This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.
See level 1.
See level 2.
See Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.
L2TP access concentrator (LAC)
A device that is either attached to the switched network or concurrently located within a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) end system that is capable of handling the Layer Two Tunnel Protocol (L2TP). LAC needs to implement only the media over which L2TP operates in order to pass traffic to one or more L2TP network servers. It may tunnel any protocol that is carried within PPP. LAC is the initiator of incoming calls and the receiver of outgoing calls.
L2TP network server (LNS)
A server that handles the server side of the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). Because L2TP relies only on the single media over which L2TP tunnels arrive, the L2TP network server (LNS) may have only a single local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) interface. However, LNS must still be able to end calls that arrive at any L2TP access concentrator (LAC). LNS is the initiator of outgoing calls and the receiver of incoming calls.
See level 3.
See level 4.
See loop port.
See Latin America.
- A 1 to 32 character name assigned to a certificate.
- A description of information that can be almost anything on a translation object that is not an element, a keyword title, or an information indicator. A label can also be used as information dividers, such as a line of dashes.
- A short descriptor or keyword that classifies or categorizes information assets in the metadata repository, including categories and terms in the business glossary.
- The explanatory text next to a control on the screen.
- An identifier within or attached to a set of data elements.
- A node in a portal that cannot contain any content, but can contain other nodes. Labels are used primarily to group nodes in the navigation tree.
- An instance of a label type object, which provides a user-defined name for a version. See also object.
- An identification record for a tape or disk file.
- In DB2 for i5/OS SQL, text that is attached to columns, tables, and packages.
- Text that a user enters to identify a revision.
- One or more characters used to identify a statement or an item of data in a computer program.
A document that contains information about a worker, such as craft, skill level, hours worked, and certifications. A labor record cannot exist without a corresponding person record. See also person record.
See link access procedure-balanced.
See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.
See library-assigned document name.
See login acknowledgment message.
See Live Application Mobility.
See local area network.
LAN Adapter and Protocol Support (LAPS)
A subsystem that includes the software that manages and controls the network adapter cards, including the device drivers for those cards as well as the protocols that are used to communicate with other adapters on the network.
LAN bridge server (LBS)
In the IBM Token-Ring Network Bridge Program, the server that keeps statistical information about frames that are forwarded between two or more rings (through a bridge). The LBS sends these statistics to the appropriate LAN managers through the LAN reporting mechanism (LRM).
landscape page presentation
The position of a printed sheet that has its long edges as the top and bottom and its short edges as the sides. See also portrait page presentation.
See LAN emulation.
- A floor location used as a temporary staging area usually for outgoing pallets staged at or near a shipping dock door.
- A container in a pool for the activities and events that take place during process execution. A lane is designated by a user and typically represents departments in a business organization. For example, a Call Center lane would include all activities to be handled by Call Center personnel during process execution.
- A shipping route between two areas or locations.
LAN emulation client (LEC)
The access point where devices on the emulated LAN use remote applications and data. A single LAN emulation client may serve as the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connection point for many devices or sessions. The LAN emulation client imitates the functions of the LAN protocol, either token-ring or Ethernet, over the ATM network.
LAN emulation configuration server (LECS)
A server that provides configuration services to the clients. The LECS provides the clients with the ATM address of an appropriate LAN emulation server to become part of an emulated LAN. The LECS may also provide some measure of security within the emulated LAN by controlling which clients to recognize and configure.
LAN emulation server (LES)
A network server that provides asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) address resolution and control-related services to its clients. Each LAN emulation server is associated with one LAN emulation domain. The LAN emulation server recognizes the clients that are either connected to or defined in its domain. The LAN emulation server then translates LAN destinations to ATM addresses at the request of the clients. It also provides control services as part of maintaining the LAN environment.
LAN-free data transfer
See LAN-free data movement.
In the AnyNet product family, a function that enables workstations residing in separate LANs to communicate across SNA or IP WANs. The AnyNet LAN Gateway supports both IPX and NetBIOS protocols across WANs. Each LAN attaches to the WAN through a LAN Gateway.
A two character (ISO 639-1) or three letter (ISO 639-2) abbreviation for a language. For example: en or eng for English. Country codes and language codes together form the basis for locale names. See also country code.
A Jazz model object that serially connects the translators used to build an artifact. The association of a language definition to an artifact provides instructions for how the artifact should be built.
Any feature of a given implementation of the C or C++ language (as in a compiler) that is not specified by the ISO standard. A program that takes advantage of a language extension may not be portable to compilers that do not support that extension.
See language identifier.
language identifier (language ID)
The 3-character representation that identifies the cultural preference for language-related processing and is associated with an object, such as a document. For example, the language identifier is used by text search services to determine how to process the text of a document.
language load ID
See language load identification.
For speech recognition, a set of acoustic shapes (in binary format) for a given set of words, in which word-to-word differences are maximized but speaker-to-speaker differences are minimized.
A set of editing functions that are responsive to the programming language, syntax, and environment of source programs as they are being edited. Typical language-sensitive editing features are automatic indenting, token highlighting, syntax checking, and language-sensitive help.
See linguistic function.
The formatted view of an authored contract or authored amendment contract when viewed online. It consists of a title, table of contents, clauses, and certain application features. It may be represented as HTML or OOXML (docx) and it may also be printed.
See ring segment.
LAN support program
A set of software device drivers used to provide PC applications with an interface to the LAN hardware. LAN device drivers must be loaded on every personal computer that is connected to the server through a local area network (token ring or Ethernet).
See link access protocol balanced.
See LAN Adapter and Protocol Support.
large block interface (LBI)
The set of basic sequential access method (BSAM), basic partitioned access method (BPAM), and queued sequential access method (QSAM) interfaces that deal with block sizes in 4-byte fields instead of 2-byte fields.
The format of a sequential data set that is not in basic format or extended format and has a maximum size per volume that can exceed 65 535 tracks. There is no minimum size requirement for a large format data set. See also basic format, extended format.
A message that is stored in the large message cluster (LMC). The maximum length of a message to be stored in the VSAM QDS is 31900 bytes. Messages up to 2MB can be stored in the LMC. For queue management using DB2 no distinction is made between messages and large messages.
large message performance enhancement outbound (LMPEO)
In VTAM, a facility in which VTAM reformats function management data (FMD) that exceed the maximum request unit (RU) size, as specified in the BIND, into a chain or partial chain of RUs.
- A data object whose data type supports the storage and manipulation of more data than most other data types.
- A sequence of bytes with a size ranging from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. There are three types of LOBs: binary large objects (binary), character large objects (single-byte character or mixed), and double-byte character large objects (double-byte character). See also binary large object, character large object, double-byte character large object.
large table space
A table space that stores persistent data in database-managed space but that has a larger space limit than that of a regular table space. See also permanent table space.
See library access system interface.
- An optimization that cuts the number of two-phase commit flows to one agent in half by leaving the last agent out of the first phase of the commit process and giving the last agent the commit decision during the second phase. An initiator or last agent can use this optimization with only one of its subordinates, which is called the optimized last agent (or simply the last agent).
