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This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


See level 1.

L1 cache
The first cache accessed when a storage reference occurs.

See level 2.

L2 cache
A cache that is accessed if the L1 cache lookup results in a cache miss.

See Local To Local.

See Local To Remote.

See Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.

L2TP access concentrator (LAC)
A device that is either attached to the switched network or concurrently located within a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) end system that is capable of handling the Layer Two Tunnel Protocol (L2TP). LAC needs to implement only the media over which L2TP operates in order to pass traffic to one or more L2TP network servers. It may tunnel any protocol that is carried within PPP. LAC is the initiator of incoming calls and the receiver of outgoing calls.

L2TP network server (LNS)
A server that handles the server side of the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). Because L2TP relies only on the single media over which L2TP tunnels arrive, the L2TP network server (LNS) may have only a single local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) interface. However, LNS must still be able to end calls that arrive at any L2TP access concentrator (LAC). LNS is the initiator of outgoing calls and the receiver of incoming calls.

See level 3.

See level 4.

See loop port.


  1. A description of information that can be almost anything on a translation object that is not an element, a keyword title, or an information indicator. A label can also be used as information dividers, such as a line of dashes.
  2. A 1 to 32 character name assigned to a certificate.
  3. An identification record for a tape or disk file.
  4. The explanatory text next to a control on the screen.
  5. A short descriptor or keyword that classifies or categorizes information assets in the metadata repository, including categories and terms in the business glossary.
  6. An instance of a label type object, which provides a user-defined name for a version. See also object.
  7. In DB2 for i5/OS SQL, text that is attached to columns, tables, and packages.
  8. A node in a portal that cannot contain any content, but can contain other nodes. Labels are used primarily to group nodes in the navigation tree.
  9. Text that a user enters to identify a revision.
  10. An identifier within or attached to a set of data elements.
  11. One or more characters used to identify a statement or an item of data in a computer program.

label-based access control (LBAC)
A security mechanism that uses security labels to restrict user access to individual table rows and columns. See also security label, security policy.

labeled duration
A number that represents a duration of years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, or microseconds.

labeled statement
A programming language statement that contains one or more identifiers followed by a colon and a statement.

labeling scheme
A specification for combining property values to be displayed on screen, or as chart item labels.

label specifier type
An enumerated attribute type that the user selects to configure electronic signatures. The enumerated attribute type is comprised of the values from which signatories can choose.

label type
A type object that defines a version label for use within a versioned object base (VOB).

A person who carries out a specific job (a labor performs a craft).

labor cost
The cost rate of the resource required for a project, it is used to calculate the forecast and actual cost.

A human resource within a crew.

labor rate
An hourly labor cost including wages and benefits.

labor record
A document that contains information about a labor or worker, such as craft, skill level, hours worked, and certifications. A labor record cannot exist without a corresponding person record. See also person record.

labor revenue
The selling rate of the resource required for a project, it is used to calculate the forecast and actual cost.

See link access procedure-balanced.


  1. See L2TP access concentrator.
  2. See License Authorization Code.

See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

ladder bar code
See vertical bar code.

See library-assigned document name.

See login acknowledgment message.

See look ahead meeting.

lame delegation
A misconfiguration of the Domain Name System (DNS) files. A lame delegation is the delegation of a domain to any name server that does not have authority for that domain.

See local area network.

LAN adapter
The circuit card within a communicating device that, together with its associated software, enables the device to be attached to a LAN.

LAN Adapter and Protocol Support (LAPS)
A subsystem that includes the software that manages and controls the network adapter cards, including the device drivers for those cards as well as the protocols that are used to communicate with other adapters on the network.

LAN bridge server (LBS)
In the IBM Token-Ring Network Bridge Program, the server that keeps statistical information about frames that are forwarded between two or more rings (through a bridge). The LBS sends these statistics to the appropriate LAN managers through the LAN reporting mechanism (LRM).

LAN cache
An area of temporary storage on a local resource manager that contains a copy of objects stored on a remote resource manager.

LAN channel station (LCS)
The channel protocol supported by TCP/IP application in mainframe hosts. Each application defines a consecutive pair of subchannels, one for TCP/IP to read from the channel, and one for TCP/IP to write to the channel. The LCS interface allows LAN MAC frame to be transported over the channel, and provides a command interface to activate, deactivate, and query the LAN interfaces.

landed-cost price
The quoted or invoiced price of a commodity, plus any inbound transportation charges.

landing page
The section of a website that is accessed by clicking a link within a mailing, usually the website's home page.

Pertaining to the arrangement of text on a page whose width is greater than its length.

landscape left
A page orientation such that the left side of the printed image is at the trailing edge of the paper as it emerges from the printer.

landscape orientation
In printers, text and images that are printed parallel to the longer side of the form.

landscape page presentation
The position of a printed sheet that has its long edges as the top and bottom and its short edges as the sides. See also portrait page presentation.

landscape position
The position of a printed form that has its long edges as the top and bottom and its short edges as the sides. See also portrait position.

landscape right
A page orientation such that the right side of the printed image is at the trailing edge of the paper as it emerges from the printer.

See LAN emulation.


  1. A floor location used as a temporary staging area usually for outgoing pallets staged at or near a shipping dock door.
  2. A shipping route between two areas or locations.
  3. A container in a pool for the activities and events that take place during process execution. A lane is designated by a user and typically represents departments in a business organization. For example, a Call Center lane would include all activities to be handled by Call Center personnel during process execution.

LAN emulation (LANE, LE)
The transparent use of an ATM network as an Ethernet-type LAN (IEEE 802.3) or a token-ring LAN (IEEE 802.5).

LAN emulation client (LEC)
The access point where devices on the emulated LAN use remote applications and data. A single LAN emulation client may serve as the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connection point for many devices or sessions. The LAN emulation client imitates the functions of the LAN protocol, either token-ring or Ethernet, over the ATM network.

LAN emulation configuration server (LECS)
A server that provides configuration services to the clients. The LECS provides the clients with the ATM address of an appropriate LAN emulation server to become part of an emulated LAN. The LECS may also provide some measure of security within the emulated LAN by controlling which clients to recognize and configure.

LAN emulation server (LES)
A network server that provides asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) address resolution and control-related services to its clients. Each LAN emulation server is associated with one LAN emulation domain. The LAN emulation server recognizes the clients that are either connected to or defined in its domain. The LAN emulation server then translates LAN destinations to ATM addresses at the request of the clients. It also provides control services as part of maintaining the LAN environment.

lane rate
The rate that is calculated for shipping freight within a contract lane.

lane type
In Sterling Order Management, an identifier for the type of retail lane that is applicable to the current transaction. For example, an express lane is a possible lane type.

LAN File Services/ESA
An IBM software product used to store and share workstation-format files on MVS/ESA and VM/ESA systems.

LAN-free data movement
The movement of client data between a client system and a storage device on a storage area network (SAN), bypassing the local area network.

LAN-free data transfer
See LAN-free data movement.

LAN Gateway
In the AnyNet product family, a function that enables workstations residing in separate LANs to communicate across SNA or IP WANs. The AnyNet LAN Gateway supports both IPX and NetBIOS protocols across WANs. Each LAN attaches to the WAN through a LAN Gateway.

A set of characters, conventions, and rules that is used for conveying information.

language code
A two character (ISO 639-1) or three letter (ISO 639-2) abbreviation for a language. For example: en or eng for English. Country codes and language codes together form the basis for locale names. See also country code.

language definition
A Jazz model object that serially connects the translators used to build an artifact. The association of a language definition to an artifact provides instructions for how the artifact should be built.

Language Environment
An element of z/OS that provides a common runtime environment and common runtime services for C/C++, COBOL, PL/I, and Fortran applications.

Language Environment-conforming
Pertaining to an application program that adheres to the common interface conventions of Language Environment.

Language Environment-enabled
Pertaining to an application program that has been link-edited with the routines or stubs provided with Language Environment.

language extension
Any feature of a given implementation of the C or C++ language (as in a compiler) that is not specified by the ISO standard. A program that takes advantage of a language extension may not be portable to compilers that do not support that extension.

language ID
See language identifier.

language identification
In enterprise search, a search function that determines the language of a document.

language identifier (language ID)
The 3-character representation that identifies the cultural preference for language-related processing and is associated with an object, such as a document. For example, the language identifier is used by text search services to determine how to process the text of a document.

language load ID
See language load identification.

language load identification (language load ID)
An IBM language feature code associated with a language. For example, French is 2928.

language model
For speech recognition, a set of acoustic shapes (in binary format) for a given set of words, in which word-to-word differences are maximized but speaker-to-speaker differences are minimized.

language pack
In computer software, the set of files that contain the user interface, messages and user assistance in the original language or a single translated language.

language profile
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a set of rules that define the programming language and environment for editing and compiling programs.

LANGUAGE segment
The portion of a RACF profile containing information about the national language in which the user receives messages.

language-sensitive editing
A set of editing functions that are responsive to the programming language, syntax, and environment of source programs as they are being edited. Typical language-sensitive editing features are automatic indenting, token highlighting, syntax checking, and language-sensitive help.

language-sensitive function
See linguistic function.

language source
The source for the contract language which can be a contract template, an MS Word document, or an attached file.

language term
A term placeholder within a language clause that is populated with a term value and appears in the language view.

language view
The formatted view of an authored contract or authored amendment contract when viewed online. It consists of a title, table of contents, clauses, and certain application features. It may be represented as HTML or OOXML (docx) and it may also be printed.

LAN segment
A section of a LAN that can be isolated by unplugging connectors from the rest of the LAN.

LAN server
A data station that provides services to other data stations on a local area network; for example, file server, print server, mail server. (T)

LAN support program
A set of software device drivers used to provide PC applications with an interface to the LAN hardware. LAN device drivers must be loaded on every personal computer that is connected to the server through a local area network (token ring or Ethernet).


  1. See last agent pending.
  2. See link access procedure.

See link access protocol balanced.


  1. See link access protocol for the D-channel.
  2. See link access procedure-D-channel.

See low-level application programming interface.

Laplace's equation
A homogeneous partial differential equation used to describe heat transfer, electric fields, and many other applications.

See LAN Adapter and Protocol Support.

large block interface (LBI)
The set of basic sequential access method (BSAM), basic partitioned access method (BPAM), and queued sequential access method (QSAM) interfaces that deal with block sizes in 4-byte fields instead of 2-byte fields.

large format
The format of a sequential data set that is not in basic format or extended format and has a maximum size per volume that can exceed 65 535 tracks. There is no minimum size requirement for a large format data set. See also basic format, extended format.

large message
A message that is stored in the large message cluster (LMC). The maximum length of a message to be stored in the VSAM QDS is 31900 bytes. Messages up to 2MB can be stored in the LMC. For queue management using DB2 no distinction is made between messages and large messages.

large message performance enhancement outbound (LMPEO)
In VTAM, a facility in which VTAM reformats function management data (FMD) that exceed the maximum request unit (RU) size, as specified in the BIND, into a chain or partial chain of RUs.

large object (LOB)

  1. A data object whose data type supports the storage and manipulation of more data than most other data types.
  2. A sequence of bytes with a size ranging from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. There are three types of LOBs: binary large objects (binary), character large objects (single-byte character or mixed), and double-byte character large objects (double-byte character). See also binary large object, character large object, double-byte character large object.

large queue element
A queue element that is larger than the smaller of either the limiting value specified during the customization of MERVA or 32KB.

Large System Performance Reference (LSPR)
A ratio that is used by IBM to assess the relative processor capacity in an unconstrained environment for specific benchmark workloads and system control programs.

large table space
A table space that stores persistent data in database-managed space but that has a larger space limit than that of a regular table space. See also permanent table space.

laser beam printer
See laser printer.

laser printer
A nonimpact printer that creates, by means of a laser beam directed on a photosensitive surface, a latent image which, is then made visible by a toner and transferred and fixed on paper. (T)

See library access system interface.

last agent optimization

  1. An optimization that cuts the number of two-phase commit flows to one agent in half by leaving the last agent out of the first phase of the commit process and giving the last agent the commit decision during the second phase. An initiator or last agent can use this optimization with only one of its subordinates, which is called the optimized last agent (or simply the last agent).
  2. An optimized commit flow for either presumed-nothing or presumed-abort protocols in which the last agent, or final participant, becomes the commit coordinator. This flow saves at least one message.

last agent pending (LAP)
The last agent pending logical unit of work (LUW) state indicates that the current LUW is in doubt. This system has prepared to commit, but has not received the final vote from the last agent. The LAP state only occurs at the initiator and at a last agent.

last element
The element visited last in an iteration over a collection. Each collection has its own definition for last element. For example, the last element of a sorted set is the element with the largest value.

last-in-chain (LIC)
A request unit (RU) whose request header (RH) end chain indicator is on and whose RH begin chain indicator is off. See also RU chain.

last-in first-out (LIFO)
A queuing technique in which the next item to be retrieved is the item most recently placed on the queue. See also first-in first-out, pushdown list.

last-in first-out costing
A method of cost accounting that can be used to make an inventory valuation, based on actual receipt costs. Last-in first-out costing uses the "last in" (newest) item cost for inventory transactions. See also first-in first-out costing.

last line mode
A command mode in the vi editor that enables the user to enter a command at the bottom of the screen.

last operation
An operation in an occurrence that has no internal successor. The terminating node in a network.

last record indicator
In RPG, an indicator that signals when the last record (LR) is processed. This indicator can then be used to condition calculation and output operations that are to be done at the end of the program.

last suggested price (LSP)
The recommended price from the last pricing action, such as an optimization, rules pricing, price update, or reforecast.

last will and testament
An object that is registered with a monitor by a client, and used by the monitor if the client ends unexpectedly.

See lexical answer type.


  1. A programming device that provides short-term serialization for IMS tasks running in the online IMS system. Similar in function to an z/OS lock.
  2. An electronic circuit that permanently records (until reset) the status of a signal.
  3. An internal mechanism for controlling concurrent events or the use of system resources.

late arriving fact processing
The process of dealing with transaction records that arrive in the data warehouse out of sequence. These transactions are linked back to their dimension records that were current at the time of the transaction.

late bind
To connect one process to another process so that the connection is resolved dynamically in the runtime environment and the calling process uses the currently valid version of the process that it is invoking.

late binding
The connection between two processes that is resolved dynamically in the runtime environment. As a result, the calling process uses up the currently valid version of the process that it is invoking.

late join
A mechanism that allows a receiver that is coming into the system to get previously sent data from the transmitter history buffer.


  1. The time interval between the initiation of a send operation by a source task and the completion of the matching receive operation by the target task. More generally, latency is the time between a task initiating data transfer and the time that transfer is recognized as complete at the data destination.
  2. The amount of time between the time when a network device originally receives a packet and the time when the packet is retransmitted.
  3. The time from the initiation of an operation until something actually starts happening (for example, data transmission begins).
  4. The time delay between the moment an operation is initiated, and the moment it begins to take effect.
  5. The time interval between the instant at which an instruction control unit initiates a call for data and the instant at which the actual transfer of the data starts.
  6. In replication, part or all of the approximate difference between the time that a source table is changed and the time that the change is applied to the corresponding target table. See also Apply latency, Capture latency, end-to-end latency, Q Apply latency, Q Capture latency.

latency-based routing
A performance improvement technique that directs a query to a shadow table if the replication latency is within an acceptable limit. See also replication latency, shadow table.

latent image
In certain printers, the invisible image that exists in the sensitized material after exposure but before development.

latest departure time
A process in which the shipper provides the planned arrival window and Sterling TMS calculates the departure time for the shipment.

latest out time
See latest start time.

latest start time
The time before which the job or job stream must start. The job or job stream can start before the latest start time provided that all other dependencies are satisfied. See also actual start time, earliest start time, planned start time, scheduled time.

See Latin alphabet no. 1.

Latin 1
See Latin alphabet no. 1.

The IBM Core Interchange fonts complement that includes characters for Belgian French, Belgian Dutch (Flemish), Brazilian Portuguese, Canadian French, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Icelandic, Italian, Latin American Spanish, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish (Castilian), Swedish, Swiss German, Swiss French, Swiss Italian, United Kingdom English, and United States English.

The IBM Core Interchange fonts complement that includes characters for Croatian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, and Slovenian.

The IBM Core Interchange fonts complement that includes characters for Esperanto, Maltese, and Turkish.

The IBM Core Interchange fonts complement that includes characters for Estonian, Greenlandic, Lappish, Latvian, and Lithuanian.

The IBM Core Interchange fonts complement that includes characters for Turkish.

Latin alphabet
An alphabet composed of the letters a - z and A - Z with or without accents and ligatures. See also non-Latin-based alphabet.

Latin alphabet no. 1 (Latin 1, Latin-1)
The 190 characters used in most of Western Europe, North America, Central and South America. There are other Latin alphabets such as Latin-2 and Latin-3 that correspond to some of the other ISO/IEC 8859 character sets. The numbering scheme is neither rational nor orderly.

Latin alphabet number 1
The 190 characters used in most of Western Europe, North America, Central and South America. There are other Latin alphabets such as Latin-2 and Latin-3 that correspond to some of the other ISO/IEC 8859 character sets. The numbering scheme is neither rational nor orderly.

Latin font
See single-byte coded font.

The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.

See local authentication.

To begin the process specified in a workflow definition.

launch configuration

  1. The metadata that describes how a streams processing application is launched, including a reference to the instance, the ADL file, and runtime parameters. See also build configuration.
  2. A mechanism for defining and saving different workbench configurations that can be launched separately. Configurable options include run and debug settings.

An operation in which a user starts a secondary application from a primary application to perform a specific task. Using the parameters, navigation instructions, and user credentials that are supplied by the primary application, the secondary application opens to the specific place in which to complete the task.

A graphical interface for launching the product installation wizard.

A link in an application that opens a specific view in another application.

launch processor
A step processor designed specifically to complete the launch step of a workflow.

launch step
The first step in a workflow. In Process Designer, the launch step is automatically placed on the main workflow map and cannot be deleted or copied.


  1. See tier.
  2. A changed version of a parent image. Images consist of layers, where the changed version is layered on top of the parent image to create the new image. See also container, image.
  3. In a network architecture, a group of services, functions, and protocols that is complete from a conceptual point of view; that is one of a set of hierarchically arranged groups; and that extends across all systems that conform to the network architecture.
  4. See group.
  5. A container that holds a script template or a server template.
  6. An overlay that can be placed on the map to provide additional geospatial information.
  7. In the Open Systems Interconnection reference model, one of seven conceptually complete, hierarchically arranged groups of services, functions, and protocols, that extend across all open systems.

layer entity (LE)
In OSI, an active element in a layer.

layer service
In OSI, a service provided by a layer of the OSI reference model.

Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
An Internet protocol that permits the tunneling of the link layer of Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).


  1. The arrangement of items on a chart. See also circular layout, compact peacock layout, grouped layout, hierarchical layout, minimize crossed links layout, peacock layout.
  2. The arrangement of displayed matter on a screen or page, such as including margins, line spacing, type specification, header and footer information, and indents.

layout algorithm
A method of arranging displayed or printed data.

layout box
In Page Designer, a control that web designers can use to move text and images within the page. Layout boxes can be stacked or aligned by using a grid.

layout DXL
A layout that uses a DXL program to calculate values, which are then shown in a column, typically to construct traceability or impact analysis reports. The DXL program is associated with one column, not with an attribute.

layout manager
In programming graphical user interfaces, an object that controls the size and position of Java components within a container. The Java platform supplies several commonly used layout managers for AWT and Swing containers.

layout plan
A list of requirements, such as electrical and space, that must be considered before installing the printer.

layout region
On a form or subform, a fixed-length design area in which related elements can be dragged and moved easily and can be displayed in ways not possible on regular forms and subforms.

lazy authentication
The process whereby the security run time environment obtains the required authentication data when the Java client accesses a protected enterprise bean for the first time.

lazy update
An update during which the definitions of LVM components are not updated on the cluster node, if they do not have an LVM component activated. This information is not updated until fallover occurs. Lazy update is an option only for those LVM components that are under the control of PowerHA SystemMirror.

lazy write
A function whereby the network server performs a write-to-disk operation rather than caching the data for this storage space. Use of the lazy write function enhances system performance by allowing information to be updated multiple times before being written to disk.

lazy zero
The process of filling only the currently required section of a new disk block with zeroes prior to writing data. The "lazy zero" approach does not require any additional set-up time, but results in slower runtime performance. See also eager zero.

