (ADM)
A relational model that defines and holds the data used as input to Decision Optimization Center or that emerges from it as output. The application data model provides graphical editors that can be used to draw the data model the application will use, or import it from an existing external database or OPL model.

application data refresh
An extract of data from an IBM Commerce on Cloud environment into a format that is native to the application, or an import of data into an environment.

application-defined format
Application data in a message for which the user application defines the meaning. See also built-in format.

application definition
An XML file that defines the user interface and data resources of a mobile app. The application definition must be built before it can be deployed as an executable file.

application delivery notification
A delivery notification that is passed to an application. Typically, an application delivery notification is based on a network delivery notification, but has been modified in some way by the service that exchanges data directly with the application. See also network delivery notification.

application-dependent data
Program data that varies from application to application, such as menus, dialogs, and other user-interface elements,

application description
A database description of an application.

application description language file (ADL file)
A configuration file that is created when a streams processing application is compiled and that describes the processing elements, operators, and artifacts that make up the application. An ADL file is used to submit the application to the runtime system. See also streams processing application.

application descriptor file
A metadata file that defines various aspects of an application.

Application Development Toolset
A feature of the WebSphere Development Studio licensed program that provides an integrated set of application development tools, or utilities, to be used by programmers, analysts, and support personnel. This package includes the following utilities: programming development manager (PDM), source entry utility (SEU), file compare and merge utility (FCMU), interactive source debugger (ISDB), screen design aid (SDA), data file utility (DFU), report layout utility (RLU), and advanced printer function (APF). In addition, the character generator utility (CGU) is added to the package if the user's system supports the double-byte character set (DBCS).

application diagram
A graphical view of the different resources (programs, service programs, and RPG, COBOL and CL source) in an IBM i native application and their relationships to each other.

application-directed connection
A connection that an application manages using the SQL CONNECT statement.

application domain

  1. CICS domain that contains several major components, including application and system services, intercommunication (ISC and MRO), system control, and reliability. Application programs run in this domain. Most application domain functions are either provided by modules that are an integral part of the CICS system and are loaded at system initialization, or they are system application programs that are loaded as needed, in the same way as user applications.
  2. A container for the configured resources that support one or more services.

application edition
A unique deployment of a particular application. Multiple editions of the same application have the same application name, while edition names are unique.

application edition manager
An autonomic manager that manages interruption-free production application deployments.

application entity (AE)

  1. An independent, self-contained, distinct set of software components that perform specific tasks.
  2. In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), the part of an application process that contains the OSI communications functions. Application entities can have more than one application association. See also application entity title.

application entity common name
In OSI, a user-defined character string recommended by ISO for identifying an application entity. The application entity common name is part of the distinguished name of an application entity and must be unique within its next higher-level object--the application process common name.

application entity descriptor
In OSI, information that identifies an application entity to OSI Communications Subsystem. The application entity descriptor also specifies the default application mode to be used for associations that are established by the application entity.

application entity environment
In OSI, an environment that OSI Communications Subsystem establishes when an application entity identifies itself to OSI Communications Subsystem. The OSI Communications Subsystem requires that an application entity environment be established before an application entity can be activated. See also application entity identifier.

application entity ID
See application entity identifier.

application entity identifier (application entity ID)
In OSI, a parameter that identifies a particular application entity to the programming interface. The programming interface returns the application entity identifier when the customer program builds an application entity environment. The customer program then uses the application entity identifier to identify itself to OSI Communications Subsystem on later calls. See also application entity environment.

application entity nickname
In OSI, the name by which the local OSI Communications Subsystem identifies an application entity title.

application entity object class
In OSI, the set of objects that are application entities.

application entity qualifier
In OSI, an optional integer field that further defines an application entity title.

application entity state
In OSI, a state that an application entity can be in. The state of an application entity determines what actions it can take.

application entity title (AE title)
In OSI, an identifier for an application entity that supplements the generic information in the application context name. Application entity titles are represented as distinguished names, and can also be optionally represented as object IDs. In object ID form, the application entity title consists of an application process title and an optional application entity qualifier. See also application entity, application process title.

application environment

  1. A user-defined collection of resources that hosts an application. These application environments refer to environments that are created to be environments in IBM UrbanCode Deploy.
  2. The environment that includes the software and the server or network infrastructure that supports it.

application event

  1. Any of the events defined by HATS except the recognition of a host screen, such as connect, disconnect, start and stop.
  2. A type of business event that contains application data. See also business event.

application file
A file that defines an application for the creation of an import or export map. An application file must contain all the information that must be extracted from a partner's document (if the map is inbound) or sent to a partner (if the map is outbound), so that the system can accurately process the data.

application file format
See positional data format.

application generator
An application development tool that creates applications, application components (panels, data, databases, logic, interfaces to system services), or complete application systems from design specifications.

application graph
See data flow graph.

application group

  1. In CDE, an Application Manager folder that contains a specific software application or set of software applications.
  2. A set of applications that share the same directory. A user can logon to any of the applications in the application group using the same user name.
  3. An application description that holds run cycle and calendar information for standard applications or job descriptions that have been defined as a member of the group.

application group name (AGN)
In DBCTL, the name of an application group. An application group is a set of PSBs that can be accessed by one particular CICS system or BMP as a single entity.

application handle
A unique value that identifies a specific application.

application ID

  1. A unique string that is generated when an application connects to a database or when DB2 Connect receives a request to connect to a Distributed Relational Database Architecture database. This ID is known on both the client and the server and can be used to correlate the two parts of the application.
  2. A unique identifier for an application in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) that is sent in a distributed environment.
  3. The name of an application (for example, PAYROLL or DAILYJOBS).

application identifier (APPLID)
The name by which a logical unit is known in a VTAM network.

application identity mapping (AIM)
A map between RACF user IDs and various application identities, such as those associated with z/OS UNIX, Novell Directory Services, and Lotus Notes.

application-independent data
Program data that can be reused by multiple applications, such as collation tables, transliteration rules, and names of date and time elements. Application-independent data is usually managed so as to be available to multiple programs that might need it.

application infrastructure virtualization
The pool of application server resources that separates applications from the physical infrastructure on which they run. As a result, workload can be dynamically placed and migrated across the application server pool.

application-instance DVIPA
A dynamic VIPA activated by an application that explicitly issues a bind() function call to the IP address.

application interface
An interface used to invoke a program or function from another program.

application interface block (AIB)
An area in user-defined storage that is passed to IMS for DL/I calls that use the AIBTDLI interface. Application programs can use the AIB to communicate with IMS by using a PCB name instead of a PCB address.

application key

  1. See license key.
  2. The unique identifier that your application uses when it reports data to IBM Mobile Quality Assurance. The key can be regenerated any time. However, older builds that use an older application key can no longer report to IBM Mobile Quality Assurance sessions.

application keypad
A set of buttons or links representing HATS application-level functions. See also host keypad.

application layer
In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, the layer that provides means for application processes residing in open systems to exchange information and that contains the application-oriented protocols by which these processes communicate.

application-layer protocol data unit (APDU)
In OSI, a protocol data unit in the application layer.

application level security
The security services that are started when an application issues an MQI call.

application lifecycle
The succession of stages a product goes through, from development to production.

application lifecycle management (ALM)
An iterative and continuous process of coordinating people, processes, and tools with the goal of delivering a software or systems project. This process involves planning and change management, requirements definition and management, architecture management, software configuration management, build and deployment automation, application security, and quality management. The features of this process include traceability across lifecycle artifacts, process definition and enactment, and reporting.

application log
In Windows systems, a log that records significant application events.

application lookups form
A form that lists the available lookup tables that can be viewed and have their attributes modified.

application LT
A logical terminal (LT) that is used by one or more applications, but that is not used for LT sessions.

application maintenance window
The time period during which an IBM Client, System Integrator, or SaaS Extension Support Provider can request that changes be implemented into the production environment, such as fixes or upgrades to SaaS extensions.

application managed service
A pureScale service that is fully managed by a pureScale client.

Application Management General Orientation (AppManGO)
A community that provides concepts, best practices, manuals, and other orientation materials to support all IBMers engaged in Application Management.

Application Management Services (AMS)
An industrialized, globally integrated approach to managing application portfolios throughout the lifecycle with analytics capability and automation to help support business goals.

Application Management Specification (AMS)
A specification standard that addresses the problems that are associated with managing multi-tiered applications.

Application Manager
In CDE, a window containing objects representing the system actions available to the user.

application map
A visual representation of the relationships among different types of entities and data stores in an application.

application message protocol data unit (AMPDU)
An envelope and its content as defined in the MERVA Link P1 protocol,

application mode
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a set of values that represent the communications services requested when establishing an association. If the application entity uses the presentation layer services, the application mode specifies both presentation layer and session layer values; if the application entity uses the session layer services, the application mode specifies session layer values only. The application mode also indicates the transport mode to be used for an association.

application monitoring
A function that monitors applications and that restarts the applications when a problem is detected. See also application.

application node
In testing, an application that serves as a container to hold related test elements.

application option
In System Manager, a group of one or more loads, one of which must be a code load. An application option is an independent piece of an application program that may or may not be used with the base application program.

application-owning region (AOR)
A CICS address space whose primary purpose is to manage application programs. It receives transaction routed requests from a terminal-owning region (TOR). See also data-owning region, terminal-owning region.

application partitioning
In the scheduler, the grouping of frequent jobs, to avoid overloading the scheduler's default application pool.

application partition set
The partition set that CICS loads into the buffers of a display device when a user application program issues an output request. By default, this is the partition set that was named when the transaction was added to the CICS system. Alternatively, it is the partition set named by the most recent SEND PARTNSET command that the program issued.

application password
A password used to provide a secure login for an application that does not support forms-based authentication, or as an alternative to SAML authentication.

application pattern
A rule that determines what transactions to monitor and how to group them.

application period
A pair of columns with application-maintained values that indicates the period of time when a row is valid. See also application-period temporal table.

application-period temporal table
A table that includes an application period. See also application period, bitemporal table.

application placement controller
An autonomic manager that can start and stop application instances on servers to meet the fluctuating demand of work requests and varying service policy definitions.

application plan
The control structure that is produced during the bind process. DB2 for z/OS uses an application plan to execute SQL statements.

application plane
The Tivoli NetView submap layer on which icons of managed objects of at least one network or systems management application are displayed without shading, making the icons appear directly against the background plane. See also background plane.

application policy
A collection of policies and attributes governing access to applications. See also audit policy, password policy.

application portfolio
A suite of related applications that are owned by a process (e.g. CRM) or a business unit (e.g. PCD).

application process

  1. A process that is associated with an application. Unlike a component or generic process, an application process is created from application-level steps. Typically, an application process invokes component processes, and orchestrates multi-component deployments. See also component process, generic process, process.
  2. A unit to which resources and locks are allocated. An application process involves the running of one or more programs.
  3. In OSI, the part of an application that resides in a single node. An application process consists of one or more application entities and other parts of an application that are unrelated to OSI data communications.

application process common name
In OSI, a user-defined character string recommended by ISO for identifying an application process. The application process common name is part of the distinguished name of an application.

application processing function (APF)

  1. In GML processing, the processing that is performed when a document element or attribute is recognized.
  2. In SCRIPT/VS, a sequence of control words, possibly intermixed with text and symbols, in one of three forms: macrodefinition, value of a symbol, or imbedded file.

application process title
In OSI networking, the identifier for an application process. This and the application entity qualifier make up an application entity title. See also application entity title.

application profile

  1. A profile that pertains to an individual user. The application profile includes profile settings such as access permissions and administrator privileges.
  2. Data that describes initial actions to be performed when the telephone is answered. Information in an application profile indicates to the channel process what state table to load.

application program (AP)

  1. A complete, self-contained program, such as a text editor or a web browser, that performs a specific task for the user, in contrast to system software, such as the operating system kernel, server processes, and program libraries.
  2. A program used to communicate with stations in a network, enabling users to perform application-oriented activities.

Application Program Driver (APD)
An IBM licensed program used to integrate multiple applications into a common environment and to integrate functions common to those applications. The APD/400 program provides a standardized interface that allows users to access their applications and to switch between applications.

application program identification
The symbolic name by which an application program is identified to VTAM. It is specified in the APPLID parameter of the ACB macroinstruction.

application program major node
In VTAM, a group of application program minor nodes. In the VTAM definition library, it is a member, book, or file that contains one or more APPL statements, which represent application programs. In MVS, it is a member of the library; in VSE, it is a book; and in VM, it is a CMS file of file type VTAMLST.

application programmer
A programmer who uses an application programming interface (API) to produce an application.

application programming interface (API)
An interface that allows an application program that is written in a high-level language to use specific data or functions of the operating system or another program. See also REST API.

application program output limit
A system definition option that enables users to limit the size and number of output segments that are produced by an application program. This option protects available message queue space from being depleted by a program output loop.

application properties file
An XML file where properties can be edited to customize the behavior of an IBM Connections application.

application provisioning
The process of configuring the minimum and the desired amounts of CPU and memory that is provisioned for an application controller with the use of dynamic LPAR and Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD). See also Capacity Upgrade on Demand, dynamic LPAR.

application proxy
A firewall configuration that examines the destination of a packet and the type of information it contains, checks whether the network allows delivery to that destination, and controls the information flow between internal and external clients and servers.

application query variable
A query variable that is available for all reports.

application queue
A local queue that is used by applications for messaging, through the Message Queue Interface (MQI). Application queues are often set up as triggered queues.

application registration file (ARF)
The registration file created when an application program is integrated into Tivoli NetView that identifies how to start the application program, where the help information is located, and where the application program appears in the Tivoli NetView menu structure.

application repository
The references to streams processing applications, including the absolute paths to their ADL files, in the file system.

application request
A request issued directly by an external application, such as an OPEN or EXECUTE request. See also request.

application requester
The source of a request to a remote DRDA-enabled relational database management system (RDBMS). See also application server.

Application Response Measurement (ARM)
An application programming interface (API), developed by a group of technology vendors, that can be used to monitor the availability and performance of business transactions within and across diverse applications and systems.

Application Response Measurement agent (ARM agent)
An agent that monitors software that is implemented using the Application Response Measurement standard.

Application Response Measurement engine (ARM engine)
An application that passes information about subtransactions between business applications across a network.

application role
See IT role.

application scope
An attribute of a streams processing application that limits which streams can connect to each other by using import and export operators. An application can only connect to another application if they share an application scope.

application security
The practice of using software, hardware, and other methods to protect a web and mobile application from malicious threats.

application security template
A type of security template that can be applied by custom applications. See also template, versioning security template.

application server

  1. A server that enables communication between the console and the site database.
  2. A host that is attached to the storage area network (SAN) and that runs applications.
  3. The target of a request from an application requester. The database management system (DBMS) at the application server site services the request. See also application requester.
  4. A server program in a distributed network that provides the execution environment for an application program. See also application.
  5. Software that handles communication with the client requesting an asset and queries of the Content Manager.
  6. See application controller.
  7. See job server.

application server authentication
User authentication that verifies a user's credentials based on an external authentication mechanism such as LDAP.

application server interface (ASI)
The principal software component of WebSphere Voice Response that manages the real-time channel processing.

application server platform
A platform used for web and voice applications for e-business.

application server service
A Java virtual machine (JVM) service inside the web container of the application server that serves Java Server Pages (JSP) for the user interface.

