9394-001 IBM RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem Model 001

IBM United States Sales Manual
Revised:  June 09, 2009.

Table of contents  Document options 
TOC Link Product Life Cycle Dates TOC Link Technical Description
TOC Link Abstract TOC Link Publications
TOC Link Highlights TOC Link Features -- Specify/Special/Exchange
TOC Link Description TOC Link Accessories
TOC Link Product Positioning TOC Link Machine Elements
TOC Link Model TOC Link Supplies
 
Printable version Printable version
 

 
Product Life Cycle Dates
Type Model Announced Available Marketing Withdrawn Service Discontinued
9394-001 1994/06/211994/09/30 1998/07/282010/12/31

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Abstract

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem is a new member of the RAMAC family of storage arrays that offers double capacity in a single rack of IBM 3390 Model 3 emulated DASD and significant improvements per gigabyte in power and cooling requirements when compared to previous RAMAC Arrays. The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides System/370* and System/390* direct access storage customers with software transparency and ease of migration in a high-performance, integrated RAID array subsystem. The double capacity B23 drawers and the single capacity B13 drawers support IBM 3390-3 and IBM 3380-K emulations. Both emulation formats can be installed in a single Model 003 rack. The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem can be attached to ES/9000*, S/390 PTS, 3090*, 308X, 4381, 4341, and 9370 processors running system software that supports the device type being emulated.

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem is a RAID-5 storage subsystem with dynamic sparing, dynamic disk reconstruction, and predictive failure analysis, thereby providing an exceptionally high degree of subsystem fault tolerance. The subsystem also increases data availability through the use of dual line cords, and redundant power, fans, logic, and pathing throughout the subsystem. Host connectivity options include four or eight parallel channels, four or eight ESCON* channels, and mixed parallel/ESCON channel capability. ESCON configurations include 128 logical channel path addressing capability, and the ability to operate at distances of up to 43 kilometers (26.7 miles). Overall, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem offers extensive flexibility: 11.35-180 GB of data storage in one rack (two B13 drawers minimum); controller cache sizes ranging from 64 MB to 2 GB; 3380-K or 3390-3 DASD emulation modes, which can be intermixed in a Model 003 rack, drawers can be reformatted; software transparency, supported in MVS/ESA*, MVS/XA*, MVS/370, VM/ESA*, VM/XA* SP, VM/SP HPO, VM/SP, VSE/ESA*, and VSE/SP environments; parallel (3.0 and 4.5 MB/Sec) and 128 logical path ESCON (10 and 18 MB/Sec) channel support; high degree of modularity and upgradability.

Model Abstract 9394-001

The Model 001 (Dual Cluster) Array Controller has the following options: emulation of a 3990-2 storage control; cache sizes: 64 MB, 256 MB; attachment options: 4 ESCON (128 logical), 4 parallel; DASD configurations comprised of two to sixteen drawers; and single phase power with a single line cord.
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Highlights

  • Outstanding data capacity

  • Software transparency

  • Excellent fault tolerance and data availability

  • Outstanding performance

  • New levels of environmental efficiency

  • Configuration flexibility and expandability

  • Dynamic disk reconstruction is provided on the 9395 Model B23 drawer array. Reconstruction is the regeneration of all the data from a failed disk onto a replacement disk when sparing has not been performed.

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Description

Please see Announcement Letter, dated June 13, 1995, for information regarding the RAMAC 2 Array DASD, and Announcement Letter, dated June 13, 1995, for information regarding 3990 support for the RAMAC 2 Array DASD.

DASD Emulation and Software Transparency

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem installs into existing system environments with a minimum of planning and down time. It is possible to configure an Array Controller Model 3 with both 3390-3 and 3380-K emulation modes in the same rack. RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem can be installed in operating systems that support the volume being emulated.

Enabling Customer Service Improvements

IBM RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem customers can improve service to their users because both initial installation and capacity and connectivity upgrades of the subsystem can be accomplished with a minimum of disruption. ESCON attached subsystems can be installed without an outage. This translates into fewer hours devoted to system downtime, and more hours devoted to servicing the user.

Improved Systems Availability

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem offers improved levels of system availability because system software updates that would require an IPL are not necessary to install the subsystem. However, enhancements are available that a customer may choose to install that would require an IPL. Additionally, DASD emulation makes data migration considerations minimal.

IS Operations Productivity

Because of emulation and software transparency, IS Operations will spend considerably less time planning for the installation of RAMAC 2 Array Subsystems. B13 drawers can be reformatted amongst the two available DASD emulation modes. Thus, the subsystem can adapt to align with data requirements rather than having to make the application data conform to the hardware.

Asset Protection

Because the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem will attach to a wide range of IBM processors and channels and operate across the spectrum of IBM's system software environments, your investments in these IS assets are protected and extended. Also, no additional operator training is necessary to utilize the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem Further, because the RAMAC drawer array can be upgraded in the field from the B13 to the B23, investment in previous RAMAC Arrays is preserved.

Excellent Fault Tolerance and Data Availability

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem is designed with hardware redundancy throughout the subsystem. Redundant and fault-tolerant designs are employed in all functional areas including primary power systems, AC and DC power distribution, fans, logic and pathing. High-availability features include RAID-5 operation and dynamic sparing, as well as redundancy for all writes to cache -- one of the two copies being protected by battery back up.

Enable Customers' Service Improvements

The fault tolerance that is inherent in the design of the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides for extended hours of availability and reduced outages, thereby improving your ability to service your users.

Improved Systems Availability

Functions such as RAID-5 and dynamic sparing, as well as the hardware fault-tolerant aspects of the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, dramatically improve the availability of the applications that depend on the subsystem. Most service calls are nondisruptive, and many upgrades can be performed concurrently with users having access to data.