See logical block address.

See load balancing as a service.

See label-based access control.

LBAC credentials
In label-based access control, the set of security labels and exemptions held by a database user. See also exemption.

See load balancing group.

See large block interface.

See local buffer pool.

See low bit rate.


  1. See location-based service.
  2. See LAN bridge server.

See link connection component manager.

See line control definer.


  1. See Local Character Set Identifier.
  2. See log control interval definition.

LC message
Last confirmed control message. It contains the message-sequence number of the application or acknowledgment message that was last confirmed; that is, for which the sending MERVA Link system most recently received confirmation of a successful delivery.

See logical channel number.


  1. See LAN channel station.
  2. See Library Control System.
  3. See link connection subsystem.

See link connection subsystem manager.

See logical channel subsystem.

See logical control unit.

See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

LDAP binding
A binding operation that authenticates the client to the server.

LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF)
A format used by the ldapmodify, ldapadd, and ldapsearch command-line utilities to represent LDAP entries in a standard portable text form.

LDAP data source adapter (LDAP DSA)
A data source adapter that reads directory data managed by an LDAP server. See also Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

LDAP directory
A type of repository that stores information on people, organizations, and other resources and that is accessed using the LDAP protocol. The entries in the repository are organized into a hierarchical structure, and in some cases the hierarchical structure reflects the structure or geography of an organization.

LDAP Directory Interchange Format (LDIF)
A file format that is used to describe directory information as well as changes that need to be applied to a directory, such that directory information can be exchanged between directory servers that are using LDAP.

See LDAP data source adapter.

LDAP filter
An expression that is used to select data elements located at a point in an LDAP directory tree. See also filter.

LDAP injection
See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection.

LDAP service
The LDAP server task that processes LDAP client requests.

See logical device component.


  1. See LDAP Data Interchange Format.
  2. See LDAP Directory Interchange Format.

See local device node control block.

See Lead Development Rep.


  1. See logical data stream.
  2. See linear data set.


  1. See layer entity.
  2. See LAN emulation.

leadbox capacity
The ability to control the maximum number of leads that can be assigned to a user.

lead days
The number of days a supplier requires to deliver an item following the receipt of an order.

Lead Development Rep (LDR)
A representative who supports all marketing activities including follow-up, nurturing of marketing generated responses, and creating a validated pipeline that is passed to the appropriate sales channel for progression and closure.


  1. In text formatting, a row of dots or hyphens used to lead the eye horizontally, as in a table of contents.
  2. In text formatting, the divider between text and footnotes on a page, usually a short line of dashes.
  3. The blank section of tape at the beginning of a reel.

An online list that dynamically ranks something. For example, a news aggregator might present the "top stories" based on evaluating votes from the community. See also aggregator, trend.

leader data
Bytes of data, from the beginning of a migrated file, that are stored in the file's corresponding stub file on the local file system. The amount of leader data that is stored in a stub file depends on the stub size that is specified.

leader designer
A member of the product development team who drives the product offering design from a user interaction perspective.

A printer's term for the amount of space between lines of a printed page. Leading refers to the lead slug placed between lines of type in traditional typesetting.

leading edge

  1. In architecture, the front edge of a sheet as it moves through a printer.
  2. The edge of a character box closest to the graphic character that appears to precede it on a sequential baseline. In architecture, the edge of a character box that in the inline direction precedes the graphic character.

lead origin
The source from which the lead for an opportunity originated.

lead time

  1. The amount of time it takes a supplier, such as a distribution center, to acquire an item for shipping.
  2. The amount of time between placing an order and receiving the items.


  1. A switch field replaceable unit (FRU) that plugs into a switch chassis. It contains connectors for interconnecting with adapters and other switches. Internal to the switch chassis, a leaf connects to spine modules, which provide connectivity to other leaf FRUs in the same switch chassis by way of a midplane.
  2. In a tree, an entry or node that has no children.

leaf card
A card internal to a switch chassis that provides external connectivity by using cable connectors, and that provides internal communication to spines as a path to other leaf cards.

leaf delta
A set of changes to the source code saved in the Source Code Control System (SCCS) file.

leaf entry
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a directory that has no subordinates. It can be an alias entry or an object entry.

leaf member
A member that has no children.

leaf module
A leaf card in a switch chassis that contains a specific number of InfiniBand port connectors and has the capability of communicating with other leaf modules through connections to spines.

leaf node

  1. See leaf member.
  2. The lowest level contract folder or organization in a hierarchy that is not a parent.

leaf page
A page that contains pairs of keys and record identifiers and that points to actual data. See also nonleaf page.

leaf switch chip
A chip that provides communication paths and switching between the paths and that populates a leaf card.

lean client
See thin client.

lean product development
A management approach for streamlining production systems.

learning bean
In ABLE, an Able bean that is capable of learning behavior from historical user data.

learning circle
An online community space that offers resources for collaborative, informal learning about various technical topics.

learning management system (LMS)
An application that is used to define and track the use of e-learning components such as students, classrooms, instructors, course outlines, course content, assessments, and so on.

learning portal
A website designed to be the entry point for users to access e-learning courses and schedules for live classroom courses.

An agreement that grants permission to use a product or a program.

lease abstract record
A manually created record that summarizes the key details in a lease contract. A lease abstract record can contain as much of the actual lease details as is needed.

leased line

  1. See nonswitched line.
  2. A continual physical connection over a telecommunications line between two computers or between a computer and a network.

lease key
A timed encryption mechanism that governs authenticated access to stored content on a mobile device.

lease order
A record that tracks a piece of equipment that is leased, for a specified duration of time and cost, which is typically described in a contract.

leashed cookie
A cookie that will be accepted in a first-party context and blocked in a third-party context.

least recently used (LRU)
Pertaining to an algorithm used to identify and make available the cache space that contains the data that was least recently used.

least significant bit (lsb)
The bit position in a binary integer that indicates if the number is even or odd.

least significant byte (LSB)
See little endian.

least squares
A method of fitting a curve to a set of points representing statistical data in such a way that the sum of the squares of the distances of the points from the curve is a minimum.

least traveled path
A putaway and picking strategy that selects putaway or pick locations by calculating the shortest distance to travel through the warehouse to putaway or pick all of the items required for that assignment.

least upper bound (LUB)
The smallest number that is greater than the variable. Least upper bounds are important in math programming (MP) and constraint programming (CP) in the context of setting bounds on variables as tightly as possible. See also greatest lower bound, upper bound.

least-weight route
In APPN, the one route calculated by topology and routing services (TRS) to have the lowest total weight after TRS compares the node characteristics and TG characteristics of each intermediate node and intermediate TG of each possible route for the class-of-service requested, and computes the total combined weight for nodes and TGs in each route. After a least-weight route is calculated between two given nodes, the result may be stored to prevent repetition of this calculation in future route selections.

leave alone mixing
See underpaint.

See LAN emulation client.

See LAN emulation configuration server.

See light-emitting diode.

A system of record of transactions for a business.

ledger hash
A snapshot of the ledger contents at a specific point in time.

ledger-size paper
Paper that is 279 mm by 432 mm (11 in. by 17 in.).

To print text with an even left margin. The right margin is printed unevenly.

left margin
The area on a page or screen between the left edge and the leftmost character position on the page or screen.

left outer join
A join whose result consists of the matched rows of the two tables that were joined and the unmatched rows of the first table. See also full outer join, join, outer join, right outer join.

left page
The page on the left when a book is opened. The left page is usually even-numbered.

legacy product
A matured product that is near end of life and has a "withdrawal from marketing" date established. There are no plans for new releases or versions or new translations (only fixes), and it is not a candidate for inclusion in any other product offering. However legacy products that are included in other product offerings become components and are subject to the flagship requirements. Legacy products cannot maintain their legacy status if they announce a new version/release or if they are included in another product offering. Legacy products must maintain their existing level of globalization support from the time they enter legacy status until their withdrawal from support. See also flagship product, key product, non-key product.

legal entity
A name that represents an organizational unit identified by local governments as operating units that are typically instituted for every country or region that a business operates in.

legal hold
See hold.

legal hold directive
A directive that can be placed on a record or a record container entity to temporarily prevent any final disposition of the entity or its contents.

legal notice placeholder
A context-sensitive variable that can be added to a legal notice (hold, collection, virtual interview, release). The placeholders represent dynamic data, such as the notice recipient's name, the name of the attorney for the matter, a link to the recipient's My Holds page. When the system sends the notice, it replaces the placeholders with actual values. Some placeholders help define the way that the recipient can respond to the notice for example, the $emailConfirmation placeholder lets the recipient respond to a hold notice by replying to the hold notice email.

legal review tool
An independent software vendor tool used with Discovery Export that allows content to be reviewed for litigation and requested internal investigation.

legal-size paper
Paper that is 216 mm by 356 mm (8.5 in. by 14.0 in.).

legal unit
In a company structure, one or more sub-units that are connected to a group company. A sub-unit may represent a specific geographical area in one consolidation structure, and in a parallel consolidation structure it can be included in a group representing the total of that geographical area.

legal user
A user who is looking to complete some business processes.

An explanatory list of the symbols, lines, and other components of a chart or graphic.

The shape, spacing, and composition of type that affects how rapidly, easily, and accurately one character can be distinguished from another.

The normalized or canonical form of a word. Typically, the lemma is the underived and uninflected form of a noun or a verb. For example, the lemma of the terms 'organizing' and 'organized' is 'organize'. See also stem.

A process that identifies the root form and different grammatical forms of a word. For example, a search for mouse also finds documents that contain the word mice, and a search for go also finds documents that contain going, gone, or went.

Lempel-Ziv (LZ)
A technique for compressing data. This technique replaces some character strings, which occur repeatedly within the data, with codes. The encoded character strings are then kept in a common dictionary, which is created as the data is being sent.

Lempel-Ziv Welsh (LZW)
A data compression algorithm. OnDemand uses the 16-bit version of LZW to compress data.

See low-entry networking.

LEN end node
See low-entry networking end node.

length attribute
A value associated with a string that represents the declared fixed length or maximum length of the string.

LEN node
See low-entry networking node.

See LAN emulation server.

less than truckload (LTL)
A shipment mode where pallets to be shipped do not completely fill a truck or container.

less than truckload carrier (LTL carrier)
A trucking operation where the customer pays for part of the truckload. See also full truckload carrier.

A preset design that appears at the top of an email message.

letter-size paper
Paper that is 216 mm by 279 mm (8.5 in. by 11.0 in.).

The space between characters in a word.

letter template
A template that enables mail merges to be performed using the data stored in 2x.


  1. In a database, the successive vertical dependencies in a hierarchical structure.
  2. A set of entities or members that form one section of a hierarchy in a dimension and represent the same type of object. For example, a geographical dimension might contain levels for region, state, and city. See also recursive level.
  3. A set of one or more related attributes that work together as one logical step in a hierarchy. Attributes can function in one or more roles in a level.
  4. A logical state of a keyboard providing access to a collection of graphic characters or elements of graphic characters. Usually these graphic characters or elements of graphic characters logically belong together, such as the lower case, upper case, and alternate case of letters. In certain cases the level selected may also affect function keys (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also group, shift.
  5. The version of a software application program.

Level-0 managed system
An IBM or non-IBM server, desktop computer, workstation, or mobile computer, that can be managed by IBM Director but does not have any IBM Director software installed on it.

level 0 volume
A primary volume or a user volume not managed by DFSMShsm.

level 1

  1. See physical level.
  2. A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the base characters, such as the difference between A and B. Accents, punctuation, and case differences are typically ignored. See also alphanumeric weight, level 4, level n.

level 1 data
The best bid, best offer, and last trade information for a security.

Level-1 managed system
An IBM or non-IBM server, desktop computer, workstation, and mobile computer that has IBM Director Core Services installed.

level 1 volume
A volume, owned by DFSMShsm, containing data sets that migrated from a level 0 volume.

level 2 (L2)
A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the accents in characters, such as the difference between a and à. Case differences and punctuation are typically ignored. See also diacritical weight, level 4, level n.

level 2 data
The full or partial depth of an order book for a security.

Level-2 managed system
An IBM or non-IBM server, desktop computer, workstation, or mobile computer that has IBM Director Agent installed. The function of a Level-2 managed system varies depending on the operating system and hardware.

level 2 volume
A volume under control of DFSMShsm containing data sets that migrated from a level 1 volume, or from a volume not managed by DFSMShsm.

level 3

  1. See packet level.
  2. A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the case in characters, such as the difference between a and A. Punctuation is typically ignored. See also case weight, level 4, level n.

level 4 (L4)
A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only punctuation. See also level 1, level 2, level 3, level n, special weight.

level attribute
A specific piece of information stored about each member of a level. For example, the color attribute could be used to store the color of a product. Some attributes can have special significance, such as when the attribute contains the business key for the member.

level checking
A function that compares the record level identifiers of a file to be opened with the file description that is part of a compiled program to determine if the record format for the file changed since the program was compiled.

level filter
A filter used to restrict the delivery of data to specific dimensions and hierarchy levels. See also filter, output filter.

level function
A function that must be performed but that needs to be performed by only one processing unit. Level functions include backing up the control data sets (CDSs), backing up migrated data sets, deleting expired dump copies, moving backup versions from level 1 volumes to backup volumes, migration cleanup, and level-1-to-level-2 migration. See also demotion, promotion.

level indicator

  1. In COBOL, two alphabetic characters (FD or SD) that identify the type of file description entry.
  2. In RPG, two characters (L0 through L9 and LR) that control calculation and output processing during total time.

Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions are driven by resource management concerns such as availability.

level lock state
A state that, if activated, will result in the generation of the characters assigned to a specific level (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

level n (Ln)
A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only format characters or other tie-breaking characters that are not base letters, case, accents, or punctuation. See also level 1, level 2, level 3, level 4.

In COBOL, a numeric character (1 through 9) or a 2-character set (01 through 49, 66, 77, 88) that begins a data description entry and establishes its level in a data hierarchy. Level-numbers 66, 77, and 88 identify special properties of a data description entry.

level of isolation
See isolation level.

level of service (LOS)
A qualitative measure used in the transportation industry by traffic engineers to determine the effectiveness of elements of a transportation infrastructure. This measure describes the operational conditions of traffic as defined in the Highway Capacity Manual.

level one data sharing
For data entry database (DEDB) areas, a method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) can authorize only one subsystem to update the database and multiple subsystems that are not required to be protected from incomplete changes made by the updater to read it, or it can authorize multiple subsystems to read the database. See also level three data sharing.

level select
A function that, if activated, will change the keyboard state to produce characters from a different level (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

level three data sharing
A method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) and one internal resource lock manager (IRLM) can concurrently authorize and protect multiple subsystems on the same z/OS system for updating or reading the database. See also level one data sharing, level two data sharing.

level two data sharing
A method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) and one internal resource lock manager (IRLM) can concurrently authorize and protect multiple subsystems on the same z/OS system for updating or reading the database. See also level three data sharing.

level zero data sharing
A method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) authorizes only one subsystem (for example, one online IMS) to access the database.

level-zero entry
In RPG, a calculation specifications entry that indicates the operations to be done during total time for each program cycle when no control break occurs.

Pertaining to how the characters in source code are translated into tokens that the compiler can understand.(Sun)

lexical affinity
The relationship of search words in a document that are close to each other in meaning. Lexical affinity is used to calculate the relevancy of a result.

lexical analysis
The process by which a stream of characters is grouped into a series of lexical items, or tokens, and all available dictionary data is associated with the lexical items. Lexical analysis comprises three separate steps: segmentation, normalization and annotation. See also parsing.

lexical analysis dictionary
A dictionary with glosses of standard structure that is required for lexical analysis algorithms.

lexical analyzer
A program that analyzes input and breaks it into categories, such as numbers, letters, or operators.

lexical answer type (LAT)
The term in a question or category that indicates the type of entity that is being asked for, independent of assigning semantics to that term.

lexical item
See token.

lexical level
The depth to which routines are nested within one another, which determines the scope of the identifiers declared within those routines.

lexical parsing item (LPI)
In lexical analysis, a unit in the lexical representation of text. A lexical parsing item contains annotations or gloss information to be associated with the range in the surface text. See also token.

lexical parsing stream (LPS)
In lexical analysis, a data construct specifying the lexical representation of text. Specifically, it is a stream of lexical parsing items (LPIs).

lexical QName
An optional namespace prefix and a local name. If the namespace prefix is present, it is separated from the local name by a colon.

lexical scope
The portion of a program or segment unit in which a declaration applies. An identifier declared in a routine is known within that routine and within all nested routines. If a nested routine declares an item with the same name, the outer item is not available in the nested routine.

lexical sort
See cultural sort.

A catalog of the words for a given language.

lexicon name
A string of characters that uniquely identify a dictionary for loading purposes.

See low emission zone.


  1. See logical file system.
  2. See local file system.

See local-form session identifier.

See location group.

See location group class.

See load and hold.

Liberty Asset repository service
An open source service that can be used to create an on-premises Liberty repository that is remotely accessible behind the firewall of an enterprise and that contains assets.

Liberty repository
A repository that stores Liberty and other assets, including new product capabilities and configuration and administration resources.


  1. The storage location of the model. The library, similar to a Windows directory, includes a group of connected Analyst objects: macros, reports, D-Links, selections, D-Cubes, maps, A-Tables, D-Lists, and formats.
  2. An executable definition of work that is made up of steps. Its behavior is controlled through properties and it differs from a project in that it has no selector. A library is called from a step within a project.
  3. A collection of one or more drives, and possibly robotic devices (depending on the library type), which can be used to access storage volumes.
  4. In Ada-language library management, a database that stores the various intermediate code files produced by the compiler and records the dependency and order of compilation information. When compiling or linking a unit that depends on other units, the required dependency information (such as the package specification of a unit that is included with a with clause) is obtained from the library.
  5. A system object that serves as a directory to other objects. A library groups related objects, and allows users to find objects by name.
  6. A system object that describes an IBM i Library, and is stored in the Rational Team Concert Jazz repository. Every library that a build process references must correspond to a library definition.
  7. In VSE, a collection of data stored in sublibraries on disk. A library consists of at least one sublibrary in which data is stored as members of various types such as phase, object module, or source book.
  8. In Informix, a group of precompiled routines designed to perform tasks that are common to a given kind of application. See also dynamic link library, shared library, shared-object file.
  9. A set of object modules that can be specified in a link command.
  10. A repository for demountable recorded media, such as magnetic disks and magnetic tapes.
  11. A Notes database that contains lists of links to other databases. Unlike a catalog, which lists all the Notes databases on a server, a library contains links to selected databases from one or several servers.
  12. A data file that contains copies of a number of individual files and control information that allows them to be accessed individually.
  13. A project that is used for the development, version management, and organization of shared resources. Only a subset of the artifact types can be created and stored in a library, such as business objects, interfaces, subflows, ESQL modules, message definitions, and Java utilities. See also project.
  14. A partitioned data set or a series of concatenated partitioned data sets. See also partitioned data set extended.
  15. A collection of model elements, including business items, processes, tasks, resources, and organizations.

library access system interface (LASI)
The PSF subcomponent that gets resources from the libraries and stores and obtains records in a message data set.

library-assigned document name (LADN)
A unique name, which includes a time stamp and a system name, that is assigned by a system in the office network to a document when it is filed in the document library. On i5/OS, the time-stamp part of the library-assigned document name is included in a 10-character name that becomes the document object name.

library character set
A named graphic character set stored in a host system library that can be specified for printing.

library client

  1. The component of a Content Manager system that provides a low-level programming interface for the library system. The library client includes APIs that are part of the software developer's kit.
  2. A server that uses server-to-server communication to access a library that is managed by another storage management server. See also library manager.

library component
In Ada language, a package body, package specification, subprogram body, subprogram specification, object form module, or linked object module that resides in a library.

library control sector
The first sector in a library which contains a record of the used and available space in the library.