Application Server Toolkit (AST)
A tool that provides a graphical interface for packaging code artifacts into modules and configuring Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)-compliant deployment descriptions.

application service element (ASE)
A set of functions in the application layer of OSI that provides a capability for the interworking of application entities for a specific purpose on a single application association. The set of functions is identified during association establishment to be used or provided by the peer application entities.

application service provider (ASP)
A vendor that provides an outsourced function to leverage scale economies, for example, hosting services.

application sharing
A method of collaboration where a meeting participant shares a portion of his or her computer screen with other meeting participants. The region of the screen being shared is either a specific application, a region bounded by a resizable frame, or the entire desktop.

application shell (SH)
The CICS facility that provides the work management mechanism to build and refresh the application programming environment needed to run CICS transactions.

application signature
A unique set of characteristics that are derived by the examination of packet payload and then used to identify a specific application.

application space
An area that is used to organize the resources for a custom application that uses a workflow.

application-specific component
The component of a connector that contains code tailored to a particular application or technology. The application-specific component can respond to requests and implement an event-notification mechanism that detects and responds to events initiated by an application or external programmatic entity.

application-specific information
Part of the metadata of a business object that enables the connector to interact with its application (for example, Ariba Buyer) or a data source (for example, a web servlet). See also metadata.

application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)
In computer chip design, a integrated circuit created by first mounting an array of unconnected logic gates on a substrate and later connecting these gates in a particular configuration for a specific application. This design approach allows chips for a variety of applications to be made from the same generic gate array, thereby reducing production costs.

application stack (appstack)
A set of programs that poll the gateway for information about the data on the data servers. The application stack must be configured to receive reports and notifications through email.

application stub
In testing, a program used as a placeholder to simulate the behavior of software components such as a procedure on a remote machine.

application support filter (ASF)
In MERVA Link, a user-written program that can control and modify any data exchanged between the Application Support Layer and the Message Transfer Layer.

application support process
An executing instance of an application support program. Each application support process is associated with an ASP entry in the partner table. An ASP that handles outgoing messages is a sending ASP; one that handles incoming messages is a receiving ASP.

application support program
In MERVA Link, a program that exchanges messages and reports with a specific remote partner ASP. These two programs must agree on which conversation protocol they are to use.

application support protocol
The protocol that connects application requesters and application servers.

application system

  1. A system made up of one or more host systems that perform the main set of functions for an establishment. The application system updates the primary disk volumes that are being copied by a copy services function.
  2. A computer system, outside of EDI, that is designed to fulfill specific business functions, such as accounting, purchasing, materials control, human resources, shipping, and other systems.

application systems control and auditability (ASCA)

application tap (A-TAP)
An agent that monitors communication between the internal components of a database server.

application template
A file that is specific to an Emptoris product that contains the product-specific settings required for installing the product through the Suite Installer.

application test
A type of test which focuses on application logic and issues resulting from insecure software development.

application thread
A thread of execution created and managed by application code.

application tier
A group of application servers that collaborates for the purposes of workload balancing and failover. See also high availability.

application tier component
For installation, the set of processors that access the query databases to gather information and then render the results as PDF and HTML reports and metrics. Application tier components also pass requests to the content manager and render the results that the content manager retrieves from the content store.

application to application (A2A)
A data transformation from the output of one application to the input of another application.

application transaction program
A program that runs an application or part of an application. See also service transaction program.

Application Transparent Transport Layer Security (AT-TLS)

application tree
A tree-view display of a web application's structure, including directories and files.

application tree counter
The series of numbers in parentheses next to each node of the application tree, indicating the number of items in that branch.

application user identity
An alternate name by which a user can be known to an application.

application variable pool
The set of all dialog variable values for an open application.

application view
A logical mapping of data items defined in the enterprise view to a specific application. It captures additional information about how tables and columns are used in the context of an application (for example, call center or fraud detection). There can be more than one application view associated with the enterprise view.

application virtualization
The separation of an application from the underlying operating environment, which improves portability, compatibility, and manageability of the application.

application window
A rectangular area that displays the graphics associated with a specific application. Application windows can be opened, closed, combined with other types of windows, moved, stacked, and otherwise manipulated through user interaction with a window manager.

See application identifier.


  1. To carry out the selected choice in a window without closing the window.
  2. In data replication, to take source table changes and commit them to a target table.
  3. In journaling, to place after-images of records into a physical file member. The after-images are recorded as entries in a journal.

Apply control server
In SQL replication, a database or subsystem that contains the Apply control tables, which store information about registered replication source tables and subscription sets. See also Apply server, control server.

Apply cycle
In SQL replication, the interval of time during which data is replicated from a source table to a target table.

Apply latency
In SQL replication, the approximate time that it takes the Apply program to commit source transactions to target tables after the transactions are made available to the program. See also Capture latency, end-to-end latency, latency, Q Apply latency, Q Capture latency.

apply list file
A file that contains an entry for each file to be restored during an installation or an update procedure.

Apply program
In SQL replication, a program that is used to refresh or update a replication target table. See also Capture program, Capture trigger, target table.

Apply qualifier
In SQL replication, a case-sensitive character string that identifies replication subscription sets that are unique to an instance of the Apply program.

Apply server
In SQL replication, a system where the Apply program is running. See also Apply control server, control server.

See Application Management General Orientation.

See Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking.

APPN connection
A type 2.1 connection between two APPN-configured nodes.

APPN Implementors Workshop (AIW)
The architectural standards body that defined and maintained the APPN protocol specifications.

APPN intermediate routing
The capability of an APPN network node to accept traffic from one adjacent node and pass it on to another, with awareness of session affinities in controlling traffic flow and outage notifications.

APPN intermediate routing network
The portion of an APPN network consisting of the network nodes and their interconnections.

APPN network
A network of systems connected through Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking.

APPN network node
See Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking network node.

APPN node
A single node that forms part of the APPN network.

APPN subnetwork
A group of APPN nodes that are topologically isolated from other APPN nodes via a border node boundary.

APPN subnetwork visit count
The number of APPN subnetworks that an APPN search has traversed.

The right to sell or service the products of a specified insurance carrier in a state.

appropriate privileges
A level of authority possessed by a process in which the user profile under which the process is running has *ALLOBJ special authority.

approvable action
A command or group of commands invoked by a user that cannot be executed without prior approval from an approver within the organization. See also approval flow, approver, approver group.


  1. A formal permission or sanction that is required to be granted by a user (called an approver) for a quote to be processed. For example, if the discount offered for a line item in a quote exceeds the maximum discount that can be offered for that item, the quote may require one or more approvals, depending on the approval rules.
  2. A formal acceptance that is granted by an internal user in the approval process for the contract based on the approval rules. The approval may be for a certain clause or the entire contract.

approval delegate
A user who assumes the quote approval responsibilities of an approver when the approver is not available.

approval delegation
The act of giving authority to another user to approve specific document types for a specific amount of time.

approval flow
The series of steps initiated when a user attempts to execute a task involving an approvable action. See also approvable action.

approval group

  1. In Sterling Order Management, a request can be directed to an approval group when a violation of a validation rule is detected.
  2. A group of people who can approve the sending of messages to a target audience.
  3. The set of users from specified teams and user groups who must review and approve any pending approval holds generated by an approval rule violation on a quote.

approval plan

  1. A plan that determines the approvers who are responsible for resolving the approval rule violations triggered by a quote.
  2. In Sterling Order Management, a hierarchy of users that can allow or reject an override during a sales transaction. The plan includes information such as user department and user role, and typically includes one or more user groups.

approval process

  1. A process wherein the members within each level of an approvals list indicate their approval of all accepted items in a contract. The approval process within a level is parallel and between levels is sequential. After users in one level have completed the approval task, the process moves to the next defined level. The approval process is designed to ensure that approvers from all levels review and approve contracts before they are presented or executed.
  2. A process that specifies how a document travels through the approval workflow.

approval request
A request that must be approved prior to presenting a quote to a customer.

approval routing
The organization-specified sequence of electronic approvers required to open a requisition (req).

approval rule

  1. In Sterling Order Management, a rule that, when violated, can be considered by the users of an applicable approval plan, and then approved or rejected based on approver response.
  2. A rule that is used to enforce discount policies in the Sterling Field Sales application. For example, an approval rule can be created with the condition that if the discount offered on a quote exceeds the maximum discount allowed on that quote, the quote must be approved by the respective approver before it is presented to a customer.
  3. A rule that specifies the approval processes that are executed for documents based on their category and department.

approval sharing
The act of sharing approval authority with another user for all document types without a time limit.

approvals list
A list of users, user groups, or both, that are defined in single or multiple levels.

approval workflow (AWF)

  1. An optional approval system for modifications, which include creation and deletion, to retention schedule objects such as record classes, master schedules, and local schedules.
  2. The automatic routing of documents to the users responsible for working on them in the system.


  1. In Sterling Order Management, the individual authorized to override validation rule violations.
  2. The individual authorized to approve or reject an approvable action. See also approvable action.

approver group
The designated users within a specific organization to whom an approval request is directed when an approvable action is invoked. Requests are directed to the entire unit, rather than a single individual. See also approvable action.

approver relationship
An association between a category manager's user profile and a specific item number or category.

See application stack.

See alternate path retry.

An association rule algorithm that is capable of producing rules that describe associations (affinities) between symbolic attributes. See also unrefined model.

A programming language (APL)
A programming language based on mathematical notation that is used to develop application programs. A is particularly useful for commercial data processing, system design, mathematical and scientific computation, database applications, and teaching mathematics.

See advanced planning system.

APSRMARK utility
A PSF for z/OS utility that marks resources for remote-resident use by PSF or marks printer-resident fonts for use by PSF. APSRMARK marks resources as either private or public.

See advanced persistent threat.

apt #
See apartment number.

APTRCF30 utility
A PSF/VSE utility that rescales 240-pel fonts to 300-pel fonts and catalogs them in a VSE sublibrary.

APTRCONV utility
A PSF/VSE utility that converts an AFP resource from a z/OS partitioned data set or from a CMS variable-length file to a VSE job stream, and that can catalog the converted resource in a VSE sublibrary.

APTRMARK utility
A PSF/VSE utility that marks resources for remote-resident use by PSF or marks printer-resident fonts for use by PSF. APTRMARK marks resources as either private or public.

See annotation query language.

AQL view
A collection of tuples that are produced from text extraction on a particular document.


  1. See access request.
  2. See access register.
  3. See augmented reality.

Arabic country
A country in which the Arabic script is the predominant writing system. Arabic countries include Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

Arabic numeral
One of the 10 numerals used in decimal notation: the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. See also Chinese numeral, Hindi numeral, number, Roman numeral.

Arabic script
A cursive script used in Arabic countries. Other writing systems such as Latin and Japanese also have a cursive handwritten form, but usually are typeset or printed in discrete letter form. Arabic script has only the cursive form, and is also used for Urdu, (which is spoken in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India), Farsi or Persian (which is spoken in Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan).

Arab Standards and Metrology Organization (ASMO)
An organization that defines character set standards for Arabic.

See arbitrate primitive signal.

ARB congestion control
See adaptive rate-based congestion control.

arbitrary MAC addressing (AMA)
In DECnet architecture, an addressing scheme that is used by DECnet Phase IV-Prime that supports universally administered addresses and locally administered addresses.

arbitrary rule
A rule that defines the limits of an SQL query that uses any relational or logical operators to define expressions. See also range rule.

arbitrated loop

  1. For fibre-channel connections, a topology that enables the interconnection of a set of nodes.
  2. A shared fibre-channel transport, operating at 100 MBps or more, that is structured as a loop and supports up to 126 devices and one fabric attachment. A port must successfully arbitrate before a circuit can be established. See also arbitrate primitive signal, node loop port, switched fabric.

arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA)
An 8-bit value used to identify a participating device in an arbitrated loop. See also alias AL_PA.

arbitrate primitive signal (ARB)
A primitive signal that is transmitted as the fill word by a loop port (L_port) to indicate that the L_port is arbitrating to access to the loop. See also arbitrated loop.

arbitration wait timeout value (AW_TOV)
The minimum time an arbitrating L_port waits for a response before beginning loop initialization.

See access risk control.


  1. In graphs, a curve or line segment that links two vertices.
  2. A syntactic structure that represents relationships in XBRL. Possible relationships are between pairs of concepts in a taxonomy, between concepts and resources in a taxonomy, and between facts and footnotes in an instance document.

architectural limit
An inherent limit within a system due to its design or implementation that imposes some restriction on one or more characteristics of the system.


  1. The fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution.
  2. The set of rules and conventions that govern the creation and control of data types such as text, image, graphics, font, fax, color, audio, bar code, and multimedia.
  3. A set of defined terms and rules used as instructions to build products.

architecture board (AB)
A cross functional architecture decision making body that sets architecture directions and sponsors cross functional architecture deliverables, including the e-business Architecture Blueprint, application/data architecture standards, and common solution teams addressing high priority architecture issues and problems.


  1. A service that copies inactive files from disk to removable media for longer term storage and removes the files from disk to free disk storage space. The user can select specific objects or groups of objects to include or exclude from the archive process.
  2. To copy programs, data, or files to another storage media, usually for long-term storage or security. See also retrieve.
  3. Persistent storage used for long-term information retention, typically very inexpensive for each stored unit and slow to access, and often in a different geographic location to protect against equipment failures and natural disasters.
  4. A list of jobs whose output files have been deleted but that still have data in the database.
  5. A backup copy of a module or project that can be stored on any computer and restored to a database.

archive candidate
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an object or document that has been selected by an archive control group to archive. Archive candidates are reported on the Archive Candidate Report, which is produced by the Start Archive using BRM (STRARCBRM) command.

archive control group
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of objects (lists) that share common archive characteristics. The default values for archive control groups are defined in the BRM archive policy and can be used or overridden in each archive control group.

archive copy
A file or group of files that was archived to server storage

archive copy group
A policy object containing attributes that control the generation, destination, and expiration of archived files. See also copy group.

archive database
A copy of a Notes database created to store information no longer in use.

archive-enabled table
A table that has an associated archive table. When rows are deleted from an archive-enabled table, DB2 can automatically insert the old rows into an archive table.

archive file
A file out of a set of files reserved for later research, verification, or security purposes.

archive library
A facility for grouping application-program object files. The archive library file, when created for application-program object files, has a special symbol table for members that are object files.

archive log

  1. The set of log files that are closed and are no longer needed for normal processing. These files are retained for use in rollforward recovery. See also active log, circular log.
  2. A data set on a storage device to which IBM MQ copies the contents of each active log data set when the active log reaches its size limit. See also recovery log.

archive policy
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a policy that defines the default values that are used in archive control groups. Archive policy values can be overridden at the individual archive control group level. The archive policy inherits defaults from the system policy. System policy defaults can be used or overridden in the archive policy.

archive-retention grace period
The number of days that the storage manager retains an archived file when the server is unable to rebind the file to an appropriate management class. See also bind.

archive table
A table that is used to store archived rows from another table, which is called an archive-enabled table.

archiving application
An application that packages files together with descriptive metadata for long-term storage.

arc parameter
In architecture, a variable that specify the curvature of an arc.

See access risk controls for SAP.

See activity-based reporting engine.


  1. In a link-state routing protocol, groups of contiguous networks and attached hosts. An autonomous system can be divided into areas, which are connected to each other by routers. Routers within the same area share an identical link-state database. See also autonomous system.
  2. A shipping zone or region that is used to set up the lane level of a contract. Shippers and carriers can define areas that contain locations, postal codes, cities, states, or provinces, and countries. See also location.
  3. A representation of the physical space within the location to be monitored. Areas are the container for all zones. See also location.
  4. A subset of a data entry database (DEDB) that is defined as a VSAM entry-sequenced data set (ESDS). Each area in a DEDB consists of a root-addressable part, an independent-overflow part, and a sequential-dependent part. Areas contain the entire logical structure for a set of root segments and their dependent segments.
  5. In programming languages, a space together with a mechanism for inserting data objects into it, and for accessing and deleting data objects.(I)
  6. In GOCA, a set of closed figures that can be filled with a pattern or a color.
  7. The cell range to be used or referenced. Areas are the container for data.
  8. In Internet and DECnet routing protocols, a subset of a network or gateway grouped together by definition of the network administrator. Each area is self-contained; knowledge of an area's topology remains hidden from other areas.

area accessorial
An accessorial that allows shippers to apply charges to shipments that are picked up or delivered in a specific area.

area border router (ABR)
A router that is located on the border of OSPF areas and connects these areas to the backbone network. An area border router has multiple interfaces to multiple areas, maintains separate link-state databases for each area, and maintains a routing table describing both the backbone topology and the topology of the other areas.

area chart
A line chart in which the area beneath each line is given a solid color or pattern to emphasize the relationships between the pieces of charted information.

area data set (ADS)
A data set that contains a data entry database (DEDB) area. IMS can maintain up to seven copies of this data set. See also multiple area data set.

area filling
In architecture, a method used to fill an area with a pattern or a color.

area-level sharing
See level one data sharing.

area selection
An enclosed area on a workspace specified by a user that identifies an area on a map that requires analysis.

area-specific help
In an application program using DDS, help information supplied by the programmer for the area of the screen where the cursor is located when the person using the program presses the Help key.

