An introduction to the Thai language

Character composition

In the Thai writing system, a line of Thai can divided into four levels:

Thai characters in memory
Figure 1: Thai characters stored in memory.

Thai characters written onscreen
Figure 2: Thai characters (in Figure 1) displayed onscreen.

In Figure 2, combining characters such as upper vowels, lower vowels and tone marks are composited to their associated consonants. Note that these combining characters take up character spaces in memory (see Figure 1), even though they display above or below their base characters.
The following table lists all combining characters written on the levels other than base level.

Thai combining characters
Table 1: All combining characters in Thai character set.