Library Control System (LCS)
The component of the object access method (OAM) that is used in the support of tape libraries. The LCS also writes and reads objects on optical disk storage and manipulates the optical volumes on which the objects reside.

library definition
A system object that describes an IBM i Library, and is stored in the Rational Team Concert Jazz repository. Every library that a build process references must correspond to a library definition.

library descriptions file
A file that lists keywords, document classes, or both, or the access codes associated with different document libraries.

library list
In IBM i, a list that indicates which libraries are to be searched and the order in which they are to be searched. The system-recognized identifier is *LIBL.

library lookaside (LLA)
A z/OS facility that reduces library I/O activity by keeping selected directory entries and modules in storage, instead of making repetitive searches of DASD.

library manager

  1. The software application that controls all operations in an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) or in a file.
  2. A server that controls device operations when multiple storage management servers share a storage device. See also library client.

library manager database
A database that contains entries for all cartridges in the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) and the manual tape library (MTL) data server. Each entry contains volume serial number (VOLSER), category, physical location, and volume status information.

library member

  1. A named collection of records or statements in a library.
  2. In VSE, the smallest unit of data that can be stored in and retrieved from a sublibrary.
  3. See resource object.

library-member name
See member name.

library name
A user-defined word that names a library.

library name space
An attribute that can be set for the current thread. The library name space is the set of objects and libraries that can be accessed in any independent disk pools in a disk pool group plus the libraries in the system disk pool and basic user disk pools (ASPs 2-32) using the regular library-qualified object name syntax.

library object

  1. See item.
  2. A named resource stored in a host library system.
  3. See resource object.

library record
Information related to the library, such as library name and logical type. The library record resides within the tape configuration database (TCDB).

library routine
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a routine maintained in a program library.

library server

  1. The component of a Content Manager system that stores, manages, and handles queries on items.
  2. The workstation or node that users must go through to access the system.

library user ASP
An auxiliary storage pool that contains libraries and folders. See also nonlibrary user ASP.


  1. See Licensed Internal Code.
  2. See last-in-chain.


  1. A certificate of authorization that permits an individual to sell insurance products in a state.
  2. A legal agreement that authorizes the use of proprietary information including, but not limited to, copyrighted or patented information.

license agreement
See license.

license allocation
Resources such as assets, partitions, users, and locations that a license is assigned to. See also license scope.

license annotation
A data string that modifies the use of a license in a manner defined by the vendor of the software product.

License Authorization Code (LAC)
Code that is needed to unlock a licensed program.

license compliance
The verification of the rules defined by a license agreement.

license database
The database of licenses that a license server maintains.

licensed capacity
The amount of capacity on a storage system that a user is entitled to configure.

Licensed Internal Code (LIC)
The layered architecture below the machine interface (MI). The Licensed Internal Code is a proprietary system design that carries out many functions. These functions include but are not limited to storage management, pointers and addressing, program management functions, exception and event management, data functions, I/O managers, and security.

Licensed Internal Code fix
A temporary solution to, or bypass of, a defect in a current release of the Licensed Internal Code.

licensed product
See licensed program.

licensed program (LP)
A separately priced program and its associated materials that have a copyright and are offered to customers under the terms and conditions of a licensing agreement.

licensed program offering (LPO)
A field-developed program that is not supported on the Licensed Program menu. LPOs have separate instructions for installation.

licensed program product (LPP)
See licensed program.

license key

  1. See activation code.
  2. An alphanumeric code that activates a licensed function on a product.
  3. An authorization that regulates the use of software licensed programs. Software license keys need to be installed on the system when software is upgraded or moved, the hardware processor group is changed, additional license usage is added, or new software that requires license keys is purchased.

license key file

  1. A file that contains one or more licensed keys.
  2. A file containing keys (passwords) required to run Cluster Systems Management.

license password
A string encoded with license information for a software product.

license plate
A unique vehicle registration number comprising alphanumeric characters that are displayed on a physical plate or tag and affixed to the vehicle.

license plate number (LPN)
A bar code identifier of a specific pallet, carton or case and its contents.

license plate quantity (LPQ)
The number of LPNs required to fulfill an order.

license pool
A collection of shared licenses available for a particular software installation.

license scope
The breadth of a license in terms of enterprise, site, machine, or partition. If discovered software is found within the scope of a license, then that license might be used for that discovered instance. See also license allocation.

license server
A program that provides license services and administers licenses for software products.

license term
In i5/OS license management, an indicator of whether the authorized usage limit for a product lasts until the next version, next release, or next modification level of the product.

license use key
A key (password) that is required to run Cluster Systems Management. A license key file, containing license use keys, is included with the CSM package.

See local identifier.


  1. Passage or transformation through different stages over time. For example markets, brands and offerings have lifecycles.
  2. The complete process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying software or systems.
  3. The phases in a release. A lifecycle is a template for the stages of work in a release.
  4. The set of stages a document passes through in its lifetime, such as draft and review.

lifecycle action
A script or object executed when a document changes state as defined in a lifecycle policy.

lifecycle application
A tool that manages the work for a phase of the development lifecycle. See also lifecycle tool.

lifecycle index
A set of URIs that point to resources in one or more lifecycle tools so that the set of URIs can be queried together. Access depends on the identity of the authenticated user.

lifecycle model
A template for managing dependencies, artifacts, and deployments associated with every build of a given project. Lifecycle models can be reused for separate projects.

lifecycle policy
A policy that identifies the states of a document and the lifecycle action that executes in response to the state changes. See also exception state, reset.

Lifecycle Query Engine (LQE)
A component that indexes and searches for assets that are stored in any tool that can support the Tracked Resource Set (TRS) specification.

lifecycle record
A database record that contains tracking information about data processing performed by the data manager.

lifecycle state
One of a defined set of status values that indicates the current state of a configuration item, such as development, test, production, or decommissioned.

lifecycle tool
An application that manages the work for a phase of the development lifecycle. See also lifecycle application.

life event
In social media, a significant experience that is posted on a profile.

In a sequence diagram, a connectable element (an object or a role) that describes how each instance participates in the interaction over a period of time.

The elapsed time from when a non-nested activity is identified by the database manager until the activity finishes running, as measured on the coordinator partition.

lifetime revenue
The revenue a customer has generated for the company throughout their history as a customer.

See last-in first-out.

LIFO storage
Storage used by reentrant CICS management modules to save registers.


  1. Statistical measure that is the ratio between the joint probability of two variables with respect to their expected probabilities under the independence assumption.
  2. The improvement in expected return, caused by the use of a classifier or model, over the improvement expected with no classification or prediction. The higher the lift, the better the classifier or model.


  1. Two or more characters that are connected so they appear as one character. For example, ff and ffi are characters that can be presented as ligatures.
  2. A graphic character consisting of two or more characters joined together. For example, joining A and E form the ligature Æ. Ligatures are very common and important in Arabic.

Any typeface characterized by fine strokes.

light API call
A client operation that only reads data. Light API calls use fewer resources than heavy API calls because they are performing a single function. See also heavy API call.

light append
An unbuffered, unlogged insert operation. See also raw table.

light-emitting diode (LED)
A semiconductor chip that gives off visible or infrared light when activated.

The characteristic that allows colors to be put in order from light to dark.

light path diagnostics

  1. A system of LEDs that are above the control panel and on various internal components of the compute node.
  2. A technology that provides a lighted path to failed or failing components to expedite hardware repairs.

light scan
A sequential scan of large data tables that avoids the overhead of the buffer pool.

lightweight core file
An alternative to standard AIX core files. Core files produced in the Standardized Lightweight Corefile Format provide simple, process stack traces (listings of function calls that led to the error) and consume fewer system resources than traditional core files.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
An open protocol that uses TCP/IP to provide access to directories that support an X.500 model and that does not incur the resource requirements of the more complex X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). For example, LDAP can be used to locate people, organizations, and other resources in an Internet or intranet directory. See also LDAP data source adapter, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection (LDAP injection)
An attack technique used to exploit websites that construct LDAP statements from user-supplied input. See also Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

lightweight harvest
A configured harvest that targets specific locations and applies certain limits and hash settings. It is a lighter weight harvest as it takes less time and resources to complete.

lightweight mode
A Server AccessAgent mode. Running in lightweight mode reduces the memory footprint of AccessAgent on a Citrix/Terminal Server and improves the single sign-on startup duration.

Lightweight Third Party Authentication (LTPA)

  1. A protocol that uses cryptography to support security in a distributed environment.
  2. An authentication framework that allows single sign-on across a set of web servers that fall within an Internet domain.

In social networking, to endorse something that has been posted, for example, a link or a status update. See also unlike.

like concatenation
Data sets that are allocated with one data definition (DD) name so that an application program can read them as if they were one data set. These data sets must have identical or compatible record formats and lengths.

like device
Pertaining to direct access storage devices (DASDs) that have the same performance and format characteristics.

likeness score
See resolution score.

Lilian date
A system of numbering days consecutively from October 15, 1582.


  1. A maximum level used to control and restrict the risk appetite of a counterparty.
  2. A means of allocating a specific number of job slots into which IBM Workload Scheduler is allowed to launch jobs. A job limit can be set foreach job stream, and for each workstation. For example, setting the workstation job limit to 25 permits IBM Workload Scheduler to have no more than 25 jobs running concurrently on the workstation.

limit count
The number that determines whether the normal or limit priority value is assigned to a transaction during the scheduling process. See also limit priority, normal priority.

limited availability fix
A fix that is available to one or only a few customers

limited capability
In CICS, the use of certain CL commands can be restricted by setting a user's profile to limited capability.

limited interface
A set of system calls that provides a limited function interface.

limited paging
A phase of the IPL sequence that takes place prior to full paging during which only the data on the load-source disk unit can be accessed by the normal Licensed Internal Code functions. See also full paging, prestatic paging, static paging.

limited resource
A connection facility that causes a session traversing it to be terminated if no session activity is detected for a specified period of time. See also limited-resource session.

limited-resource link
A link defined by the node operator to be a limited resource, that is, a resource to remain active only when being used. Limited-resource links are deactivated if no session activity has been detected for a specified period of time. See also limited-resource session.

limited-resource session
A session that traverses a limited-resource link. The session is terminated if no session activity is detected for a specified period of time. See also limited resource, limited-resource link.

limited subset
A small part or simpler version of a larger set of data or programs.

limit key
The highest value of the index key for a partition.

limit order
An order to buy a security for no more than a specific price or to sell a security for no less than a specific price.

limit priority
The priority to which a transaction is raised when the number of transactions enqueued and waiting to be processed is equal to or greater than the limit count value. See also limit count, normal priority, scheduling priority.

limits file
In RPG, a file that contains the upper and lower values of the record keys used to read from an indexed file.

limits record
In RPG, a record that contains the lowest record key and the highest record key of the records that are to be read (in the keyed file).

In COBOL, a special register whose value points to the current position within the page body.


  1. A company's related products that are marketed individually.
  2. A component of a contract that represents a transaction, such as the purchase or sale of a product.
  3. A horizontal display on a screen; a linear arrangement of graphic characters.
  4. A string of characters, including blanks, forming one line of printed output on a page.
  5. In word processing, a predetermined number of escapement units, including character spaces, forming one line of typing.
  6. In video scanning, a single pass of the sensor from left to right across the image.
  7. On a terminal, one or more characters entered before a return to the first printing or display position, or accepted by the system as a single block of output.
  8. A group of routes for a transit vehicle which are generally known to the public by a similar name or number.
  9. The physical path in data transmission.

line approval rule
An approval rule that can be applied at the line level of a quote. When the conditions of this rule are satisfied, a customer sales representative can apply the corresponding discount as a line-level discount in the corresponding quote.

Pertaining to a function that can be represented by an equation for which the variables are only first degree (that is, none of the variables is multiplied by any other variable, and none of the variables is raised to a higher power, such as squared or cubed) and where the coefficients of the variables are constant numeric values (that is, integers or floating-point numbers).

linear asset
An asset that is maintained in segments, such as a road, pipeline, or railroad track. Measurements are made along the linear asset to specify work, monitoring, metering, or placement of signs. See also point asset.

linear data set (LDS)
A VSAM data set that contains data but no control information. An LDS can be accessed as a byte-addressable string in virtual storage.

linear interpolation
A method of approximating data values by assuming that they lie along a straight line. Typically, the two end data points are known. For example, if A is the value at a, and B is the value at b, and a is less than t, and t is less than b, then the value C at t is (from the two-point formula): B - A divided by b - a, multiplied by t - D, added to A.

The activity of converting logical, symbolic, quadratic, or other nonlinear constraints into a linear representation that can be solved by math programming (MP) methods.

linear logging
In IBM MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and IBM MQ for Windows, the process of keeping restart data in a sequence of files. New files are added to the sequence as necessary. The space in which the data is written is not reused. See also circular logging.

linear procedure
Any procedure not beginning with a REXX comment. A linear procedure can contain QMF commands, comments, blank lines, RUN commands, and substitution variables. See also procedure with logic.

linear programming (LP)
A technique for the optimization of a linear function subject to linear constraints over decision variables. In LP, the model of a problem is expressed through numeric variables combined with linear constraints and governed by a linear objective function and by bounds on the variables.

linear reference
A location reference marker along a roadway, generally on a shoulder, indicating its location along a route. An example of a marker is a milepost.

linear referencing
Defining the location of a point along a linear asset.

linear referencing method (LRM)
A method of determining a position on a linear asset by using a known start point, a measure, a direction, and offset values.

linear regression
A statistical technique for estimating a linear model for a continuous (numeric) output field. Linear models predict a continuous target based on linear relationships between the target and one or more predictors. See also regression.

linear regression model
A modeling algorithm that assumes that the relationship between the input and the output for the model is of a particular, simple form. The model fits the best line through linear regression and generates a linear mapping between the input variables and each output variable.

linear segment
The span of a linear asset that is defined by a start and an end measure. The span can be the entire length of the linear asset or any continuous part of it.

linear syntax
QMF command syntax that is entered in one statement of a program or procedure, or that can be entered on the QMF command line.

linear trending
Linear growth based on the historical values of a data set using the least squares regression algorithm.

line-at-a-time printer
See line printer.

line attribute
In architecture, an attribute that pertains to straight or curved lines; for example, line type and line width.

line card
See blade server.

line chart
In the GDDM function, a chart in which the plotted points (each optionally represented by a marker) are joined by straight or curved lines.

line clause
A clause that provides a configurable view of the lines of a single contract line definition within the contract language view.

line clause template
The basis of a line clause that defines its line definition, fields, and other properties. See also template.

line code violation
In Performance Tools, two successive electrical pulses of the same polarity, instead of alternating polarity, on the S/T interface.

line command
An abbreviation used to request a function for a specific line or lines from the command area to the left of the line or lines affected. For example, C for Copy or M for Move.

line configuration
The process of creating configuration descriptions for the lines that make up a data processing system.

line control character
See transmission control character.

line control definer (LCD)
A field in a VTAM/NCP line trace that indicates the type of protocol being used over the line.

line control discipline
See link protocol.

line counter specifications
In RPG, a coding sheet on which the programmer indicates or overrides the system defaults for the form length and for the number of lines to print on a page. Line counter specifications can be used for each printer file in a program.

line data

  1. Data prepared for printing on a line printer. Line data can contain carriage-control characters and table-reference characters (TRC) for spacing and font selections.
  2. Application data that is prepared for printing, without any data placement or presentation information. See also record format line data, traditional line data.

line data file
A file formatted for printing on line printers.

line definition
The configured fields that form the basis of a line. These fields originate from data definitions.

line description
An object that contains information describing a particular communications line that is attached to the system. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *LIND.

line descriptor
Specifications that describe how traditional line data records are formatted into individual print lines. Line descriptors are interpreted by PSF when formatting printed output.

line device
Any of a class of printers that accept one line of text at a time. See also page device.

line discipline

  1. A layer in the terminal subsystem of Unix.
  2. The asynchronous communications user interface for a TTY, which includes the POSIX and Berkeley line disciplines as well as the compatibility mode of Version 2 of the AIX operating system.

line editor
An editor that displays data one line at a time and that allows data to be accessed and modified only by entering commands.

line error
An error on the telephone line that causes the signal to be impaired.

line feed
The movement of the print or display position to the corresponding position on the next line. See also space.

line format

  1. See line descriptor.
  2. Specifications that describe how text and variable data are formatted into lines suitable for displaying at a terminal or printing.

line-format data
Data composed of line data and optional structured fields.

line-format data stream
A data stream in which print output consists of consecutive lines of text intended for printing one line at a time in sequence. The data stream is usually characterized by carriage control characters and table reference characters.

line-format page
A page composed of line data and optional structured fields.

line-format print data file
A data file that consists of line data optionally supplemented by a limited set of structured fields.

line-format print data set
A data set that consists of line data optionally supplemented by a limited set of structured fields.

line-format print file
See line-format print data file.

line format print job
Data from a line-format print data set that is submitted to be printed.

line graph
In Performance Tools, a graph in which plotted points (each optionally represented by a marker) are joined by straight or curved lines.

line graphic
See coordinate graphic.

line group

  1. A collection of related products within a product line.
  2. One or more telecommunication lines of the same type that can be activated and deactivated as a unit.

linehaul rate
A charge for carrying a shipment from the origin to the destination. The linehaul rate does not include any accessorial charges.

line item

  1. An item, material, service, or tool that is named on a contract, purchase requisition, purchase order, or invoice.
  2. A specific circuit or equipment charge within an invoice. An invoice consolidates the charges against all the line items that are associated with a particular account.
  3. A queued task or service that is pending completion.

line item set
A set of order items (or portions of order items when the quantity of order items is greater than one). It is a temporary grouping of order items used by the promotion engine during promotion evaluation.

line level
A level that indicates the individual line items on an order.

line merging

  1. Printing two or more records of line data at the same location on the page. Line merging is used with line data to mix different fonts on the same line, to underscore or overstrike, and on impact printers to create darker print.
  2. In compatibility mode, the combination of line data into one print line, or the printing of different columns of data across a sheet, each in different character styles or sizes.

line mode
An input-processing mode in which input is collected and processed one line at a time. See also full-screen mode.

line mode data stream
A data stream that enables a line printer to print one line at a time. It is usually characterized by carriage control characters and table reference characters.

line-mode printing
Every 3800 printer can operate in line mode as a non-AFP printer. Print jobs that run in line mode do not use PSF or AFP resources, such as page definitions or form definitions. Instead, they use 3800 line-mode resources, such as FCBs and GRAPHMODs.

line number

  1. For the Ada-language debugger, a line relative to the Ada compilation that contains the specified compilation unit.
  2. The number that precedes a line of information in a printout or on a display. This number can be up to 5 digits long, from 00001 through 99999.

line of authority (LOA)
The range of insurance products that a producer is allowed to sell under a license.

line of memory
The section of memory that corresponds to a cache line, which corresponds to a single virtual-memory address tag.

line overrun
In compatibility mode, a condition showing that either the number of graphic characters sent to print a line is more than permitted for the normal print line, or that the copy-modification operation was not completed in time to print the line.

line pacing
The sending of a line followed by a waiting interval before continuing transmission.

line pool
In Point-to-Point Protocol, a list of lines that can be used in a connection profile.

line price
A price for a given line item.

line price class
A group of related products that share a fixed price.

line price group
See line price class.

line pricing
The assignment of a fixed price across similar products.

line printer
A device that prints a line of characters as a unit. See also character printer, page printer.

line printer daemon (LPD)

  1. A networking protocol that is used for submitting print jobs to a remote printer.
  2. The receiving portion, or target, of a file transfer that receives the spooled file that was sent and places the file on a local output queue. See also line printer requester.
  3. The printer server that allows other hosts to access its printer.