See application registration file.

See autonomic request flow manager.

arg pointer
A pointer to a subroutine parameter argument.


  1. A value passed to or returned from a function or procedure at run time.
  2. An independent variable or any value of an independent variable. Examples of arguments are a search key and a number identifying the location of an item in a table.

argument declaration
See also parameter declaration.

argument list

  1. In REXX, a complete set of arguments, separated by commas, that are passed between a calling routine and a called routine.
  2. In UIM, a list of values that are passed to a program.

argument string
An ordered list of parameters passed between programs or routines.

See Accessibility of Rich Internet Applications.

See AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average.

arithmetic constant
In a programming language, a constant of type integer, real, double precision, or complex.

arithmetic expression
A statement that contains values joined together by one or more arithmetic operators and that is processed as a single numeric value. See also arithmetic operator.

arithmetic function
A function that returns a value by performing a mathematical operation on one or more arguments.

arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The part of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparative, and logical functions.

arithmetic object
An integral object or objects having the float, double, or long double type.

arithmetic operation

  1. An operation such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or exponentiation that is performed only on numeric fields.
  2. In COBOL, the process caused by the running of an arithmetic statement or the evaluation of an arithmetic expression that results in a mathematically correct solution to the arguments presented.

arithmetic operator
A symbol, such as + or -, that represents a fundamental mathematical operation. See also arithmetic expression, composite expression.

arithmetic statement
In COBOL, a statement that causes an arithmetic operation to be run. The arithmetic statements are the ADD, COMPUTE, DIVIDE, MULTIPLY, and SUBTRACT statements.


  1. See ABLE Rule Language.
  2. See Advanced Rule Language.


  1. See automatic restart manager.
  2. See Application Response Measurement.

ARM agent
See Application Response Measurement agent.

ARM engine
See Application Response Measurement engine.

ARM-instrumented application
An application in which ARM calls are added to the source code to enable the performance of the application to be monitored by management systems.

AR mode
See access register mode.

See Address Resolution Protocol.

See Advanced Research Projects Agency.

A network established by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (now the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).

The standard for the format of ARPA internet text messages.

ARP Redirect
An ARP method for notifying the host if a problem exists on a network.

A formal reading of a criminal complaint in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against them.


  1. In programming languages, an aggregate that consists of data objects, with identical attributes, each of which can be uniquely referenced by subscripting. See also scalar, vector.
  2. A structure that contains an ordered collection of elements of the same data type in which each element can be referenced by its index value or ordinal position in the collection. See also element, matrix, ordinary array.
  3. An ordered collection, or group, of physical devices (disk drive modules) that are used to define logical volumes or devices. An array is a group of drives designated to be managed with a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID).
  4. A linked range of cells on a spreadsheet containing values. For example, a range of 3 rows and 3 columns is a 3 x 3 array.

array element
One of the data items in an array.

array file
In RPG, an input file containing array elements.

array formula
A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results.

array index
In RPG, the actual number of an element in an array, or the field containing the number or relative position of an element in an array.

array variable
A representation of a changeable value for an element in an ordered collection or group of elements.

See arrest/booking number.

To apprehend an individual and take them into custody on the basis of committing a criminal offense as determined by local law.

arrest/booking number (ARR/BK #)
A control number that is assigned to a booking, an arrest, or both, that is displayed in the detail screen.

arrest warrant
A written order from a judge for law enforcement officers to carry out an arrest. See also search warrant.

arrival sequence
An order in which records are retrieved that is based on the order in which records are stored in a physical file. See also keyed sequence.

arrival sequence access path
An access path to a database file that is arranged according to the order in which records are stored in the physical file.

See authorized repair service center.

The physical item that a bar code identifies.


  1. A graphical object that provides supporting information about the process or elements within the process without directly affecting the semantics of the process.
  2. An entity that is used or produced by a software or systems development process. Examples of artifacts include designs, requirements, source files, plans, scripts, simulations, models, test plans, and binary executable files. In an HTTP context, artifacts have a URI and are called resources. See also back link, baseline, component, configuration, configuration provider, configuration specification, global configuration provider, revision, stream, version.
  3. The object being analyzed, such as a text document, or audio or video stream.
  4. A deployable item such as a file, image, database, configuration material, or anything else that is associated with a software project. By default, artifacts are stored in CodeStation repository.
  5. Any file, object, or other piece of data that is created or used during the execution of a process.
  6. Data that supports or relates to an incident.
  7. A structured data object that points to a SAML protocol message such as a request or response message.

artifact resolution service
The endpoint on either the identity provider or service provider point of contact server where artifacts are exchanged for SAML messages. This endpoint is the location where the federation partners communicate.

Artifacts page
A list of all of the artifacts in a project, as they exist at the project level.

artifact type
A class of objects that is specific to an artifact. For example, requirements management artifacts include the following types: document, business process sketch, user interface sketch, user interface sketch part, screen flow, storyboard, use case diagram, requirement, glossary, and term.

artificial JQE (JQA)
A control block containing a summary of information from a job control table (JCT) entry that consists of the base job queue element (JQE), the job queue element extension (JQX), and additional fields in the artificial JQE (JQA).

artificial transaction (ATX)
A system-generated event that can be used as an incoming event in an event component.

See autonomous system.

See Applicability Statement 1.

See Applicability Statement 2.

See Applicability Statement 3.

See Abstract Syntax Checker.

See application systems control and auditability.

The part of certain lowercase letters, such as b, d, or f, that rises above the top edge of other lowercase letters, such as a, c, and e. Letters with ascenders are b, d, f, h, k, l, and t. See also descender.

ascender height
The distance from the character baseline to the top of a character box. This value may differ for different characters in a given font. See also descender depth.

ascending key
The values by which data is arranged from the lowest value to the highest value of the key field in accordance with the rules for comparing data items. See also descending key.

ascending key sequence
The arrangement of data in order from the lowest value of the key field to the highest value of the key field. See also descending key sequence.

ascending sequence
The arrangement of data in order from the lowest value to the highest value, according to the rules for comparing data. See also descending sequence.

See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

The art of drawing diagrams using the ASCII character set (mainly "|-/\+").

ASCII character
One of the 7-bit control characters and symbolic characters that make up the ASCII character set.

ASCII character set
A 7-bit character set from the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, which consists of 128 characters. It is the most universal character-coding set used by computers.

ASCII line-mode display station
A display station that has the characteristics of Teletype equipment or typewriters. The display station has a one-line input field at the bottom of the screen. The output field is located above the input field and receives data, one line at a time, with the most recent data at the bottom of the output field.

ASCII port sharing
A function that allows the user to have different ASCII devices (programmable or nonprogrammable work stations) share the same port, at different times, without needing to manually create a configuration description for each new device.

ASCIIZ format
A string ending with a null character.

See application service element.

See Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

asensitive cursor
A cursor whose sensitivity is dependent on how an SQL statement is optimized. An asensitive cursor can behave as a sensitive cursor or an insensitive cursor. See also cursor, cursor sensitivity.

See application support filter.

as-found value
The calibration value of an instrument before the instrument is adjusted.

See application server interface.

See application-specific integrated circuit.

See address space identifier.

The price that a seller is willing to sell a financial instrument for. See also bid.

as-left value
The calibration value of an instrument after the instrument is adjusted.

See address space manager.

See Advanced System Management Interface.

ASM interconnect
See Advanced System Management interconnect.

ASM interconnect gateway
See gateway service processor.

ASM interconnect network
See Advanced System Management interconnect network.

See Arab Standards and Metrology Organization.

ASM PCI adapter
See Advanced System Management PCI adapter.

ASM processor
See Advanced System Management processor.


  1. See advanced shipment notification.
  2. See advance shipment notice.
  3. See autonomous system number.
  4. See advanced ship notice.

See Abstract Syntax Notation One.

ASN.1 encoding rule
In OSI, a rule that specifies the representation during transfer of the value of any ASN.1 type. ASN.1 encoding rules enable information being transferred to be identified by the recipient as a specific value of a specific ASN.1 type.

ASN.1 type
In OSI, data type defined by ASN.1 notation, for example, Boolean values and bit strings.


  1. See auxiliary storage pool.
  2. See application service provider.
  3. See Active Server Page.


  1. In font design, the distance in pels, measured in the inline (print) direction, between the character reference point and the closest toned pel.
  2. In architecture, the distance from the character reference point to the least positive character coordinate system X-axis value of the character shape. A-space can be positive, zero, or negative.

aspect-oriented connectivity
A form of connectivity that implements or enforces cross-cutting aspects in service-oriented architecture (SOA), such as security, management, logging, and auditing, by removing such aspects from the concern of the service requesters and providers.

aspect ratio
The ratio of one dimension to another, for example, the ratio of the width of a graphic to its height as it appears on the display.

ASP group
A collective term for the primary ASP and any associated secondary ASPs.

See automatic storage and retrieval system.


  1. To collect the resources of a HATS project, along with the necessary executable code, into an application EAR file in preparation for transferring the application to the server.
  2. To translate an assembly program into a computer language. Assembling is usually accomplished by substituting the computer language operation codes for the assembly language operation code, and by substituting absolute addresses, immediate addresses, relocatable addresses, or virtual addresses for symbolic addresses.

assemble phase
The phase of the SOA Foundation lifecycle that translates the business design into an assembly of information artifacts that implement the business design. This includes the development of business process definitions and activities, the identification, design and implementation of services and the application of policies and conditions to control how applications operate within the production environment.

A computer program that converts assembly language instructions into object code.

Assembler H
An IBM licensed program that translates symbolic assembler language into binary machine language.

assembler user exit
A routine to tailor the characteristics of an enclave prior to its establishment.


  1. A component that is made out of unique code and common components and that can become part of a product or bundle. See also common component.
  2. A collection of types and resources that form a unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions in .NET Framework applications.
  3. An application programming interface that provides rich functionality for interacting with an application. The assembly makes side calls to external services and then transforms and aggregates the response before a response is relayed to the calling application.

assembly language
A symbolic programming language that represents machine instructions of a specific architecture.

AssemblyLine (AL)
A set of connectors that form a complete path from source to target.

assembly program
See assembler.


  1. In the context of the SAML protocol, data that contains the following types of information in a message: authentication, attribute, or both. See also token.
  2. A logical expression specifying a program state that must exist or a set of conditions that program variables must satisfy at a particular point during program execution.
  3. A concept in the meta-model that is used to specify a policy requirement and evaluating endpoints at run time. An assertion is also used to describe the capabilities of an endpoint.

assertion consumer service
The endpoint on the service provider point of contact server that receives assertions or artifacts.


  1. A collection of findings as a result of scanned code that a user can work with, save, and share with other people.
  2. A process of gathering specific information about suppliers and their business through questionnaires.


  1. A digital multimedia resource that is stored for later retrieval as requested by an application. An example of such a resource is a digitized video or audio file. An asset is stored as a file in a multimedia file system supported by the data pump.
  2. Anything that can be owned or controlled to produce value. Examples include a house, music, patents or cash.
  3. Any equipment or facility that plays a key role in the core business of an enterprise.
  4. A manageable object that is either deployed or intended to be deployed in an operational environment. See also configuration item.
  5. A collection of artifacts that provide a solution to a specific business problem. Assets can have relationships and variability or extension points to other assets.
  6. A truck that is used to haul freight for a dedicated fleet. See also tractor.
  7. An electronic media file that can be associated with a business object. Assets can be URLs, datasheets, image files, sound files, and text files. Assets can be assigned to items, catalogs, categories, attributes, and allowed attribute values.

asset class
A group of securities that exhibit similar characteristics, behave similarly in the marketplace, and are subject to the same laws and regulations. For example, equities, bonds, and cash equivalents are different asset classes.

asset function data
The calibration data for one or more functions that an asset performs.

asset group
An organizational grouping within the multimedia file system with similar characteristics. You can use an asset group to allocate resources of a data pump. For example, you could establish two asset groups representing distinct departments whose assets should be kept separate for security or billing purposes.

asset health
The overall state of an asset, which might be based solely on observation or might be based on a driver, such as condition, performance, or cost.

asset library
The highest level organizational structure in the digital asset repository.

asset owner role
The asset owner (AO) is the BIE, BPE, BTE or Collaboration Executive accountable for ensuring that all responsibilities associated with ownership of deployed assets are carried out.

asset registry
A set of file locations that can be referenced from a test plan hierarchy.

asset statistics
Data that can be used to report download and subscription information, production and reuse time, and search history.

Assets tool
A Management Center feature that is used to upload and manage store assets, such as marketing image files, catalog image files, PDF documents, and multimedia files.

asset store
A store that contains a collection of sharable resources (business artifacts, business processes, and storefront assets) that can be leveraged in other types of stores. An asset store does not perform or record business transactions; it is simply a holder of assets that can be used by other stores. See also catalog asset store, storefront asset store.

asset template
A record that specifies asset information that is shared by multiple asset records. An asset template can be applied to existing asset records or it can be used to generate multiple new asset records for similar assets, such as a fleet of vehicles.

asset test
A test that is used to identify potential risk indicators that signal when assets on a network violate a defined policy or introduce risk into the environment.

asset tracking
See guided node discovery.

asset type

  1. An electronic media object that can be associated with items, categories, attributes, and attribute values. Examples include images, video, audio, and text.
  2. In the Reusable Asset Specification (RAS), a refinement of an asset category, providing more detailed description of the asset or assets. For instance, whereas an asset category may be a framework, an asset type for that category may be a requirements framework or a component framework.
  3. A category for an asset that is used to manage assets with similar characteristics.


  1. To link between two assets in the metadata repository.
  2. To appoint or designate a profile or resource to an activity that is to be completed within a specified period.

assigned date
The date that a volume is assigned to the current owner. Assigned date is not meaningful for a scratch volume.

assigned focal point
A focal point at which a node is included in a sphere of control (SOC) by explicit definition at either the focal point or SOC node. When a node's inclusion in the sphere of control is defined at the focal point, the focal point is termed an explicit focal point for that SOC node. When a node's inclusion in the sphere of control is defined at the SOC node, the focal point is termed an implicit focal point for that node. See also default focal point.

assigned moderator
The user account specified to review and publish content in blogs, forums and community files.

assigned storage
The space allocated to a volume and assigned to a port. See also allocated storage.


  1. A labor requirement on a work order record that has been matched to an appropriate laborer.
  2. The process of giving a value to a variable.
  3. In REXX, a single clause with the form symbol = expression. An assignment gives a variable a new value.

assignment expression
An expression that assigns the value of the right operand expression to the left operand variable and has as its value the value of the right operand.

assignment name
In COBOL, a word that associates a file name with a device.

assignment operator
An operator that sets or resets a value to a variable. See also operator.

assignment statement
A statement that gives a value to a variable. It always contains the assignment symbol (=).