- An optimized commit flow for either presumed-nothing or presumed-abort protocols in which the last agent, or final participant, becomes the commit coordinator. This flow saves at least one message.
last agent pending (LAP)
The last agent pending logical unit of work (LUW) state indicates that the current LUW is in doubt. This system has prepared to commit, but has not received the final vote from the last agent. The LAP state only occurs at the initiator and at a last agent.
The element visited last in an iteration over a collection. Each collection has its own definition for last element. For example, the last element of a sorted set is the element with the largest value.
A request unit (RU) whose request header (RH) end chain indicator is on and whose RH begin chain indicator is off. See also RU chain.
last-in first-out costing
A method of cost accounting that can be used to make an inventory valuation, based on actual receipt costs. Last-in first-out costing uses the "last in" (newest) item cost for inventory transactions. See also first-in first-out costing.
last record indicator
In RPG, an indicator that signals when the last record (LR) is processed. This indicator can then be used to condition calculation and output operations that are to be done at the end of the program.
- A programming device that provides short-term serialization for IMS tasks running in the online IMS system. Similar in function to an z/OS lock.
- An electronic circuit that permanently records (until reset) the status of a signal.
- An internal mechanism for controlling concurrent events or the use of system resources.
late arriving fact processing
The process of dealing with transaction records that arrive in the data warehouse out of sequence. These transactions are linked back to their dimension records that were current at the time of the transaction.
To connect one process to another process so that the connection is resolved dynamically in the runtime environment and the calling process uses the currently valid version of the process that it is invoking.
The connection between two processes that is resolved dynamically in the runtime environment. As a result, the calling process uses up the currently valid version of the process that it is invoking.
- In replication, part or all of the approximate difference between the time that a source table is changed and the time that the change is applied to the corresponding target table. See also Apply latency, Capture latency, end-to-end latency, Q Apply latency, Q Capture latency.
- The time interval between the instant at which an instruction control unit initiates a call for data and the instant at which the actual transfer of the data starts.
- The time from the initiation of an operation until something actually starts happening (for example, data transmission begins).
- The time delay between the moment an operation is initiated, and the moment it begins to take effect.
- The time interval between the initiation of a send operation by a source task and the completion of the matching receive operation by the target task. More generally, latency is the time between a task initiating data transfer and the time that transfer is recognized as complete at the data destination.
- The amount of time between the time when a network device originally receives a packet and the time when the packet is retransmitted.
latest out time
See latest start time.
latest start time
The time before which the job or job stream must start. The job or job stream can start before the latest start time provided that all other dependencies are satisfied. See also earliest start time, planned start time, scheduled time.
See Latin alphabet no. 1.
See Latin alphabet no. 1.
An alphabet composed of the letters a - z and A - Z with or without accents and ligatures. See also non-Latin-based alphabet.
Latin alphabet no. 1 (Latin 1, Latin-1)
The 190 characters used in most of Western Europe, North America, Central and South America. There are other Latin alphabets such as Latin-2 and Latin-3 that correspond to some of the other ISO/IEC 8859 character sets. The numbering scheme is neither rational nor orderly.
See local authentication.
- A process or set of activities that lead to worldwide announcement of an offering/solution. It includes the creation and distribution of all deliverables; customer, consulting and media event rollout; and overall support coordination and skills transfer.
- To begin the process specified in a workflow definition.
An operation in which a user starts a secondary application from a primary application to perform a specific task. Using the parameters, navigation instructions, and user credentials that are supplied by the primary application, the secondary application opens to the specific place in which to complete the task.
- See group.
- See tier.
- In a network architecture, a group of services, functions, and protocols that is complete from a conceptual point of view; that is one of a set of hierarchically arranged groups; and that extends across all systems that conform to the network architecture.
- An overlay that can be placed on the map to provide additional geospatial information.
- In IBM ILOG JViews, the storage area of a manager in which graphic objects are placed. A manager uses multiple layers, referenced by index numbers. Objects in a higher-numbered layer are displayed in front of objects in a lower-numbered layer.
- The arrangement of printed matter on a screen or page, including margins, line spacing, type specification, header and footer information, indents, and more.
- A geometric arrangement of components on the screen. A layout often attempts to minimize overlap between the components.
- The process that computes new coordinates for nodes, new shapes, or both for links in order to obtain a suitable representation of a graph.
- A method of arranging displayed or printed data.
In programming graphical user interfaces, an object that controls the size and position of Java components within a container. The Java platform supplies several commonly used layout managers for AWT and Swing containers.
- On a form or subform, a fixed-length design area in which related elements can be dragged and moved easily and can be displayed in ways not possible on regular forms and subforms.
- In the context of graph layout, the rectangle where the graph drawing will be placed when the graph is laid out.
An update during which the definitions of LVM components are not updated on the cluster node, if they do not have an LVM component activated. This information is not updated until fallover occurs. Lazy update is an option only for those LVM components that are under the control of PowerHA SystemMirror.
A function whereby the network server performs a write-to-disk operation rather than caching the data for this storage space. Use of the lazy write function enhances system performance by allowing information to be updated multiple times before being written to disk.
See logical block address.
See label-based access control.
In label-based access control, the set of security labels and exemptions held by a database user. See also exemption.
See load balancing group.
See large block interface.
See local buffer pool.
See low bit rate.
See live chat.
See link connection component manager.
See log control interval definition.
Last confirmed control message. It contains the message-sequence number of the application or acknowledgment message that was last confirmed; that is, for which the sending MERVA Link system most recently received confirmation of a successful delivery.
See logical channel number.
See link connection subsystem manager.
See logical channel subsystem.
See logical control unit.
See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
LDAP data source adapter (LDAP DSA)
A data source adapter that reads directory data managed by an LDAP server. See also Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
A type of repository that stores information on people, organizations, and other resources and that is accessed using the LDAP protocol. The entries in the repository are organized into a hierarchical structure, and in some cases the hierarchical structure reflects the structure or geography of an organization.
LDAP Directory Interchange Format (LDIF)
A file format that is used to describe directory information as well as changes that need to be applied to a directory, such that directory information can be exchanged between directory servers that are using LDAP.
See LDAP data source adapter.
An expression that is used to select data elements located at a point in an LDAP directory tree. See also filter.
See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection.
See logical device component.
- In text formatting, a row of dots or hyphens used to lead the eye horizontally, as in a table of contents.
- The blank section of tape at the beginning of a reel.
Bytes of data, from the beginning of a migrated file, that are stored in the file's corresponding stub file on the local file system. The amount of leader data that is stored in a stub file depends on the stub size that is specified.
- The amount of time it takes a supplier, such as a distribution center, to acquire an item for shipping.
- The amount of time between placing an order and receiving the items.
- In a tree, an entry or node that has no children.