IS Operations Productivity

Because of the high-availability features of the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, considerably less of the operator's time is spent in recovery operations which are typically the result of DASD failures.

Environmental Efficiency

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem can replace prior generations of DASD subsystems and provide dramatic reductions in floor space, power and cooling requirements. The integration of the storage controller function and the latest technology IBM ULTRASTAR XP 3.5-inch disk drives all in one compact unit bring significant environmental efficiencies.

Reduced Environmental Requirements

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides exceptional power, cooling and floor space reductions per gigabyte of storage when compared with prior generations of IBM high-performance DASD including the previous RAMAC Array Subsystem. For example, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem with B23 drawers delivers a ten-fold improvement in storage capacity per kVA and a thirty-fold improvement in storage capacity per square foot when compared to 3380-K subsystems. These same yardsticks produce a four to six times improvement when compared with 3390-3 subsystems. These efficiencies allow customers to grow their operation without the need to modify facilities; or perhaps to consolidate multiple data centers into one easier to manage complex.

Configuration Flexibility and Expandability

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem brings to the marketplace the most configurable DASD subsystem ever offered by IBM on a System/370 or System/390 platform. From amongst the broad selection of options for cache sizes, numbers of controllers, DASD capacity, intermixing of B13 and B23 drawers, DASD emulation modes, channel configurations and primary power, a RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem can be custom configured for each specific application in your business. This flexibility applies to upgrades as well, allowing you to continuously match the subsystem configuration to your current needs.

Connectivity Improvements

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, through the use of ESCON adapters and ESCON Directors or Channel Extenders, can address up to 128 logical channel paths per cluster pair. ESCON distances, with XDF links, can extend up to 43 kilometers (26.7 miles). Additionally, a single Array Controller can be configured to attach to both ESCON and parallel channels, thus providing an easy migration path to ESCON architecture. The host parallel channels may support either 3 or 4.5 MB/sec data rates, and both 10 and 18 MB/sec ESCON channels are supported.

Upgradability Improvements

Beginning with as little as 11.35 gigabytes of DASD and 64 megabytes of cache, a RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem can be upgraded to a 180 gigabyte subsystem with as much as 2 gigabytes of controller cache. Previous investment in RAMAC Array Subsystems is preserved by the upgradability feature of the B13 drawer. The B13 can be converted to a double capacity B23 drawer in the field. Additionally, connectivity features can be upgraded from parallel channel configurations to ESCON channel or mixed ESCON/parallel configurations. And, volumes can be reformatted amongst the two volume emulation modes. This flexibility allows the subsystem to adapt as your business needs change.

Performance That Can Be Tailored

With a wide range of available cache sizes, dual or optional quad cluster controllers, the use of battery-backed DASD fast write, and for MVS systems, partitioned data set (PDS) search assist and sequential data striping, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides flexible subsystem performance options to meet the needs of a broad range of application environments. Parallel processing arrays with caching algorithms that ensure an efficient caching approach are employed such that overall response time is minimized.

Enable Customer's Service Improvements

The improved levels of subsystem performance provided by the array subsystem allow you to improve the quality of service through improved application response time. This is particularly apparent when RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem is compared with uncached DASD subsystems which will be a significant source for data and application migration.

Increased Capacity/Performance Improvement

In a compact footprint, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides significant increases in DASD subsystem capacity and performance that can translate directly to an ability to grow. Considerable savings in operating costs per gigabyte of storage can be applied to other areas of a growing business.

Improved User Productivity

Because of the outstanding performance attributes of the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, users will find that application response times can improve, thereby allowing them to be more productive in their work. Throughput rates for batch jobs can significantly improve such that the elapsed time for applications to complete can be reduced.
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Product Positioning

The newest members of the IBM RAMAC* Array family are the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, a self-contained storage subsystem, and the RAMAC 2 Array DASD, which attaches to the 3990-6 cache storage control. The RAMAC architecture is designed for new levels of data availability, performance and ease of installation. Outstanding availability is designed into the RAMAC family using fault-tolerant and RAID-5 technologies. The unique IBM Multi-level Cache and Parallel Processing Array architecture provides the benefits of performance and high availability. Advanced cache algorithms and very large cache and NVS sizes further enhance performance capabilities.

Customers requiring the IBM 3990 Storage Control Extended Functions should select the 3990-6 Storage Control and RAMAC 2 Array DASD. Outstanding availability is delivered via a RAID-5 design with hardware fault tolerance, and further enhanced with the 3990 functions of extended remote copy, peer to peer remote copy and concurrent copy. High performance is designed into the RAMAC 2 Array DASD, and enhanced with the 3990 track and record cache algorithms, DASD fast write, and large cache and NVS choices. The RAMAC 2 Array DASD attaches to the 3990 Model 6 and can coexist with other 3390 strings for ongoing investment protection. The RAMAC 2 Array DASD uses the 3390 track format and in most environments installs using existing system software, making it is easy to install and use.

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem should be considered by customers needing high performance, outstanding availability and advanced functions in a self-contained, fault-tolerant subsystem. The availability of quad controllers for up to eight upper interfaces provides outstanding performance for sequential, batch or other applications that require high channel activity. Performance is enhanced through a wide selection of cache sizes and the advanced track and record caching algorithms that self-select based on application requirements. Outstanding availability is designed into the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem using fault tolerance and a RAID-5 design. Customers with the requirement to support multiple track formats will also appreciate the flexibility built into the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem. The subsystem can be configured with 3390-3 or 3380-K emulated devices. The Model 3 Array Controller allows these formats to be configured in the same rack. No system software changes are required, resulting in a "drop-in" installation.

The choice between the two RAMAC Array family members depends on the combination of attributes required. If leading-edge extended functions combined with outstanding performance and high availability are required, the 3990 Storage Control and RAMAC 2 Array DASD subsystem is the appropriate choice. If requirements include the flexibility of multiple track formats combined with great performance and high availability, and lower cost for smaller configurations, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem would be preferred.