A purchase arrangement where the buyer of the imported merchandise provides something of value (either no charge or at a reduced cost) to a supplier for use in connection with the production or the sale of merchandise being imported.

assistance level
The type of displays that a user selects to interact with the system. The three levels of assistance available are basic, intermediate, and advanced.

assisted lifecycle server
A representation of a server that is created outside of the administrative domain but can be managed in the administrative console.

assisted remote catchup
In a DB2 pureScale environment using the high availability disaster recovery feature, the process in which a member on a primary database ships logs that are owned by another member on that database to the standby database. This process occurs because the member that owns the logs cannot directly connect to the standby database. See also remote catchup.

assistive technology
Hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or assist the functional capabilities of people with disabilities.

associated address space
In VTAM, the address space in which RPL-based requests are issued that specify an access method control block (ACB)that is opened in another address space. See also ACB address space, session address space.

associated agent
An agent that has completed work for an application and is available for reassignment to that application if that application must do more work.

associated data (ADATA)
A collection of compiler-specified information about the module that is created by the language translator but not required for linking, loading, or execution.

associated DDM attribute
A data set attribute that is defined in distributed data management (DDM). Examples of associated DDM attributes are file size, lock options, and end-of-file offset for byte-stream files. Associated DDM attributes are not necessarily exclusive to DDM; they also can be used by other applications that access the same data sets.

associated feedback
See extended feedback.

associated ISM interface
An internal shared memory (ISM) interface that is associated with an Shared Memory Communications - Direct Memory Access (SMC-D) capable interface that has the same physical network ID.

associated library
A single remote library on the IBM i host that contains the build objects for a project.

associated printing
A technique for directing application program printout output to a specific printer node name. The destination print queue is specified at logon or sign-on time, and is created during sign-on of the user who created the input transaction.

associated RNIC interface
An IBM 10GbE RoCE Express interface that is associated with a Shared Memory Communications over Remote Direct Memory (SMC-R) capable interface that has the same physical network ID.

associated system
The system to which a keyboard is attached, probably consisting of a processor and software to handle the keyboard and to run application programs (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

associated-with window
A window in which the user can formulate search queries using Boolean operators.


  1. The extent to which values of one field depend on or are predicted by values of another field.
  2. In enterprise beans, a relationship that exists between two container-managed persistence (CMP) entity beans. Two types of association exist: one-to-one and one-to-many.
  3. For XML documents, the linkage of the document itself to the rules that govern its structure, which might be defined by a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML schema.
  4. A connecting object that is used to link information and artifacts with flow objects. An association is represented as a dotted graphical line with an arrowhead to represent the direction of flow.
  5. The semantic relationship between two or more classifiers that specifies connections among their instances.
  6. An organization, location, category, or position class that is associated to the billing template.
  7. The defined relationship between a client node and a client schedule. An association identifies the name of a schedule, the name of the policy domain to which the schedule belongs, and the name of a client node that performs scheduled operations.
  8. In VTAM CMIP services, the cooperative relationship between application entities for data exchange. See also remote association.
  9. A connection between two entity types or two fields in an entity definition.
  10. A visual representation of the members in a group that shows relationships or provides additional information about the members of a group.
  11. A class that contains two references that define a relationship between two referenced objects.

association category
A filter option available in an association table that is used to qualify the search listing by object type.

association chart
A chart that highlights the relationships between entities, rather than a chronology of events, by arranging data in a manner that emphasizes particular associations.

association class
A model element that has both association and class properties. An association class can be seen as an association that also has class properties, or as a class that also has association properties.

association control service element (ACSE)
In OSI, a set of services defined by ISO 8649 for controlling an application association between two application entities that communicate using a presentation connection. The ACSE services provide a means to establish and release an association between the application entities.

association environment
In OSI, an environment that OSI Communications Subsystem for AS/400 establishes for an association. OSI Communications Subsystem for AS/400 requires that an association environment be established before an application entity can establish an association.

association establishment
In OSI, the process of creating an association between two application entities. After an association is established, the application entities can exchange data.

Association française de normalisation (AFNOR)
The national standards-setting organization in France.

association ID
See association identifier.

association identifier (association ID)
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a parameter that identifies a particular association to the programming interface. The programming interface returns the association identifier when the application entity builds an association environment. The application entity then uses the association identifier to specify the association on later OSI Communications Subsystem calls.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
A political and economic grouping of ten countries located in Southeast Asia. ASEAN consists of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

association property

  1. A property that defines a link from the provider application to the consumer application.
  2. A property in a class that describes an association to another class.

association release
In OSI, the process of ending an association between two application entities. After an association is released, the application entities can no longer exchange data.

association role
A description of the association between an item in a model and a data source. For example, an association may include a source role of Product Number and a label role of Product Name.

association states
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, the set of states that an association can be in after an association environment is established. The state of an association determines what actions the application entity can take for that association.

association table
A table that lists the results of a basic or refined search query.

associative array
An array with no user-defined upper boundary on the number of elements, which are ordered by and can be referenced by an array index value. Array index values are unique and do not have to be contiguous. See also cardinality, element, ordinary array.

The order for grouping operands with an operator (either left-to-right or right-to-left).

The variety of products within a merchandise category, group or department.

assortment optimization
A marketing strategy tool that determines the best assortment in order to maximize effectiveness of a scenario.

assumed decimal point
In COBOL, a logical decimal point position that does not occupy a storage position in a data item. It is used by a compiler to align a value properly for calculation or input/output operations. See also actual decimal point.

assumption cube
A cube that contains data that is moved into the Contributor application when the application is created or synchronized.

assumption data
The data contained in the assumption cube, which applies to all e.List items, and is not writable.

assured event emission
A method of emitting events in which the emission occurs synchronously within the unit of work.

See Application Server Toolkit.

asterisk fill
A type of numeric editing that puts asterisks to the left of a number to fill unused positions. Example: *****476.12

asymmetric algorithm
See public key algorithm.

asymmetric cryptography
See public key cryptography.

asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
A technology based on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology that is for Internet access where fast downstream is required, but slow upstream is acceptable. ADSL uses the portion of a phone line’s bandwidth not used by voice, resulting in simultaneous voice and data transmission.

asymmetric encryption
See public key cryptography.

asymmetric key cryptography
A system of cryptography that uses two keys: a public key known to everyone and a private key known only to the receiver or sender of the message. See also symmetric key cryptography.

asymmetric keys
In computer security, the two keys in a key pair. The keys are called asymmetric because one key holds more of the encryption pattern than the other does.

Asymmetric Massively Parallel Processing (AMPP)
A Netezza database architecture in which each database table is divided across all SPUs and every SPU works in parallel on every operation.

asymmetric video compression
In multimedia applications, the use of a powerful computer to compress a video so that a less powerful system can decompress it.

asymmetric virtualization
A virtualization technique in which the virtualization engine is outside the data path and performs a metadata-style service. The metadata server contains all the mapping and locking tables while the storage devices contain only data. See also metadata server, symmetric virtualization.


  1. Pertaining to communication among distributed processes in which data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream.
  2. Pertaining to events that are not synchronized in time or do not occur in regular or predictable time intervals. See also synchronous.
  3. In cross-site mirroring, pertaining to the mode of geographic mirroring in which the program issuing the update waits until the operation is complete on the production copy and received for processing on the target system.

asynchronous action
A request sent by an object that does not wait to receive the result. See also synchronous action.

asynchronous balanced mode (ABM)
In communications, an operational mode of a balanced data link in which either combined station can send commands at any time and can initiate transmission of response frames without explicit permission from the other combined station. See also normal response mode.

asynchronous balanced mode extended (ABME)
In communications, an operational mode in which modulus 128 sequence numbers are used.

asynchronous batched update
A process in which all changes to the source are recorded and applied to existing target data at specified intervals. See also asynchronous continuous update.

asynchronous bean
A Java object or an enterprise bean that a Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application can run asynchronously.

asynchronous communication
A method of communication supported by the operating system that allows an exchange of data with a remote device, using either a start-stop line or an X.25 line. Asynchronous communication includes the file transfer support and the interactive terminal facility support. See also start-stop, synchronous operation, System i Access asynchronous communications.

Asynchronous Communications Device Interface (ACDI)
An application programming interface or service that is used by application programs. Application programs use the ACDI service to communicate with programs on other systems that use asynchronous communications.

asynchronous consumption
A process that uses a set of MQI calls that allow an application to consume messages from a set of queues. Messages are delivered to the application by using a unit of code identified by the application, passing either the message or a token representing the message.

asynchronous continuous update
A process in which all changes to the source are recorded and applied to existing target data immediately after being committed in the base table. See also asynchronous batched update.

asynchronous controller description
A controller description that represents a remote system or device when using asynchronous transmission methods on an asynchronous communications line or when using non-SNA protocols on an X.25 communications line to communicate with the system.

asynchronous device
A device using data transmission in which transmission of a character or a block of characters can begin at any time, but in which the bits that represent the character or block have equal time duration.

asynchronous disk I/O
In Performance Tools, a disk access operation that is not expected to complete before program operation can continue. See also synchronous disk I/O.

asynchronous disk I/O virtual processor
A virtual processor that performs nonlogging disk input/output. See also virtual processor.

asynchronous event
An event that does not occur at predetermined or regular intervals. When using asynchronous event actions in subscriptions, the subscription processor continues processing events without waiting for the results of an action.

asynchronous exception
In architecture, any exception other than those used to report a synchronous data-stream defect (action code X'01' or X'1F' or synchronous resource-storage problem (action code X'0C'). Asynchronous exceptions occur after the received page station; for example, a paper jam. See also synchronous exception.

asynchronous index cleanup (AIC)
An asynchronous task that performs deferred cleanup of indexes following operations that invalidate index entries.

asynchronous I/O

  1. The nonsequential processing of read and write requests across multiple disks.
  2. A series of input/output operations that are being done separately from the job that requested them.

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
See Ajax.

asynchronous learning
A learning environment in which the instructor and the students interact with each other online on their own schedules, using tools such as email and community forums to communicate. See also synchronous learning.

asynchronous messaging
A method of communication between programs in which a program places a message on a message queue, then proceeds with its own processing without waiting for a reply to its message. See also asynchronous send, synchronous messaging.

asynchronous mode
In high availability disaster recovery, the synchronization mode in which the primary database considers a transaction committed when it successfully submits the relevant log data to the network. The primary database does not wait for an acknowledgment that the log data was received by the standby system. See also high availability disaster recovery, peer state, synchronization mode.

asynchronous monitor
A monitor that receives data in an unsolicited event and interprets the data immediately.

asynchronous operation

  1. An operation that does not of itself cause the process requesting the operation to be blocked from further use of the processor. Asynchronous operation implies that the process and the operation are running concurrently.
  2. An operation that occurs without a regular or predictable time relationship to a specified event. While the asynchronous operation is performed, the application program is allowed to continue execution. For example, the calling of an error diagnostic routing may receive control at any time during the execution of a computer program. See also synchronous operation.

asynchronous partition detach
An asynchronous task that makes a logically detached partition into a stand-alone nonpartitioned table. See also logically detached partition.

asynchronous processing
A series of operations that are done separately from the job in which they were requested; for example, submitting a batch job from an interactive job at a work station. See also synchronous processing.

asynchronous protocol
A communications protocol in which data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream.

asynchronous put
A put of a message by an application, without waiting for a response from the queue manager.

asynchronous replica
A shard that receives updates after the transaction commits. This method is faster than a synchronous replica, but introduces the possibility of data loss because the asynchronous replica can be several transactions behind the primary shard. See also synchronous replica.

asynchronous replication

  1. A type of replication in which control is given back to the application as soon as the write operation is made to the source volume. Some time later, the write operation is made to the target volume. See also synchronous replication.
  2. In replication, the process of copying data from a source table to a target table outside the scope of the original transaction that updated the source table. See also synchronous replication.

asynchronous request
A request for an asynchronous operation. See also synchronous request.

A data-link level communications protocol that allows data to be transmitted over an asynchronous line using a control protocol similar to SDLC.

asynchronous send
In JMS, the action of sending of a message by an application to a server without waiting for a reply from the server so that the application can engage in other events, such as sending further messages or performing other processing. See also asynchronous messaging.

asynchronous service
A service definition framework service that provides neither output nor response to the caller application. For its part, the caller application does not wait for a response from this service.

asynchronous signal
A signal that is typically generated by an external source, such as a timer, terminal activity, or another process.

asynchronous terminal
A computer terminal using asynchronous signals to communicate with a host machine.

Asynchronous Terminal Emulation (ATE)
A program that provides emulation of a remote asynchronous terminal.

asynchronous thread
A task in a multitasking environment that can proceed independently of other processes.

asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
A communication method in which information is organized into small, fixed-length cells that recur without regular or predictable time relationships. ATM incorporates network switches and negotiated service connections. See also Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, OSA-Express.

asynchronous transmission
A method of transmission in which the sending and receiving of data is controlled by control characters such as a start bit and a stop bit, instead of by a timing sequence. See also synchronous transmission.

In Analyst, an allocation table that shows how two lists correspond. It can be used to transfer data when no character matches are possible between lists of items.

See application tap.

See Atomic Transaction Assertion.

See auxiliary task control block.

See auxiliary task-dispatching element.

See Asynchronous Terminal Emulation.

Athena widget set
A set of X Window System widgets that are developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for Project Athena. See also X Window System.

See automatic transaction initiation.

In UNIX and Linux, the time when the file was last accessed.

See automated tape library.

at-large rule
A constraint that applies to an entire scenario.

See asynchronous transfer mode.

ATM adaptation layer (AAL)
A layer in the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) endsystem model that defines services provided by the ATM layer as needed by the higher layers. AALs in separate ATM endsystems communicate with each other using a standardized peer protocol. There are several classes of ATM adaptation layers, each of which corresponds to a major type of network traffic (for example, data, voice, or video).

ATM address
A 20-digit hexadecimal number that uniquely identifies an end system in an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. i5/OS registers a unique ATM address for each input/output adapter (IOA).

ATM campus network
A network of ATM nodes providing connectivity for ATM endsystems located in buildings within the same general area (for example, the distance between buildings is 1 kilometer or less).

ATM endpoint
See ATM endsystem.

ATM endsystem
A node at which an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connection is initiated or terminated. An originating endsystem initiates the ATM connection, and a terminating endsystem terminates the ATM connection.

ATM forum
A worldwide organization that promotes asynchronous transfer mode within the industry and the end-user community. The ATM forum defines two basic standards of interoperability: user-to-network interface (UNI) 3.0 and UNI 3.1.

ATM traffic descriptor
A list of traffic parameters (such as forward/backward peak cell rate or forward/backward maximum burst size) that can be used to capture the intrinsic traffic characteristics of a requested asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connection.

An XML-based format for syndicated web content and a protocol for editing and publishing web resources that is based on the Atom Specification Format. See also feed, RDF Site Summary, Really Simple Syndication, Rich Site Summary.


  1. A unique ID corresponding to a string name. Atoms are used to identify properties, types, and selections.
  2. A 32-bit number that represents a string value.


  1. In commitment control, a characteristic that allows individual changes to objects to appear as a single change.
  2. Pertaining to a transaction's changes to the state of resources: either all occur or none occur. The atomic characteristic maintains data integrity by making sure that some updates are not made while others fail. See also commit.
  3. In DB2 for i5/OS SQL, a characteristic of database data definition functions that allows the function to complete or return to its original state if a power interruption or abnormal end occurs.

atomic activity
An activity that is not broken down to a finer level of process model detail. It is a leaf in the tree-structure hierarchy of process activities.

atomic event
A single, "low-level" non-composite event. The types of atomic event are activity completion, input, timer, and system. See also composite event.

An attribute or property of a transaction whereby a group of statements are run as if a single operation or none of the statements are run. See also ACID property, ACID transaction.

atomic operation
An operation in which signals cannot occur between the operations of setting the masks and waiting for the signal.

Atomic Transaction Assertion (ATAssertion)
The policy that a web service provides to qualify the transactional processing of messages associated with the particular operation to which the assertion is scoped.

atomic type
In DB2 XQuery, a data type that can be either a primitive simple data type or a derived type that is based on a primitive simple type. See also atomic value.

atomic value
The smallest obtainable value in an XQuery expression; this atomic type value cannot be deconstructed. See also atomic type, item, XQuery and XPath data model.

A method of data type conversion that the XQuery language uses to process expressions that expect a sequence of atomic values. Atomization takes a sequence of items and returns the atomic values in the sequence.


  1. See advanced threat protection.
  2. See AppleTalk Transaction Protocol.
  3. See available to promise.

ATP inventory
See available to promise inventory.

ATP monitoring rule
See available to promise monitoring rule.

ATP rule
See available to promise rule.

See applicant tracking system.