- A switch field replaceable unit (FRU) that plugs into a switch chassis. It contains connectors for interconnecting with adapters and other switches. Internal to the switch chassis, a leaf connects to spine modules, which provide connectivity to other leaf FRUs in the same switch chassis by way of a midplane.
A leaf card in a switch chassis that contains a specific number of InfiniBand port connectors and has the capability of communicating with other leaf modules through connections to spines.
- The lowest level contract folder or organization in a hierarchy that is not a parent.
- See leaf member.
A page that contains pairs of keys and record identifiers and that points to actual data. See also nonleaf page.
See thin client.
In Lotus Learning Management System, the electronic representation of media, text, image, sound, or other data, or an aggregation of such pieces of data into a cohesive unit of instruction, that can be delivered to a web client. In the Lotus Learning Management System, course content is made up of learning objects.
- See nonswitched line.
- A continual physical connection over a telecommunications line between two computers or between a computer and a network.
least significant byte (LSB)
See little endian.
least traveled path
A putaway and picking strategy that selects putaway or pick locations by calculating the shortest distance to travel through the warehouse to putaway or pick all of the items required for that assignment.
least upper bound (LUB)
The smallest number that is greater than the variable. Least upper bounds are important in math programming (MP) and constraint programming (CP) in the context of setting bounds on variables as tightly as possible. See also greatest lower bound, upper bound.
In APPN, the one route calculated by topology and routing services (TRS) to have the lowest total weight after TRS compares the node characteristics and TG characteristics of each intermediate node and intermediate TG of each possible route for the class-of-service requested, and computes the total combined weight for nodes and TGs in each route. After a least-weight route is calculated between two given nodes, the result may be stored to prevent repetition of this calculation in future route selections.
See LAN emulation configuration server.
See light-emitting diode.
left outer join
A join whose result consists of the matched rows of the two tables that were joined and the unmatched rows of the first table. See also full outer join, join, outer join, right outer join.
A matured product that is near end of life and has a "withdrawal from marketing" date established. There are no plans for new releases or versions or new translations (only fixes), and it is not a candidate for inclusion in any other product offering. However legacy products that are included in other product offerings become components and are subject to the flagship requirements. Legacy products cannot maintain their legacy status if they announce a new version/release or if they are included in another product offering. Legacy products must maintain their existing level of globalization support from the time they enter legacy status until their withdrawal from support. See also flagship product, key product, non-key product.
In a company structure, one or more sub-units that are connected to a group company. A sub-unit may represent a specific geographical area in one consolidation structure, and in a parallel consolidation structure it can be included in a group representing the total of that geographical area.
The normalized or canonical form of a word. Typically, the lemma is the underived and uninflected form of a noun or a verb. For example, the lemma of the terms 'organizing' and 'organized' is 'organize'. See also stem.
A process that identifies the root form and different grammatical forms of a word. For example, a search for mouse also finds documents that contain the word mice, and a search for go also finds documents that contain going, gone, or went.
A technique for compressing data. This technique replaces some character strings, which occur repeatedly within the data, with codes. The encoded character strings are then kept in a common dictionary, which is created as the data is being sent.
See low-entry networking.
LEN end node
See low-entry networking end node.
See low-entry networking node.
See low Earth orbit.
See LAN emulation server.
less than truckload carrier (LTL carrier)
A trucking operation where the customer pays for part of the truckload. See also full truckload carrier.
- The version of a software application program.
- A logical state of a keyboard providing access to a collection of graphic characters or elements of graphic characters. Usually these graphic characters or elements of graphic characters logically belong together, such as the lower case, upper case, and alternate case of letters. In certain cases the level selected may also affect function keys (see ISO/IEC 9995-1). See also group, shift.
- A set of one or more related attributes that work together as one logical step in a hierarchy. Attributes can function in one or more roles in a level.
- In a database, the successive vertical dependencies in a hierarchical structure.
- A set of entities or members that form one section of a hierarchy in a dimension and represent the same type of object. For example, a geographical dimension might contain levels for region, state, and city. See also recursive level.
- A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the base characters, such as the difference between A and B. Accents, punctuation, and case differences are typically ignored. See also alphanumeric weight, level 4, level n.
- See physical level.
level 2 (L2)
A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the accents in characters, such as the difference between a and à. Case differences and punctuation are typically ignored. See also diacritical weight, level 4, level n.
Level-2 managed system
An IBM or non-IBM server, desktop computer, workstation, or mobile computer that has IBM Director Agent installed. The function of a Level-2 managed system varies depending on the operating system and hardware.
- A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only the case in characters, such as the difference between a and A. Punctuation is typically ignored. See also case weight, level 4, level n.
- See packet level.
A specific piece of information stored about each member of a level. For example, the color attribute could be used to store the color of a product. Some attributes can have special significance, such as when the attribute contains the business key for the member.
A function that compares the record level identifiers of a file to be opened with the file description that is part of a compiled program to determine if the record format for the file changed since the program was compiled.
A function that must be performed but that needs to be performed by only one processing unit. Level functions include backing up the control data sets (CDSs), backing up migrated data sets, deleting expired dump copies, moving backup versions from level 1 volumes to backup volumes, migration cleanup, and level-1-to-level-2 migration. See also demotion, promotion.
- In COBOL, two alphabetic characters (FD or SD) that identify the type of file description entry.
- In RPG, two characters (L0 through L9 and LR) that control calculation and output processing during total time.
level n (Ln)
A sorting comparison in a multilevel sorting algorithm that considers only format characters or other tie-breaking characters that are not base letters, case, accents, or punctuation. See also level 1, level 2, level 3, level 4.
In COBOL, a numeric character (1 through 9) or a 2-character set (01 through 49, 66, 77, 88) that begins a data description entry and establishes its level in a data hierarchy. Level-numbers 66, 77, and 88 identify special properties of a data description entry.
level of isolation
See isolation level.
level of service (LOS)
A qualitative measure used in the transportation industry by traffic engineers to determine the effectiveness of elements of a transportation infrastructure. This measure describes the operational conditions of traffic as defined in the Highway Capacity Manual.
level one data sharing
For data entry database (DEDB) areas, a method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) can authorize only one subsystem to update the database and multiple subsystems that are not required to be protected from incomplete changes made by the updater to read it, or it can authorize multiple subsystems to read the database. See also level three data sharing.
level three data sharing
A method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) and one internal resource lock manager (IRLM) can concurrently authorize and protect multiple subsystems on the same z/OS system for updating or reading the database. See also level one data sharing, level two data sharing.
level two data sharing
A method of data sharing in which Database Recovery Control (DBRC) and one internal resource lock manager (IRLM) can concurrently authorize and protect multiple subsystems on the same z/OS system for updating or reading the database. See also level three data sharing.
The process by which a stream of characters is grouped into a series of lexical items, or tokens, and all available dictionary data is associated with the lexical items. Lexical analysis comprises three separate steps: segmentation, normalization and annotation. See also parsing.
lexical parsing item (LPI)
In lexical analysis, a unit in the lexical representation of text. A lexical parsing item contains annotations or gloss information to be associated with the range in the surface text. See also token.