As part of this announcement, IBM is offering advanced-technology, double-capacity drawers for the RAMAC Array family. The RAMAC Array family can be upgraded with the higher-capacity model drawers.
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Model

Model Summary Matrix

           Cluster
            Array     Phase
Model     Controller  Power
-----     ----------  ------
 001        Dual      Single
 

Maximum

From two to sixteen 9395 drawers may be installed in a 9394 Model 1 or 9394 Model 2 rack. From four to sixteen 9395 drawers may be installed in a 9394 Model 3 rack. Each 9395 drawer contains four disk drives that emulate either two or three (for B13), or three or four (for B23), logical volumes.

Customer Setup (CSU)

None.

Devices Supported

Not available.

Model Conversions

None.
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Technical Description
TOC Link Physical Specifications TOC Link Operating Environment TOC Link Limitations
TOC Link Hardware Requirements TOC Link Software Requirements


RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem Product Description

Physical Description

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem consists of a Array Controller that is populated with from two to sixteen B13 or B23 drawer arrays. Each B13 drawer has a capacity of 5.67 gigabytes (GB) and each B23 drawer with 3390-3 emulation has a capacity of 11.35 gigabytes (GB), thereby providing a range of capacities from 11.35 GB to 180 GB in a single, compact footprint. The new IBM ULTRASTAR* XP 3.5-inch SCSI disk drives in the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem double the capacity of the previous RAMAC drawer, thereby providing outstanding improvement in the storage capability in a single rack.

The array controller can be configured as either a dual cluster controller or a quad cluster (2 cluster pairs) controller thereby providing options for performance tailoring and/or intermix of DASD volume emulation modes. Options for controller cache sizes range from 64 megabytes (MB) to 2 GB. Cache memory is also resident in the drawer.

Controller connectivity options include either parallel channels or ESCON ports with configurations available that include a mix of both. Connectivity options that include ESCON ports are capable of addressing up to 128 logical channel paths per cluster pair.

The array controller offers alternative primary power systems which provide options for installing in a single phase, single line cord configuration, or in a three phase power configuration with dual line cords as the default offering.

RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem Function/Features

The following functions and features are transparent to system software. This means that system software levels that support 3990-2/3380-K or 3990-2/3390-3 subsystems can take advantage of these features even though a particular level of software does not support these features in conventional subsystems. Note that the array controller emulates uncached storage controls, yet provides cache dependent features by managing the functions outboard of the host and transparent to the system software.

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem takes advantage of software synergy if the correct levels of software are installed.

For ES/9000 and S/390 PTS processors, host data compression can be utilized to reduce the amount of data stored on the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, and the amount of data transferred between the array controller and the host regardless of the type of channel attachment. On MVS systems, the devices in the subsystem can be in the same storage group as other devices of the same type, and DFSMS/MVS* will recognize the unique characteristics of the subsystem devices, such as outstanding availability using RAID. DFSMS/MVS compression for extended format data sets (BSAM, QSAM, VSAM and striped data sets) can also reduce the amount of required storage on the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem providing the array controller is ESCON attached. For system-managed-storage data sets, ESCON attached RAMAC 2 Array Subsystems can take advantage of both S/390 and DFSMS/MVS implemented data compression.

  • Multilevel Cache with Parallel Processing Arrays provide a caching solution suitable to the data that is currently being accessed by application software. The subsystem will select record or track caching or inhibit the use of cache depending on which mode proves optimal for the data being processed. Periodic assessments are made to determine if the previous decision should be altered. Thus, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem dynamically adapts to a changing mix of workloads in order to continuously optimize cache utilization and input/output (I/O) response times.

    The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem employs a cache scheme whereby read hits can be satisfied by either the cache in the array controller or by the cache in the attached drawers. This caching scheme allows optimization of cache resources at various levels. Alternate cache sizes are available in the controller, and an internally managed buffer is installed in each drawer. Also a 512K buffer that allows prestaging of data is installed in each disk drive. Thus cache resources are distributed to match the I/O demands of data resident on each DASD volume.

  • DASD Fast Write with battery-backed nonvolatile storage (NVS) provides distributed NVS for write-intensive workloads. The cache memory in each drawer is backed up by batteries which store enough power to gracefully destage all write data resident in the NVS to the disk drives in the event of a power failure. This automatic destage feature frees the system operator from managing the task of manually destaging data when power is restored.

    Additionally, a copy of the pended write data is maintained in both the array controller cache and the appropriate drawer cache until the data is destaged to disk. Thus, in the unlikely event of a cache memory failure, a copy of the pended write data is still able to be destaged to disk, thereby avoiding data integrity problems.

  • RAID-5 Operation within each drawer provides outstanding fault tolerance to protect against disk drive failure. Each drawer contains four IBM ULTRASTAR XP 3.5-inch disk drives. At the physical level, each drawer is a "data + parity" RAID-5 parity domain. The drawer emulates multiple logical volumes of either 3380-K or 3390-3 track formats. Drawer microprocessors, together with cache distributed in each drawer, handle such activities as RAID striping and parity creation. Creative caching algorithms largely minimize the write penalty normally associated with RAID-5 operation.

  • DASD Emulation Intermix can be accommodated in a single Array Controller Model 3 rack. A Model 3 can be divided into two partitions, each emulating any two DASD subsystem modes of operation. For example, one half (2 to 8 drawers) of a Model 3 could emulate 3990-2/3380-K, while the other half emulates 3990-2/3390-3. Each subsystem is managed by a separate cluster controller pair, and may include from two to eight drawers. Additionally, in any model of the array controller, B13 drawers can be reformatted between the two emulation modes after initial installation, with the provision that all drawers managed by a single cluster pair must emulate the same DASD volumes.