  1. In Notes, to store a file with a document or form. The file, or attachment, is stored with the document or form in the database until one of them is deleted.
  2. To remotely access objects at the instance level.
  3. In z/OS, to create a task that can execute concurrently with the attaching code.
  4. To make a device a logical part of a network.

attached data partition
A data partition that is attached to a table but is not validated using integrity processing. Data in attached data partitions is unavailable to SQL statements. See also visible data partition.

attached index
An index that has the same distribution scheme as its table. See also detached index, system index, user index.

attached processor

  1. In telephony, a host computer that is attached by a communications line to a telephone switch and that is controlling some, if not all, of the switch functions.
  2. A processor that has no I/O capability. An attached processor is always linked to a processor that handles I/O. See also communication attached.

attach header
In SNA, a function management header (FMH-5) that causes a remote process or transaction to be attached.

attaching device
Any device that is physically connected to a network and can communicate over the network. See also station.

Attach Manager
The component of APPC that matches Attaches received from remote computers to accepts issued by local programs.


  1. In WebSphere Commerce, a collection of one or more files that are associated to a catalog or marketing asset. See also attachment asset, attachment target.
  2. A type of resource that controls CPs, logical link control, and physical link control.
  3. A port or a pair of ports, optionally including an associated optical bypass, that are managed as a functional unit. A dual attachment includes two ports: port A and port B. A single attachment consists of one port: port S.
  4. An entire device or feature attached to a processing unit, including required adapters.
  5. A file that is attached to an email message or other electronic document.

attachment asset
A file or URL associated with an attachment. See also attachment, attachment target.

attachment class
The attachment class specifies the mode in which a station will connect to the FDDI network. A station may be a dual attachment station (DAS) or a single attachment station (SAS).

attachment command
An action that appears in a toolbar, such as Add New, or Assign, when an attachment is configured with a workflow policy.

attachment facility
An interface between DB2 and TSO, IMS, CICS, or batch address spaces. An attachment facility allows application programs to access DB2.

attachment reference
A string of data representing a reference to an attachment. The format and contents of the attachment reference are defined by the attachment reference type.

attachment reference type
A value used to define the format and contents of an attachment reference, so that the programs that work with specific types of attachment references are supported. The attachment reference types supported on a system are defined when the mail server framework is configured. The value associated with an attachment reference type must be a unique type value.

attachment target
A collection of attachment assets distinguished by differentiators such as language. See also attachment, attachment asset.

attachment unit interface (AUI)

  1. In a local area network, the interface between the medium attachment unit and the data terminal equipment within a data station.
  2. See transceiver cable.

attach request
In SNA, the request unit that flows on a session to initiate a conversation.

Any attempt by an unauthorized person to compromise the operation of a software program or networked system. See also attacker.

A user (human or computer program) that attempts to cause harm to an information system or to access information not intended for general access. See also attack, hacker.

attack path
The source, destination, and devices associated with an attack.

attack pattern
Two or more related events that might indicate a specific type of attack, such as an unauthorized scan, a break-in attempt, or activity on a compromised asset.

attended mode
An Operations Console state that requires the local console operator to approve each remote request for control of a System i product when the local console is in control.

attended mode IPL
A type of IPL in which the IPL stops at the dedicated service tools (DST) environment, allowing the user to make changes to the system or to debug a problem with the system. See also unattended mode IPL.

attended operation
An operation requiring a human operator to be at the device. See also unattended operation.

The participant in an event or meeting. The attendee is invited by the moderator.

attention (ATTN)
An occurrence external to an operation that could cause an interruption of the operation.

attention identifier (AID)
A character in a data stream that is sent to the host system when a display station user presses an attention identifier (AID) key. Typical AID keys are function keys or the Clear, Enter, Page Up, Page Down, Help, Print, and Home keys.

attention identifier key (AID key)
A key that causes an attention identifier (AID) to be sent to the host system when pressed, such as a function key or the Clear, Enter, Page Up, Page Down, Help, Print, and Home keys.

attention key
A function key on terminals that, when pressed, causes an I/O interruption in the central processing unit.

attention-key-handling program
A user-defined program that is called when the workstation user presses the Attention (Attn) key.

attention management
The practice of understanding where and how users are paying attention to content, and manipulating user's attention to the creator's desired content.


  1. In 3D graphics, the reduction of light intensity due to an increase in distance.
  2. A decrease in magnitude of current, voltage, or power of a signal in transmission between points. It may be expressed in decibels or nepers.

In an AIX PowerSC environment, the process by which a verifier determines whether a collector performed a Trusted Boot operation.

attestation campaign
A process for checking if the authorizations held by a user are valid.

See Application Transparent Transport Layer Security.

See attention.


  1. A characteristic of an application that helps organize the scan results into meaningful groupings, such as by department or project leader.
  2. A named data value in a tuple. Each attribute has a specific data type.
  3. The application properties that are measured and reported on, such as the amount of memory that is used or a message ID. See also attribute group.
  4. Descriptive information that provides important details about a module, requirement, discussion, or element.
  5. In modeling, a characteristic of an entity which is descriptive rather than a unique identifier or an aggregative measure.
  6. A property that provides qualitative information about dimensions.
  7. In user interface manager (UIM) tag language, an identifier used with related material that takes on a specific meaning, such as an action to be taken or the characteristics of text or data.
  8. In Graphics Library, a parameter that can affect the appearance of a drawing primitive. For instance, color is an attribute.
  9. A data field on an item or category that has an attribute definition and any number of attribute instances. See also attribute definition, attribute instance, core attribute collection.
  10. A piece of information that is associated with a chart item, such as a date of birth or an account number. An attribute is represented by a symbol, or a value, or both, that is displayed with the chart item.
  11. Data that is associated with a component. For example, a host name, IP address, or the number of hard drives can be attributes associated with a server component.
  12. A set of factors that are used as variables to determine the score of an entity. The value of an attribute can be a natural number, a floating point number, a Boolean value, a character, or a character string. An attribute can be the result of the execution of another rule or a combination of other attributes.
  13. A system or application element being monitored by a monitoring agent, such as Disk Name and Disk Read/Writes Per Second.
  14. In relational models, a query item that is not a measure or identifier. When a query item is an attribute, it is not intended to be aggregated, or used for grouping or generating prompt pick lists.
  15. The information, data, or properties that belong to instances of an object.
  16. A defined quality and values that can be assigned to an artifact. For example, a work item artifact might have a 'priority' or 'severity' attribute.
  17. In markup languages such as SGML, XML, and HTML, a name-value pair within a tagged element that modifies features of the element.
  18. A characteristic or trait of an entity that describes the entity; for example, the telephone number of an employee is one of the employee attributes. See also attribute type, candidate list, characteristic, element, entity, entity model, identity.
  19. A property, quality, or characteristic whose value contributes to the specification of an element or program function. For example, "cost" or "location" are attributes that can be assigned to a resource.
  20. In object-oriented programming, a property of an object or class that can be distinguished distinctly from any other properties. Attributes often describe state information.
  21. In dimensional models, a property that provides qualitative information about members of a level in a dimension. For example, the Store level within the Retailer dimension might have properties such as address or retail space. In general, dimensional attributes do not have measure values or rollups associated with them, but are used to locate or filter members.

attribute access class
Class that consists of attributes that require similar permission for access. Attributes are assigned to an access class within the schema files. The three user-modifiable access classes are normal, sensitive, and critical.

attribute alert
An alert that identifies entities that match a specified set of attributes. See also alert.

attribute alert generator
A set of customer-defined attributes that the pipeline uses to compare with the incoming attributes of identities. If the attributes match, the pipeline generates an attribute alert. An attribute alert generator can be used to set up a time limit (such as valid through date) for matching incoming data to generate an attribute alert.

attribute assertion
A logical expression that allows for the specification of additional conditions, and can compare details from a request to fixed data or to attributes that are returned from queries.

attribute change tracking
A technique for managing historical data in a dimension build. The user can apply attribute change tracking to a business dimension in which one or more non-key values may change without a corresponding change in the key values. For example, this technique enables the business to make a minor change to a product specification without a corresponding change in product code and have the resulting data mart reflect the specification before and after the change.

attribute character
A character associated with a field in a display file record format that defines how the field is displayed.

attribute class

  1. A specific kind of attribute. Attribute types must belong to an attribute class. Attribute classes include identifying attributes and non-identifying attributes.
  2. A descriptor of the characteristics of an attribute, including the type of its values, how its values are displayed, and the treatment of its values when they are merged or pasted on a chart.

attribute collection
A named group of attributes that can be specified exactly or that can be specified by reference to the containing specification. Attribute collections can be used to determine which attributes are accessible and validated in a given workflow step, in catalog or hierarchy views, and when setting privileges on a catalog or hierarchy. See also core attribute collection, view.

attribute configuration file (ACF)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an optional companion to an interface definition file that modifies how the Interface Definition Language (IDL) compiler locally interprets the interface definition.

attribute container
An item that contains the attributes of an XML element.

attribute container object
A repository that is automatically created when the first attribute of an XML element is created. Sterling B2B Integrator uses attribute container objects to contain the attributes of an XML element. Attribute containers do not have properties.

attribute data type
A descriptor of the information that can be stored in an attribute. Data types might define integer values, string values, date values, and other basic formats of data.

attribute definition

  1. An object that users create to store information in addition to the system attributes where data is stored.
  2. The description of a field, such as its data type, validation rules, or the allowed number of occurrences. Attribute definitions are specified in a specification, which can be applied to a container (catalog or hierarchy) or category, whose entries can then have instances of those attributes. Previously called spec node or node. See also attribute, validation rule.

attribute dictionary
A feature in Management Center that is used to manage a set of attributes and values. These attributes and values can then be reused by multiple catalog entries. If an attribute is changed in the attribute dictionary, all catalog entries that share that attribute are updated.

attribute domain
A hierarchy of attribute groups that contain similar types of attributes.

attribute DXL
A scripting language that uses a DXL program to calculate the value of an attribute. One can use this attribute in multiple columns and views.

attribute element
An element in the transformation model that holds non-additive information that is not a dimension or a measure but that may be of interest. For example, descriptive information is typically treated as an attribute.

attribute entry
An attribute with a preset value that can be associated with a chart item.

attribute file
In system configuration, a text file that is organized into stanzas, each of which has a stanza name and a set of attribute definitions in the form of Attribute=Value pairs. Configuration files have the attribute file format.

attribute group

  1. A set of related attributes that share a common purpose.
  2. Convenience grouping of one or more attributes. For example, the attribute group "Address" might include the attributes Street, City, State, and Zip.
  3. A set of related attributes that can be combined in a view or a situation. See also attribute, situation, view.
  4. An organizational view in a hierarchical notation that is based on a specific user attribute. An extra hierarchy can be created at any time by grouping users by attribute values.

attribute ID
A unique identifier on an HTML tag that distinguishes attributes.

attribute instance

  1. The value or potential value of a field for an entry. Each attribute instance for an entry corresponds to an attribute definition in the specification of the container of that entry. See also attribute, category attribute, category-specific item attribute, item attribute, validation rule.
  2. A single use of an attribute on a chart item.

attribute label

  1. In GML markup, a name of an attribute that is entered in the source document when specifying the value of the attribute.
  2. The name of the requirement attribute, such as risk, priority, or author.

attribute list
A linked list that contains extended information that is used to make authorization decisions. Attribute lists consist of a set of name = value pairs.

Attribute Matrix
A spreadsheet-like table view that displays requirements in rows and the attributes that describe them in columns. Values in attribute fields can be added or changed. See also view.

attribute object

  1. A characteristic that specifies the information associated with a particular element.
  2. In a threaded program, any pthreads data structure that is used to specify initial states when you create certain resources such as threads, mutexes, and condition variables.

attribute simulation
An MFS option that allows an application program to simulate display (video) attributes such as high intensity on printer devices.

attribute triplet
In FD:OCA, the part of a descriptor that defines the structure and representation of the data fields.

attribute type

  1. The specification in an attribute definition of the kind of data that can be stored in an instance of an attribute. Examples include simple data types, such as string or number, as well as more complex data types like currency or date.
  2. A set of descriptive and operational information associated with a requirement attribute when the attribute is created. See also entry-type attribute, list-type attribute.
  3. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) X/Open Directory Service (XDS), the component of an attribute that indicates the type of information given by that attribute. Because it is an object identifier, it is unique among other attribute types.
  4. A specific classification of an attribute. Examples of attribute types include characteristics, numbers, names, addresses, and email addresses. See also attribute, element.
  5. In Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) X/Open Object Management (XOM), any of various categories into which the client dynamically groups values on the basis of their semantics. It is an integer unique only within the package.

attribute value

  1. Information assigned to a requirement attribute. Attribute values can be text or numbers. For example, the attribute priority can be assigned the values Low, Medium, and High. See also entry-type attribute, list-type attribute.
  2. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a particular instance of the type of information indicated by an attribute type.

In Digital Analytics, the process of assigning credit to marketing initiatives that contribute to a downstream objective. There are three dimensions: direction, time, and credit logic.

See artificial transaction.

A collection of attributes and IDs that describe a group of individuals that can be engaged with products, services, or other marketing treatments.

audience level
A way of identifying the granularity of marketing campaign targets. Typical audience levels are Customer and Household.


  1. Pertaining to the portion of recorded information that can be heard.
  2. The sound portion of a video signal.

audio bridge
The hardware that ties several phone lines together for a conference call. When each participant dials the bridge and authenticates, all of the lines are able to listen and talk to each other.

A one-way audio transmission that allows the presenters to webcast an audio conference to participants over their computer speakers.

audio conference
The audio portion of a conference transmitted through audiocast or telephone.

audio name
The audible name that corresponds to a specific application profile ID and mailbox.

audio part
In VisualAge RPG, a nonvisible part that allows the application to play audio sounds, such as music and speech.

Audio/Video Interleave (AVI)
A RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format) file specification that permits audio and video data to be interleaved in a file. The separate tracks can be accessed in alternate chunks for playback or recording while maintaining sequential access on the file device.

Audio-Video Subsystem (AVS)
File format for files that can contain video and audio data, video-only data, audio-only data, or image data (a single still image). The Audio-Video Subsystem format is supported by the ActionMedia II MMPM/2 Media Control interface.


  1. In ITIL, the act of confirming compliance with a standard or set of guidelines, or comparing actual measurements to targets, or verifying the accuracy of recorded information.
  2. To record information about build or JobStream execution for subsequent analysis.
  3. A process that logs modifications to the database and plan.
  4. A DFSMShsm process that detects discrepancies in data set information contained in the volume tables of content (VTOCs), the computing system catalog, the migration control data set (MCDS), the backup control data set (BCDS), and the offline control data set (OCDS).
  5. To record information about database or instance activity by applications or individuals.
  6. An examination of the changes that have been made to a artifact over time.
  7. To review and examine the activities of a data processing system mainly to test the adequacy and effectiveness of procedures for data security and data accuracy.
  8. To check for logical inconsistencies between information that the server has and the actual condition of the system. The storage manager can audit information about items such as volumes, libraries, and licenses. For example, when a storage manager audits a volume, the server checks for inconsistencies between information about backed-up or archived files that are stored in the database and the actual data that are associated with each backup version or archive copy in server storage.
  9. A process that logs the user, administrator, and help desk activities.