The portion of a program or segment unit in which a declaration applies. An identifier declared in a routine is known within that routine and within all nested routines. If a nested routine declares an item with the same name, the outer item is not available in the nested routine.
See cultural sort.
See low emission zone.
See local-form session identifier.
See load and hold.
- In Informix, a group of precompiled routines designed to perform tasks that are common to a given kind of application. See also dynamic link library, shared library, shared-object file.
- A project that is used for the development, version management, and organization of shared resources. Only a subset of the artifact types can be created and stored in a library, such as business objects, interfaces, subflows, ESQL modules, message definitions, and Java utilities. See also project.
- In Ada-language library management, a database that stores the various intermediate code files produced by the compiler and records the dependency and order of compilation information. When compiling or linking a unit that depends on other units, the required dependency information (such as the package specification of a unit that is included with a with clause) is obtained from the library.
- A data file that contains copies of a number of individual files and control information that allows them to be accessed individually.
- The storage location of the model. The library, similar to a Windows directory, includes a group of connected Analyst objects: macros, reports, D-Links, selections, D-Cubes, maps, A-Tables, D-Lists, and formats.
- A collection of one or more drives, and possibly robotic devices (depending on the library type), which can be used to access storage volumes.
- A Notes database that contains lists of links to other databases. Unlike a catalog, which lists all the Notes databases on a server, a library contains links to selected databases from one or several servers.
- A system object that serves as a directory to other objects. A library groups related objects, and allows users to find objects by name.
- A partitioned data set or a series of concatenated partitioned data sets. See also partitioned data set extended.
- An executable definition of work that is made up of steps. Its behavior is controlled through properties and it differs from a project in that it has no selector. A library is called from a step within a project.
- A repository for demountable recorded media, such as magnetic disks and magnetic tapes.
- A collection of model elements, including business items, processes, tasks, resources, and organizations.
- A set of object modules that can be specified in a link command.
library-assigned document name (LADN)
A unique name, which includes a time stamp and a system name, that is assigned by a system in the office network to a document when it is filed in the document library. On i5/OS, the time-stamp part of the library-assigned document name is included in a 10-character name that becomes the document object name.
- A server that uses server-to-server communication to access a library that is managed by another storage management server. See also library manager.
- The component of a Content Manager system that provides a low-level programming interface for the library system. The library client includes APIs that are part of the software developer's kit.
Library Control System (LCS)
The component of the object access method (OAM) that is used in the support of tape libraries. The LCS also writes and reads objects on optical disk storage and manipulates the optical volumes on which the objects reside.
A system object that describes an IBM i Library, and is stored in the Rational Team Concert Jazz repository. Every library that a build process references must correspond to a library definition.
- The software application that controls all operations in an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) or in a file.
- A server that controls device operations when multiple storage management servers share a storage device. See also library client.
library manager database
A database that contains entries for all cartridges in the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) and the manual tape library (MTL) data server. Each entry contains volume serial number (VOLSER), category, physical location, and volume status information.
See resource object.
library name space
An attribute that can be set for the current thread. The library name space is the set of objects and libraries that can be accessed in any independent disk pools in a disk pool group plus the libraries in the system disk pool and basic user disk pools (ASPs 2-32) using the regular library-qualified object name syntax.
- The component of a Content Manager system that stores, manages, and handles queries on items.
- In OnDemand, the workstation or node that users must go through to access the system. The library server controls the OnDemand database.
library user ASP
An auxiliary storage pool that contains libraries and folders. See also nonlibrary user ASP.
Resources such as assets, partitions, users, and locations that a license is assigned to. See also license scope.
- Microcode that IBM does not sell as part of a machine, but licenses to the customer. LIC is implemented in a part of storage that is not addressable by user programs. Some IBM products use it to implement functions as an alternative to hardware implementations.
- The layered architecture below the machine interface (MI). The Licensed Internal Code is a proprietary system design that carries out many functions. These functions include but are not limited to storage management, pointers and addressing, program management functions, exception and event management, data functions, I/O managers, and security.
See licensed program.
licensed program product (LPP)
See licensed program.
- An authorization that regulates the use of software licensed programs. Software license keys need to be installed on the system when software is upgraded or moved, the hardware processor group is changed, additional license usage is added, or new software that requires license keys is purchased.
- See activation code.
The breadth of a license in terms of enterprise, site, machine, or partition. If discovered software is found within the scope of a license, then that license might be used for that discovered instance. See also license allocation.
See local identifier.
- The set of stages a document passes through in its lifetime, such as draft and review.
- Passage or transformation through different stages over time. For example markets, brands and offerings have lifecycles.
- One complete pass through the four phases of software development: inception, elaboration, construction and transition.
A relationship between a consuming software entity and a supplying software entity that indicates the degree to which the life cycles of the consuming software entity and the supplying software entity are bound together in the runtime environment.
In a sequence diagram, a connectable element (an object or a role) that describes how each instance participates in the interaction over a period of time. See also sequence diagram.
See last-in first-out.
The improvement in expected return, caused by the use of a classifier or model, over the improvement expected with no classification or prediction. The higher the lift, the better the classifier or model.
- Two or more characters that are connected so they appear as one character. For example, ff and ffi are characters that can be presented as ligatures.
- A graphic character consisting of two or more characters joined together. For example, joining A and E form the ligature Æ. Ligatures are very common and important in Arabic.
An unbuffered, unlogged insert operation. See also raw table.
- A technology that provides a lighted path to failed or failing components to expedite hardware repairs.
- A system of LEDs that are above the control panel and on various internal components of the compute node.
lightweight core file
An alternative to standard AIX core files. Core files produced in the Standardized Lightweight Corefile Format provide simple, process stack traces (listings of function calls that led to the error) and consume fewer system resources than traditional core files.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
An open protocol that uses TCP/IP to provide access to directories that support an X.500 model and that does not incur the resource requirements of the more complex X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). For example, LDAP can be used to locate people, organizations, and other resources in an Internet or intranet directory. See also LDAP data source adapter, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol injection (LDAP injection)
An attack technique used to exploit websites that construct LDAP statements from user-supplied input. See also Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
- An authentication framework that allows single sign-on across a set of web servers that fall within an Internet domain.
- A protocol that uses cryptography to support security in a distributed environment.
Data sets that are allocated with one data definition (DD) name so that an application program can read them as if they were one data set. These data sets must have identical or compatible record formats and lengths.
See resolution score.
See loadable implementation library.
A means of allocating a specific number of job slots into which Tivoli Workload Scheduler can launch jobs. A job limit can be set for each job stream and for each workstation. For example, setting the workstation job limit to 25 permits Tivoli Workload Scheduler to have no more than 25 jobs running concurrently on the workstation.
A Sametime meeting that is limited to a certain number of participants by the system administrator. Differs from a restricted meeting. See also restricted meeting.