  • Dynamic Sparing is a unique Array Controller capability that quickly and efficiently creates a drawer-level mirrored copy of data from a drawer in which a disk drive has either failed or is exhibiting error rates that indicate failure may be imminent. Thus, the window of time when a drawer is running without redundancy is absolutely minimized. Upon completion of a nondisruptive service action to replace the ailing disk drive, the mirrored pair is re-established such that the original drawer again serves as the primary set of volumes.

Subsystem Availability Features

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem provides unsurpassed levels of high- availability features for environments that require near-continuous operation. Fault tolerance is delivered throughout the subsystem via redundancy and fail-safe modes of operation. Failed elements can be replaced while users retain access to data. The installation of many subsystem upgrades can be accomplished concurrently with online operation of the subsystem.

  • Fault tolerance

    • The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem operates in RAID-5 mode to provide the ability to access data in the unlikely occurrence of a disk drive failure.

    • Multiple levels of power redundancy have been designed into the subsystem. First, the array controller can be configured with dual line cords. This allows the attachment of the subsystem to two separate incoming power sources in facilities where two services are provided. This feature can avoid one of the major causes of subsystem down time -- power outages. Internal to the controller, there are completely redundant primary power systems and DC power distribution systems. Additionally, each drawer includes redundant power systems.

    • All cooling within the subsystem is provided for by redundant, speed compensating fans. In both the controller and the drawer, pairs of fans are teamed such that a failure will be sensed and the speed of the remaining fan will increase to handle the cooling load until a nondisruptive repair is completed.

    • Logic, memory and pathing is redundant or capable of fail-safe operation at numerous levels in the subsystem. The array controller design includes four data paths to every volume. The controller contains redundant power systems and either two or four storage clusters that can provide ongoing operation should one of the cluster controllers fail. Since all storage clusters contain cache memory, ongoing operation with one failed cluster retains the performance benefits of adaptive cache and DASD fast write. Additionally, the drawer accommodates multiple cache cards that provide for fail-safe operation should a card fail. The drawer is designed to continue operating even if cache function fails.

    • The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem offers new levels of data protection whereby, in addition to providing RAID-5 redundancy, any disk media errors are automatically repaired by the subsystem without the need for user involvement. The automated media maintenance function intercepts all media alerts from the drawer and directs the drawer to initiate a media maintenance process. Only in the rare cases where this process does not correct the error will a media alert be posted to the host console. In this event, the media alert will give instructions on the ICKDSF operation to be run that will serve as an authorization for the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem to repair the track(s). Data will have to be recovered after this operation as any data on the track(s) will be lost.

  • Nondisruptive Maintenance

    • Nondisruptive maintenance is the foundation of the service strategy for the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem. All power supplies, fans, batteries, and operator panels can be replaced concurrently with customer access to data. Failed disk drives and cluster controllers can also be replaced without impact to the operation of the subsystem.

    • The 9395 Model B23 can perform data reconstruction on a failed disk drive when sparing has not been performed. Once the failed disk drive is replaced, the Model B23 uses the RAID-5 data redundancy capability to reconstruct the data and parity that was on the failing disk, and write it on the replacement disk. Dynamic disk reconstruction occurs concurrently with system I/O without loss of access to data.

      Disk reconstruction is performed for disk drive failures, not logic failures. Use dynamic sparing to reestablish redundancy immediately.

    • Dynamic sparing is provided as the means of servicing a failed, or potentially failing, drawer component without impacting users who need access to the data resident in the drawer. The drawer continually monitors the performance of all disk drives in the drawer, even drives that, due to the occasional nature of many user applications, are relatively inactive. If thresholds are exceeded that indicate a potential failure is imminent, and a spare drawer has been made available in the subsystem, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem will automatically initiate the establishment of a mirrored drawer.

      The dynamic sparing function will be initiated in the event of any failure in the drawer that would result in a disruptive service action. Dynamic sparing allows the failing drawer to be taken offline for service, while users retain access to the data on the mirrored drawer. Upon completion of the service action, the original drawer is re- established as the active set of devices, and the spare is returned to a standby mode.

      Not all users will feel they need to take advantage of dynamic sparing. Most failures will not impact operation or will, at most, moderately reduce the throughput capability of the drawer. However, some service actions can be disruptive if a spare is not available. If users have adequate off-shift service windows, then operating without spare resources may be perfectly acceptable. Furthermore, operating without a permanent spare drawer does not preclude a service representative from manually sparing the contents of a drawer if the user can make an empty drawer available on an as-required basis.

  • Nondisruptive Installation and Upgrade

    • Additional B13 or B23 drawers can be added to racks without impact to operation.

    • New RAMAC 2 Array Subsystems can be nondisruptively introduced to a user's data processing complex when attaching to the host via ESCON channels.

Subsystem Environmental Efficiencies

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem with B23 drawers sets a new standard for IBM disk storage systems in the area of power, cooling, and floor space savings when compared on a per gigabyte basis to previous RAMAC Arrays. The following two tables serve to quantify the environmental improvements when compared to other representative subsystem offerings.