In blockchain, the compliance with regulations and ability to keep an accurate record of all transactions, processes, and actions.

audit configuration package
A file that is imported from one environment to another by using the importSolutionAuditManifest command.

audit data
A data record that contains information about specific types of user activity, security events, and configuration changes in the product and in the cloud.

audit definition
The results that are imported into production from the completed audit configuration.

audit event

  1. Any database server activity or operation that can potentially access or alter data.
  2. A security related event such as a change to user status, group memberships and permissions, or a change to configuration properties.
  3. An occurrence on the system that may be a security violation. This event causes an audit record to be written.

audit facility
A utility that generates a trail of audit records for a series of predefined and monitored database events. See also audit policy.

audit file
A file that contains records of audit events and resides in the specified audit directory. Audit files provide an audit trail of information that can be extracted by the database secure auditing facility for analysis.

audit identifier
In zFS, a 16-byte value associated with each z/OS UNIX file or directory that provides identity in an SMF audit record or in certain authorization failure messages.

auditing subsystem
A mechanism that lets an administrator detect potential or actual security violations in the system. Components of this subsystem detect audit events, log and collect audit events in a system audit trail, and process the audit trails.

auditing system value
See audit value.

audit journal
A journal used by the system to keep a record of security-relevant events that occur. The system name is QAUDJRN.

audit level
The types of user actions that are currently being audited for the entire system or for specific users on the system. Actions that can be audited include authority failures and restoring objects. A record of each action is written to the audit journal.

audit log

  1. A log that maintains the history of all commands that modify metadata or configuration data and significant operations, including commands that would have made a change but failed to do so.
  2. An unalterable log file with chronological information that can include the time in which a document is created, accessed, or deleted.
  3. An unalterable record of all commands or user interactions that are issued to the system.
  4. A log file containing a record of system events and responses.

audit log file
The location of audit records generated from the audit facility.

audit manifest
See audit configuration package.

audit mask
A structure that specifies which audit events should be logged (or excluded from logging) by the database secure auditing facility.

audit message
A message in the Audit Notification System that uses descriptive text and other information to log summary data about system processing activities. System components request the Audit Notification Server to write specific audit messages to reflect processing activity that occurs within the components.

A role that gives the user the ability to define audit-report criteria, create reports, and run reports through the console. The user can be someone outside the customer's organization, such as a third-party privacy policy auditor.

AUDITOR attribute
An attribute which when assigned, allows the user to list information about users, groups, and profiles, and set logging options.

audit patch
A patch used to detect conditions that cannot be remediated and require the attention of an administrator. Audit patches contain no actions and cannot be deployed.

audit policy

  1. An instance of the audit configuration within a database. Users can define one or more audit policies in a database to define what information is recorded by the DB2 audit facility. See also audit facility.
  2. A policy that determines if audit trails should be kept. See also application policy.

audit report
A report that contains audit history of report objects.

audit request
A general purpose security request that a resource manager can use to audit.

audit rule
A rule that is used to analyze an invoice after it is loaded into the application.

audit trail

  1. The ability to track changes made to data and structures.
  2. A detailed analysis of all changes that are made to reports or report objects.
  3. A chronological record of events or transactions. An audit trail is used for examining or reconstructing a sequence of events or transactions, managing security, and recovering lost transactions.

audit trail utility
A CICS utility, DFHATUP, that can be used to print selected BTS audit records from a specified logstream.

audit value
In iSeries, settings that control a variety of auditing and other record-keeping events.

To convert a profile to another kind of profile. For example, a server profile can be modified to become a bus profile. See also unaugment.

augmented reality (AR)
Overlaying a digital representation of reality (reality through the lens of a camera) with additional graphical information (something not found in that reality, for example text or arrows) in real time.

See attachment unit interface.

See Abstract User Interface Markup Language.

Relating to the ear or to the sense of hearing.

authenticated portal user
A user that is a member of an umbrella group within WebSphere Portal authenticated with a profile containing a password and user ID.

authenticated user

  1. A portal user who has logged in to the portal with a valid account (user ID and password). Authenticated users have access to all public places. See also anonymous user, registered user.
  2. A user whose identify has been verified by the system.
  3. A user who has logged in to the system with a valid account (user ID and password).


  1. The process by which a system verifies a user's identity. User authentication is completed by a security facility outside the DB2 database system, often part of the operating system or a separate product.
  2. In computer security, verification of the identity of a user or process and the construction of a data structure that contains the privileges that were granted to the user or process. See also password.
  3. In computer security, a process that ensures that the identities of both the sender and the receiver of a network transaction are true.
  4. The process of validating the identity of a user or server.
  5. The mechanism by which a system determines what permissions a particular authenticated user has to access specific resources or actions. See also authorization.
  6. A security service that provides proof that a user of a computer system is genuinely who that person claims to be. Common mechanisms for implementing this service are passwords and digital signatures. See also authorization, credential.

authentication, authorization, and auditing (AAA)
In computer security, the process that identifies the user, determines which resources the user can access, and records what the user did.

authentication algorithm
In a virtual private network (VPN), an algorithm that converts variable-length input data into fixed-length output data.

authentication alias
An alias that authorizes access to resource adapters and data sources. An authentication alias contains authentication data, including a user ID and password.

authentication context
A data structure that contains information that relates to a single connection between two applications.

authentication domain
A name that facilitates the matching of logins with the servers for which they are valid.

authentication entity
In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the network management agent responsible for verifying that an entity is a member of the community it claims to be in. This entity is also responsible for encoding and decoding SNMP messages according to the authentication algorithm of a given community.

authentication factor
The device, biometrics, or secrets required as a credentials for validating digital identities. Examples of authentication factors are passwords, smart card, RFID, biometrics, and one-time password tokens.

authentication failure
In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), a trap that may be generated by an authentication entity when a requesting client is not a member of the SNMP community.

Authentication Header (AH)
In a virtual private network (VPN), a security protocol that provides data authentication.

authentication information object
An object that provides the definitions needed to check certificate revocation lists (CRLs) using LDAP servers, in support for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) security.

authentication level
See protection level.

authentication mechanism
A method used to identify a user or service.

authentication method
In a virtual private network (VPN), a procedure that is used to verify the identity of the sender of a message.

authentication point
A content asset that contains an authenticator (in the case of form-based authentication), or was accessed by means of an authenticator (in the case of HTTP, NT Lan Manager, or certificate-based validation).

authentication protocol
A formal procedure for verifying a principal's network identity. Kerberos is an instance of an authentication protocol.

authentication provider
The communication mechanism to an external authentication source. Functionalities, such as user authentication, group membership, and namespace searches, are made available through authentication providers.

authentication realm

  1. A function of role administration that manages users and determines user identity. It retrieves information from sources such as LDAP servers and Keystone identity services. See also user.
  2. A combination of one authenticator and one login module. Each authentication realm defines its authentication flow. An authentication realm must have a corresponding challenge handler.

authentication rule
A specification that another user can use to either restore or retrieve files from storage.

authentication server
A part of the key distribution center (KDC) that verifies the identity of a principal through a name and a password. If the identity is authenticated, the server issues a ticket-granting ticket.

authentication service

  1. A service that verifies the validity of an account; applications authenticate against their own user store or against a corporate directory.
  2. One of the three services provided by the Security Service in the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). It verifies principals according to a specified authentication protocol. The other Security services are the Privilege Service and the Registry Service.

Authentication Tester
A brute-force-like testing utility. It detects weak username-password combinations that could be used to gain access to a user's web application.

authentication token
See security token.

authentication type
One of a finite number of predefined methods for an instance or subsystem that is used to determine how and where a user is authenticated before being permitted access to the instance or subsystem or to any objects found in that instance or subsystem.


  1. A server-side component that issues a sequence of challenges on the server side and responds on the client side. See also challenge handler.
  2. In the Kerberos protocol, a string of data that is generated by the client and sent with a ticket that is used by the server to certify the identity of the client.

authenticator key
A set of alphanumeric characters used for the authentication of a message sent via the SWIFT network.

authenticator-key file
The file that stores the keys used during the authentication of a message. The file contains a record for each of your financial institution's correspondents.

See authentication.

The user responsible for creating or modifying a document or requirement.

author access
An access level that allows users to create and read documents and edit the ones they created and saved. Servers with Author access can replicate new documents and can usually delete documents marked for deletion. Access levels can be further refined using roles and access restrictions.

authored amendment contract
A contract that is used to represent an extension, amendment, addendum, or change order document, that extends, changes, supersedes, or adds language or non-language properties to the executed contract.

authored contract
A contract created from a contract template that can be presented to an external contact and negotiated.

authoring server
An instance of a WebSphere Commerce staging server that has workspaces enabled. See also commit, production server, production-ready data, quick publish, staging server, workspace, workspace task group approver.

authoring tool
A tool that is required to edit contracts and clause templates online using Microsoft Word.

A document that authorizes one SWIFTNet destination to send messages to or receive messages from another SWIFTNet destination.

In Domain Name System (DNS), pertaining to a server that has complete information about a particular domain.


  1. In cryptography, an external party that provides authentication, authorization, or both authentication and authorization.
  2. A measure of how well-connected an entity is, based on its inbound links. Authority is one of two eigenvector centrality measures used in social network analysis. See also centrality, eigenvector.
  3. The right to access objects, resources, or functions. See also access authority, class authority, group authority, privilege class.

authority check
See authorization check.

authority checking
A function of the system that looks for and verifies a user's authority to an object.

authority holder
An object that specifies and reserves an authority for a program-described database file before the file is created. When the file is created, the authority specified in the holder is linked to the file.

authority level
A user's access and ability to perform high-level database management operations such as maintenance and utility operations. In addition, a user's authority level can implicitly include privileges on database objects. See also authorization, database authority, implicit privilege, load authority, privilege, system authority.

authority lookup
In Performance Tools, the process whereby the Licensed Internal Code determines whether a particular user ID is authorized to access a specific object.

authority mask register (AMR)
A register used with POWER6 processors that defines the current authority to access pages of virtual memory according to their storage protection keys. See also storage protection key.

authority nickname
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a nickname for the higher portion (a set of names that are higher in the hierarchy) of an application entity's distinguished name. The authority nickname refers to that portion of the application entity's distinguished name above the application process common name. The authority nickname can be shared by many application entities.

authority-signed certificate
A certificate that is signed using a key maintained by a certificate authority. Before issuing a certificate, the certificate authority evaluates a certificate requestor to determine that the requestor is the certificate holder referenced in the certificate.

authority verification
The process of determining if a user has the right to execute a specific action.


  1. The mechanism by which the user’s credentials are verified to prove the user’s identity. See also authentication.
  2. The method that determines which portlets a user or a user group can access.
  3. The process of obtaining permission to perform specific actions.
  4. The process of granting a user, system, or process either complete or restricted access to an object, resource, or function. See also authentication.
  5. In computer security, the right granted to a user to communicate with or make use of a computer system.
  6. The process by which data in the database catalog is used to obtain information about an authenticated user, such as which database operations the user can perform and which data objects the user can access. See also authority level, database authority, privilege.

authorization check
A security check that is performed when a user or application attempts to access a system resource; for example, when an administrator attempts to issue a command to administer IBM MQ or when an application attempts to connect to a queue manager.

authorization checking
The action of determining whether a user is permitted access to a protected resource. RACF performs authorization checking as a result of a RACHECK or FRACHECK request See also RACHECK request.

authorization code

  1. An alphanumeric code generated for administrative functions, such as password resets or two-factor authentication bypass.
  2. In the OAuth protocol, bearer credentials that verify that the resource owner who granted authorization is the resource owner that is returned to the client.
  3. A numeric code given when a transaction is authorized.

authorization endpoint
In the OAuth protocol, the HTTP resource that the client uses to obtain authorization from the resource owner.

authorization file
A file that provides security definitions for an object, a class of objects, or all classes of objects.

authorization grant

  1. A grant that authorizes access to protected resources through an access token.
  2. In the OAuth protocol, a credential that represents the resource owner's authorization to access its protected resources. A client uses the authorization grant to obtain an access token. OAuth defines four grant types: authorization code, implicit, resource owner password credentials, and client credentials.

authorization ID
See authorization identifier.

authorization identifier (authorization ID)
A character string that designates a set of privileges and can be used to verify authority. An authorization ID can represent an object, an individual user, an organizational group, a function, or a database role.

authorization level
The level of permitted access to the various functions of the graphical user interface (GUI).

authorization list
A list of two or more user IDs and their authorities for system resources. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *AUTL.

authorization list management authority
An object authority that allows the user to add users to, remove users from, and change users' authorities on the authorization list.

authorization owner
A group of users who can define access control information (ACI) within the context of the organizational unit to which they belong.

authorization permission
Access to a page, resource, or data associated with membership of a group.

authorization policy
A policy whose policy target is a business service and whose contract contains one or more assertions that grant permission to run a channel action.

authorization protocol
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a formal procedure for establishing the authorization of principals with respect to protected objects. Among the authorization protocols supported by DCE security services are DCE authorization and name-based authorization.

authorization role
The level of access granted to a user that determines the operations that user can perform and the resources that can be manipulated by that user.

authorization rule
A specification that permits another user to either restore or retrieve a user's files from storage.

authorization server
A server that processes authorization and authentications.

authorization server endpoint
In the OAuth protocol, an HTTP resource that clients use during the authorization process. The OAuth protocol defines two endpoints: authorization endpoint and token endpoint.

authorization service
In IBM MQ on UNIX and Linux systems and IBM MQ for Windows, a service that provides authority checking of commands and MQI calls for the user identifier associated with the command or call.

authorization table
A table that contains the role to user or group mapping information that identifies the permitted access of a client to a particular resource.

authorization token
A token associated with a transaction.


  1. To allow a user to communicate with or make use of an object, resource, or function.
  2. To grant to a user the right to communicate with or make use of a computer system or display station.
  3. To give a user either complete or restricted access to an object, resource, or function.

authorized APPN end node
In APPN, an end node that is trusted by its network node server to supply directory and routing information about its resources that will affect the network directory database. If a node is authorized, all information it sends about itself is accepted. The authorization status of an end node is system-defined in its network node server.

authorized asset
An asset that conforms to specified rules and relationships assigned to it and can therefore be installed. See also deployed asset.

authorized configuration item
A configuration item that is under the control of configuration management and change management processes. See also actual configuration item.

authorized end node
See authorized APPN end node.

authorized operator
An operator who is authorized to receive undeliverable messages and lost terminal messages. See also authorized receiver.

authorized path
A facility that enables an application program to specify that a data transfer or related operation be carried out in a privileged and more efficient manner.

authorized program analysis report (APAR)
A request for correction of a defect in a supported release of a program supplied by IBM.

authorized program facility (APF)
In a z/OS environment, a facility that permits the identification of programs that are authorized to use restricted functions.

authorized receiver
An authorized operator who receives the unsolicited and authorized-receiver messages that are not assigned to a specific operator. See also authorized operator.

authorized repair service center (ARS)
A center that undertakes repair and servicing of products for a manufacturer.

authorized user

  1. A single individual who has a Proof of Entitlement (PoE) to access a licensed program.
  2. A user who has administrative authority for the client on a workstation. This user changes passwords, performs open registrations, and deletes file spaces.

See authorization.

See automatic answering.

Automated attendant. A voice application that answers incoming calls and asks callers which number or other service they would like.

In CCP, a line speed designation by which the IBM 3710 Network Controller determines the line speed.

In Java Standard Edition (Java SE), to automatically convert data of a primitive type to the corresponding wrapper type. See also auto-unboxing, boxing, unbox.

See automatic calling.

autocall unit (ACU)
In X.25 communications, a device that automatically makes and answers calls.

A process that allows a system to collect and reuse user credentials for different applications. These credentials are captured when the user enters information for the first time, and then stored and secured for future use.


auto-carrier selection
A process that allows shippers to automatically tender shipments to one or more carriers. A shipment is automatically tendered when the shipment reaches the tender time fence and has not been tendered yet.

auto-classification feature
A feature that can can create and update classification models to help map data within infosets.

auto-classification model
A model that integrates the IBM Content Classification's classification model into the IBM StoredIQ Platform infoset-generation process. An auto-classification model is made by importing a compressed file from IBM Content Classification using previously harvested data.

The method of using an automatic process to sort responses to open-ended questions into categories.

To automatically commit the current unit of work after each SQL statement.

autocommit mode
A mode in which a COMMIT statement is automatically executed after each statement sent to the database server.

See code completion.

In time series analysis, a measure of association between current and past series values. Autocorrelation indicates which past series values are most useful in predicting future values.

auto delete priority
A property, assigned to a snapshot, that determines its deletion priority when the storage capacity reaches a predefined limit.


  1. To automatically retrieve and package build output, then move that output to another location for users to run or test it.
  2. An automated process that retrieves and packages build output, and then moves that output to another location so that users can run or test it.