A phase of the IPL sequence that takes place prior to full paging during which only the data on the load-source disk unit can be accessed by the normal Licensed Internal Code functions. See also full paging, prestatic paging, static paging.
A connection facility that causes a session traversing it to be terminated if no session activity is detected for a specified period of time. See also limited-resource session.
A link defined by the node operator to be a limited resource, that is, a resource to remain active only when being used. Limited-resource links are deactivated if no session activity has been detected for a specified period of time. See also limited-resource session.
A session that traverses a limited-resource link. The session is terminated if no session activity is detected for a specified period of time. See also limited resource, limited-resource link.
The priority to which a transaction is raised when the number of transactions enqueued and waiting to be processed is equal to or greater than the limit count value. See also limit count, normal priority, scheduling priority.
- A horizontal display on a screen; a linear arrangement of graphic characters.
- On a terminal, one or more characters entered before a return to the first printing or display position, or accepted by the system as a single block of output.
- The portion of a data circuit that is external to data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). This portion of the data circuit connects the DCE to a data switching exchange (DSE), a DCE to one or more other DCEs, or a DSE to another DSE.
- A component of a contract that represents a transaction, such as the purchase or sale of a product.
- The physical path in data transmission.
line approval rule
An approval rule that can be applied at the line level of a quote. When the conditions of this rule are satisfied, a customer sales representatie can apply the corresponding discount as a line-level discount in the corresponding quote.
Pertaining to a function that can be represented by an equation for which the variables are only first degree (that is, none of the variables is multiplied by any other variable, and none of the variables is raised to a higher power, such as squared or cubed) and where the coefficients of the variables are constant numeric values (that is, integers or floating-point numbers).
An asset that is maintained in segments, such as a road, pipeline, or railroad track. Measurements are made along the linear asset to specify work, monitoring, metering, or placement of signs. See also point asset.
A method of approximating data values by assuming that they lie along a straight line. Typically, the two end data points are known. For example, if A is the value at a, and B is the value at b, and a is less than t, and t is less than b, then the value C at t is (from the two-point formula): B - A divided by b - a, multiplied by t - D, added to A.
In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and WebSphere MQ for Windows, the process of keeping restart data in a sequence of files. New files are added to the sequence as necessary. The space in which the data is written is not reused. See also circular logging.
Any procedure not beginning with a REXX comment. A linear procedure can contain QMF commands, comments, blank lines, RUN commands, and substitution variables. See also procedure with logic.
linear programming (LP)
A technique for the optimization of a linear function subject to linear constraints over decision variables. In LP, the model of a problem is expressed through numeric variables combined with linear constraints and governed by a linear objective function and by bounds on the variables.
A statistical technique for estimating a linear model for a continuous (numeric) output field. Linear models predict a continuous target based on linear relationships between the target and one or more predictors. See also regression.
linear regression model
A modeling algorithm that assumes that the relationship between the input and the output for the model is of a particular, simple form. The model fits the best line through linear regression and generates a linear mapping between the input variables and each output variable.
See blade server.
line clause template
The basis of a line clause that defines its line definition, fields, and other properties. See also template.
line control character
See transmission control character.
line counter specifications
In RPG, a coding sheet on which the programmer indicates or overrides the system defaults for the form length and for the number of lines to print on a page. Line counter specifications can be used for each printer file in a program.
- Application data that is prepared for printing, without any data placement or presentation information. See also record format line data, traditional line data.
- Data prepared for printing on a line printer. Line data can contain carriage-control characters and table-reference characters (TRC) for spacing and font selections.
- The asynchronous communications user interface for a TTY, which includes the POSIX and Berkeley line disciplines as well as the compatibility mode of Version 2 of the AIX operating system.
The movement of the print or display position to the corresponding position on the next line. See also space.
- An item, material, service, or tool that is named on a contract, purchase requisition, purchase order, or invoice.
- A queued task or service that is pending completion.
line item set
A set of order items (or portions of order items when the quantity of order items is greater than one). It is a temporary grouping of order items used by the promotion engine during promotion evaluation.
Printing two or more records of line data at the same location on the page. Line merging is used with line data to mix different fonts on the same line, to underscore or overstrike, and on impact printers to create darker print.
Every 3800 printer can operate in line mode as a non-AFP printer. Print jobs that run in line mode do not use PSF or AFP resources, such as page definitions or form definitions. Instead, they use 3800 line-mode resources, such as FCBs and GRAPHMODs.
- For the Ada-language debugger, a line relative to the Ada compilation that contains the specified compilation unit.
- The number that precedes a line of information in a printout or on a display. This number can be up to 5 digits long, from 00001 through 99999.
- The receiving portion, or target, of a file transfer that receives the spooled file that was sent and places the file on a local output queue. See also line printer requester.
- The printer server that allows other hosts to access its printer.
- A client that lets the local host submit a file for printing on a remote printer server.
- The sending portion, or client portion, of a spooled file transfer. The line printer requester allows a spooled file that was sent between remote systems to be sent to a printer queue. See also line printer daemon.
line response mode
A variation of response mode where all operations on the communication line are suspended while the application program output message is being generated. See also response mode, terminal response mode.
In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, a user-specified group of one or more lines used to establish network connections. When sending an outbound connection request, OSI Communications Subsystem selects a line from a line set. The line characteristics--such as line speed--of each line in a given line set should be similar.
See circuit switching.
A conversion where a partial mapping is done from the source code page to the target code page. The integrity of characters that are in both the target coded character set identifier (CCSID) and the source CCSID are preserved. Characters that are not in the target CCSID are mapped to the most culturally acceptable alternative for that character.
Functions usually associated with word processing, including spell checking, hyphenation, grammar, and dictionary functions. See also advanced implementation, basic implementation.
A search type that browses, retrieves, and indexes a document with terms that are reduced to their base form, for example, so that mice is indexed as mouse, or expanded with their base form, such as with compound words.
- A connection between two nodes in a JobStream.
- In hypertext, an author-defined association between two information nodes.
- In IDDU, to connect a database file on disk with a file definition in a data dictionary. See also unlink.
- A representation of a data flow that joins the stages in a job. A link connects data sources to processing stages, connects processing stages to each other, and also connects those processing stages to target systems. The types of links are input link, output link, reference link, and reject link. See also input link, output link, reference link, reject link.
- In Informix, a way of combining separately compiled program modules into one module that is typically used in an executable program.
- A line that connects two vertices in a graph or two nodes in a hierarchy.
- In TCP/IP, a term for a communications line. A TCP/IP link may share the use of a communications line with SNA.
- In Fibre Channel technology, two unidirectional fibers carrying data in opposite directions, along with their associated transmitters and receivers. See also circuit.
- An icon that provides direct access from one Notes document, view, or database (the source object) to any other document, view, or database (the target object). Notes opens the target object without closing the source object that was branched from.
- In data communication, a transmission medium and data link control (DLC) component that together transmit data between adjacent nodes.