Line Printer Protocol
In the Internet suite of protocols, a protocol that is used for printing files on printers that are attached to remote hosts.

line printer queue (LPQ)
In TCP/IP, a method to display the output queue of spooled files sent to a printer.

line printer removal (LPRM)
In TCP/IP, a method of removing spooled files from the queue of a printer.

line printer requester (LPR)

  1. The sending portion, or client portion, of a spooled file transfer. The line printer requester allows a spooled file that was sent between remote systems to be sent to a printer queue. See also line printer daemon.
  2. A client that lets the local host submit a file for printing on a remote printer server.

line printer requestor (LPR)
In TCP/IP, a client command that allows the local host to submit a file to be printed on a remote print server.

line response mode
A variation of response mode where all operations on the communication line are suspended while the application program output message is being generated. See also response mode, terminal response mode.

line set
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a user-specified group of one or more lines used to establish network connections. When sending an outbound connection request, OSI Communications Subsystem selects a line from a line set. The line characteristics--such as line speed--of each line in a given line set should be similar.

line space

  1. The distance between two consecutive typing lines used for a particular operation, the distance being made up of a whole or split multiple of the basic line space. (T)
  2. The vertical distance between the baseline of the current line and the baseline of the preceding line.

line spacing

  1. The number of lines vertically to the inch. (T)
  2. The distance between two adjacent baselines of text, usually expressed as the number of blank lines between them.

line speed
The rate at which data is transmitted from one point to another over a telecommunication line.

lines per inch (lpi)
The number of characters that can be printed vertically within an inch.

line strength
An indication of confidence in the information underlying a particular link. Line strength is represented as a solid, dashed, or dotted line on a chart.

line switching
See circuit switching.

line total
The price for the order line that is calculated based on the order line quantity and pricing rules or coupons applied to the order line, if any.

line traffic
The number of transmissions and the amount of data sent and received on a communications line.

line transmission termination (LT)
In Performance Tools, the line transmission termination part of the reference model for the integrated services digital network (ISDN).

line type
A line attribute that controls the appearance of a line. Examples of line types are dashed, dotted, and solid. See also line width.

line width

  1. The width of a line in pixels.
  2. A line attribute that controls the appearance of a line. Examples of line width are normal and thick. See also line type.

linguistic conversion
A conversion where a partial mapping is done from the source code page to the target code page. The integrity of characters that are in both the target coded character set identifier (CCSID) and the source CCSID are preserved. Characters that are not in the target CCSID are mapped to the most culturally acceptable alternative for that character.

linguistic function
Functions usually associated with word processing, including spell checking, hyphenation, grammar, and dictionary functions. See also advanced implementation, basic implementation.

linguistic search
A search type that browses, retrieves, and indexes a document with terms that are reduced to their base form, for example, so that mice is indexed as mouse, or expanded with their base form, such as with compound words.


  1. An association between two entities, such as an ownership relationship between a person and a vehicle.
  2. In TCP/IP, a term for a communications line. A TCP/IP link may share the use of a communications line with SNA.
  3. In data communication, a transmission medium and data link control (DLC) component that together transmit data between adjacent nodes.
  4. A line or arrow that connects activities in a process. A link passes information between activities and determines the order in which they run.
  5. A directional relationship between two items: the parent and the child. You can use a set of links to model one-to-many associations. See also reference.
  6. In IDDU, to connect a database file on disk with a file definition in a data dictionary. See also unlink.
  7. To establish a relationship between a workflow definition and a document or document class. Linking a document class to a workflow definition enables a user to launch the workflow from any document belonging to that class. Linking a document to a workflow definition enables a user to launch the workflow from that document.
  8. A bidirectional indication of dependency between two or more requirements in the same module or different modules.
  9. In an IMS multisystem environment, the connection between two systems.
  10. A subsection of a road between two nodes in a graph. A link may be divided into cells. See also cell, graph, node.
  11. In hypertext, an author-defined association between two information nodes.
  12. In SNA, the combination of the link connection (the transmission medium) and two link stations (one at each end of the link connection). See also circuit.
  13. A connection between two nodes in a JobStream.
  14. In a file system, a connection between a directory and an object. The link is established when the object is created.
  15. A connection that provides the physical transfer of data from one node to another.
  16. In programming, the part of a program that passes control and parameters between separate portions of the computer program.
  17. A relationship between a workflow definition and a document or document class.
  18. In Fibre Channel technology, two unidirectional fibers carrying data in opposite directions, along with their associated transmitters and receivers. See also circuit.
  19. An icon that provides direct access from one Notes document, view, or database (the source object) to any other document, view, or database (the target object). Notes opens the target object without closing the source object that was branched from.
  20. In a linked data system, a relationship between two artifacts as expressed by a unique URI.
  21. An element of a data model that defines a relationship between data types and data items. See also dynamic link, static link.
  22. To interconnect items of data or portions of one or more computer programs, for example, the linking of object programs by a linkage editor or the linking of data items by pointers.
  23. In Informix, a way of combining separately compiled program modules into one module that is typically used in an executable program.
  24. In a file system, a connection between an inode and one or more file names associated with it.
  25. A representation of a data flow that joins the stages in a job. A link connects data sources to processing stages, connects processing stages to each other, and also connects those processing stages to target systems. The types of links are input link, output link, reference link, and reject link. See also input link, output link, reference link, reject link.

link access procedure (LAP)
A link level element used for data interchange between data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) and data terminal equipment (DTE) operating in user classes of service 8 to 11, as specified in CCITT Recommendation X.1. See also link access procedure-balanced.

link access procedure-balanced (LABP)
A procedure for gaining access to an X.25 network at the link level. LAPB uses a full-duplex, asynchronous, symmetric (balanced) protocol used in point-to-point communication. See also link access procedure.

link access procedure-D-channel (LAPD)
A procedure, recommended by the CCITT, for using an integrated services digital network (ISDN) on the data link level. LAPD is a duplex, asynchronous, symmetric procedure used to communicate control instructions, such as setting up and dropping a connection, to the control channel (D-channel) of ISDN.

link access protocol balanced (LAPB)
A protocol that is used to access an X.25 network at the link level. LAPB is a duplex, asynchronous, symmetric protocol that is used in point-to-point communication.

link access protocol for the D-channel (LAPD)
An HDLC protocol used in ISDN that ensures a reliable connection between the network and the user. Often used synonymously with Q.921.

link address
An address assigned at initialization that identifies a channel or control unit and allows it to send and receive frames and perform I/O operations.

Refers to the binding between a reference and a definition. A function has internal linkage if the function is defined inline as part of the class, is declared with the inline keyword, or is a non-member function declared with the static keyword. All other functions have external linkage.

linkage editor
A computer program for creating load modules from one or more object modules or load modules by resolving cross-references among the modules and, if necessary, adjusting addresses.

linkage options part
In EGL, a build part that gives details on how a generated program calls and is called by other programs. The part also gives details on how a generated COBOL program accesses files on remote CICS regions. The information in this part is used at generation time, test time, and run time.

linkage properties file
An EGL-generated or handwritten text file that can be used at Java EE run time to give details on how an EGL-generated Java program or wrapper calls other code.

Linkage Section
In COBOL, a section of the Data Division that describes data made available from another program.

link aggregation
The grouping of physical network interface cards, such as cables or ports, into a single logical network interface. Link aggregation is used to increase bandwidth and network availability. See also aggregate interface.

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
A method in the IEEE specification to control the bundling of several physical ports together to form a single logical channel.

link analysis
A method that is based on the analysis of hyperlinks between documents and used to determine what pages in the collection are important to users.

Pertaining to devices that are connected to a controlling unit by a data link. See also channel-attached, remote.

link attribute
An attribute instance that references another object, such as a catalog, hierarchy, item, or category. See also relationship attribute.

A collection of XML Linking Language (XLink) extended links that can be used to document the semantics of concepts in a taxonomy.

link connection
The transmission medium that establishes the link between network nodes, for example, telephone lines, coaxial cable, and fiber optic cables.

link connection component manager (LCCM)
The transaction program that manages the configuration of the link connection.

link connection network
See connection network.

link connection segment
A portion of a configuration that is located between two resources that are listed consecutively in the service point command service (SPCS) query link configuration request list.

link connection subsystem (LCS)
The sequence of link connection components (LCCs) that belong to a link connection and are managed by a link connection subsystem manager (LCSM).

link connection subsystem manager (LCSM)
The transaction program that manages the sequence of link connection components (LCCs) that belong to a link connection.

link count
The number of directory entries that refer to a particular file. [POSIX.1]

link descriptor
In ODM, a named variable of type link used to define a relationship between an object in an object class and an object in another object class.

link direction
An indication that the meaning of a link is different for each of its ends. For example, the direction of a telephone call makes one end the caller and the other the recipient. Link direction can influence the centrality measures used in social network analysis.

link discovery
A capability that enables external applications that are integrated with Rational DOORS to find OSLC links in Rational DOORS and make them visible in the external applications. See also back linking.

linked actuality
An actuality used to perform a currency conversion at a new currency rate, but with existing period values in the local currency.

linked application
An application that is created by linking together other applications.

linked clone
A copy of a virtual machine that shares virtual disks with the parent virtual machine in an ongoing manner.

linked cluster
A cluster that contains nodes from sites that are located at different geographical locations. The sites do not share any repository disks.

linked data
A method of publishing structured data so that it can be linked to and from other data sets.

linked HATS/WebFacing project
A combined project that includes both WebFacing and HATS customization capabilities. See also HATS/WebFacing enabled project.

To create a loadable computer program by using a linkage editor.

Creating a loadable computer program by means of a linkage editor.

Linked Java Object
A builder that enables the direct integration of Java classes and their associated methods into a model. Developers can use the Linked Java Object builder to incorporate existing Java code or create new Java classes to be used with Linked Java Object builder calls to consolidate commonly used methods into a single, easily reused Java class.

linked library
A library added to an IBM Connections community by the community owner using the Linked Library widget that allows community members to tag, follow, like, and comment. See also community library.

linked list
A list in which the data elements may be dispersed but in which each data element contains information for locating the next.

linked model
A model that provides modularity for an application. Linked models are analogous to classes in Java. They contain methods and state data, and support the distinction between public and private access.

linked object
An object in a work order that is linked to a map feature in the designated GIS. A linked object can be the work order object or the associated service address, asset, or location.

linked partition
A form of shared partition that provides the ability to use a data cell to link together two different databases.

linked rule
A regular rule that specifies a second set of criteria and two additional actions: one that is performed when the second condition is met and one that is performed when the second condition is not met, within the resolution time specified. For example, if a server is down , take no action. If that server is down for more than five minutes, send an email notification.

linked structure
A combination of selected structures that is used to limit the number of available objects, making it easier for individual users to make selections from menus.


  1. A program that resolves cross-references among separately compiled object modules and then assigns final addresses to create a single executable program.
  2. See linkage editor.

link extraction
The parsing or executing of code for discovery and collection of links from a web application.

link ID
A unique identifier for a traffic link that is being displayed on the map.

link index provider (LIP)
An application that indexes links to artifacts in contributing applications and makes those links available to other applications.

In Transaction Tracking, the process of tracking transactions within the same domain or from Data Collector plug-ins of the same type.

link integrity verification tests (LIVT)
A set of operational procedures and messages that is defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard T1.617 Annex D and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) Standard Q.933 Annex A and that is transferred over DLCI 0. This set of operational procedures and messages provides status and outage notification for frame-relay frame handler (FRFH) and frame-relay terminating equipment (FRTE) connections.

link label
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) path that is used to retrieve the description that is associated with the resource URI from the query result document.

link layer
See data link layer.

link level

  1. See data link level.
  2. In SNA, the combination of the transmission connection, protocol, devices, and programming joining network nodes.
  3. A part of Recommendation X.25 that defines the link protocol used to get data into and out of the network across the duplex line connecting the subscriber's equipment to the network.

link level 2 test
See link test.

link-level facility
The ESCON or FICON hardware and logical functions of a control unit or channel subsystem that allow communication over an ESCON or FICON read and write interface.

link level security
The security services that are started, directly or indirectly, by a message channel agent (MCA), the communications subsystem, or a combination of the two working together.

link list
The list of libraries searched by the control program (after the job pack, task library, step library, job library, and link pack area have been searched) for any load that does not provide a specific data control block to be used. In MVS, the system name is LNKLST.

link name
A name defined in the deployment descriptor of the encompassing application.

link pack area (LPA)
The portion of virtual storage below 16 MB that contains frequently used modules. See also dynamic link pack area.

link partner
A device that the Ethernet adapter is connected to in an Ethernet connection. A link partner can be a switch, hub, router, or some other device that the adapter is connected to.

link pending
A state that indicates a datalink field contains one or more values that cannot be validated due to a system failure, communications failure, or other similar error. The file is still usable when it is in this state, but only for reading data.

Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA)
A series of procedures used by products to test modem or other data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) operations, and to provide information about the DCE and the data link. An extended version also provides operational and configuration commands. LPDA commands can be used only with DCEs that support LPDA.

Link Problem Determination Aid-1 (LPDA-1)
The first version of the LPDA command set. Although LPDA-1 and LPDA-2 provide several of the same functions, LPDA-1 is not compatible with LPDA-2.

Link Problem Determination Aid-2 (LPDA-2)
A second version of the LPDA command set. In addition to most of the functions of LPDA-1, LPDA-2 also supports modem configuration commands, a call out (dial) command, a set transmit speed command, and commands to operate a contact that controls external devices.

link property
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) property that is used to retrieve the resource URI from the query result document.

link protocol
The rules for sending and receiving data at the link level. See also protocol.

link protocol converter (LPC)
A device that changes one type of link-level protocol information to another type of link-level protocol information for processing; for example, 5208 Link Protocol Converter, 5209 Link Protocol Converter, or ROLMbridge 5250 Link Protocol Converter.

link query
See link discovery.

link rule
A required component of a reconciliation task that is used to link instances from two data sets based on one or more common attributes. See also comparison rule, reconciliation task, task filter.

link security
A limit on one system's authorization to attach transactions and access resources in another. Link security works by signing on each end of a session (to RACF, in CICS Transaction Server) when the session is bound. Each half-session then has the access requirements of the single user profile defined for the remote system as a whole. This profile is applied when a transaction is attached and whenever the transaction accesses a protected resource. See also session security.

link semantic type
A semantic type that can be assigned only to a link or a link type. See also semantic type.

link separation
The distance between adjacent links in a connection on a chart.

link service access point (LSAP)
In the IBM Token-Ring Network, the logical point at which an entity in the logical link control sublayer provides services to the next higher layer.

link services
A protocol for link-related actions.

A division of information in each module that contains information about the links from one particular module to another.

linkset pairing
A specification for which link module should be used when links are created between certain modules.

links explorer
A capability for visualizing relationships among artifacts and modifying those relationships.

link state
In routing protocols, the advertised information about the usable interfaces and reachable neighbors of a router or network. The protocol's topological database is formed from the collected link state advertisements.

link state advertisement (LSA)
In a link state routing protocol, a packet that contains information about neighbors and path costs. Each router in an area generates its link state database from the link state advertisements (LSAs) that it receives from all the other routers in the same area and the LSAs that itself generates.

link state database
In a link state routing protocol, a database that each router in an area generates from the link state advertisements (LSAs) that it receives from all the other routers in the same area and the LSAs that itself generates. Based on the link state database, each router calculates the shortest-path spanning tree, with itself as the root, using the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm.

link state routing protocol
A type of routing protocol in which each router uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to calculate shortest (lowest-cost) paths, and broadcasts or multicasts information regarding the cost of reaching each of its neighbors to all nodes in the internetwork. See also distance-vector routing protocol, Shortest Path First.

link station

  1. In VTAM, a named resource within an APPN or a subarea node that represents the connection to another APPN or subarea node that is attached by an APPN or a subarea link. In the resource hierarchy in a subarea network, the link station is subordinate to the subarea link. See also adjacent link station.
  2. The part of data link control that is responsible for the transfer of data on a single logical link.

link station role
In SNA, the role that a local node assumes for a given link. Possible roles are primary (or controlling), secondary, or negotiable.

link test
In SNA, a test in which one link station returns data that is received from another link station without changing the data in order to test the operation of the link. Three tests can be made; they differ in the resources that are dedicated during the test.

link trace
A sequential log of events that occur on the link. This log can help determine the source of a recurring error.

link type

  1. A definition of a relationship between artifacts. A link type has a relationship label that indicates how the linked artifacts are related.
  2. A descriptor of the characteristics of a link, including the properties it can contain and its appearance in visualizations.
  3. The base URI that groups links for different interactions on the same resource.

link validity
See validity.

An open source operating system that runs on a wide range of hardware platforms and has many features that are similar to the UNIX system.

Linux disk layout
A basic disk structure for Linux on System z. See also compatible disk layout.

Linux Documentation Project
An open source community effort to create a canonical, collaboratively developed, and free-to-distribute set of GNU/Linux documentation.

Linux Hyperledger project
An open source, collaborative effort to advance blockchain technology by identifying and addressing important features for a cross-industry open standard for distributed ledgers that can transform the way business transactions are conducted globally. Hyperledger serves as the foundation code for the IBM Blockchain products, services, and solutions. See also Hyperledger fabric.

Linux node
One instance of a Linux operating system running on IBM hardware.


  1. See link index provider.
  2. See loop initialization primitive.

See logical IP subnet.

A programming language designed for list processing and used extensively for artificial intelligence problems.

LISP mode
For text editors, a mode in which symbols used in the LISP programming language, such as ( (left parenthesis) and ]] (double right bracket), are treated as symbols, not as editor commands.


  1. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an entry in a control group that contains similar items such as libraries, folders, or objects.
  2. A means of filtering plan and database objects and presenting them in a table.
  3. A data object consisting of a collection of related records.
  4. A set of values that is displayed to the user. The user selects from the list to respond to a prompt.
  5. A type of object, which DB2 utilities can process, that identifies multiple table spaces, multiple index spaces, or both. A list is defined with the LISTDEF utility control statement.

list box
A control that contains a list of objects or settings choices that a user can select from.

list button
A button labeled with an underlined down-arrow that presents a list of valid objects or choices that can be selected for that field.

A VSAM tool that provides information that interprets the actual situation of VSAM data sets.

list command
In Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF), a command that is entered on the command line and processed against all the entries in a list.

LIST data type
A collection data type created with the LIST constructor in which elements are ordered and duplicates are allowed.

list edit mode
In AFP Utilities, the mode that allows a user to view and change overlay elements from a list.

In the X.25 API, to be prepared to receive incoming calls that satisfy criteria specified in an entry in the routing list, through a specified X.25 port.


  1. A server process that provides an interface to back-end analytical server processes. This interface is used by clients (such as the Campaign web application and the Campaign Server Manager) to connect to back-end servers. Each listener spawns processes to handle user and flowchart interactions.
  2. A program that detects incoming requests and starts the associated channel.

listener cluster
A set of two or more listeners that act as a unit to provide load balancing and high availability.

listener interface
An interface that defines the methods used by a component to dispatch events.

listener node
Any listener in a cluster, including the master listener that can serve a request from the web application.

listener port
An object that defines the association between a connection factory, a destination, and a deployed message-driven bean. Listener ports simplify the administration of the associations between these resources.

listener server
A server on which the IBM Campaign listener is installed.

listen identifier
In the X.25 API, an identifier used to listen for and receive an incoming call.

Pertaining to the state of programs that are waiting for network communication on a given socket.

listening consumer
A consumer that passively waits for files to be delivered to them through a protocol connection initiated by Sterling File Gateway.

listening policy
A policy that collects performance data and produces detailed information about transaction performance times so that the performance of subtransactions can be measured.

list entry
An entry on an coupling facility list structure list.

list entry control
Part of a coupling facility list structure list entry that contains control information associated with the list entry such as the entry key and entry ID.

list entry handle
A value that uniquely distinguishes an entry in a user interface manager (UIM) list until it is removed from the list. A list entry handle is meaningful only for a particular application, list, and entry combination.

list header
A header that anchors a list to a coupling list structure and contains control information associated with the list.

list header number
The number of the list header, which identifies the particular list. The list header number ranges from 0 to the maximum defined by the first connector to the coupling facility list structure. The list header number must be specified on IXL requests that access the list structure, to identify to which list the request is applicable.

list ID
A two-part name by which a distribution list is known. The two-part name allows distributions to be sent to both local and remote systems.

list ID qualifier
The second part of a two-part name by which a distribution list is known.

list-of-groups checking
A RACF option that allows a user to access all resources available to all groups of which the user is a member, regardless of the user's current connect group. For any particular resource, RACF allows access based on the highest access authority among the groups of which the user is a member.

list panel
In Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF), a tabular display of data set names, volume serial numbers (VOLSERs), management class names, data class names, or storage class names and their storage attributes.

list prefetch
An access method that takes advantage of prefetching even in queries that do not access data sequentially. A list prefetch is done by scanning an index and collecting record identifiers before any data pages are accessed. These record identifiers are then sorted, and data is prefetched using this list.

list price

  1. A price intended for catalog display purposes only; not typically used as the actual price that the customer must pay. See also catalog entry, offer price.
  2. The unit price of an item.
  3. The base price of an item without volume discounts, special pricing rules, or other factors that could affect the price.

list structure

  1. A coupling facility structure that lets data be shared and manipulated as elements of a queue.
  2. A coupling facility structure that enables multisystem applications in a sysplex to share information organized as a set of lists or queues. A list structure consists of a set of lists and an optional lock table, which can be used for serializing resources in the list structure. Each list consists of a queue of list entries.

list-type attribute
A set of descriptive values from which a user can select only one. See also attribute type, attribute value, entry-type attribute.

list view
In AFP Utilities, the presentation of a display shown while a user is in list edit mode.