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|             POWER and COOLING REQUIREMENTS COMPARISONS                |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                  Total   |             |           |            GB/   |
|Model    # Vols    GBs    | kVA  GB/kVA | kW  GB/kW | kBTU/HR  kBTU/HR |
|--------------------------|-------------|---------- |------------------|
|3990-3                    |             |           |                  |
|3380K      64     121     | 26.2   4.6  | 27.4  4.4 |   87.3     1.4   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|3990-3                    |             |           |                  |
|3390-2     64     121     | 20.7   5.8  | 18.8  6.4 |   63.7     1.9   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|3990-6                    |             |           |                  |
|3390-3     64     181.6   | 18.7   9.7  | 17.3 10.5 |   58.5     3.1   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|3990-6                    |             |           |                  |
|3390-9    64      545     | 12.5  43.8  | 11.1 49.1 |   37.9    14.4   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|3990-6 and RAMAC Array    |             |           |                  |
|DASD       64     181.6   |  7.9  23.0  |  7.1 25.6 |   24.5     7.4   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|RAMAC Array               |             |           |                  |
|Subsystem  64     181.6   |  6.6  27.6  |  6.2 29.4 |   21.0     8.7   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|3990-6 and RAMAC 2 Array  |             |           |                  |
|DASD       64     181.6   |  4.7  38.7  |  4.3 42.3 |   14.6    12.5   |
|--------------------------|-------------|-----------|------------------|
|RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem   |             |           |                  |
|           64     181.6   |  3.2  55.2  |  3.1 58.7 |   10.5    17.3   |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|- Comparisons are for an entire subsystem(s) with the maximum          |
|  number of storage devices attached to the storage controller.        |
|- RAMAC Arrays have full complement of B13 drawers.                    |
|- RAMAC 2 Arrays have full complement of 3390 track format B23 drawers.|
|- kVA is the product of the effective values of the voltage and        |
|  current (kilovolt X ampere)                                          |
|- kBTU is British thermal units (X 1000)                               |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
 
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |           FLOOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR 181.6 GIGABYTES           |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |             Number     Number            Area Required           |
  | Model       of Vol.   of Units     Square Meters     Square Feet |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-3                                                           |
  | 3380K         96        26           43.7               471.4    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-3                                                           |
  | 3390-2        96        11           17.2               185.5    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-6                                                           |
  | 3390-3        64         7           10.9               117.1    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-6                                                           |
  | 3390-9        20         3            4.8                52.2    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-6 and RAMAC Array                                           |
  | DASD          64         3            4.8                51.3    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | RAMAC Array                                                      |
  | Subsystem     64         2            2.9                31.6    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | 3990-6 and RAMAC 2 Array                                         |
  | DASD          64         2            3.3                35.4    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | RAMAC 2 Array                                                    |
  | Subsystem     64         1            1.5                15.8    |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | - Comparisons are for entire subsystems with a full complement   |
  |   of storage devices attached to the storage controller          |
  |   (3990/3390-9 includes only two 3390-9 units in the subsystem). |
  | - RAMAC Arrays have full complement of B13 drawers.              |
  | - RAMAC 2 Arrays have full complement of B23 drawers.            |
  | - One-half service clearance included in the calculations        |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------|
 

Configuration Flexibility and Expandability

In every respect, the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem makes installation and migration planning a model of simplicity. Two DASD track emulation formats are provided as well as emulation of the 3990-2 storage control. The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem brings high-performance cache and DASD fast write as well as high-availability RAID-5 and dynamic sparing to host software environments that have not embraced these functions in the 3990 Model 3 or Model 6. Indeed, the array controller can install as a 3990 Model 2 and is, therefore, supported in software environments that have not previously enjoyed the benefits of cache and DASD fast write. The following configuration options are available:

  • DASD Emulation Modes

    1. 3990-2/3390-3 mode: two 3390-3 volumes per B13 drawer for a total drawer capacity of 5.67 GB or a total subsystem capacity of 90 GB or four 3390-3 volumes per B23 drawer for a total drawer capacity of 11.35 GB or a total subsystem capacity of 180 GB.

    2. 3990-2/3380-K mode: three 3380-K volumes per B13 drawer for a total drawer capacity of 5.67 GB or a total subsystem capacity of 90.7 GB or four 3380-K volumes per B23 drawer for a total drawer capacity of 7.56 GB or a total subsystem capacity of 120.96 GB.

  • Model 001 (Dual Cluster) Array Controller Options
    1. Emulation of a 3990-2 storage control
    2. Cache sizes: 64 MB, 256 MB
    3. Attachment options: 4 ESCON (128 logical), 4 parallel
    4. DASD configurations comprised of two to sixteen drawers
    5. Single phase power with a single line cord

  • Drawer Array Options
    1. DASD emulation modes: 3390-3, 3380-K

Performance

A RAMAC Array Subsystem will, in many environments, provide significant performance enhancements as compared to 3390 Model 3 or 3380 Model K DASD attached to a 3990 cached storage control.

Detailed performance information, including modeled comparisons of RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem, 3390, and 3380-K configurations are being provided through a performance package available to your IBM representative in June 1995.

Performance considerations:

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem is a significant technology leap from today's storage subsystem design. There are many factors that can influence the ultimate performance characteristics. The RAID-5 architecture implemented in a RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem may require additional disk I/O and controller processing compared to a conventional DASD subsystem to manage the redundant parity information. However, there are many performance features designed into the product that more than compensate for the inherent penalties normally associated with RAID-5 architecture.

  • Exceptional performance of the IBM ULTRASTAR* XP 3.5-inch SCSI disk drives.

  • A large non-volatile 64 MB drawer cache is standard with the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem. This provides for significantly improved cache hits for both read and write operations compared to today's commonly-installed configurations. As drawers are added to the subsystem, cache is added as well. This feature easily accommodates workload growth from both a capacity and performance point of view.

  • The multi-level cache architecture allows the RAID-5 parity management functions to be contained inside the drawer. Cache memory and multiple microprocessors and data path resources operate independently within the drawer. Therefore, the subsystem as a whole is shielded from the RAID-5 operations of parity management, striping, and much of the data reconstruction needed in the event of a disk drive failure.

  • Although RAID-5 requires additional processing for write operations, many write-intensive applications may frequently rewrite the same data. In that case, the writes are absorbed in the non-volatile cache memory, and parity management is only performed when data is destaged from the cache.