- In SNA, the combination of the link connection (the transmission medium) and two link stations (one at each end of the link connection). See also circuit.
- A connection that provides the physical transfer of data from one node to another.
- A relationship between two artifacts.
- In an IMS multisystem environment, the connection between two systems.
- A bidirectional indication of dependency between two or more requirements in the same module or different modules.
- In programming, the part of a program that passes control and parameters between separate portions of the computer program.
- A directional relationship between two items: the parent and the child. You can use a set of links to model one-to-many associations. See also reference.
- To interconnect items of data or portions of one or more computer programs, for example, the linking of object programs by a linkage editor or the linking of data items by pointers.
- A relationship between a workflow definition and a document or document class.
- In a file system, a connection between an inode and one or more file names associated with it.
- To establish a relationship between a workflow definition and a document or document class. Linking a document class to a workflow definition enables a user to launch the workflow from any document belonging to that class. Linking a document to a workflow definition enables a user to launch the workflow from that document.
- A line or arrow that connects activities in a process. A link passes information between activities and determines the order in which they run.
- In a file system, a connection between a directory and an object. The link is established when the object is created.
- An element of a data model that defines a relationship between data types and data items. See also dynamic link, static link.
- A predefined business object that represents a physical connection between two network elements. Links are used to display the transmission elements making up the network lines.
link access procedure (LAP)
A link level element used for data interchange between data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) and data terminal equipment (DTE) operating in user classes of service 8 to 11, as specified in CCITT Recommendation X.1. See also link access procedure-balanced.
link access procedure-balanced (LABP)
A procedure for gaining access to an X.25 network at the link level. LAPB uses a full-duplex, asynchronous, symmetric (balanced) protocol used in point-to-point communication. See also link access procedure.
link access procedure-D-channel (LAPD)
A procedure, recommended by the CCITT, for using an integrated services digital network (ISDN) on the data link level. LAPD is a duplex, asynchronous, symmetric procedure used to communicate control instructions, such as setting up and dropping a connection, to the control channel (D-channel) of ISDN.
link access protocol balanced (LAPB)
A protocol that is used to access an X.25 network at the link level. LAPB is a duplex, asynchronous, symmetric protocol that is used in point-to-point communication.
Refers to the binding between a reference and a definition. A function has internal linkage if the function is defined inline as part of the class, is declared with the inline keyword, or is a non-member function declared with the static keyword. All other functions have external linkage.
linkage options part
In EGL, a build part that gives details on how a generated program calls and is called by other programs. The part also gives details on how a generated COBOL program accesses files on remote CICS regions. The information in this part is used at generation time, test time, and run time.
The grouping of physical network interface cards, such as cables or ports, into a single logical network interface. Link aggregation is used to increase bandwidth and network availability. See also aggregate interface.
An attribute instance that references another object, such as a catalog, hierarchy, item, or category. See also relationship attribute.
- A link container that you can collapse or expand. A set of multiple physical point-to-point links between a given pair of systems, combined together into a single logical link with greater bandwidth than any of the constituent component links. The technique of link bundling can be used to increase bidirectional bandwidth, and for redundancy and load balancing. A link bundle is a predefined business object.
- A set of links that connects a given pair of nodes in a graph, and are drawn as a set of parallel lines.
link connection network
See connection network.
link connection segment
A portion of a configuration that is located between two resources that are listed consecutively in the service point command service (SPCS) query link configuration request list.
linked HATS/WebFacing project
A combined project that includes both WebFacing and HATS customization capabilities. See also HATS/WebFacing enabled project.
In EGL, a build part that describes how to form a load module from two or more programs. The information in this part is used at generation time and preparation time, but only when the target system is CICS for z/OS.
A regular rule that specifies a second set of criteria and two additional actions: one that is performed when the second condition is met and one that is performed when the second condition is not met, within the resolution time specified. For example, if a server is down , take no action. If that server is down for more than five minutes, send an email notification.
- See linkage editor.
- A program that resolves cross-references among separately compiled object modules and then assigns final addresses to create a single executable program.
An object that transforms business objects that are links into representation objects that are instances of IlpNetworkLink. See also node factory.
link integrity verification tests (LIVT)
A set of operational procedures and messages that is defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard T1.617 Annex D and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) Standard Q.933 Annex A and that is transferred over DLCI 0. This set of operational procedures and messages provides status and outage notification for frame-relay frame handler (FRFH) and frame-relay terminating equipment (FRTE) connections.
See data link layer.
- A part of Recommendation X.25 that defines the link protocol used to get data into and out of the network across the duplex line connecting the subscriber's equipment to the network.
- See data link level.
- In SNA, the combination of the transmission connection, protocol, devices, and programming joining network nodes.
link level 2 test
See link test.
The list of libraries searched by the control program (after the job pack, task library, step library, job library, and link pack area have been searched) for any load that does not provide a specific data control block to be used. In MVS, the system name is LNKLST.
link pack area (LPA)
The portion of virtual storage below 16 MB that contains frequently used modules. See also dynamic link pack area.
A state that indicates a datalink field contains one or more values that cannot be validated due to a system failure, communications failure, or other similar error. The file is still usable when it is in this state, but only for reading data.
Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA)
A series of procedures used by products to test modem or other data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) operations, and to provide information about the DCE and the data link. An extended version also provides operational and configuration commands. LPDA commands can be used only with DCEs that support LPDA.
Link Problem Determination Aid-2 (LPDA-2)
A second version of the LPDA command set. In addition to most of the functions of LPDA-1, LPDA-2 also supports modem configuration commands, a call out (dial) command, a set transmit speed command, and commands to operate a contact that controls external devices.
The rules for sending and receiving data at the link level. See also protocol.
link protocol converter (LPC)
A device that changes one type of link-level protocol information to another type of link-level protocol information for processing; for example, 5208 Link Protocol Converter, 5209 Link Protocol Converter, or ROLMbridge 5250 Link Protocol Converter.
A required component of a reconciliation task that is used to link instances from two data sets based on one or more common attributes. See also comparison rule, reconciliation task, task filter.
A limit on one system's authorization to attach transactions and access resources in another. Link security works by signing on each end of a session (to RACF, in CICS Transaction Server) when the session is bound. Each half-session then has the access requirements of the single user profile defined for the remote system as a whole. This profile is applied when a transaction is attached and whenever the transaction accesses a protected resource. See also session security.
In routing protocols, the advertised information about the usable interfaces and reachable neighbors of a router or network. The protocol's topological database is formed from the collected link-state advertisements.
link-state advertisement (LSA)
In a link-state routing protocol, a packet that contains information about neighbors and path costs. Each router in an area generates its link-state database from the link-state advertisements (LSAs) that it receives from all the other routers in the same area and the LSAs that itself generates.
In a link-state routing protocol, a database that each router in an area generates from the link-state advertisements (LSAs) that it receives from all the other routers in the same area and the LSAs that itself generates. Based on the link-state database, each router calculates the shortest-path spanning tree, with itself as the root, using the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm.
link-state routing protocol
A type of routing protocol in which each router uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to calculate shortest (lowest-cost) paths, and broadcasts or multicasts information regarding the cost of reaching each of its neighbors to all nodes in the internetwork. See also distance-vector routing protocol, Shortest Path First.