The ICE mode in which the TURN Server considers only candidates from a specific IP address when gathering possible connection pairs for data transmission.


  1. A character string whose fixed value is defined by the characters themselves.
  2. Static data that can be returned by a DataStream. A literal remains constant for every row that the data source returns.
  3. A character string whose value is defined by the characters themselves. For example, the numeric constant 7 has the value 7, and the character constant 'CHARACTERS' has the value CHARACTERS.
  4. A symbol or a quantity in a source program that is itself data, rather than a reference to data.

literal constant
A repository for storing information that is to be used at a later point in the map. Typically, constants are used in an outbound map to generate a qualifier.

literal field
In MFS, a message field or device output field defined to contain specific data. See also default literal, explicit literal, system literal.

literal object
Independent piece of computer code that defines a fixed value, such as a string or an integer.

literal pattern
In REXX, a string delimited by apostrophes or quotation marks that is used in a parsing template to specify how a sequence of characters is split.

literal string

  1. A string that does not contain pattern-matching characters and can therefore be interpreted just as it is. See also regular expression.
  2. In REXX, a sequence including any characters that are delimited by apostrophes or quotation marks.

Literal XML
An encoding style for serializing data over SOAP protocol. Literal XML is based on an XML schema instance.

A set of capabilities that can be used to process multiple CASes within a single UIMA process. LiteScale is an alternative to UIMA Asynchronous Scaleout (AS).

little endian
A format for storage or transmission of binary data in which the least significant value is placed first. See also big endian, endian.

live accrual fund
The amount of trade funds spent by a particular account. The amount spent is determined by the number of cases a retailer buys from the manufacturer in the current year.

live bookmark
A special bookmarked favorite in a browser that acts as a dynamic folder containing the most recent bookmarks in a feed.

live interviewing
A data collection interview method that is conducted in person, such as on-site interviews or computer assisted personal interviews (CAPI).

A condition that indicates the operational status of a transmitter or receiver.

liveness message
In High-Performance Routing (HPR), a message sent between Rapid Transport Protocol (RTP) connection endpoints when no data traffic has been detected for a given period of time. This message is used either (a) to keep the connection active when limited-resource links (with their own idleness checks) exist in the path or (b) to detect a "hung" connection, permitting a path switch to be initiated.

Live Partition Mobility (LPM)
A component of the PowerVM Enterprise Edition hardware feature that provides the ability to move AIX, IBM i, and Linux logical partitions from one system to another. The mobility process transfers the system environment, which includes the processor state, memory, attached virtual devices, and connected users.

live scan
A vulnerability scan that generates report data from the scan results based on the session name.

LIVEview Click Overlay
A Digital Analytics browser plug-in that automatically overlays site traffic and conversion data over web pages to highlight which links are most active and which drive the most value.

See link integrity verification tests.

See library lookaside.

See Local Location Broker.

See Local Location Broker daemon.

See Logical Link Control.

See Logical Link Control 2.

LLC protocol
See Logical Link Control protocol.

The connections between the hub switch chips that are located within a supernode.

See local lock manager.

LLNServers group
A group in the Domino directory that contains the names of SmartCloud Notes mail and directory servers.

See logical lock.

See loop master timeout value.

See Lotus multibyte character set.

See local management interface.

LMI subport
A frame-relay subport that exchanges line status information with adjacent nodes using local management interface (LMI) protocol. In NCP, the LMI subport is the link-station subport for the physical line.

See logical management operation.

See large message performance enhancement outbound.

See learning management system.

See level n.

See Lotus Notes:Data Object.

See login negative acknowledgment message.

See L2TP network server.

See line of authority.


  1. To copy a version of an element to a snapshot view or web view.
  2. To bring all or part of a computer program into memory from auxiliary storage so that the computer can run the program.
  3. To move data or programs into storage.
  4. A collection of line items from orders that are organized in a way to maximize shipping or picking efficiency.
  5. In System Manager, the smallest logical collection of objects that can make an application option. Code and language are the two types of loads. The object type is *PRDLOD.
  6. A mechanism to transfer data into an application.
  7. To place a diskette into a diskette drive.

load agent
The process that coordinates the loading of data to each database partition. See also partitioning agent, pre-partitioning agent.

load and hold (LH)
See pack and hold.

load authority
An access level that gives LOAD utility privileges to load data into tables. See also authority level.

load balancer
Software or hardware that distributes workload across a set of servers to ensure that servers are not overloaded. The load balancer also directs users to another server if the initial server fails. See also load balancing.

load balancer group
A server pool that provides redundancy among a collection of servers.

load balancing

  1. The monitoring of application servers and management of the workload on servers. If one server exceeds its workload, requests are forwarded to another server with more capacity. See also transaction load balancing.
  2. The even distribution of a load across several components of the system. See also load balancer.
  3. A computer networking method for distributing workloads across multiple computers or a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, disk drives, or other resources. Successful load balancing optimizes resource use, maximizes throughput, minimizes response time, and avoids overload.

load balancing as a service (LBaaS)
An OpenStack service that distributes workload from incoming requests in a multi-node environment.

load balancing group (LBG)
A grouping of Fast Path input messages that are ready for balanced processing by one or more copies of a Fast Path program. There is one load balancing group for each unique Fast Path message-driven application program. See also Fast Path.

load container
A container that is packed with a set of shipments that are going to the same destination in order to reduce shipping cost.

load copy
A backup image of data that was previously loaded and can be restored during rollforward recovery.

Pertaining to a status where the optical image associated with the selected image catalog entry is active or loaded in the selected virtual optical device. The installation software will be able to access this image during the installation process.

loaded cost
The total cost of the item, including taxes and service costs.

loaded-font command set
In IPDS architecture, a collection of commands used to load font information into a printer and to deactivate font resources.


  1. A component that reads data from and writes data to a persistent store.
  2. A program that copies an executable file into main storage so that the file can be run.

loader controller
A component that manages the data loaders.

loader domain
Major component of CICS used by the domains of the CICS system to obtain access to storage-resident copies of nucleus and application programs, maps, and tables. In order to provide this, the loader domain interfaces with MVS to perform loading of programs into CICS-managed storage (DSA/EDSA) and scanning of the MVS link pack area.

loader token
An 8-byte constant that uniquely identifies a specific execution instance of the program module.

load font equivalence
The mapping of a descriptive font name to a font member name in a font library.

load generating test
A test that is executed by one or more test engines that can have varying load characteristics.

load identifier
In System Manager, the identification number assigned to a load.

The logical process of archiving reports in OnDemand. During the loading process, OnDemand processes reports, creates index data, and copies report data and resources to cache storage and archive storage.

loading spinner
See busy pointer.

load job
The information required to load data into a relational database using the HPL. This information includes the format, map, filter, device array, project, and special options.

load level
The balance of work between processing units, channels, or devices.

load library
A library containing load modules.

load module
A program in a form suitable for loading into main storage for execution.

load module library
A partitioned data set (PDS) used to store and retrieve load modules.

load object
In System Manager, an object that contains the control information about a load or option.

load phase
In Q replication, the stage where a target table is loaded with data from a source table so that the two tables are synchronized. The load phase can be automatic or manual.

load plan
A record that contains the itinerary for a truckload shipment. See also load scheme.

Load Replay Region
In the Netezza database design, a way to allow load operations to continue after a system has been paused and resumed. The system uses the records in the replay region as a way to checkpoint and partially commit the load in stages.

load rule

  1. A statement in the config spec that specifies an element or subtree to load into a snapshot view. Config specs can have more than one load rule.
  2. An entry in a load rule file that determines how an item from a repository workspace, such as a file, folder, or symbolic link, is loaded into a local sandbox.

load scheme
A record that shows whether the freight is packaged using pallets, slipsheets, or floor shipments. See also load plan.

load-source disk unit
The disk unit that contains the Licensed Internal Code for the system. This unit is always identified as unit number 1 in the disk configuration displays.

load state
The current state of a load and the holds applied on the load.

load-time dynamic linking
A mechanism that enables program modules and their external references to dynamic-link libraries to be loaded into memory when the program is loaded.

load utility
A nontransactional utility that performs block updates of table data.

loan order
A record that tracks a piece of equipment that is borrowed, typically for no charge, for a specified duration of time.

See large object.

In a star or ring network configuration, two pairs of conductors that provide separate send and receive paths between a wiring concentrator and a network port, such as an electrical outlet.

LOB locator
A mechanism that allows an application program to manipulate a large object (LOB) value in the database system. An LOB locator is a simple token value that represents a single LOB value. An application program retrieves a LOB locator into a host variable and can then apply SQL operations to the associated LOB value using the locator.

LOB lock
A lock on an LOB value.

LOB table space
In DB2 for z/OS, a table space that contains all of the data for a particular LOB column in the related base table.


  1. Pertaining to databases, objects, or applications that are installed or stored in the same system in which QMF is currently executing.
  2. Pertaining to a device, file, or system that is accessed directly from a user system, without the use of a communication line. See also remote.
  3. Pertaining to an element that is available only in its own process. See also global.
  4. In programming languages, pertaining to the relationship between a language object and a block such that the language object has a scope contained in that block.
  5. For hierarchical storage management products, pertaining to the destination of migrated files that are being moved. See also remote.
  6. In OSI, pertaining to the node from which one views the rest of the network.
  7. Pertaining to information that is defined and used only in one subdivision of a computer program. See also global.

local address

  1. The address specified for the current network or host. The local address is usually referred to as the local host address or the local network address to differentiate the two types.
  2. In SNA, an address used in a peripheral node in place of a network address and transformed to or from a network address by the boundary function in a subarea node.

local administrator
The second level of user type authority in User Profile Management. A local administrator does not have the same User Profile Management authority as an administrator user type.

local agent
In OSI, an agent process on the local node. See also remote agent.

local application entity
In OSI, an application entity on the local node.

local application process
In OSI, an application process on the local node. See also remote application process.

local application thread
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an application thread that executes within the confines of one address space on a local system and passes control exclusively among local code segments.

local area network (LAN)
A network that connects several devices in a limited area (such as a single building or campus) and that can be connected to a larger network. See also Ethernet, metropolitan area network, token ring, token-ring network, wide area network.

local attached
In PSF/MVS, pertaining to an SNA-attached device that does not have a communications controller in its configuration. For example, an IBM 3812 Page Printer connected to a channel-attached 3174 control unit that is defined to the host system through VTAM is considered to be a local-attached printer. See also communication attached.

local authentication (LAU)
The process of validating a user identity to the system according to the local operating system account to which the user logged in. If the user is authenticated, the user is mapped to a principal.

local bridging
A function of a bridge program that enables a single bridge to connect multiple LAN segments without using a telecommunication link. See also remote bridging.

local buffer pool (LBP)
A buffer pool that exists on a member and caches pages only for that member. See also group buffer pool.

local bus adapter
The bus adapter card in the system. The local optical link cards plug into the bus adapter card.

local cache
A user-allocated and user-managed storage area on the local system.

local catalog
A system data set that CICS uses to record data used by the internal workings of CICS. See also global catalog.

local catalog domain
Together with the global catalog domain, a repository used by other CICS domains to hold information to allow an orderly restart. The two catalog domains enable CICS code to read, write, and purge records on the local and global catalog data sets so that a record of the CICS state can be maintained when CICS is not running.

local cell
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the cell to which the local machine belongs. See also foreign cell.

local change
A change to an element that only exists in a sandbox and has not yet been committed to the repository workspace.

Local Character Set Identifier (LCID)

  1. In the 3270 data stream, a value between X'40' and X'FE' used by an application program or an operator to identify a character set in the device and to select a character set for displaying or printing data.
  2. In architecture, a local identifier used as a character, marker, or pattern set attribute.

local cloud
A cloud computing environment within the client's data center. The local cloud is on-premises, providing improved latency and security. See also borderless.

local CMAS
The CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) that a user identifies as the current context when performing CMAS configuration tasks.

local configuration
A configuration that's managed by one tool. See also configuration.

local console

  1. In the i5/OS Operations Console, the personal computer that has direct communications with a System i product. The local console uses either a dial-up connection or a direct cable. It controls remote access to the System i product and grants control of the System i product to remote consoles. See also Operations Console, remote console.
  2. Any console that is dedicated to a single main within a JES3 installation. A remote job processing (RJP) console cannot be a local console.

local contact
A contact stored on the device contact list, as opposed to the IBM Notes Traveler contact list.

local controller
A functional unit within the system that controls the operation of one or more directly attached input/output devices or communications lines. See also remote controller.

local custom
A convention of a geographical area or territory for such things as date, time, and currency formats. X/Open.

local data
Data that is known only to the routine in which it is declared. See also local database.

local data area
A 1024-byte data area that can be used to pass information between programs in a job. A separate local data area is automatically created for each job.

local database
A database that is located on the workstation in use. See also local data, remote database.

local database directory
A directory where a database is physically located. Databases that are displayed in the local database directory are located on the same node as the system database directory. See also system database directory.

local data store
The location on the mobile device where app data that is retrieved from the provider application is stored.

local definition
In WebSphere MQ, an MQM object that belongs to a local queue manager.

local definition of a remote queue
An IBM MQ object belonging to a local queue manager that defines the attributes of a queue that is owned by another queue manager. In addition, it is used for queue-manager aliasing and reply-to-queue aliasing.

local destination
In an IMS multisystem environment, a destination that resides in the local system. See also remote destination.

local device
A device physically attached to the local workstation, that is, the drives in the workstation and any machinery connected to its parts. See also remote device.

local device node control block (LDNCB)
A VTAM control block that represents a channel-attached non-SNA device such as a terminal.

local directory-based repository
A Liberty repository that is created on the local file system when assets are downloaded using the installUtility download command.

local directory database
A set of resources (LUs) in the network known at a particular node. The resources included are all those in the domain of the node as well as any cache entries.

local distribution
A distribution to target machines in the same management region as the source machine.

local DL/I
DL/I residing in the CICS address space.

local domain name
The primary TCP/IP name associated with the local system. A system can have more than one system name, but only one local domain name. The local domain name consists of two parts, the domain and the host.


  1. A setting that identifies language or geography and determines formatting conventions such as collation, case conversion, character classification, the language of messages, date and time representation, and numeric representation. See also client locale, server-processing locale.
  2. An identifier for a set of conventions governing the input, processing, and display of computerized data so that they match the requirements and expectations of a particular user community. See also resource bundle.

local echo
On a communications workstation, a situation in which each signal is displayed twice, once when entered at the local workstation and again when returned over the communications link.

local email
An email configuration option for storage servers that are connected to a host-system network that does not have a domain name system (DNS) server.

locale model
A methodology for handling the cultural expectations of computer users based on a single locale.

local-end code violation
In Performance Tools, an unintended line code violation detected and counted by the terminal equipment (TE) for frames received at the interface for the S/T reference point of the integrated services digital network (ISDN).

local extent
In FD:OCA, the number of subpartitions within any given partition.

local fabric
Storage area network (SAN) components (such as switches and cables) that connect the components (nodes, hosts, switches) of the local clustered system.

local federator
In an enterprise search application, a client object created by the search and index APIs that enables users to search a set of heterogeneous collections and obtain a unified set of search results.

local file system (LFS)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an organized collection of data in the form of a root directory and its subdirectories and files. An LFS supports special features useful in a distributed environment, such as the ability to replicate data; to log file system data, which provides quick recovery after an abnormal end; and to simplify administration by dividing the file system into easily managed units called file sets.

local-form session identifier (LFSID)
In SNA, a dynamically assigned value used at a type 2.1 node to identify traffic for a particular session using a given transmission group.

local heap
A preallocated, continuous, bounded chunk of memory that has the capacity to hold a user-defined number of objects.

local history
Copies of files that are saved in the workbench in order to compare the current version with previous versions. Subject to configurable preferences, the workbench updates the local history each time an editable file is saved.

local home interface
In EJB programming, an interface that specifies the methods used by local clients for locating, creating, and removing instances of enterprise bean classes. See also remote home interface.

local host
The computer to which a user's terminal is directly connected.

local identifier (LID)

  1. A 1-byte identifier assigned to parts of the data stream to facilitate PSF processing. For example, the Map Coded Font structured field assigns each coded font a local identifier. When a coded font is required for processing, this identifier is specified in the Set Coded Font Local text control. Other local identifiers are assigned to suppressions and overlays. See also coded font local identifier.
  2. In distributed relational database, an identifier or short label that is mapped by the environmental descriptors to a named resource.
  3. An identifier that is mapped by the environment to a named resource.

locality of reference

  1. The degree to which a running program makes use of a compact range of addresses for instructions and data, or both.
  2. The consistent reference, during the execution of an application program, to instructions and data within a relatively small number of pages for relatively long periods of time.

localization pack
A collection of one or more resource bundles that can be installed separately from a main program, and which supplies all of the resources required for a given locale. See also globalized program, localization pack manager.

localization pack manager
Code used to load and access the contents of a localization pack. See also localization pack.

In national language support, pertaining to the support based on a user's national language, country or region, culture, and character encoding.

localized order
A collation order other than code-set order, if defined for a locale. Only NCHAR and NVARCHAR data values are collated in a localized order. Database objects collate in their creation-time order, if this is not the runtime order.

localized program
A program that follows all of the conventions associated with a given locale for the relevant functions that the program supports. See also globalized program, internationalized program.

local knowledge base
A database of z/OS product information in which the user can define their own software or occasional changes that they have made to the global knowledge base.

local language
A language particular to a geographic region which is distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.

local link
A link defined and run by a user in the web client.

local listen
A link station at the local node that is waiting for an incoming call from a remote station.

local location address
In SNA, the address of the logical unit.

Local Location Broker (LLB)
In the AIX Network Computing System (NCS) Location Broker, a server that maintains information about objects on the local host and provides the Location Broker forwarding facility.