  • In addition, many write-intensive applications are sequential in nature. The unique RAID design chosen for this subsystem allows sequential writes to be striped across several physical disks, and uses a technique similar to RAID-3 architecture to minimize parity manipulation.

  • The Model 3 quad controller design allows a subsystem to support a high level of concurrency in transferring large amounts of data at very high aggregate data rates. This may provide for significant reductions in elapsed time for a batch window or data backup processing.

  • The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem contains cache management algorithms which dynamically adjust to track or record mode caching operations, transparent to host software, improving the efficiency of the cache and data path resources, and easily adapting to various types of workloads.

Physical Specifications

Width:                          -  750 mm (29.5 inches)
Depth:                          -  978 mm (38.5 inches)
Height: With casters            - 1580 mm (62.2 inches)
Weight: Model 2 with 16 drawers -  740 kg (1632 lb)
        One Model B13 drawer    - 24.5 kg (54 lb)
        One Model B23 drawer    - 24.5 kg (54 lb)
 

Operating Environment

The following values represent a Model 2 controller (2 cluster controllers) with 64 MB cache, and with sixteen Model B23 drawers installed.

Temperature:  16 to 32 degrees C ( 60 to 90 degrees F)
Relative Humidity:  20 to 80 (percent)
Wet Bulb:  23 C (73 F)
Electrical power:  3.2 kVA
Capacity of Exhaust:  22 Cubic meter/min. (800 CFM)
Noise Level:  7.2 bels
 

FCC Classification:

This device is subject to the Federal Communications Commission rules. This product shall be verified to comply with the rules for Class A digital devices before final delivery to the buyer or centers of distribution.

Limitations

  • The Array Controller does not support connection to host channels via a 9035 ESCON Converter.

  • A single phase Array Controller Model 1 cannot be upgraded to a three phase Array Controller Model 2 or Model 3.

  • All drawers in an Array Controller Model 1 or Model 2 rack must emulate the same volume type, for example all 3380-K or all 3390-3.

  • The two cluster pairs in an Array Controller Model 3 rack may emulate different DASD subsystems; however, all drawers managed by a cluster pair partition must emulate the same volume type.

  • Array Controllers that are configured with 8 parallel channel adapters must use blue bus/tag cables, or cables of equivalent diameter. Adequate space is not available for older, larger-diameter gray cables.

Hardware Requirements

  • RELOCATION: Under normal conditions relocation within the same building can be accomplished without special packaging. IBM recommends that an approved shipping container be used in the event RAMAC 2 Array Subsystems are relocated to another building or geographic area. For information and specific requirements regarding relocation, or for ordering approved shipping containers, please contact your local IBM service representative.

  • A RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem will operate on 3 MB/Second channels on 4341, 4381, 308X and 9370 processors; and on 4.5 MB/Second channels on 308X (with RPQ), 3090, ES/9000 and S/390 PTS processors; and on ESCON channels on ES/3090, ES/9000 and S/390 PTS processors.

  • A RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem will operate remotely from the host processor at distances up to 43 kilometers (26.7 miles). This distance is available only with XDF type ESCON channels and 9032/33 ESCON Directors or 9036 ESCON Remote Channel Extenders bridging successive 20-km cable runs. Only ESCON LED ports are available on the controller. Therefore, the first run of fiber between the controller and the 9032/33/36 (up to 3 km) must use multimode fiber.

  • In order to take advantage of dynamic sparing, a spare drawer is required in each Model 1 and Model 2 rack. Two spare drawers are required to fully implement dynamic sparing in a Model 3 rack. Multiple spare drawers can be specified, if desired, at the time of installation. If B13 and B23 drawers are intermixed, a B23 drawer must be designated as the spare (if a spare is desired).

Software Requirements

The RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem has no additional System Control Program (SCP) requirements beyond those needed for the device being emulated. The subsystem can be installed on a system running any release of MVS/ESA*, MVS/XA*, MVS/370, VM/ESA*, VM/XA SP*, VM/SP HPO, VM/SP, VSE/ESA*, VSE/SP and TPF that includes support for the device being emulated. Newer software releases may achieve higher performance and useability levels than older releases.

ICKDSF and EREP are required for all SCP environments. However, any programs containing equivalent functions may be used.

  • ICKDSF Release 16 is recommended for use with the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem. Previous releases of ICKDSF can also be used.

  • EREP Release 3.5 + PTF is required for use with RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem.

3990-2/3390-3 Emulation Mode

Support for 3390-3 DASD is provided in MVS/ESA*, MVS/XA*, VM/ESA*, VM/SP HPO, VM/XA SP, VSE/ESA*, and TPF operating environments. Some of the releases of the above System Control Programs are no longer in service. For additional information about specific operating system environments, please contact your IBM representative.

The following current environments support the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem when emulating 3390-3 DASD:

  • MVS Operating Environments
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 2.2
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 2.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 1.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 3.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 2.2
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 2.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 3 Release 1.3
    • MVS/XA SP Version 2 Release 2.3 (1)
    • MVS/XA SP Version 2 Release 2.0 (1)
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 3.0
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 2.0
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 1.0
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.2
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.1
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.0
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 2.1 (2)
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 2.0 (2)
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 1.1
    • MVS/DFP Version 2 Release 4.0 (3)

  • VM Operating Environments
    • VM/ESA Version 2 Release 2.0
    • VM/ESA Version 2 Release 1.0
    • VM/ESA Version 1 Release 2.2
    • VM/ESA Version 1 Release 2.1

  • VSE Operating Environments
    • VSE/ESA Version 2 Release 2
    • VSE/ESA Version 2 Release 1
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 4
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 3
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 2

  • TPF Operating Environments
    • TPF Version 4 Release 1
    • TPF Version 3 Release 1

3990-2/3380-K Emulation Mode

Support for 3380-K DASD is provided in MVS/ESA, MVS/XA, MVS/370, VM/ESA, VM/SP HPO, VM/XA SP, VM/SP, VSE/ESA, VSE/SP, and TPF operating environments. Some of the releases of the above System Control Programs are no longer in service. For additional information about specific operating system environments, please contact your IBM representative.

