How to cite IBM SPSS Statistics or earlier versions of SPSS

Technote (FAQ)


Question

I am writing a book or research paper using IBM SPSS Statistics or earlier versions of SPSS. How do I make bibliographic citations?

Answer

The format of a reference or bibliographic citation of IBM SPSS Statistics is specific to a particular style manual, and guidance on the structure of such references or citations needs to come from your chosen manual. However, in many cases a formal reference or bibliographic citation is not necessary. For example, in popular APA style, SPSS is considered sufficiently well known that only the version or release number is required. You can see the precise release number by clicking on Help>About in the menus.

If you need to include a citation, versions produced by SPSS Inc. prior to the IBM acquisition (Versions 18 and earlier) would be given an origin or publisher of SPSS Inc. in Chicago. Versions released after the acquisition would be given an origin or publisher of IBM Corp. in Armonk, NY. For example:

SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.

SPSS Inc. Released 2008. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

SPSS Inc. Released 2009. PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

IBM Corp. Released 2012. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

For platforms other than Windows, simply substitute the name of the operating system, e.g., IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, Version 22.0.

If you include any information from the software that may involve issues of copyright, you should contact IBM via https://www-01.ibm.com/contact/submissions/extsub.nsf/Copyright in order to obtain required permissions.

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Document information


More support for:

SPSS Statistics

Software version:

Not Applicable

Operating system(s):

Platform Independent

Reference #:

1476197

Modified date:

2014-03-24

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