Local Location Broker daemon (llbd)
A program that runs unattended and manages the local location broker (LLB) database.

local location name
The name by which your system is known to other systems in an SNA network. Equivalent to an SNA local logical unit name. See also remote location name.

local lock

  1. An IRLM lock that interests the IRLM that grants it only.
  2. A lock that provides intra-DB2 concurrency control, but not inter-DB2 concurrency control; its scope is a single DB2.

local lock management
Lock management that controls access to database records used by application programs in the same online IMS system.

local lock manager (LLM)
A component that runs on each member and manages the lock requests made by the applications running on that member. See also global lock manager.

local logical unit (local LU)
Any logical unit (LU), other than the defined base LU, that is used for outbound processing. See also logical unit, partner logical unit, remote logical unit.

local login
An option at login that indicates that a user is not connected to a server when accessing Interviewer.

local loopback
A connection between the client application and database server that uses a network connection even though the client application and the database server are on the same computer.

local LU
See local logical unit.

locally administered address
In a local area network, an adapter address that the user can assign to override the universally administered address.

locally attached
See channel-attached.

locally defined object
On z/OS, an object whose definition is stored on page set zero. The definition can be accessed only by the queue manager that defined it. See also globally defined object.

locally RACLISTed profile
An in-storage profile for RACF-defined resources that are not shared across a system. See also globally RACLISTed profile.

local main
In a complex of processors, a processor connected to the global main by a channel-to-channel (CTC) adapter. See also global main.

local management interface

  1. A graphical user interface that is used to manage a single, local appliance.
  2. The interface between the frame-relay data terminal equipment (DTE) and the frame handler, which provides the status and configuration information about the permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) available at the frame relay network.

local management interface protocol
In NCP, a set of frame-relay network management procedures and messages used by adjacent frame-relay nodes to exchange line status information over DLCI X'00'. NCP supports both the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) versions of LMI protocol. These standards refer to LMI protocol as link integrity verification tests (LIVT).

local manager
In OSI, a managing process on the local node. See also remote manager.

local memory
The amount of memory consumed by a step. It is measured by comparing memory usage snapshots at the beginning and after the end of a step. See also peak memory.

local mode

  1. An operating mode in which RRSF nodes cannot communicate with other RRSF nodes.
  2. A mode that is used by the CICS TG local protocol. See also remote mode.

local mount
A mount that is known to the physical file system.

local name
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a name that is meaningful and usable only within the cell where an entry exists. The local name is a shortened form of a global name.

local network
That portion of a network physically connected to the host without intermediate gateways. See also foreign network.

local network address
In OSI, a network address that identifies the local node.

local network entity title
In OSI, the network entity title of the local node.

local node

  1. The node on which a user is logged in. See also cluster node.
  2. The node that the user is currently operating.
  3. In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, the node from which one views the rest of the OSI network--the node for which resources are defined. See also remote node.

local non-root registry
A file created during a non-root installation of a DB2 product on a UNIX or Linux system. The file contains information such as service records (product level, installation path), instance records (instance name, instance path), and variable records (variable names, variable values).

local non-SNA major node
In VTAM, a major node whose minor nodes are channel-attached non-SNA terminals.

local NSAP
In OSI, an NSAP at the local node.

local NSAP address
In OSI, an NSAP address of the local node.

local online change
An IMS function that performs online change to a local IMS system. To perform local online change in an IMSplex, local online change commands must be made manually on the IMS systems. See also global online change, online change.

local optical link card
A smaller card that plugs into the bus adapter in the system. The optical bus cables from an expansion unit plug into this card.

local options
Configuration options defined on each workstation in the localopts file. Each workstation in the Tivoli Workload Scheduler network must have a localopts file. The settings in this file are changed using a text editor and apply only to that workstation. See also global options.

localopts file
A file in which the local options are defined. Each workstation in the IBM Tivoli Workload Scheduler network must have a localopts file.

local OSI network configuration
In OSI, a general term for the local node and the lines, line sets, and the subnetworks to which it is attached.

local PC
In the NetView/PC program, the PC that has its keyboard locked by the remote control function. See also remote PC.

local preference
A parameter that affects one workstation or client only.

local presentation address
In OSI, the presentation address of an application entity at the local node. See also remote presentation address.

local processor

  1. In a complex of processors under JES3, a processor that runs user jobs and that can assume global functions if the global processor fails.
  2. In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a processor in the same installation that communicates with the controlling Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS processor through shared DASD or XCF communication links.

local queue
A queue that belongs to the local queue manager. A local queue can contain a list of messages waiting to be processed. See also remote queue.

local queue manager
The queue manager to which the program is connected and that provides message queuing services to the program. See also remote queue manager.

local recovery
Resource recovery in which all resources and participants reside on the same system.

local registration file (LRF)
A file that provides information about an agent or daemon, such as the name, the location of the executable code, the names of processes dependent on the agent or daemon, and details about the objects that an agent manages.

local/remote fabric interconnect
The storage area network (SAN) components that are used to connect the local and remote fabrics.

local request queue
A recoverable VSAM data set used to store pending BTS requests - for example, timers and unserviceable requests. It is used to ensure that, if CICS fails, no pending requests are lost.

local schedule
A schedule that contains the retention policies that can be applied to types of documents (or records). A local schedule is based on and can inherit the properties from a master schedule.

local scope
A name declared in a block that has local scope and can only be used in that block. See also namespace scope.

local server

  1. In the DCE Distributed Time Service (DTS), a server that synchronizes with its peers and provides its clock value to other servers and clerks in the same network.
  2. A predefined server that designates the current computer to run the Integration Flow Designer.

local service agreement (LSA)
A contract that modifies a global or master service agreement to address the specific needs of a region or country. See also master service agreement.

local service provider
In OSI, a managing process on the local node.

local service requester
In OSI, a service requester process on the local node. See also remote service requester.

local session identification (LSID)
In SNA, a field in a format identification 3 (FID3) field transmission header that indicates the type of session and the local address of the directly attached logical unit (LU) or physical unit (PU). See also origin address field.

local shadow volume
Data that is stored on shadow volumes localized to a disk storage subsystem.

local shared resource (LSR)

  1. In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a resource in the local resource pool. See also global shared resource, shared resource, VSAM record-level sharing.
  2. A file that shares a common pool of buffers and a common pool of strings; that is, control blocks supporting I/O operations, with other files. See also nonshared resource.

local SNA major node
A major node whose minor nodes are locally attached to physical and logical units.

local space object
An object located in the System i product domain storage that is used to maintain and to track CICS storage elements in both system and user storage objects.

local start
A restart of a local processor. Initialization is unnecessary and user jobs are not affected.

local storage
A device accessed directly (without telecommunications) from the user's system, where information can be retained and later retrieved.

local store
An area on a device where applications can locally store and retrieve data without the need for a network connection.

local subsystem
The unique relational database management system to which a user or an application program is directly connected. In the case of DB2 for z/OS, the connection is established by means of an attachment facility.

local system

  1. In a multisystem environment, the system on which an application program is executing. A local application can process data from databases located on either the same (local) system or another (remote) system. See also remote system.
  2. For interactive jobs, the system to which the display device is directly attached. For batch jobs, the system on which the job is being processed.
  3. In an IMS multisystem environment, a specific system in the multiple configuration.

local system queue area (LSQA)

  1. An element of the CICS address space. It generally contains the control blocks for storage and contents supervision. See also high private area.
  2. In MVS, one or more segments associated with each virtual storage region that contain job-related system control blocks.

Local To Local (L2L)
Pertaining to the internal traffic from one local network to another local network.

local topology database
A database in an APPN or LEN node containing an entry for each transmission group (TG) having at least one end node for an endpoint. In an end node, the database has one entry for each TG connecting to the node. In a network node, the database has an entry for each TG connecting the network node to an end node. Each entry describes the current characteristics of the TG that it represents. A network node has both a local and a network topology database while an end node has only a local topology database.

Local To Remote (L2R)
Pertaining to the internal traffic from one local network to another remote network.

local TP
See local transaction program.

local transaction (LTRAN)

  1. In a multisystem environment, a transaction that is processed totally by the system in which it is defined. See also remote transaction.
  2. A recoverable unit of work managed by a resource manager and not coordinated by an external transaction manager. See also remote transaction.

local transaction containment (LTC)
A bounded scope that is managed by the container to define the application server behavior in an unspecified transaction context.

local transaction program (local TP)
A transaction program that resides on the local system. See also partner transaction program.

local update
An update to a base table, not to its replica.

local user
A user that is not connected to a server.

local variable

  1. A symbol defined in one program module or procedure that can only be used within that program module or procedure. See also scope of reference.
  2. A variable that is available only to the query for which it is defined.

local view
A description of the data that a particular business process requires. It includes a list of the data elements, a conceptual data structure that shows how the data elements are grouped according to the entities they describe, and the relationships among the groups of data elements.

local work area
Area provided for the use of a single task-related user exit program. It is associated with a single task and lasts for the duration of the task only.

local workstation
A workstation that is connected directly to the system without a need for data transmission functions. See also remote workstation.

local z/OS project
A z/OS project used to develop COBOL or PL/I code that resides and runs on the workstation. Local projects are not related to a remote system.

See locate search.

locate mode
A transmittal mode in which a pointer to a record is provided instead of copying the record. See also move mode.

locate search
A mechanism that is used by Directory Services in an APPN node to find a resource that is not in that node. The locate search enables Directory Services to ask the Directory Services components in other APPN nodes for information on the target resource.


  1. A specific relational database server in a distributed relational database system. Each location has a unique location name.
  2. A place where assets are operated, stored, or repaired.
  3. A specific plant, warehouse, or facility that each shipper defines. A location always has a street address associated with it. Multiple shippers can define a location that points to the same physical address. See also area.
  4. In AFP architecture, a site within a data stream.
  5. A place or position where circuits, services, or equipment are situated.
  6. A particular occurrence or example of a location definition. If there is a location definition called USA Call Center, an example of a location would be Toledo Call Center.
  7. A physical space that is being monitored. A location can contain many areas. See also area.
  8. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a user-defined storage site where media and containers can be stored awaiting reuse or movement to other locations.

location-addressable storage
A method of storage in which each element of data is stored onto a physical medium, and its location recorded for later use.

location alias
An alternative name used by the database server to identify itself in the network. Applications can use the location alias to access a DB2 database server.

location-based service (LBS)
A service offered to a user specifically because of where they are. For example, a restaurant app suggests restaurants close to the user by assessing where the user is, and presents the user with options without ever requiring the user to pick a neighborhood, city, state, and so on.

Location Broker
In NCS, a set of software including the Local Location Broker, the Global Location Broker, and the Location Broker Client Agent. The Location Broker maintains information about the locations of objects.

Location Broker Client Agent
The part of the NCS Location Broker that allows programs to communicate with Global Location Brokers and with remote Local Location Brokers.

location code

  1. The unique identifier that the shipper assigns to each location. See also standard point location code, Sterling TMS number.
  2. A path from the adapter in the processor through the signal cables and fan out box, if there is one, to the device or workstation. The code consists of four fields of information: Drawer, Slot, Connector, and Port.

location counter
A counter in the assembler that denotes the next byte available for code allocation. The location counter assigns storage addresses to program statements.

location data
The set of attributes of items that are defined in a location hierarchy spec. The attributes are properties of the relationship between an item and a specific location in a location hierarchy. Location data can reference attribute instances at higher locations in the hierarchy through location data inheritance. For example, the attribute "SalesPrice" might set a value for Europe and UK, but for France it might inherit the value set for Europe.

location dependency
An explicit way to specify that a set of resource groups will always be online on the same node or on the same site, or that a set of resource groups will always be online on different nodes. Location policies can be combined with parent/child dependencies to have all children run on the same node while the parent runs on a different node, or to have all children run on different nodes for better performance. See also dependent resource groups, multitiered application, resource group.

location detail
A comprehensive display of the most complete sets of data that is available about a chosen location.

location dimension
A dashboard map module that shows dispatch points for geographic analysis.

Location document
A document in a Personal Address Book that contains communication and other location-specific settings used when users work with Notes in a specific place. Users can create as many location documents as needed.

location group (LG)
A hierarchical group of locations that can be selected for a promotion.

location group class (LGC)
A hierarchical group of location groups.

The act of identifying the position of a device on site.

location key
A number assigned to a store that is assigned a particular SKU number.

location map
A map or plan containing interactive areas that have been defined in the IBM Intelligent Operations Center. Events can be associated with one or more of these areas. For example, a diagram of seating areas in a major sports stadium can be defined so that events that have occurred can be associated with the appropriate area.

location name

  1. The unique name of a database server. An application uses the location name to access a DB2 database server. See also LU name.
  2. In DFSMSrmm, a name given to a place for removable media that DFSMSrmm manages. A location name can be the name of a system-managed library, a storage location name, or the identifier for the shelf space outside a system-managed library or storage location.

location path
An XPath expression that selects a set of nodes based on the evaluation of a series of navigation steps and filters, starting from the current context node. Navigation steps are separated by the / character. Steps can be expressed using a sequence of XML tags or abbreviations defined by XPath.

location search
A query form that is used to search for location data.

location service daemon
A component of the Remote Method Invocation and Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (RMI/IIOP) communication function that works with workload management to distribute RMI requests among application servers in a cell.

location services
A feature that can be used to create differentiated services that are based on a user location. Location services involve collecting geolocational and WiFi data and transmitting this data to a server, where it can be used for executing business logic and analytics. Changes in the location data result in triggers being activated, which cause application logic to execute. See also geolocation.

location step
A part of a search path that consists of an axis (either implied or explicit), an object test, and zero or more predicates. A search path can have multiple location steps. They are used to select a set of objects that function as the context in which to evaluate the next location step.

location summary
he resultant sortable list of records that match a location search.

location table
A table that is used to contain address-related information about the partner.


  1. In computer graphics, an input device that provides coordinate data; for example, a mouse, tablet, or thumb wheel.
  2. An XML element that supplies an Xpointer reference to the taxonomy schema element definitions that uniquely identify each concept.
  3. A page number or link leading from an index entry to the location of specific information in a topic.

locator variable
A host variable that contains the locator representing a LOB value on the application server.


  1. The process by which integrity of data is ensured by preventing more than one user from accessing or changing the same data or object at the same time.
  2. A function that prevents data being entered into cells whether by typing or through a D-link.
  3. A means of serializing a sequence of events or serializing access to data.
  4. A means of preventing uncommitted changes made by one application process from being perceived by another application process and for preventing one application process from updating data that is being accessed by another process. A lock ensures the integrity of data by preventing concurrent users from accessing inconsistent data.
  5. A function on mobile devices that prevents the keypad or touchscreen from responding to interactions until a valid unlock sequence is entered.
  6. To temporarily restrict resources to provide protection from concurrent users of the system.
  7. A mechanism with which a resource is restricted for use by the holder of the lock.
  8. To set a volume or snapshot as unwritable (read-only).

A continuous improvement initiative in which manufacturing or service in a specific area is paused to determine and contain any issues.

lock duration
The interval over which a DB2 lock is held.


  1. The state of a function in which no programmatic changes can be made. If a function is locked it cannot be changed through normal user interfaces.
  2. An endpoint state that prevents the majority of BigFix actions from running until the device is unlocked.

locked dimension
A dimension to which new categories cannot be added. When processing data sources, any records which refer to values for this dimension that do not already exist as categories are ignored.

locked domain
A security feature that isolates and protects widgets from third-party sources that might try to cause harm to other widgets, the browser, or an application.

locked email template
A mailing template in which editable areas are restricted.

locked keyboard
A keyboard condition where the display station accepts no input.

locked level
A level in a dimension to which new categories cannot be added. When processing data sources, any records which refer to values for this level that do not already exist as categories are ignored.

locked set
A group of CD-ROMs that contains licensed programs and options that require a license key after 70 days of use.

lock escalation
The response that occurs when the number of locks issued for one agent exceeds the limit specified in the database configuration; the limit is defined by the maxlocks configuration parameter. During a lock escalation, locks are freed by converting multiple locks on rows of a table into one lock on a table. This process is repeated until the limit is no longer exceeded.

lock file
In multiprocess applications, a system file on disk that the sharing processes use to control their access to shared data or devices.

A process that ensures the integrity of data. Locking prevents concurrent users from accessing inconsistent data.

locking granularity
The level and type of information that a lock protects.

lock management
The reservation of a segment by a program. Other programs are kept from using the segment until the program using it is done.

lock manager domain
Major component of CICS that provides locking and associated queueing for CICS resources. Before using these facilities, a resource must add a named lock for itself. This lock can then be requested as either exclusive or shared. If an exclusive lock is obtained, no other task many obtain the lock with that name; if a shared lock is obtained, multiple tasks may obtain that lock.

lock mode
A representation for the type of access that concurrently running programs can have to a resource that a lock is holding.

lock object
The resource that is controlled by a lock.

lock promotion
The process of changing the size or mode of a lock to a higher, more restrictive level.

lock sequence number (LSN)
A unique number, issued sequentially, given to a database resource to identify that it is in use (locked) by a requestor. A locked resource cannot be used until the current requestor has finished using it.

lock size
The amount of data that is controlled by a lock on table data. Examples of lock size values are table, row, and page.

lock state

  1. The state set by actuating a lock key, singly or in combination with a qualifier key (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).
  2. A condition defined for an object that determines how it is locked, how it is used (read or write), and whether the object can be shared (used by more than one job).

lock structure
A coupling facility data structure that is composed of a series of lock entries to support shared and exclusive locking for logical resources.

See loopback virtual file system.


  1. In IBM MQ, a file recording the work done by queue managers while they receive, transmit, and deliver messages, to enable them to recover in the event of failure.
  2. In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a history of backup, archive, recovery, and media management operations. A log can be displayed online or printed.
  3. A collection of messages or message segments placed in an auxiliary storage device for accounting or data collections purposes.
  4. A file used to record changes made in a system.
  5. A record of events.
  6. A collection of records that sequentially describes the events that occur in a system.
  7. To record. For example, to record all messages on the system printer.

Log and Trace Analyzer tool
The core technology of the IBM Autonomic Computing initiative that defines the interfaces for logging and tracing, providing a central point of interaction with multiple data sources.

logarithmic axis
In the GDDM function, an axis on which ascending powers of 10 are equally spaced.

log control file
In IBM MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and IBM MQ for Windows, the file containing information needed to monitor the use of log files (for example, their size and location, and the name of the next available file).

log control interval definition (LCID)
A suffix of the physical log record that tells how record segments are placed in the physical control interval.

log database
A persistent storage location for the logged information.

log event
The record of an event.

log event code
Code delivered to the application log file that contains severity, module, and descriptive information. Log event codes are the reason codes for failed API calls.

log event type
A particular kind of log event that has a hierarchy associated with it.

log file

  1. A text file that records the execution of a fact build, dimension build, or JobStream.
  2. A file that records actions and commands.
  3. The file where the log of events is recorded.
  4. In IBM MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and IBM MQ for Windows, a file in which all significant changes to the data controlled by a queue manager are recorded. If the primary log files become full, IBM MQ allocates secondary log files.

logged-on operator
An operator station task that requires a terminal and a logged-on user. See also autotask.


  1. A named and stateful object with which the user code interacts and that logs messages for a specific system or application component.
  2. A functional unit that records events and physical conditions, and usually the time the entry was logged.
  3. A component that prepares log statements to be written to console or log file. See also appender.
  4. A program that enables a user entity to log in (for example, identify itself, its purpose, and time of entry) and log off with the corresponding data. This enables the appropriate accounting procedures to be carried out in accordance with the operating system.

The recording of data about specific events on the system, such as errors.

logging agent
An agent that programmers can create in order to write data (for example Java primitives, objects, or predefined logging structures) to one or more output sources (for example text or XML), for an application under test.

logging level

  1. A value that controls which events are written to the log by event severity.
  2. A preference setting that specifies the number of entries and the amount of detail generated by various loggers.
  3. A value that controls which events are processed by Java logging.

log handler
A class that uses loggers, levels, and filters to direct whether events are processed or suppressed.

log head
The oldest written log record in the active log.