- The part of data link control that is responsible for the transfer of data on a single logical link.
- In VTAM, a named resource within an APPN or a subarea node that represents the connection to another APPN or subarea node that is attached by an APPN or a subarea link. In the resource hierarchy in a subarea network, the link station is subordinate to the subarea link. See also adjacent link station.
In SNA, a test in which one link station returns data that is received from another link station without changing the data in order to test the operation of the link. Three tests can be made; they differ in the resources that are dedicated during the test.
See loop initialization primitive.
See logical IP subnet.
- In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an entry in a control group that contains similar items such as libraries, folders, or objects.
- A data object consisting of a collection of related records.
- A type of object, which DB2 utilities can process, that identifies multiple table spaces, multiple index spaces, or both. A list is defined with the LISTDEF utility control statement.
- A set of values that is displayed to the user. The user selects from the list to respond to a prompt.
- A means of filtering plan and database objects and presenting them in a table.
- In IBM ILOG JViews, an interface that allows a user to connect events that occur in the manager view with actions that are to be performed.
- A program that detects incoming requests and starts the associated channel.
An object that defines the association between a connection factory, a destination, and a deployed message-driven bean. Listener ports simplify the administration of the associations between these resources.
list entry handle
A value that uniquely distinguishes an entry in a user interface manager (UIM) list until it is removed from the list. A list entry handle is meaningful only for a particular application, list, and entry combination.
list header number
The number of the list header, which identifies the particular list. The list header number ranges from 0 to the maximum defined by the first connector to the coupling facility list structure. The list header number must be specified on IXL requests that access the list structure, to identify to which list the request is applicable.
A RACF option that allows a user to access all resources available to all groups of which the user is a member, regardless of the user's current connect group. For any particular resource, RACF allows access based on the highest access authority among the groups of which the user is a member.
In Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF), a tabular display of data set names, volume serial numbers (VOLSERs), management class names, data class names, or storage class names and their storage attributes.
An access method that takes advantage of prefetching even in queries that do not access data sequentially. A list prefetch is done by scanning an index and collecting record identifiers before any data pages are accessed. These record identifiers are then sorted, and data is prefetched using this list.
- The base price of an item without volume discounts, special pricing rules, or other factors that could affect the price.
- The unit price of an item.
- A price intended for catalog display purposes only; not typically used as the actual price that the customer must pay. See also catalog entry, offer price.
- A coupling facility structure that enables multisystem applications in a sysplex to share information organized as a set of lists or queues. A list structure consists of a set of lists and an optional lock table, which can be used for serializing resources in the list structure. Each list consists of a queue of list entries.
- A coupling facility structure that lets data be shared and manipulated as elements of a queue.
- A character string whose fixed value is defined by the characters themselves.
- A symbol or a quantity in a source program that is itself data, rather than a reference to data.
- Static data that can be returned by a DataStream. A literal remains constant for every row that the data source returns.
- A character string whose value is defined by the characters themselves. For example, the numeric constant 7 has the value 7, and the character constant 'CHARACTERS' has the value CHARACTERS.
- A string that does not contain pattern-matching characters and can therefore be interpreted just as it is. See also regular expression.
- In REXX, a sequence including any characters that are delimited by apostrophes or quotation marks.
In High-Performance Routing (HPR), a message sent between Rapid Transport Protocol (RTP) connection endpoints when no data traffic has been detected for a given period of time. This message is used either (a) to keep the connection active when limited-resource links (with their own idleness checks) exist in the path or (b) to detect a "hung" connection, permitting a path switch to be initiated.
Live Partition Mobility (LPM)
A component of the PowerVM Enterprise Edition hardware feature that provides the ability to move AIX, IBM i, and Linux logical partitions from one system to another. The mobility process transfers the system environment, which includes the processor state, memory, attached virtual devices, and connected users.
See link integrity verification tests.
See library lookaside.
See Local Location Broker.
See Local Location Broker daemon.
See Logical Link Control.
See Logical Link Control protocol.
See local lock manager.
See logical lock.
See loop master timeout value.
See Lotus multibyte character set.
See Local Multipoint Distribution Service.
See local management interface.
A frame-relay subport that exchanges line status information with adjacent nodes using local management interface (LMI) protocol. In NCP, the LMI subport is the link-station subport for the physical line.
See logical management operation.
The primary server that is in the Lotus Learning Management System and that manages core operations for the application. See also content delivery server.
See level n.
See Lotus Notes:Data Object.
See LAN Network Manager.
See local number portability.
See L2TP network server.
- To move data or programs into storage.
- To place a diskette into a diskette drive.
- To copy a version of an element to a snapshot view or web view.
- To bring all or part of a computer program into memory from auxiliary storage so that the computer can run the program.
- In System Manager, the smallest logical collection of objects that can make an application option. Code and language are the two types of loads. The object type is *PRDLOD.
- A collection of line items from orders that are organized in a way to maximize shipping or picking efficiency.
loadable implementation library (LIL)
The implementation module for a node or parser written in C. This library file is implemented in the same way as a dynamic link library, but has a file extension of .lil not .dll.
load and hold (LH)
See pack and hold.
An access level that gives LOAD utility privileges to load data into tables. See also authority level.
- The even distribution of a load across several components of the system.
- The monitoring of application servers and management of the workload on servers. If one server exceeds its workload, requests are forwarded to another server with more capacity. See also transaction load balancing.
load balancing group (LBG)
A grouping of Fast Path input messages that are ready for balanced processing by one or more copies of a Fast Path program. There is one load balancing group for each unique Fast Path message-driven application program. See also Fast Path.
Pertaining to a status where the optical image associated with the selected image catalog entry is active or loaded in the selected virtual optical device. The installation software will be able to access this image during the installation process.
- A program that copies an executable file into main storage so that the file can be run.
- A component that reads data from and writes data to a persistent store.
Major component of CICS used by the domains of the CICS system to obtain access to storage-resident copies of nucleus and application programs, maps, and tables. In order to provide this, the loader domain interfaces with MVS to perform loading of programs into CICS-managed storage (DSA/EDSA) and scanning of the MVS link pack area.
The logical process of archiving reports in OnDemand. During the loading process, OnDemand processes reports, creates index data, and copies report data and resources to cache storage and archive storage.
load on demand
A feature that is supported by the network, the equipment, and the tree components. It is implemented according to the expansion strategy. It means that the graphic representation of a business object is only created when the parent object is expanded.
A record that contains the itinerary for a truckload shipment. See also load scheme.
A record that shows whether the freight is packaged using pallets, slipsheets, or floor shipments. See also load plan.
A mechanism that allows an application program to manipulate a large object (LOB) value in the database system. An LOB locator is a simple token value that represents a single LOB value. An application program retrieves an LOB locator into a host variable and can then apply SQL operations to the associated LOB value using the locator.