The following current environments support the RAMAC 2 Array Subsystem when emulating 3380-K DASD:

  • MVS Operating Environments
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 2.2
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 2.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 5 Release 1.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 3.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 2.2
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 4 Release 2.0
    • MVS/ESA SP Version 3 Release 1.3
    • MVS/XA SP Version 2 Release 2.3 (1)
    • MVS/XA SP Version 2 Release 2.0 (1)
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 3.0
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 2.0
    • DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 1.0
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.2
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.1
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 3.0
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 2.1 (2)
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 2.0 (2)
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 1.1
    • MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 1.0
    • MVS/DFP Version 2 Release 4.0 (3)

  • VM Operating Environments
    • VM/ESA Version 2 Release 2.0
    • VM/ESA Version 2 Release 1.0
    • VM/ESA Version 1 Release 2.2
    • VM/ESA Version 1 Release 2.1
    • VM/ESA Version 1 Release 1.5 (370 Feature)

  • VSE Operating Environments
    • VSE/ESA Version 2 Release 2
    • VSE/ESA Version 2 Release 1
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 4
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 3
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 2
    • VSE/ESA Version 1 Release 1

  • TPF Operating Environments
    • TPF Version 4 Release 1
    • TPF Version 3 Release 1

ESCON Support

Support is included in selected releases of MVS/ESA, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, and TPF operating environments.

Notes:

(1) Note: IBM will discontinue program services for MVS/SP Version 2 on September 30, 1995. For additional information, refer to Programming Announcement Letter 294-077 dated February, 15, 1994.

(2) Note: IBM will discontinue program services for MVS/DFP Version 3 Release 2 on December 31, 1995.

For additional information, refer to Programming Announcement Letter 294-031 dated February 1, 1994.

(3) Note: IBM will discontinue program services for MVS/DFP Version 2 Release 4.0 on December 29, 1995.

For additional information, refer to Programming Announcement Letter 294-678 dated October 25, 1994
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Publications

There are no publications shipped with this product.
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Features -- Specify/Special/Exchange
TOC Link No Charge Specify Codes TOC Link Special Feature Codes -- Chargeable TOC Link Feature Exchanges


No Charge Specify Codes

For IBM US, all features of the 9394-001 are No Longer Available as of July 28, 1998.

  • U.S. Federal Government (Plant Only)
    • #0983 GSA and/or Title with U.S. Government order

Subsystem Emulation (specify one)

9280 3990-2/3380-K Emulation (9395 orders must specify feature 9380)
9293 3990-2/3390-3 Emulation (9395 orders must specify feature 9393)

Configuration

This section describes the number of drawers to be installed in the rack at the time of manufacture. A total of two to sixteen drawers must be specified.

9483 # of factory installed 9395 B13 = ___ (quantity)
9486 # of factory installed 9395 B23 = ___ (quantity)

Power Options (specify one)

1201 Single phase, 50-60 Hz, 200V/208V
1221 Single phase, 50-60 Hz, 220V
1231 Single phase, 50-60 Hz, 230V
1241 Single phase, 50-60 Hz, 240V

Power Cords (specify one)

9987 6 foot, Chicago watertight
9080 14 foot, US, Canada, Japan watertight

Color (available in pearl white only - no specify required)

Special Feature Codes -- Chargeable

Product Number

Description                    Machine      Model      Feature
----------------------------  ---------   --------    ---------
Dual Cluster Controller                      001
  Single Line Cord, Single Phase Power
    Subsystem 3990-2/3380-K Emulation                   9280
    Subsystem 3990-2/3390-3 Emulation                   9293
    64 MB Cache                                         0601
    256 MB Cache                                        0604
    4 ESCON Channels                                    3001
    4 Parallel Channels                                 3007
    4 Parallel to 4 ESCON Field Upgrade                 3401
    Field Reformat to 3990-2/3380-K Emulation           7280 (1)
    Field Reformat to 3990-2/3390-3 Emulation           7293 (1)
    Power and Cable Completion Group (>8 Drawers)       4111
 
Notes:
       (1) Only available with B13 drawers
 

Cache Memory Features

The 9394 Model 1 must be ordered with ONE of the following two cache memory features.

(#0601) 64 MB Cache

Provides 64 MB of cache memory in the 9394 Model 1 array controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: Yes. Field installation: No. Prerequisite: None. Limitations: None.

(#0604) 256 MB Cache

Provides 256 MB of cache memory in the 9394 Model 1 array controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: Yes. Field installation: Yes. Prerequisite: None. Limitations: None.

Channel/Adapter Features

The 9394 Model 1 must be ordered with ONE of the following two channel/adapter features.

(#3001) 4 ESCON - 128 Logical Paths

Provides 128 logical paths through 4 physical ESCON ports in the 9394 Model 1 array controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: Yes. Field installation: No (refer to FC3401 when upgrading from FC3007). Prerequisite: None. Limitations: None.

(#3007) 4 Parallel Channels

Provides 4 logical paths through 4 physical parallel channels in the 9394 Model 1 array controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: Yes. Field installation: No. Prerequisite: None. Limitations: None.

Field Upgrades (MESs that do not use the feature exchange option)

(#3401) 4 Parallel to 4 ESCON Field Upgrade

Provides for the upgrade from 4 parallel channels to 4 ESCON ports in the 9394 Model 1 controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: No. Field installation: Yes. Prerequisites:

(#7280) Field reformat to 3990-2/3380-K emulation mode

Provides for field reformatting of the entire complement of 9395 B13 drawers in a 9394 Model 1 rack. Reformats one to sixteen drawers to 3380-K DASD, and sets the controller emulation mode to 3990-2. The number of drawers to be reformatted must be specified in the quantity field. Maximum: 16. Factory installation: No. Field installation: Yes. Prerequisites: None. Limitations: Applies only to 9395 B13 drawers.