  1. The systematized interconnection of digital switching functions, circuits, or devices.
  2. The instructions in an application arranged in a prescribed order to solve a problem.

logical address
On an ESCON or FICON interface, the portion of a source or destination address in a frame used to select a specific channel subsystem or control-unit image.

logical agent
An agent that represents the client or application connection.

logical application
A compiled streams processing application. See also parallel transformation, physical application.

logical architecture
Specialization of an architecture through the addition of constraints that enable verification of consistency and validity for the architecture's components, relationships and their respective types.

logical asset
A logical data model element.

logical association
In a data-sharing environment, the association IMS makes between a VSO DEDB area and a multi-area structure when an XES connection exists between IMS and the structure.

logical block address (LBA)
The block number on a disk.

logical channel

  1. In X.25 communications, a means of two-way simultaneous transmissions across a data link, comprising associated send and receive channels. A logical channel can represent the path that data travels from its origin to the network or from the network to its destination.
  2. A path over which data flows between the network and the receiving hardware (processor, memory, or storage).
  3. In a packet-switching data network, a path over which data flows between the network and the sending or receiving data terminal equipment.

logical channel identifier
A bit string in the header of a packet that associates the packet with a specific switched virtual circuit or permanent virtual circuit.

logical channel number (LCN)
A number that uniquely identifies a logical channel.

logical channel subsystem (LCSS)
A channel subsystem structure that provides channel path and subchannel controls for configuring from one to four channel subsystem images. Each channel subsystem image can be configured with up to 256 channel paths, and each logical partition has access to one channel subsystem image.

logical character delete symbol
In VM, a special editing symbol, normally the AT (@) sign, that causes CP to delete it and the immediately preceding character from the input line. If many delete symbols are typed in consecutively, that same number of preceding characters are deleted from the input line. The value may be redefined or unassigned by the installation or user.

logical child
In a database, a pointer segment that establishes an access path between its physical parent and its logical parent. It is a physical child of its physical parent; it is a logical child of its logical parent.

logical claim
A claim on a logical partition of a nonpartitioning index. See also claim.

logical component
A component or a dependency that must be tested, stubbed, or monitored.

logical control unit (LCU)
See control-unit image.

logical database
A database composed of one or more physical databases arranged in a hierarchical structure based on relationships among data segments. The structure of a logical database can be different from the physical structure of the data. See also physical database.

logical database record
In a database, a set of hierarchically related segments of one or more segment types. As viewed by the application program, the logical database record is always a hierarchic tree structure of segments. All of the segments that exist hierarchically dependent to a given root segment and that root segment. See also database record.

logical data group
A collection of data elements that gathers database system monitoring information for a specific scope of database activity. The snapshot monitor and event monitor each has its own sets of logical data groups. See also monitor element.

logical data model
The data model that captures the business definition of information assets by using the entity-relationship modeling approach. The logical data model consists of a set of related entities and their business associations. The logical data model can be represented graphically in the logical data model diagram. The logical data model contains logical entities, logical relationships, entity generalization hierarchies, and logical domains.

logical data stream (LDS)
In bidirectional text representation, a stream of data that is organized in a readable sequence. See also visual data stream.

logical data structure
In a database, a hierarchic structure of segments. Application programs written to use IMS deal only with logical data structures.

logical data unit
A unit of storage that is accessible on a given device.

logical derivation
A derivation from a physical document that can have additional service description metadata allocated to the derivation. See also logical model.

logical device

  1. A file for mapping user I/O between virtual and real devices.
  2. A set of input or output operations for a physical or virtual device. For example, the Router logical device has logical device operations for creating a route and removing a route. Logical devices can be an abstraction of a physical device, such as a router, or virtual device, such as a software product.
  3. The facilities of a logical subsystem with which a host communicates when performing I/O operations to a single addressable unit over an I/O interface. The same logical device may be accessible over more than one I/O interface.
  4. A file for conducting input or output with a physical device.

logical device component (LDC)
A subcomponent (for example, a printer or a console) configured with a 3601, 3770 batch, 3770, 3790 batch or LU Type4 terminal. Each subcomponent is handled by BMS output commands as if it is a separate terminal.

logical device operation
A generic instruction for a logical device that is independent of its implementation. For example, a logical device operation to add an IP address applies to all operating systems, but the steps for performing this instruction on each operating system are defined by workflows in a device driver for the operation system. See also logical management operation.

logical difference
A change that effects the logic of a model.

logical drain
A drain on a logical partition of a nonpartitioning index. See also drain.

logical drive

  1. See volume.
  2. A unit of virtual storage that is made available to the network through virtual logical unit numbers (VLUNs) and iSCSI client logical-unit number (iLUNs). A logical drive consists of one or more physical disks that are combined using Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) technology.

logical expression
An expression consisting of logical operators, relational operators, or both that can be evaluated to a value of either true or false.

logical file

  1. A file that is stored in one or more server storage pools, either by itself or as part of an aggregate. See also aggregate, physical file, physical occupancy.
  2. A database file that describes how data is to be presented or received from a program. A logical file contains no data, but it defines record formats for one or more physical files. See also physical file.

logical file member
A named logical grouping of data records from one or more physical file members.

logical file system (LFS)
A level of the file system at which users can request file operations by using a system call. The LFS provides the user with a consistent view of multiple physical file systems and multiple file system implementations.

logical format
In Enterprise Service Tools, the logical organization of the message content.

logical index
A component of a user-defined index over XML data that contains XML pattern information specified by the CREATE INDEX statement. See also physical index.

logical index partition
The set of all keys that reference the same data partition.

logical interface
An Internet Protocol (IP) address on a given system. Typically, a logical interface has an associated physical interface.

logical I/O
In Performance Tools, the operation used to pass a buffer of data from data management to the data management code of an application program.

logical IP subnet (LIS)
In networking, a group of hosts that are configured as members of the same Internet Protocol (IP) subnet. That is, they have the same IP network and subnet numbers.

logical line
In NCP, the representation of the connection between NCP and a node communicating with NCP over a physical line such as token-ring or frame-relay. A single physical line can support multiple logical lines. See also physical line.

logical link

  1. In a multisystem environment, the means by which a physical link is related to the transactions and terminals that can use that physical link. See also physical link.
  2. The logical connection between an application on the S/370 and an application on the workstation.
  3. A cluster network or a connection between nodes that allows messages and other information to pass between cluster nodes.
  4. A pair of link stations, one in each of two adjacent nodes, and their underlying link connection, providing a single link-layer connection between the two nodes.

Logical Link Control (LLC)

  1. The data link control (DLC) LAN sublayer that provides two types of DLC operation for the orderly exchange of information. The first type is connectionless service, which allows information to be sent and received without establishing a link.
  2. A protocol for data-link-level transmission control. The protocol was developed by the IEEE 802 committee, and is common to all LAN standards.

Logical Link Control 2 (LLC2)
A connection-orientated layer 2 data link control protocol for SNA over a LAN.

Logical Link Control protocol (LLC protocol)
In a local area network, the protocol that governs the assembling of transmission frames and their exchange between data stations independently of the Medium Access Control protocol.

logical link control protocol data unit
A unit of information that is exchanged between link stations in different nodes. The LLC protocol data unit contains a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field, and user data.

logical link path
In a multisystem environment, the path between any two systems. One or more logical link paths must be defined for each logical link.

logical lock (L-lock)
The lock type that transactions use to control intra-DB2 and inter-DB2 data concurrency between transactions. See also physical lock.

logical logging
The process of moving log records into the log buffers. See also physical logging.

logically complete
A state in which the concurrent copy process is finished with the initialization of the target objects that are being copied. The target objects are available for update.

logically detached partition
A partition that was successfully processed by the ALTER TABLE statement with the DETACH PARTITION clause, but is not yet a stand-alone table. The partition is still accessible to some queries that began reading the partition before the statement was issued. See also asynchronous partition detach.

logically partitioned mode
A capability provided by the Processor Resource/System Manager (PR/SM) that allows a single processor to run multiple operating systems using separate sets of system resources, or logical partitions. See also basic mode.

logical management operation (LMO)
A generic function that is supported by a set of devices. For example, configuring an IP address on a network interface is a logical management operation supported by all operating systems. Although this is logically the same function, the steps for performing this function on each operating system are different. These steps are supported by provisioning workflows for that operating system. See also logical device operation.

logical memory
The address space, assigned to a logical partition, that the operating system perceives as its main storage. For a shared memory partition, a subset of the logical memory is backed up by physical main storage, and the contents of the remaining logical memory are kept in secondary storage.

logical message

  1. A collection of formatted output data produced by chaining several smaller pieces of data. A user builds a logical message by issuing a series of BMS SEND commands.
  2. An input or output message that is in a queue associated with a logical rather than a physical terminal. The message queue can be moved, independent of an application, from device to device.

logical model
A set of logical derivations. See also logical derivation.

logical mount
A mount that attaches a file system to the root directory or to a directory of another file system so that the files and directories on the file system can be referenced. The attached file system can consist of a file or many files and directories.

logical name
A name assigned to a device that distinguishes it from all other device instances in the system. It is the name used to refer to a particular device. For example, "tok0" can refer to a token-ring adapter. This is the same as "device name," which is a field in the Customized Devices Object Class.

logical network
A subnetwork of machines set up to function as a whole and separate network. A logical network usually functions as a subnetwork of a larger physical network.

logical occupancy
The space that is used by logical files in a storage pool. This space does not include the unused space created when logical files are deleted from aggregate files, so it might be less than the physical occupancy. See also physical occupancy.

logical operation
An operation that follows the rules of Boolean logic.

logical operator
A symbol, such as AND, OR, or NOT, that represents an operation on logical expressions.

logical order
In COBOL, the order in which records are sequentially read from a file. For sequential and relative files, the logical order corresponds to the physical order of the records in the file. For indexed files, the logical order is based on the order of the keys in the index of the file.

logical ordering scheme
A mechanism for storing text in the order it is intended to be read.

logical output device
For line devices, the combination of a physical output device and such logical variables as page size and number of lines per vertical inch. A specification of 1403W6 is an example of a logical output device.

logical page

  1. In the IMS message format service, a user-defined group of related message segment and field definitions.
  2. In COBOL, a conceptual entity consisting of the top margin, the page body, and the bottom margin.
  3. The defined presentation space on the physical form. All the text and images in the print data must fit within the boundaries of the logical page, which has specified characteristics, such as size, shape, orientation, and offset.

logical page list (LPL)
A list of pages that are in error and that cannot be referenced by applications until the pages are recovered. These pages are in logical error even though the actual media (coupling facility or DASD) might not contain any errors. Usually, a connection to the media has been lost.

logical page origin
The point on the logical page from which positions of images, graphics, page overlays, and text with 0-degree inline direction are measured. See also media origin.

logical paging
In MFS, the means by which output message segments are grouped for formatting. See also operator logical paging.

logical parent
In a database, the segment a logical child points to. It can also be a physical parent. The pointer in the logical child to the logical parent can be symbolic or direct.

logical partition (LP, LPAR)

  1. A set of key or RID pairs in a nonpartitioning index that is associated with a particular partition.
  2. In a partitioned database environment, a database partition server on a processor that has more than one database partition server assigned to it.
  3. One or more virtualized images of a hardware computing system that can include shared and dedicated resources assigned from the pool of resources available on a physical server. Each image appears to the operating system running within it to be a unique instance of a physical server. See also dynamic LPAR, path group, virtual server, virtualization.

logical partition firmware
The code that is loaded into an AIX or Linux logical partition from the server firmware.

logical partitioning
A function of an operating system that creates segments of resources that can be run on copies, or instances, of the operating system and associated applications.

logical path
In ESS Copy Services, a relationship between a source logical subsystem and target logical subsystem that is created over a physical path through the interconnection fabric used for Copy Services functions.

logical record

  1. In COBOL, the most inclusive data item. The level number for a logical record is 01.
  2. A group of logically related fields. Portions of the same logical record may be located in different physical records, and several logical records or parts of several logical records may be located in one physical record.

logical record interface (LRI)
A function of the overflow sequential access method (OSAM) that supports variable-length spanned records.

logical recovery
Restoration of a facility to its status at a point just prior to any in-flight transaction activity.

logical recovery pending (LRECP)
The state in which data and the index keys that refer to that data are inconsistent.

logical redundancy check (LRC)
A data integrity protection capability on storage devices. A logical redundancy check uses a bit column to create and check parity across bytes of stored data.

logical relationship
In a database, a user-defined path between two independent segments.

logical resource

  1. In OSI, an abstract resource such as a layer entity. See also physical resource.
  2. A software construct, such as a lock or a buffer, that is required for the execution of a program and is in limited supply.

logical server

  1. On z/OS, a subsystem that is running DB2 for z/OS.
  2. In replication, on Linux, UNIX, and Windows, a DB2 database.

logical storage

  1. A conceptual storage layout in which an application maps first into logical addresses, which are then mapped into real addresses by control blocks.
  2. The amount of central storage required by a job or a job step to execute efficiently on a processor.
  3. With respect to data, the attributes that describe the data and its usage, as opposed to the physical location of the data. See also physical storage.

logical subsystem (LSS)
The logical functions of a storage controller with which one or more host I/O interfaces can access a set of devices. The controller groups the devices according to the addressing mechanisms of the associated I/O interfaces. One or more LSSs exist on a storage controller. In general, the controller associates a given set of devices with only one LSS.

logical table
In Q replication, all of the copies of one table that are distributed across servers in bidirectional or peer-to-peer replication. If a user replicates two logical tables, then copies of both tables are distributed across the servers.

logical terminal (LTERM)

  1. A message destination logically associated with a physical terminal or user. An LTERM is represented by a CNT control block. See also remote logical terminal.
  2. In SWIFT, the logical entity through which users send and receive SWIFT messages. A logical terminal is identified by its LT name.

logical terminal pool
A user-defined group of logical terminals to be associated with non-VTAM switched communication lines through the /IAM command. Each logical terminal pool consists of one or more logical terminal subpools.

logical terminal subpool
A user-defined group of logical terminals to be associated with non-VTAM switched communication lines through the /IAM command. Each logical terminal pool consists of one or more logical terminal subpools.

logical terminal table (LTT)
A MERVA table used to define logical terminals, their synonyms, and other attributes.

logical twins
In a database, all occurrences of one type of logical child with a common logical parent occurrence. See also physical twins.

logical type
A data type that contains the values of true and false.

logical unit (LU)

  1. A unit of linear measurement. For example, in Mixed Object Document Content Architecture (MO:DCA) and AFP data streams, the following measurements are used: 1 L-unit = 1/1440 inch, 1 L-unit = 1/240 inch.
  2. An access point through which a user or application program accesses the SNA network to communicate with another user or application program. See also local logical unit.
  3. An entity to which Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) commands are addressed, such as a volume or managed disk (MDisk).
  4. In open systems, a logical disk drive.

logical unit 6.2 (LU 6.2)
An SNA logical unit that supports general communication between programs in a distributed processing environment.

logical unit base
The linear measurement base. The value defines, for any object, the meaning of the logical unit (LU) values.

logical unit number (LUN)
In the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) standard, a unique identifier used to differentiate devices, each of which is a logical unit (LU).

logical unit number map (LUN Map)
A table showing the mappings of the volumes to the logical unit numbers (LUNs).

logical unit of work (LUW)

  1. The processing that a program performs between synchronization points.
  2. The work that occurs between the start of a transaction and commit or rollback and between subsequent commit and rollback actions. This work defines the set of operations that must be considered part of an integral set.

logical unit of work identifier (LUWID)
A name that uniquely identifies a thread within a network. This name consists of a fully qualified logical unit network name, a logical unit of work instance number, and a logical unit of work sequence number.

logical unit of work state (LUW state)
The condition of a logical unit of work (LUW). The LUW state reflects the actions that have been done in that LUW and determines what the next set of actions may be.

Logical Unit type 2 (LU type 2, LU2)
An SNA session that uses a 3270 device data stream to support communication between an application and a display.

logical view
A view of the service and infrastructure components, their dependencies, their connections to the physical transport, and the associated schemas.

logical volume (LVOL)

  1. The storage medium associated with a single logical unit (LU). An LVOL typically resides on one or more storage devices.
  2. A collection of physical partitions organized into logical partitions, all contained in a single volume group. Logical volumes are expandable and can span several physical volumes in a volume group.
  3. A set of logical partitions, each of which is stored on one or more physical partitions from one or more of the physical volumes of a given volume group. A logical volume has a device name (of the form /dev/hdn) and contains a single file system.
  4. A portion of a physical volume that contains a file system.

logical volume backup
A back up of a file system or logical volume as a single object.

Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
A set of system commands, library routines, and other tools that allow the user to establish and control logical volume (LVOL) storage. The LVM maps data between the logical view of storage space and the physical disk drive module (DDM).

Logical Volume Snapshot Agent (LVSA)
Software that can act as the snapshot provider for creating a snapshot of a logical volume during an online image backup.

logical zone
A logical grouping of assets or events in a geographical area.

logic diagram
A diagram that illustrates a series of steps and choices. A logic diagram typically has distinct starting and end points.

logic part
An EGL declaration that defines a runtime sequence. The types of logic parts are program, function, library, and page handler.

logic test
In TPNS, a conditional test on an input or output message, a counter, or other item using the TPNS IF statement. The IF actions can be used to control the message generation process.

The process of signing on to a given computer system by typing in one's user ID and password. See also concurrent login.

log in
To connect to a computer system or network by entering identification and authentication information at the workstation.

login acknowledgment message (LAK)
This message informs you that you have successfully logged in to the SWIFT network.

login binding
A definition of the implementation to provide login information per authentication methods.

login directory
The directory users access when they first log in to the system.

login facility
A function in Distributing Computing Environment (DCE) that initializes a user's security environment in DCE. A login facility employs the user's password to authenticate the user to the DCE Security Service and returns authentication information associated with the user.

log initialization
The first phase of restart processing during which the current end of the log is located.

login mapping
A Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) login configuration that is used to authenticate a security token in a web service security header.

login module
A server-side entity that is responsible for verifying the user credentials and for creating a user identity object that holds the user properties for the remainder of the session.

login name
A string of characters that uniquely identifies a user to the system.

login negative acknowledgment message (LNK)
This message indicates that the login to the SWIFT network has failed.

login sequence
An automatically or manually recorded sequence of URLs and user input that allows AppScan to log into a web application.

login session
The period of time during which a user of a workstation can communicate with an interactive system, usually the elapsed time between log in and log off.

login shell
The shell that is started when a user logs into the computer system. The login shell for a particular user is determined by the entry in the /etc/passwd file for that user.

logistical unit
A source of information that indicates how a product is to be shipped to a retailer.

logistic regression

  1. A commonly-used regression analysis that predicts the value of a binomial dependent variable from one or more independent or predictor variables.
  2. A statistical technique for classifying records based on the values of the input fields. Logistic regression is similar to linear regression, but takes a categorical target field instead of a numeric one. See also regression.

logistics manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages fulfillment. The logistics manager has access to all operational tasks, including the duties of the pick packer, receiver, and returns administrator. See also pick packer, receiver, returns administrator.

logistics rule
A business rule that is associated with shipping an order.

log manager
A domain in CICS. The CICS log manager uses MVS system logger services to write CICS system logs, forward recovery logs, and user journals to log streams managed by the MVS system logger.

log merge
See log stream merge.

logmode table
See logon mode table.

The name of the CICS system log currently in use. See also exchange log name.

A letter, combination of letters, or symbol that identifies a product or company.

The process of disconnecting from a computer system or network.

log off
To disconnect from a computer system or network.

log of logs
A form of user journal containing copies of the tie-up records written to forward recovery logs. It provides a summary of which recoverable Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data sets the Customer Information Control System (CICS) has used, when they were used, and to which log stream the forward-recovery log records were written. The log of logs is written by CICS to provide information to forward recovery programs such as CICS VSAM Recovery (CICSVR).

A letter, symbol, or sign used to represent an entire word (Webster's Ninth). Chinese is an example of a language comprised of logograms. See also ideogram, ideographic language.

See logogram.

logographic system
A writing system, such as the Chinese writing system, that is comprised of logograms (or logographs).

The process of connecting to a computer system, network, or terminal session.

log on

  1. In SNA products, to initiate a session between an application program and a logical unit (LU).
  2. To connect to a computer system or network.

logon descriptor
An ETO descriptor that provides information required by IMS to build terminal-related control blocks. See also ETO descriptor.

logon manager
A VTAM application program that provides logon services for the Transaction Processing Facility (TPF).

logon mode
In VTAM, a subset of session parameters specified in a logon mode table for communication with a logical unit (LU). See also session parameter.

logon mode table
In VTAM programs, a set of entries for one or more logon modes.

The process of quitting from, or signing off of, a computer system.

See log recording data set.

log record

  1. A set of data that is treated as a single unit in a log file.
  2. A predefined structure into which the log data is formatted. Records have a specific size and format, and contain a certain set of related information. A log record can be identified by its log sequence number (LSN).
  3. An entry in a log view that consists of properties and their values. A log record does not contain instances of other log records but has nested levels of entries or children.
  4. A discrete piece of information that describes an event that occurs in a system. For example, a record of an update to a database performed during a unit of work (UOW) is written after the log tail of the active log.

log record header (LRH)
A prefix, in every log record, that contains control information.

log record identifier (LRID)
A sequence number used to identify a log record and to maintain the order of log records for a subsystem.

log recording data set (LOGREC)
A defined storage and retrieval area that is used for logging abends and hardware failures.

log record sequence number (LRSN)
A unique identifier for a log record that is associated with a data sharing member. DB2 for z/OS uses the LRSN for recovery in the data sharing environment. See also log sequence number.

log router
In an RSR environment, the component of the tracking subsystem that receives log data from active subsystems, stores the data in tracked log data sets, and routes the log records to tracking components.

log sequence number (LSN)

  1. See log record identifier.
  2. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, an ordered identifier for a log record. The log sequence number is used by recovery operations. See also log record sequence number.

log shipping
The process of copying whole log files to a standby machine, either from an archive device or through a user exit program running against the primary database. See also high availability disaster recovery.

log source
Either the security equipment or the network equipment from which an event log originates.

log source extension
An XML file that includes all of the regular expression patterns required to identify and categorize events from the event payload.

log stream
A set of log files that is associated with a member or the result of merging the logs of multiple members. See also log stream merge.

log stream merge
The process of ordering log records from the log streams of multiple members so that the merged log stream is in chronological order. See also log stream.

log table
A table created by DB2 Net Search Extender or DB2 Text Search that contains information about text documents to be indexed.

log tail
The log record that was written most recently in an active log.

log token
A token that identifies a particular log record in the z/OS log stream that is used to locate that log record.

log truncation
A process by which an explicit starting relative byte address (RBA) is established. This RBA is the point at which the next byte of log data is to be written.

log viewer
In Tivoli software, a utility that filters logs stored in a common XML format, and generates output in text or HTML format for easier viewing. See also Tivoli common directory, Tivoli XML log format.

log write-ahead (LWA)
The process of logging records of completed operations to the write-ahead data set before entering them in the online log data set.

log year
The year that a document was filed. Used to identify a printed document number. For example, 88-0001, where 88 is the log year and 0001 is the sequence number. All documents filed in 1988 have a log year of 88.