To permanently delete or destroy records without the use of a workflow. The record removal is immediate when it has reached the end of the retention schedule.

A process that establishes an automatic connection between two computer modems, without human interaction.

The discovery of service artifacts in a file system, external registry, or another source.

A command or list of commands run at login time.

The batch file that contains DOS commands or program names that are automatically run on a personal computer immediately after DOS is loaded.

A function that pulls data from a Word document and populates it into 2x fields. For example, after a resume/CV has been either pasted or uploaded into the submission section, resume extraction automatically extracts key sections from the text and parses them out into the appropriate sections of the Profile information so that the candidate does not have to re-key information.


auto-fill option
See legal notice placeholder.

See automounted file system.

A method of creating and installing resources dynamically as terminals log on, and deleting them at logoff. Autoinstall can be used for VTAM terminals, MVS consoles, APPC connections, programs, map sets, partitionsets and journals.

autoinstall control program
A user-replaceable CICS program used to select some of the data needed to automatically install terminals, notably the CICS terminal identifier (TERMID) and the model name to be used in each instance.

autoinstall terminal model (AITM)
A model terminal definition used by CICS during autoinstall of terminals. Definitions can be user-created or supplied by CICS, and are held in the autoinstall model table (AMT). The acronym AITM is sometimes loosely used to refer to the CICS routines that manage operations involving the autoinstall model table (AMT).

autokey seed
The first number in an automatic numbering sequence for a keyfield. If an autonumbering sequence exists, the autokey seed is the next key value that is used for a new record.

auto-level hierarchy
A hierarchy that does not have a fixed number of levels. An auto-level hierarchy is structured solely in terms of parent-child relationships. For example, employees report to managers, who may report to other managers. See also recursive level.


In certain continuous-forms printers, the automatic forms threading facility.

A menu-driven utility program provided in the 3270 Host Connection Program 2.1 and 1.3.3 for AIX and used to create logon procedures.

Auto-Logical Drive Transfer
See auto volume transfer/auto disk transfer.

See automatic logon.

automated business process
A set of business-related activities that are invoked to achieve a business goal.

automated console operation (ACO)
The use of an automated procedure to replace or simplify the action that an operator takes from a console in response to system or network events.

automated creation
An optional process that automatically generates a generic asset or configuration item during automated linking, whenever the counterpart of an authorized asset or CI cannot be found.

automated document categorization
See auto-classification model.

Automated Export System (AEF)
An electronic filing method for a shipper's export declarations offered by the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Customs Service.

automated linking
An optional process that uses link rules and discovered data to automatically match and link authorized assets and configuration items that represent the same IT resource, so they can be managed together.

automated mailing
A mailing that is automatically sent by IBM Marketing Cloud in response to receipt of an opt-in or Edit Profile request, or performance of a custom action using a web form associated with the database, or when a mailing is assigned to Automated Messages.

Automated Manifest System (AMS)
A system that is supported by the U.S. Customs service that allows the safe import and export of documents.

automated message
A series of mailings, activated by a trigger and sent to an assigned mailing database or query.

automated mode
The mode of operation of an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) in which host requests for mounts and unmounts are performed with no operator action.

Automated Operator (AO)
An application program that can issue a subset of IMS operator commands and receive status information on the execution of the commands.

Automated Operator Interface (AOI)
An IMS interface that allows installations to monitor and control IMS activities. The interface enables an application program, by using DL/I calls, to issue a subset of IMS operator commands and receive command responses; a user exit routine to monitor activities and take appropriate action; and operator commands, responses, and asynchronous output that is destined for the IMS master terminal to be logged to the secondary master terminal.

automated structured collection
A plan in which the collection activities are performed by an IBM Atlas eDiscovery Policy Syndication connector and the collection instructions are created by using a query template.

automated structured preservation
A plan in which the preservation activities are performed by an IBM Atlas eDiscovery Policy Syndication connector and the preservation instructions are created by using a query template.

automated synchronization
An optional process that is used to make equal the attributes and values of an authorized asset and its corresponding configuration item at the time they are first linked. Thereafter, synchronization occurs automatically when triggered by an attribute or attribute value change to either the authorized asset or the CI, whichever changes first.

automated tape library (ATL)
A tape library that performs its functions under direct software or application control.

Automated Tape Library Dataserver
A device consisting of robotic components, cartridge storage areas, tape subsystems, and controlling hardware and software, along with the set of tape volumes that reside in the library and can be mounted on the library tape drives. See also manual tape library, tape library.

automated task

  1. A deployment task that is associated with an application in a release and that is programmatically run. See also manual task, tag.
  2. A task in a task library that is automatically run when specific criteria are met, such as when a specific alarm level is triggered.

automatic action
An action that is executed without user interaction when an event occurs meeting the pre-set conditions defined for that action.

automatic activation
In VTAM, the activation of links and link stations in adjacent subarea nodes as a result of channel device name or RNAME specifications related to an activation command that names a subarea node. See also direct activation.

automatic answer
In data communications, a line type that does not require operator action to receive a call over a switched line. See also manual answer.

automatic answering
A machine feature that permits a station to respond without operator action to a call it receives over a switched line. See also automatic calling.

automatic application installation project
A monitored directory to which the addition of a fully composed EAR, WAR, EJB JAR, or stand-alone RAR file triggers automatic deployment and publication to a target server. Deletion of an EAR or Java EE module file from this directory triggers automatic uninstalling. See also monitored directory.

automatic attribute
An attribute that is created automatically by the application and added to a chart item.

automatic backup

  1. In DFSMShsm, the process of automatically copying data sets from primary storage volumes or migration volumes to backup volumes.
  2. In the object access method (OAM), the process of automatically copying a primary copy of an object from a direct access storage device (DASD), optical, or tape volume to a backup volume contained in an object backup-storage group.

automatic bind
A process by which SQL statements are bound automatically (without a user issuing a BIND command) when an application process begins execution and the bound application plan or package it requires is not valid. See also dynamic bind, incremental bind, static bind.

automatic binding method
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a method of managing the binding for a Remote Procedure Call. It completely hides binding management from client application code. If the client makes a series of remote procedure calls, the stub passes the same binding handle with each call.

automatic call
The process used by the linkage editor to resolve external symbols left undefined after all the primary input has been processed. See also automatic call library.

automatic call distribution (ACD)
In telephony, a service that allows incoming telephone calls directed to the same dialed number to be routed to one of multiple agents, all of whom can provide the same service to the calling party and all of whom are assigned to the same ACD group.

automatic call distributor (ACD)
A telephone system feature that automatically queues and processes inbound calls according to predefined criteria. For example, a call might be routed to the agent whose line has been idle longest.

automatic calling

  1. Calling in which the elements of the selection signal are entered into the data network contiguously at the full data signaling rate. The selection signal is generated by the data terminal equipment.
  2. A feature that permits a station to initiate a connection with another station over a switched line without operator action. See also automatic answering, manual call.

automatic calling unit (ACU)
A dialing device that permits a computer to automatically dial calls over a network.

automatic call library
A group of modules that are used as secondary input to the binder to resolve external symbols left undefined after all the primary input has been processed. The automatic call library can contain: object modules, with or without binder control statements; load modules; and runtime routines. See also automatic call.

automatic cartridge loader
A feature with which tape cartridges that have been placed into a loading rack can be automatically loaded. Manual loading of single tape cartridges is also possible.

automatic class selection (ACS)
A mechanism for assigning storage management subsystem (SMS) classes and storage groups to data sets. The storage administrator is responsible for establishing ACS routines appropriate for an installation's storage requirements.

automatic class selection routine (ACS routine)
A procedural set of automatic class selection (ACS) language statements. Based on a set of input variables, the ACS routine generates, for a data set, the name of a predefined storage management subsystem (SMS) class or a list of names of predefined storage groups.

automatic cleanup
The system process of automatically deleting items, such as old job logs, history log messages, system journals, and system logs, from the system on a daily basis.

automatic command direction
An RRSF function that enables RACF to automatically direct certain commands to one or more remote nodes after running the commands on the issuing node. Commands can be automatically directed based on who issued the command, the command name, or the profile class related to the command. See also automatic direction of application updates, automatic password direction, command direction, directed command.

automatic computer group
A computer group for which membership is determined at run time by comparing the properties of a given device against the criteria set for group membership. The set of devices in an automatic group is dynamic, meaning it can and does change. See also computer group.

automatic configuration
A function that names and creates the descriptions of network devices and controllers attached to a preexisting line. The objects are also varied on at a user's request.

automatic conversion
In Enhanced ASCII, the conversion of text data from EBCDIC to ASCII and from ASCII to EBCDIC. This capability makes it easier to port international applications developed on, or for, ASCII systems to z/OS systems. See also file tag, program CCSID.

automatic data
Data that is stored in automatic storage. See also static data.

automatic data collection (ADC)
The process of capturing or collecting data without the usage of a keyboard. It encompasses methods such as bar codes, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID,) or smart cards and storing the data in a computer.

automatic data set protection (ADSP)
In z/OS, a user attribute that causes all permanent data sets created by the user to be automatically defined to RACF with a discrete RACF profile. See also automatic data set protection attribute.

automatic data set protection attribute (ADSP attribute)
A user attribute that establishes an environment in which all permanent direct access storage device (DASD) data sets created by the user are automatically defined to RACF and protected with a discrete profile. See also automatic data set protection.

automatic deactivation
In VTAM, the deactivation of links and link stations in adjacent subarea nodes as a result of a deactivation request that names a subarea node. Automatic deactivation occurs only for automatically activated links and link stations that have not also been directly or indirectly activated. See also direct deactivation.

automatic detection
A feature that detects, reports, and updates the serial number of a drive or library in the database when the path from the local server is defined.

automatic dial
A function of the system that allows a system to automatically dial a remote station over a switched line without the assistance of an operator.

automatic dictionary creation (ADC)
The process of automatically creating a compression dictionary based on conditions associated with data in a table, XML data stored in an XML storage object, or data in a table space partition. See also compression dictionary.

automatic direction of application updates (ADAU)
An RRSF function that automatically directs macros ICHEINTY and RACROUTE that update the RACF database to one or more remote systems. See also automatic command direction, automatic password direction.

automatic discharge lane
An accumulating conveyor lane from which packages are released, one at a time, under computer control. The lane uses a blade stop or gate mechanism.

automatic dump
In DFSMShsm, the process of using DFSMSdss to automatically perform a full-volume dump of all allocated space on a primary storage volume to designated tape volumes.

automatic duplication
An option of the data file utility (DFU) function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that allows information from a previous record to be automatically copied into the current record.

automatic duplication indicator
In DFU, a field on the DFU Entry display that tells if the automatic duplication function is on or off.

automatic error notification
A utility that configures AIX error notification methods automatically for certain device errors. Automatic error notification can be enabled through SMIT.

automatic events
Events recognized by or triggered by an executing program. Automatic events are usually generated by tracking programs, but can also be created by a user-defined program.

automatic function
Work done by the computer that a user does not explicitly have to request.

automatic guided vehicle (AGV)
A transport system that is capable of functioning without driver operation.

automatic hold/release
A function used to control jobs that are submitted outside Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS.

automatic hyphenation
An option available when creating a document that automatically hyphenates words at the end of a line when the lines are adjusted.

automatic incident escalation
A process that automatically creates incidents in the Resilient platform based upon one or more conditions being met.

automatic initiate descriptor (AID)
A control block used internally by CICS for scheduling purposes. An example of AID use is scheduling a transaction, optionally associating it with a terminal and a temporary storage queue. Another use is scheduling MRO, LU6.1, and LU6.2 ALLOCATE requests.

automatic initiation descriptor (AID)
In CICS, an interval control element (ICE) that has expired. If all of its required resources are available, it becomes an enabled AID. If it is waiting for a resource to become free, it becomes a suspended AID.

automatic interval migration
Migration that occurs periodically when a threshold level of occupancy is reached or exceeded on a DFSMShsm-managed volume during a specified time interval. Data sets are moved from the volume, in descending order of the largest eligible data sets, until the low threshold of occupancy is reached.

automatic job and started-task recovery
In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a function that lets you specify, in advance, alternative recovery strategies for operations that end in error.

automatic journal
A set of rules and definitions connected to a control table. Automatic journals define which eliminations should be calculated in a consolidation, as well as how and when the consolidation should take place.

automatic key generation
An option of the data file utility (DFU) function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that allows DFU to assign record keys to the records of a file.

automatic library call
The process by which the binder resolves external references by including additional members from the automatic call library.

automatic Licensed Internal Code completion
A function of the system that automatically attempts to complete interrupted machine instructions following an abnormal end of the system processing.

automatic license plate recognition (ALPR)
A technology composed of separate devices that is used to detect, capture, and store visual information pertaining to a license plate.

automatic load
In Q replication, a load process in which the Q Apply program loads data into a target table. The user can specify a load utility or let the Q Apply program choose the best available utility. See also manual load.

automatic location
The process by which positioning information is obtained for a work order. The process involves execution of the auto-locate function in Maximo Asset Management.

automatic logoff
The process that a server uses to disconnect a connection when no data has been transmitted for a given period of time.

automatic logon (autologon)

  1. In VM, a process by which a virtual machine is initiated by something other than the user of that virtual machine; for example, the primary VM operator's virtual machine is activated automatically during VM initialization.
  2. A process by which VTAM automatically creates a session-initiation request to establish a session between two logical units (LUs). The session is between a designated primary logical unit (PLU) and a secondary logical unit (SLU) that is neither queued for nor in session with another PLU. See also controlling logical unit.

automatic maintenance
A process by which a DB2 database system uses user-defined objectives to identify and run required maintenance activities during the next available maintenance window. See also maintenance window.

automatic memory reclamation
See garbage collection.

automatic migration
The process that is used to automatically move files from a local file system to storage, based on options and settings that are chosen by a root user on a workstation. See also demand migration, threshold migration.

automatic mode
An operating mode in which all deployment requests are automatically generated and approved. This operating mode is for applications or clusters that do not require human review and approval of deployment recommendations.

automatic network routing (ANR)
In High-Performance Routing (HPR), a highly efficient routing protocol that minimizes cycles and storage requirements for routing network layer packets through intermediate nodes on the route. See also Rapid Transport Protocol.

automatic number identification (ANI)
In telephony, a service available in the United States that is provided by enhanced switch networks and that passes the calling party's telephone number through the network to the called party's telephone number.

automatic number plate recognition (ANPR)
See automatic license plate recognition.

automatic password direction
A RACF remote sharing facility (RRSF) function that extends password synchronization and automatic command direction to cause RACF to automatically change the password for a user ID on one or more remote nodes after the password is changed on the local node. See also automatic command direction, automatic direction of application updates, password synchronization.

automatic primary-space management
In DFSMShsm, the process of automatically deleting expired data sets, deleting temporary data sets, releasing unused space, and migrating data sets from primary storage volumes.

automatic profile
A tape volume profile that RACF creates when a RACF-defined user protects a tape data set. When the last data set on the volume is deleted, RACF automatically deletes the tape volume profile. See also non-automatic profile.

automatic query rewrite
A process that examines an SQL statement that refers to one or more base tables, and, if appropriate, rewrites the statement so that the query performs better.

automatic ranging
In Business Graphics Utility, the use of system-supplied values to determine the intervals on a chart so that the maximum and minimum data values can be represented on the work station or plotter.

automatic reactivation
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, the activation of a node from the inactive state without user intervention

automatic rebind

  1. In DB2 for z/OS and DB2 for IBM i, a process by which SQL statements are bound automatically (without a user issuing a command) when an application process begins execution and the bound application plan or package that it requires is not valid. See also rebind.
  2. See implicit rebind.

automatic recording
In DFSMSrmm, the process of recording information about a volume and the data sets on the volume in the DFSMSrmm control data set (CDS) at open or close time.

automatic report
A function of the RPG licensed program that uses simplified specifications and standard RPG/400 specifications to create a complete RPG/400 source program.