(#7293) Field reformat to 3990-2/3390-3 emulation mode

Provides for field reformatting of the entire complement of 9395 B13 drawers in a 9394 Model 1 rack. Reformats one to sixteen drawers to 3390-3 DASD, and sets the controller emulation mode to 3990-2. The number of drawers to be reformatted must be specified in the quantity field. Maximum: 16. Factory installation: No. Field installation: Yes. Prerequisites: None. Limitations: Applies only to 9395 B13 drawers.

Configuration Features

Power and device adapter cabling to support up to eight 9395 drawers is the default in 9394 Model 1. The following features are required for nine or more 9395 drawers.

(#4111) Power and Cable Completion Group

Power and device adapter cabling to support more than eight 9395 drawers. Specify this feature code when nine or more 9395 drawers are to be installed in the 9394 array controller. Maximum: One. Factory installation: Yes. Field installation: Yes. Prerequisite: None. Limitations: None.

Feature Exchanges

Features Field Upgrades

All cache and channel adapter MES upgrades (with the exception of upgrades to feature codes 3401, 3801, 3802, 3804, or 3806; and with the exception of upgrades from 3004 to 3002) should be processed using the "Feature Exchange" option of the MSORDER transaction. This will result in a price for the upgrade that is the delta between the current purchase prices of the cache or channel adapter features added and removed. If any parts are removed during an upgrade, they become the property of IBM and must be returned.

Cache Memory Feature Upgrades

 
-------------------------------------------------------------------- | From | To | | |----------------------------|------------------------------|Notes | | Cache Size | Feature Code | Cache Size | Feature Code | | |-------------|--------------|---------------|--------------|------| | 64 MB | 0601 * | 128 MB | 0602 | (1) | | | 0601 * | 256 MB | 0604 | (2) | | | 0601 * | 512 MB | 0642 | (1) | | | 0601 * | 1024 MB | 0644 | (3) | | | 0601 * | 2048 MB | 0648 | (1) | |-------------|--------------|---------------|--------------|------| | 128 MB | 0602 * | 512 MB | 0642 | (4) | | | 0602 * | 2048 MB | 0648 | (4) | |-------------|--------------|---------------|--------------|------| | 256 MB | 0604 * | 512 MB | 0642 | (1) | | | 0604 * | 1024 MB | 0644 | (3) | | | 0604 * | 2048 MB | 0648 | (1) | |-------------|--------------|---------------|--------------|------| | 512 MB | 0642 * | 2048 MB | 0648 | (4) | |-------------|--------------|---------------|--------------|------| | 1024 MB | 0644 * | 2048 MB | 0648 | (1) | |------------------------------------------------------------------| | * Process via Feature Exchange Option in MSORDER | --------------------------------------------------------------------  

Notes:

  1. Requires a model upgrade from a Model 2 to a Model 3. Also requires that channel/adapter upgrades be specified from the channel/adapter feature upgrades table unless starting and ending with 8 parallel channels. Not available for Model 1.

  2. Available for Model 1 and Model 2 only.

  3. Available for Model 2 only.

  4. Available for Model 3 only.

Channel/Adapter Feature Upgrades

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|              From            |               To              |        |
|------------------------------|-------------------------------|        |
|                    |         |                    |          | Notes  |
|  Channel Feature   | Feature | Channel Feature    | Feature  |        |
|                    | Code    |                    | Code     |        |
|--------------------|---------|--------------------|----------|--------|
|  4 ESCON           | 3001 *  | 8 ESCON            | 3002     |  (1)   |
|                    | 3001 *  | 4 Parallel/4 ESCON | 3004     |  (2)   |
|                    | 3001 *  | 4 Parallel/8 ESCON | 3006     |  (1)   |
|--------------------|---------|--------------------|----------|--------|
|  8 ESCON           | 3002 *  | 4 Parallel/8 ESCON | 3006     |  (3)   |
|--------------------|---------|--------------------|----------|--------|
|  4 Parallel/4 ESCON| 3004    | 8 ESCON            | 3002     | (1)(6) |
|                    | 3004 *  | 4 Parallel/8 ESCON | 3006     |  (1)   |
|--------------------|---------|--------------------|----------|--------|
|  4 Parallel        | 3007    | 4 ESCON            | 3401     | (4)(6) |
|--------------------|---------|--------------------|----------|--------|
|  8 Parallel        | 3008    | 4 ESCON            | 3801     | (2)(6) |
|                    | 3008    | 8 ESCON            | 3802     | (5)(6) |
|                    | 3008    | 4 Parallel/4 ESCON | 3804     | (2)(6) |
|                    | 3008    | 4 Parallel/8 ESCON | 3806     | (5)(6) |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|        * Process via Feature Exchange Option in MSORDER               |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 

Notes:

  1. Requires a model upgrade from a Model 2 to a Model 3. Also requires that cache memory upgrades be specified from the cache memory feature upgrades table. Not available for Model 1.

  2. Available for Model 2 only.

  3. Available for Model 3 only.

  4. Available for Model 1 only.

  5. Available for Model 3; or for model upgrades from Model 2 to Model 3.

  6. This field upgrade does not use the feature exchange process.

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Accessories

None.

Customer Replacement Parts

None.
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Machine Elements

None.
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Supplies

None.

Supplemental Media

None.

Trademarks

(R), (TM), * Trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

** Company, product, or service name may be a trademark or service mark of others.

Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
 © IBM Corporation 2009.
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