A terminal descriptor type used to define a variable as a signed 4-byte number.

long comment
Up to a full-screen description of a field, record format, or file. Long comments are typed when the field, record format, or file is created or changed, and displayed either from IDDU or Query.

See long description.

long description

  1. An extended description of a term in a business glossary that fully defines the term. See also short description.
  2. An HTML attribute used within the image element, frame element, or iframe element. It associates an image description with the code that places the image in the web page. See also alternative text.

long format
In binary floating-point storage formats, the 64-bit representation of a binary floating-point number, not-a-number, or infinity.

long-form identifier
A variable-length identifier that includes three parts: An encoding scheme identifier. One or more coded graphic character set global identifiers. Each coded graphic character set global identifier is a concatenation of a graphic character set global identifier and a code page global identifier. Additional coding-related required information.

long host name
A fully qualified host name (for example, node15.ibm.com).

The angular distance of a place east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.

longitudinal parity check
See longitudinal redundancy check.

longitudinal redundancy check (LRC)

  1. A method of error-checking during data transfer that involves checking parity on a row of binary digits that are members of a set that form a matrix.
  2. See logical redundancy check.

long name
The property that specifies the logical name for the server on the z/OS platform.

long running mirror
A mirror task that waits for the next sync point in a session, even though logically it does not need to do so.

long-running process
A process that can come to a complete stop while waiting for input or instructions. The most common form of this interruption is a human interaction or decision.

long status
A detailed, multiline status that contains more information about each job than the normal short status.

long string
A variable-length string whose maximum length is greater than 254 bytes.

long table space
See large table space.

long-term canister
A database that is stored on the local disk of the processing server to retain completed sessions and their related search indexes for a configurable length of time.

long-term evolution (LTE)
An upgrade to both EDGE and HSPA networks (and considered a candidate for the 4G standard). LTE networks are not compatible with 2G or 3G networks. See also 4G.

long-term plan (LTP)
A high-level plan of system activity that covers a period of at least 1 day and not more than 4 years. It serves as the basis for a service level agreement with your users and as input to daily planning.

longwave laser adapter
A connector used between a host and the ESS to support longwave Fibre Channel communication.

long wavelength (LWL, LX)
A type of fiber-optic cabling that is based on 1300-mm lasers and supports link speeds of 1.0625 Gbps. LWL also refers to the type of gigabit interface converter (GBIC) or small form-factor pluggable (SFP). See also short wavelength.

A blueprint for how questionnaire items are to appear in a printed questionnaire. A Look controls which information held in the questionnaire definition for the questionnaire item is displayed and controls how that information is positioned and formatted.

lookahead field
In RPG, a field that allows the program to look at information in a field on the next record in an input file.

look ahead meeting (LAM)
A meeting that is organized to identify potential risks in an upcoming project or phase, based on the previous project/phase learning.

Look group
A collection of Looks that are designed to be used together to format a questionnaire.

A simple, single-level reference structure with no parent-child relationships. Members of a lookup are not arranged into hierarchical levels.

lookup build
A simple, single-level reference structure in an extract, transform, and load (ETL) catalogue. Look-ups track the relationships between fact data and the operational data store that contributes to the fact.

lookup data
Data that is external to the work list record but that is available for reference and selection from the application.

lookup D-link
A D-link that looks up data from a source D-cube based on text data. It uses a database D-cube as a target.

lookup policy
A data privacy policy that replaces values from selected source entities with values from corresponding lookup table columns, thereby masking the source values.

lookup table

  1. A table used to convert information from a file in an external system to correspond with the local system.
  2. A logical list of colors or intensities. The list has a name and can be referenced to select a color or intensity. See also color table.
  3. Tables that map data in item or category attribute instances to other values. For example, lookup tables can be used to map color codes to color values, so that only color codes are stored in item or category attribute instances, but when required, the corresponding color values can be retrieved. Lookup tables are used to create and maintain item and category information, to perform search and replace functions within an item or category, and to validate data contained in specific item or category fields.
  4. A database table used to map one or more input values to one or more output values.
  5. A data source that has a key value that jobs use to retrieve reference information.
  6. A data source that is used by a lookup policy to mask data in another data source.

lookup user
A user who is authenticated in the Enterprise Directory and searches for other users. IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On uses the lookup user to retrieve user attributes from the Active Directory or LDAP enterprise repository.

lookup window
A window that contains a list of valid data choices for a field.


  1. A set of questions that are to be asked more than once. In a categorical loop, the number of times that the loop is to be iterated is controlled by the categories in a category list. For example, a set of questions can be asked for each product in a product list. In a numeric loop, the number of times that the loop is to be iterated is controlled by a numeric expression. See also slice.
  2. A sequence of instructions performed repeatedly.
  3. The physical connection between a pair of device adapters in the ESS. See also device adapter.
  4. A configuration of devices connected to the fabric by way of a fabric loop port (FL_port) interface card.
  5. A closed unidirectional signal path connecting input and output devices to a system.
  6. A connectivity topology that connects a series of systems or expansion units together. Signals can travel in either direction for optimized performance. Redundancy is provided to each unit by treating the connection as a string when a failure occurs somewhere in the loop.

loop adapter
A feature of the IBM 4300 Processor family that allows the attachment of a variety of SNA and non-SNA devices. To VTAM, these devices appear as channel-attached type 2 physical units (PUs).

loopback address
A specific address that allows testing of communications on a local machine.

loopback interface
An interface that bypasses unnecessary communications functions when the information is addressed to an entity within the same system. See also loopback test.

loopback test
A test in which signals from a tester are looped at a modem or other network element back to the tester for measurements that determine or verify the quality of the communications path. See also loopback interface.

loopback virtual file system (LOFS)
A file system that is created by mounting a directory over another local directory, also known as mount-over-mount. A LOFS can also be generated using an automounter.

loop calibration
A process that uses a set of grouped and calibrated instruments to determine the pass or fail status of the calibration.

Loop Count standard rule
A rule that enables a user to count the number of times a loop is repeated if the field is part of a loop.

loop failure
A loss of signal within a loop for any period of time or loss of synchronization for longer than the timeout value.

loop ID
A hex value representing one of the 127 possible arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA) values in an arbitrated loop.

loop initialization
The logical procedure used by a loop port (L_port) to discover its environment. Loop initialization can be used to assign arbitrated loop physical addresses (AL_PAs), detect loop failure, or reset a node.

loop initialization primitive (LIP)
A Fibre Channel primitive used to indicate a loop failure, reset a specific node, or initiate a procedure that results in unique addressing for all nodes.

loop label
In SPL routines, an SQL identifier whose declaration immediately precedes an iterative statement, and whose name immediately follows the terminating END FOR, END LOOP, or END WHILE keywords. The EXIT label statement can transfer program control to the first executable statement that follows the last statement in the FOR, FOR LOOP, LOOP, WHILE LOOP, or WHILE loop that has the specified loop label.

A set of devices connected in a loop to a port that is a member of another loop.

loop master timeout value (LM_TOV)
The minimum time that the loop master waits for a loop initialization sequence to return.

loop port (L_port)
A port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL). See also nonparticipating mode, participating mode.

loop port state machine (LPSM)
The logical entity that performs arbitrated loop protocols and defines the behavior of loop ports (L_ports) when they require access to an arbitrated loop.

loop tenancy
See tenancy.

looptest mode
The test mode that permits the establishment of an output write loop, whereby continuous attempts are made to transmit a user-entered message to the test terminal.

loop unrolling
An optimization that increases the step of a loop, and duplicates the expressions within a loop to reflect the increase in the step. This can improve instruction scheduling and memory access time.

loose coupling
A coupling that supports an extensible software architecture.

loosely coupled analysis engine
An aggregate analysis engine whose component analysis engines do not run in the same address space, but each is remote from the others that make up the aggregate. See also analysis engine.

loosely coupled multiprocessing
Two or more computing systems interconnected by an I/O channel-to-channel adapter. The processors can be of different types and have their own unique configurations.

See level of service.

Pertaining to image transformation in which all of the data is retained. See also lossy.

Pertaining to image transformation in which some of the data is lost. See also lossless.

lost reason
A marker that is assigned to a lost opportunity that cites a reason for that lost opportunity.

lost sink
An API method that can no longer be traced.


  1. A group of items in a set that buyers want to procure.
  2. See batch.

lot number
An inventory attribute used to group items manufactured in the same lot.

Lotus Domino for i5/OS (Domino for i5/OS)
The System i implementation of the Lotus Domino server. Lotus Domino for i5/OS is a full-function Domino server that follows the Domino architecture. The server software includes email, groupware, workflow, calendar and scheduling, and web server functions.

Lotus multibyte character set (LMBCS)
The format in which Notes stores all internal text, except file attachments and objects. As a result, any user can edit, forward, and mail documents and work with databases in any language.

Lotus Notes:Data Object (LN:DO)
An LSX-compliant module that allows the use of LotusScript scripts for external data access applications.

Any object that is an instance of a Lotus-product class. LotusObjects can be manipulated using LotusScript. LotusObjects share a common design. Many are implemented either the same way across products, or almost the same way, with slight variations from product to product.

Lotus QuickPlace place
A web venue that is provided by Lotus QuickPlace that enables geographically dispersed participants to collaborate on projects and communicate online in a structured and secure workspace. See also place.

Lotus QuickPlace room
A partitioned area of a Lotus QuickPlace place that is restricted to authorized members who share a common interest and a need to work collectively.

A version of BASIC that offers not only standard capabilities of structured programming languages, but a powerful set of language extensions that enable object-oriented development within and across products. Its interface to Notes is through predefined object classes.

LotusScript Data Object (LS:DO)
The ODBCConnection, ODBCQuery, and ODBCResultSet classes, collectively called the LotusScript Data Object (LS:DO). These classes provide properties and methods for accessing and updating tables in external databases through the ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) Version 2.0 standard.

low bit rate (LBR)
A generic term for an interleaved H.263/G.723 stream. Low bit rate streams range from 6.4 kbps up to 384 kbps.

low emission zone (LEZ)
A traffic area in which only vehicles that emit low levels of emissions are permitted to drive in.

low-entry networking (LEN)
A capability of nodes to attach directly to one another using basic peer-to-peer protocols to support multiple and parallel sessions between logical units.

low-entry networking end node
A LEN node that receives network services from an adjacent APPN network node.

low-entry networking node (LEN node)

  1. A node in an APPN network that uses the LU session type 6.2 node type 2.1 architecture without the APPN extension.
  2. A node that provides a range of end-user services, attaches directly to other nodes using peer protocols, and derives network services implicitly from an adjacent APPN network node, that is, without the direct use of CP-CP sessions.

lower bound
A limit that indicates the least value that a variable can assume. In operations research, a lower bound may or may not be in the domain of a variable. When a lower bound is in the domain of the variable, the variable may assume precisely that value, but no less. When a lower bound is not in the domain of the variable, the variable may assume values strictly greater than the lower bound, but not precisely the lower bound itself. See also bound, bound strengthening, greatest lower bound, minimum, upper bound.


  1. Pertaining to those graphic characters of a layer which can be input from a keyboard without the use of any shift key.
  2. Pertaining to the small alphabetic characters, whether accented or not, as distinguished from the capital alphabetic characters. The concept of case also applies to alphabets such as Cyrillic and Greek, but not to Arabic, Hebrew, Thai, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and many other scripts. Examples of lowercase letters are a, b, and c. See also uppercase.

lowercase dictionary
A dictionary in which all the entries are stored in lowercase form regardless of their correct spelling, for example: 'Canada' is stored in a lowercase dictionary as 'canada.'

lower window edge
In data communication, the sequence number of the last data packet in a window.

low-fidelity prototype
A simple and incomplete prototype in the form of a paper or whiteboard sketch that is used to test general concepts.

low latency
A delay between input that is being processed and the corresponding output that is unnoticeable by humans.

low-level application programming interface (LAPI)
An IBM message-passing interface that implements a one-sided communication model.

low-on-scratch management
The process by which DFSMSrmm replenishes scratch volumes in a system-managed library when it detects that there are not enough scratch volumes available.

Pertaining to the least significant, or rightmost, item in a representation. For example, in a 32-bit register (0 through 31), bit 31 is the low-order bit.

See consumer loyalty.

loyalty card program
A program that consumers sign up for to enjoy discount or reward programs in return for tracking of consumer behavior patterns.


  1. See logical partition.
  2. See linear programming.
  3. See licensed program.

See link pack area.

See logical partition.

See link protocol converter.

See line printer daemon.

See Link Problem Determination Aid.

See Link Problem Determination Aid-1.

See Link Problem Determination Aid-2.

LPEX Editor
The default editor for source files in the Remote System Explorer. It can be used to create and edit many kinds of files, including program source files, documentation, and data files. In addition to basic editing functions, the LPEX Editor offers language parsing, location marking, elaborate search, and keystroke recording facilities.

See lexical parsing item.

See lines per inch.

See logical page list.

See Live Partition Mobility.

See license plate number.

See licensed program offering.

See licensed program product.


  1. See license plate quantity.
  2. See line printer queue.


  1. See line printer requester.
  2. See line printer requestor.

See line printer removal.

See lexical parsing stream.

See loop port state machine.

See Lifecycle Query Engine.


  1. See longitudinal redundancy check.
  2. See logical redundancy check.

See logical recovery pending.

See local registration file.

See log record header.

See logical record interface.

See log record identifier.

See linear referencing method.

LR message
Last received control message, which contains the message-sequence number of the application or acknowledgment message that was last received from the partner application.

See log record sequence number.

See least recently used.

See LotusScript Data Object.


  1. See link state advertisement.
  2. See local service agreement.

See link service access point.

See least significant bit.

See least significant byte.

See local session identification.


  1. See log sequence number.
  2. See lock sequence number.

See last suggested price.

See Large System Performance Reference.

See local system queue area.

See local shared resource.

See logical subsystem.


  1. See logical terminal.
  2. See line transmission termination.

See local transaction containment.

LT code
The ninth character of an LT name. For example, the LT code of the LT name XXXXUSNYA is A.

See long-term evolution.

See logical terminal.

See less than truckload.

LTL carrier
See less than truckload carrier.

LT name
A nine-character name of the form BBBBCCLLX, where BBBBCCLL represents the eight-character bank identifier code (BIC8), and X represents the logical terminal (LT) code.

See long-term plan.

See Lightweight Third Party Authentication.

See local transaction.

See logical terminal table.

See logical unit.

See LU type 0.

See Logical Unit type 2.

See LU type 3.

See LU type 4.

LU 6
See LU type 6.

LU 6.1
See LU type 6.1.

LU 6.2
See logical unit 6.2.

LU 6.2 conversation
In SNA, a logical connection between two transaction programs over an LU 6.2 session that enables them to communicate with each other.

LU 6.2 conversation level security
In SNA, a conversation level security protocol that enables a partner transaction program to authenticate the transaction program that initiated the conversation. See also end-user verification.

LU 6.2 destination
An LU 6.2 application program defined by an LU (logical unit) name plus a transaction program name.

LU 6.2 session

  1. A session that is initiated by VTAM on behalf of a logical unit (LU) 6.2 application program, or a session initiated by a remote LU in which the application program specifies that VTAM is to control the session by using the APPCCMD macroinstruction.
  2. In SNA, a session between two logical units (LUs) of type 6.2.

LU 6.2 verb
A syntactical unit in the LU 6.2 application programming interface that represents an operation. See also verb.

See least upper bound.

LU base
Logical unit base.

LU connection test
In SNA products, a diagnostic aid that permits a terminal operator to check whether the path between a system services control point (SSCP) and a logical unit (LU) is operational.

LUC session
Communication, using LU type 0 protocols, between the LUC tasks of two Tivoli NetView for OS/390 programs. This communication is similar to an LU 6.2 conversation.

LUC task
A task that serves as the endpoint of an LUC session.

LU group
A VTAM major node type that consists of a list of model LU definitions. See also model LU.

Luhn formula
An industry standard used by many credit card companies as a rudimentary prevention of credit card fraud.

LU-LU session
In SNA, a session between two logical units (LUs) in an SNA network. It provides communication between two end users, or between an end user and an LU services component.

LU-LU session type
See LU type.

LU-LU session type 0
In SNA, a type of session between two LU half-sessions using SNA-defined protocols for transmission control and data flow control, but using end-user or product-defined protocols to supplement or replace function management data services protocols. The system uses the SNA upline facility support.

LU-LU session type 1
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and single- or multiple-device data processing display stations in an interactive, batch data transfer, or distributed processing environment. The system uses the SNA remote job entry (RJE) support.

LU-LU session type 2
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and a single display station in an interactive environment, using the SNA 3270 data stream. The System i product uses the 3270 display emulation support.

LU-LU session type 3
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and a single printer, using the SNA 3270 data stream. The system uses the 3270 printer emulation support.

LU-LU session type 4
In SNA, a type of session between (a) an application program and a single-device or multiple-device data processing or word processing display station in an interactive, batch data transfer, or distributed processing environment; or (b) logical units in peripheral nodes. The system uses the 5250 printer support.

LU-LU session type 6.2
In SNA, a type of session for communications between peer systems.

LU-LU session type 7
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and a single display station in an interactive environment. The system uses the 5250 display station support.

A simulated light source that shines on a color image to make it clearer to read.

LU-mode pair
In the VTAM implementation of the LU 6.2 architecture, the coupling of an LU name entry and a mode name entry. This coupling allows a pool of sessions with the same characteristics to be established.

LU-mode table
In the VTAM implementation of the LU 6.2 architecture, a data structure composed of LU-mode pairs that VTAM maintains for the application program.

See logical unit number.

LU name
The name by which VTAM refers to a node in a network. See also location name.

LU-name entry
The entry in an LU-mode pair that contains information about the partner logical unit.

See logical unit number map.

LUN masking

  1. A process that allows or prevents I/O to the disk drives through the host-bus-adapter (HBA) device or operating-system device driver.
  2. A process where a host object can detect more LUNs than it is intended to use, and the device-driver software masks the LUNs that are not to be used by this host.

In SNA, a command used to send logical unit status information.

LU type
The classification of a logical unit in terms of the specific subset of SNA protocols and options that it supports for a given session. LU type specifies the values allowed in the session activation request, the usage of data stream controls, function management headers, request unit parameters, sense data values, and presentation services protocols.

LU type 0 (LU0)
Type of logical unit used for communicating with non-SNA terminals, using binary synchronous communication (BSC). LU0 enables the transmission of non-SNA protocols across an SNA network, and is heavily used for connecting non-SNA terminals. LU0 is more primitive than LU6.

LU type 1
An SNA logical unit type that provides a communication protocol among host application programs and terminals. Some printers also use this protocol to communicate with host application programs.

LU type 2
See Logical Unit type 2.

LU type 3 (LU3)
Type of logical unit, used for sending data to 3270 printers.

LU type 4 (LU4)
Type of logical unit, Used for communicating with office systems terminals.

LU type 6 (LU 6)
Type of logical unit, used for processor-to-processor communication. LUTYPE6 defines a number of processes (applications - the file model, the queue model, the DL/I model, and so on) which are used in CICS intersystem communication (ISC). LUTYPE6 also supports user application to user application communication. There is no BMS support for this LU Type.

LU type 6.1 (LU 6.1)
Type of logical unit used for processor-to-processor sessions. LU type 6.1 is a development of LU type 6. CICS - DL/I, IMS, or SQL/DS intercommunication uses LU type 6.1 sessions.

LU type 6.2
An SNA logical unit type that converges functions from existing LU types to provide a single, interchangeable communication protocol. See also Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.

See logical unit of work.

See logical unit of work identifier.

LUW state
See logical unit of work state.

See logical volume.

An expression that represents a data object that can be viewed, tested, and changed. An lvalue is usually the left operand in an assignment expression. See also rvalue.

See Logical Volume Manager.

LVM split-site mirroring
See mirror pool.

See logical volume.

See Logical Volume Snapshot Agent.

See log write-ahead.

See long wavelength.

See long wavelength.

See Lempel-Ziv.

See Lempel-Ziv Welsh.