automatic-reporting workstation
A workstation (for example, a processor or printer) that reports events (the starting and stopping of operations) in real time to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS.

automatic report program
A set of instructions (program) that use the RPG automatic report function.

automatic restart
A restart that takes place during the current run, that is, without resubmitting the job. An automatic restart can occur within a job step or at the beginning of a job step. See also checkpoint restart, deferred restart.

automatic restart management
The facilities that detect failures and manage server restarts.

automatic restart manager (ARM)
A z/OS recovery function that can automatically restart batch jobs and started tasks after they or the system on which they are running end unexpectedly.

automatic secondary-space management
In DFSMShsm, the process of automatically deleting migrated data sets that have expired, deleting expired records from the migration control data sets, and migrating eligible data sets from migration-level-1 volumes to migration-level-2 volumes.

automatic sign-on
A feature where users can log on to the sign-on automation system and the system logs on the user to all other applications.

automatic single-route broadcast
A function that is used by some IBM bridge programs to determine the correct settings and to set the bridge single-route broadcast configuration parameters dynamically, without operator intervention. As bridges enter and leave the network, the parameter settings may need to change to maintain a single path between any two LAN segments for single-route broadcast messages.

automatic space management
In DFSMShsm, the process that includes automatic volume-space management, automatic secondary-space management, and automatic recall.

automatic storage

  1. An area that is allocated by the system when a program or procedure is called. Within automatic storage, data is defined each time the program or procedure is called. See also static storage.
  2. Storage that is allocated on entry to a routine or block and is freed when control is returned. See also dynamic storage.

automatic storage and retrieval system (ASRS)
Material handling system that automatically moves, stores, and retrieves material. With an ASRS, the operator is stationary. The handling mechanism receives material from the operator, moves and stores it into locations, and retrieves and delivers material back to the operator when picking.

automatic storage reclamation
See garbage collection.

automatic transaction initiation (ATI)
The initiation of a CICS transaction by an internally generated request, for example, the issue of an EXEC CICS START command or the reaching of a transient data trigger level. CICS resource definition can associate a trigger level and a transaction with a transient data destination. When the number of records written to the destination reaches the trigger level, the specified transaction is automatically initiated. See also trigger level.

automatic transition
A transition that occurs on completion of the activity within the originating state.

automatic variable

  1. A variable allocated on entry to a routine and deallocated on the return. See also static variable.
  2. A variable that a user can declare as an instance of a specific business object model (BOM) class.

automatic vary on
An option specified during the creation of configuration objects that allows them to be available when the system is started (IPL).

automatic volume recognition (AVR)
A feature that allows the operator to mount labeled volumes on available I/O devices before the volumes are needed by a job step.

automatic volume-space management
In DFSMShsm, the process that includes automatic primary-space management and interval migration.

A program or facility that performs certain operations automatically in response to system events or user preferences.

automation context
A set of variables that ties an automation plan to a specific configuration.

automation library
A logical set of steps or actions to achieve a particular outcome, for example, restart a server environment. An automation library can contain actions and nested libraries, and can be reused within one or more automation plans.

automation package
A collection of commands, shell scripts, workflows, logical device operations, and Java plug-ins that applies to the operation of a specific type of software component or a physical device.

automation plan
A logical collection of actions and libraries that can be run against a managed system to achieve a particular outcome, for example, to install an application with the latest patches and fix packs on the managed system.

Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
The standards-setting group for the automotive industry. The standards form a subset of the ANSI X12 standard.

automounted file system (AutoFS)
A file system that is managed by an automounter daemon. The automounter daemon monitors a specified directory path, and automatically mounts the file system to access data.

automount rule
A generic or specific entry in an automount map file.

A universal mechanism to exchange network capabilities between two Ethernet nodes. The exchange takes place at power-up (or link reset) time. It automatically establishes a link that takes advantage of the highest common denominator of the mutual capabilities of the two Ethernet nodes. The universal mechanism negotiates capabilities that include link speed, PHY types, and full duplex or half duplex.

Pertaining to an on-demand operating environment that responds automatically to problems, security threats, and system failures. See also on demand operating environment.

autonomic computing
A computing environment with the ability to manage itself and dynamically adapt to change in accordance with business policies and objectives. By sensing and responding to situations that occur, autonomic computing shifts the burden of managing a computing environment from people to technology. An autonomic computing environment is self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting. See also Generic Log Adapter, self-configure.

Autonomic Computing Policy Language
The XML specification for defining the four components of a policy expression: the scope, condition, decision, and business value. See also Simplified Policy Language.

autonomic manager
A set of software or hardware components, configured by policies, which manage the behavior of other software or hardware components as a human might manage them. An autonomic manager includes a control loop that consists of monitor, analyze, plan, and execute components. See also analyze component, decision point, execute component, manageability interface, monitor component, plan component.

autonomic request flow manager (ARFM)
An autonomic manager that controls request prioritization in the on-demand router.

autonomous procedure
A procedure that is run within a transaction that is independent of the invoking transaction.

autonomous routine
A routine that is run within a transaction that is independent of the invoking transaction.

autonomous system (AS)
In TCP/IP, a group of networks and routers under one administrative authority. These networks and routers cooperate closely to propagate network reachability (and routing) information among themselves using an interior gateway protocol of their choice. See also area.

autonomous system number (ASN)
In TCP/IP, a number that is assigned to an autonomous system by the same central authority that assigns IP addresses. The autonomous system number makes it possible for automated routing algorithms to distinguish autonomous systems.

autonomous system path
In the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the autonomous systems that are traversed to reach the networks listed in the update message. The path helps to suppress looping of routing information.

autonomous transaction
A transaction with a commit scope that is independent from that of the invoking transaction.

autonomy level
The degree to which an agent can act without user intervention.

A tool used to create a software package.

AutoPack file
An installable image that is used to distribute applications to multiple endpoints.

In CCP, a method that allows an IBM 3710 Network Controller to decide whether to use an odd or even parity when communicating with an SS terminal.

A freight payment process that determines how much the shipper pays the carrier for each shipment. The shipment charge is calculated and a voucher is automatically generated when the freight payment triggers are satisfied for each shipment. See also match pay.

autopower restart
The function that restarts a system automatically. This is typically used when power has been restored to the system and any backup power supply has recharged after a temporary power failure or after an unexpected power line disturbance that caused the system to shut down unexpectedly.

The automatic creation of user identity records.

In Connections Docs, a feature that, when enabled, makes files available to persons who have only reader access, every time the user closes the document. During a simultaneous group editing session, the file is published after the last co-editor closes the document. See also publish.

To enable a prespecified list of modules to be pushed automatically onto the stream when a STREAMS device is opened, via the STREAMS "autopush" mechanism.

A power supply that accommodates different input voltages and line frequencies.

AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA)
In time series analysis, a sophisticated method for modeling trend and seasonal components. See also time series analysis.

A hold or virtual interview notice that is sent periodically to remind custodians that they must continue to preserve information, which includes any new information that was created, or that they must re-respond to the virtual interview. Collection notices do not allow automatic reminders.

In the NetView program, the removal of a device from the data passing activity without human intervention. This action is accomplished by the adapter.

auto req ID
See auto requisition ID.

auto requisition ID (auto req ID)
A short string of alpha and/or numeric characters attached to candidate submissions that provides information that could not otherwise be known unless the candidate communicated it. This includes, but is not limited to, the job title and position the candidate applied to and where the candidate heard about the opening.

Pertaining to a characteristic of database-managed space (DMS) table spaces and regular and large automatic storage table spaces. The table space expands automatically by extending or acquiring containers, as needed, to increase the table space size until the file systems are full or a user-specified limit is reached.

auto-resolve conflict
The automatic merging of conflicting changes to an item. Conflicts can only be automatically resolved if the conflicting changes are made to two separate areas within the item.

A software function that saves an open document automatically at periodic intervals to reduce the risk of data loss.

auto scaling
A capability of Liberty servers that dynamically adjusts the number of Java virtual machines (JVMs) used to service a workload.


  1. Pertaining to a system activity that starts automatically, usually based on the start or end of some other activity.
  3. An OSI Communications Subsystem function that starts an X.25 line automatically when the line set that it belongs to is started.

autostart job
A batch job doing repetitive work or one-time initialization work that is associated with a particular subsystem. The autostart jobs associated with a subsystem are automatically started each time the subsystem is started.

auto storage class specifier
A specifier that enables the programmer to define a variable with automatic storage; its scope is restricted to the current block.

A state table icon view utility that automatically converts lines into stubs when they cross a specified number of columns.

An unattended operator station task that does not require a terminal or a logged-on user. Autotasks can run independently of VTAM and are typically used for automated console operations. See also logged-on operator.

In Java SE, the automatic conversion of an object type to a primitive type. See also autobox, unbox.

auto volume transfer/auto disk transfer (AVT/ADT)
A function that provides automatic failover in case of controller failure on a storage subsystem.

auto wildcard
A search type that appends a wildcard character to the end of a string of text or numbers entered into a search screen.

In Service Component Architecture, an automatic connection that aids the assembly of composites by wiring component services to match the requirements of the references.

auxiliary data set
In AFP printing, a data set that contains job header, data set header, job trailer, or message data. See also print data set.

auxiliary equipment
Equipment that is not under direct control of the processing unit.

auxiliary HADR standby database
In an HADR multiple standby system, a standby database that allows only the superAsync synchronization mode. Multiple auxiliary HADR standby databases can be defined in a multiple standby system. See also principal HADR standby database, standby database.

auxiliary index
An index on an auxiliary table in which each index entry refers to a LOB or XML document.

auxiliary network address
In VTAM, any network address, except the main network address, that is assigned to a logical unit capable of having parallel sessions. See also main network address.

auxiliary resource
Fonts, page segments, overlays, page definitions, or form definitions associated with auxiliary data sets.

auxiliary schedule
A type of business schedule that is associated with one or more other schedules and that specifies multiple dates for exceptions to regular business schedules that do not occur on regular intervals. For example, company holidays or irregular maintenance times that apply to all service offerings in an enterprise can be specified once in a auxiliary schedule and then applied to schedules across multiple service offerings.

auxiliary standby database
See auxiliary HADR standby database.

auxiliary storage
All addressable storage other than main storage. See also memory.

auxiliary storage pool (ASP)

  1. A group of disk units defined from the auxiliary storage devices. See also system ASP, user ASP.
  2. One or more storage units that are defined from the storage devices or storage device subsystems that make up auxiliary storage. An ASP provides a way of organizing data to limit the effect of storage-device failures and to reduce recovery time. See also main storage pool.

auxiliary storage - TS queue
In CICS, a temporary storage queue that is in a physical file managed by CICS. Auxiliary storage should be used to store large amounts of data, or data needed for a long period of time. See also main storage - TS queue.

auxiliary table
A table that stores columns outside the table in which they are defined. See also base table.

auxiliary task
A subtask under the JES3 primary task.

auxiliary task control block (ATCB)
A control block that JES3 uses to manage work done under the auxiliary task.

auxiliary task-dispatching element (ATDE)
A control block used to determine whether to dispatch a function control table (FCT) under the JES3 auxiliary task.

auxiliary trace
An optional CICS function that causes trace entries to be recorded in the auxiliary trace data set, a sequential data set on disk or tape.

auxiliary trace data set
A sequentially organized data set on disk or tape, used to record all trace entries generated while the auxiliary trace function is active. Either one or two auxiliary trace data sets can be defined; the latter allows the data sets to be switched when the one currently being used is full.

auxiliary volume
The volume that contains a mirror of the data on the master volume. See also master volume, relationship.


  1. The successful execution of a monitored transaction over a specified period of time. See also transaction.
  2. The time periods during which a resource is accessible. For example, a contractor might have an availability of 9 AM to 5 PM every weekday, and 9 AM to 3 PM on Saturdays.
  3. The degree to which a system or resource is ready when needed to process data.
  4. The condition allowing users to access and use their applications and data.
  5. The total amount of time that a resource can devote to new assignments.
  6. The delivery of reliable service during scheduled periods.

availability management

  1. In DFSMShsm, the process of ensuring that a current version (backup copy) of the installation's data sets resides on tape or a direct access storage device (DASD).
  2. A service management process that helps to define customer requirements for information technology service availability, the capabilities of the IT infrastructure to deliver those levels of availability, and the actions that are needed to improved availability. See also deployment management, operations and administration, security management.

availability manager (AVM)
The component of z/OS that performs XRF processing. Specifically, the availability manager performs I/O prevention during takeover.

availability monitor
A time-triggered transaction that monitors inventory availability and raises alerts when levels fall below configured thresholds.

availability zone
A location within a region that IBM Containers runs in.

Pertaining to a logical unit or device that is active, connected, enabled, and not at its session limit.

available state
The state a device is in when it is configured. The device status field in the Customized Devices Object Class in the ODM reflects whether a device is in the available state or not.

available to deliver
Pertaining to the amount of on-hand inventory available for immediate delivery.

available to promise (ATP)
Pertaining to the amount of inventory that can be promised for delivery by a certain date.

available to promise inventory (ATP inventory)
The inventory that is available in stock (on hand) plus the inventory that is on order, not including inventory that is currently being processed, reserved or allocated to backorders.

available to promise monitoring rule (ATP monitoring rule)
A business rule that is used to set up a monitoring system for tracking inventory item availability and raising specific actions when the inventory falls below a specified minimum level. The availability of an item can be tracked on the current day, subsequent days within the ATP timeframe, and subsequent days outside the ATP timeframe.

available to promise rule (ATP rule)
A business rule that determines the availability of an item for current and future demand. This determination makes the most efficient use of inventory so that items are not set aside for future orders when they could be used to fulfill more immediate demands.

A graphical representation of a user.

See Android Virtual Device.

AVD Manager
An interface that is used to manage Android Virtual Device configurations. See also Android Virtual Device.

average percentage
The percentage shown on a KPI chart that indicates the number of occurrences that met the criteria reported versus all the events that were measured.

average sessions before first purchase
The average number of sessions that a unique visitor has before making the first purchase. It is calculated by dividing the number of sessions before first purchase by the number of unique buyers.

average throughput rate
The power of a system to process a representative work load. The power of the system is measured in units of data processing work; for example, jobs or transactions successfully completed per hour, minute, or second.

See Audio/Video Interleave.

See availability manager.

See automatic volume recognition.

See Audio-Video Subsystem.

See auto volume transfer/auto disk transfer.

See alphanumeric weight.

See arbitration wait timeout value.

The decision to accept a bid.

away database
A database where a partition is imported and viewed or edited before being returned to the home database.

See approval workflow.

A file processing language that is well suited to data manipulation and retrieval of information from text files.

See Abstract Window Toolkit.

An implementation of SOAP on which Java web services can be implemented.


  1. The direction of movement through an instance of the XQuery and XPath data model. The six supported axes are child, parent, self, attribute, descendant, and descendant-or-self.
  2. In Business Graphics Utility and the GDDM function, one of the intersecting horizontal or vertical scales where data values are plotted on a chart.
  3. A part of a location step in a search path. An axis defines the direction of the search for objects in the object hierarchy of the content store. An axis indicates where to search for objects by defining a set of objects relative to the current context object. For example, the ancestor axis specifies the ancestor of the current context object.

axis expression
An axis specification that is used for a variable when the variable is tabulated in Survey Tabulation or Survey Reporter.

axis grid line
In Business Graphics Utility and the GDDM function, a straight line extending perpendicular to either axis at each major tick.

axis label
In Business Graphics Utility, the name of a major tick on a vertical or horizontal axis.

axis range
In Business Graphics Utility, the upper and lower limits of the vertical or horizontal lines.

axis title
In the GDDM function, a text string describing what an axis represents.

The "authorized cross-memory" server environment. A series of modules providing runtime services for CICS-related cross-memory servers which run in MVS authorized state (unlike CICS itself, which runs unauthorized once initialization has completed) such as the temporary storage data sharing server.

AZERTY keyboard
A keyboard in which the keys in the second-from-top row (row D) are labeled (from left to right): A, Z, E, R, T, Y, U, I, O, and P. See also QWERTY keyboard.