- For hierarchical storage management products, pertaining to the destination of migrated files that are being moved.
- In programming languages, pertaining to the relationship between a language object and a block such that the language object has a scope contained in that block.
- Pertaining to databases, objects, or applications that are installed or stored in the same system in which QMF is currently executing.
- Pertaining to information that is defined and used only in one subdivision of a computer program. See also global.
- Pertaining to an element that is available only in its own process. See also global.
- In OSI, pertaining to the node from which one views the rest of the network.
- Pertaining to a device, file, or system that is accessed directly from a user system, without the use of a communication line. See also remote.
- The address specified for the current network or host. The local address is usually referred to as the local host address or the local network address to differentiate the two types.
- In SNA, an address used in a peripheral node in place of a network address and transformed to or from a network address by the boundary function in a subarea node.
In OSI, an agent process on the local node. See also remote agent.
local application process
In OSI, an application process on the local node. See also remote application process.
local application thread
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an application thread that executes within the confines of one address space on a local system and passes control exclusively among local code segments.
local area network (LAN)
A network that connects several devices in a limited area (such as a single building or campus) and that can be connected to a larger network. See also Ethernet, metropolitan area network, token ring, token-ring network, wide area network.
In PSF/MVS, pertaining to an SNA-attached device that does not have a communications controller in its configuration. For example, an IBM 3812 Page Printer connected to a channel-attached 3174 control unit that is defined to the host system through VTAM is considered to be a local-attached printer. See also communication attached.
local authentication (LAU)
The process of validating a user identity to the system according to the local operating system account to which the user logged in. If the user is authenticated, the user is mapped to a principal.
A function of a bridge program that enables a single bridge to connect multiple LAN segments without using a telecommunication link. See also remote bridging.
local buffer pool (LBP)
A buffer pool that exists on a member and caches pages only for that member. See also group buffer pool.
A system data set that CICS uses to record data used by the internal workings of CICS. See also global catalog.
local catalog domain
Together with the global catalog domain, a repository used by other CICS domains to hold information to allow an orderly restart. The two catalog domains enable CICS code to read, write, and purge records on the local and global catalog data sets so that a record of the CICS state can be maintained when CICS is not running.
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the cell to which the local machine belongs. See also foreign cell.
- In the i5/OS Operations Console, the personal computer that has direct communications with a System i product. The local console uses either a dial-up connection or a direct cable. It controls remote access to the System i product and grants control of the System i product to remote consoles. See also Operations Console, remote console.
- Any console that is dedicated to a single main within a JES3 installation. A remote job processing (RJP) console cannot be a local console.
A functional unit within the system that controls the operation of one or more directly attached input/output devices or communications lines. See also remote controller.
Data that is known only to the routine in which it is declared. See also local database.
local database directory
A directory where a database is physically located. Databases that are displayed in the local database directory are located on the same node as the system database directory. See also system database directory.
local definition of a remote queue
A WebSphere MQ object belonging to a local queue manager that defines the attributes of a queue that is owned by another queue manager. In addition, it is used for queue-manager aliasing and reply-to-queue aliasing.
In an IMS multisystem environment, a destination that resides in the local system. See also remote destination.
A device physically attached to the local workstation, that is, the drives in the workstation and any machinery connected to its parts. See also remote device.
local domain name
The primary TCP/IP name associated with the local system. A system can have more than one system name, but only one local domain name. The local domain name consists of two parts, the domain and the host.
- An identifier for a set of conventions governing the input, processing, and display of computerized data so that they match the requirements and expectations of a particular user community. See also resource bundle.
- A setting that identifies language or geography and determines formatting conventions such as collation, case conversion, character classification, the language of messages, date and time representation, and numeric representation. See also client locale, server-processing locale.
local-end code violation
In Performance Tools, an unintended line code violation detected and counted by the terminal equipment (TE) for frames received at the interface for the S/T reference point of the integrated services digital network (ISDN).
A structure within the message tree that contains broker and, optionally, user information that is associated with a message while it is being processed by a message flow. In previous releases, the local environment structure was known as the Destination List.
In an enterprise search application, a client object created by the search and index APIs that enables users to search a set of heterogeneous collections and obtain a unified set of search results.
local file system (LFS)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an organized collection of data in the form of a root directory and its subdirectories and files. An LFS supports special features useful in a distributed environment, such as the ability to replicate data; to log file system data, which provides quick recovery after an abnormal end; and to simplify administration by dividing the file system into easily managed units called file sets.
Copies of files that are saved in the workbench in order to compare the current version with previous versions. Subject to configurable preferences, the workbench updates the local history each time an editable file is saved.
local home interface
In EJB programming, an interface that specifies the methods used by local clients for locating, creating, and removing instances of enterprise bean classes. See also remote home interface.
- In distributed relational database, an identifier or short label that is mapped by the environmental descriptors to a named resource.
- A 1-byte identifier assigned to parts of the data stream to facilitate PSF processing. For example, the Map Coded Font structured field assigns each coded font a local identifier. When a coded font is required for processing, this identifier is specified in the Set Coded Font Local text control. Other local identifiers are assigned to suppressions and overlays. See also coded font local identifier.
- The degree to which a running program makes use of a compact range of addresses for instructions and data, or both.
- The consistent reference, during the execution of an application program, to instructions and data within a relatively small number of pages for relatively long periods of time.
A collection of one or more resource bundles that can be installed separately from a main program, and which supplies all of the resources required for a given locale. See also globalized program, localization pack manager.
localization pack manager
Code used to load and access the contents of a localization pack. See also localization pack.
A collation order other than code-set order, if defined for a locale. Only NCHAR and NVARCHAR data values are collated in a localized order. Database objects collate in their creation-time order, if this is not the runtime order.
A program that follows all of the conventions associated with a given locale for the relevant functions that the program supports. See also globalized program, internationalized program, localization process.
Local Location Broker (LLB)
In the AIX Network Computing System (NCS) Location Broker, a server that maintains information about objects on the local host and provides the Location Broker forwarding facility.
local location name
The name by which your system is known to other systems in an SNA network. Equivalent to an SNA local logical unit name. See also remote location name.
- A lock that provides intra-DB2 concurrency control, but not inter-DB2 concurrency control; its scope is a single DB2.
- An IRLM lock that interests the IRLM that grants it only.
local lock manager (LLM)
A component that runs on each member and manages the lock requests made by the applications running on that member. See also global lock manager.
See local logical unit.
locally defined object
On z/OS, an object whose definition is stored on page set zero. The definition can be accessed only by the queue manager that defined it. See also globally defined object.
locally RACLISTed profile
An in-storage profile for RACF-defined resources that are not shared across a system. See also globally RACLISTed profile.
In a complex of processors, a processor connected to the global main by a channel-to-channel (CTC) adapter. See also global main.
- A graphical user interface that is used to manage a single, local appliance.
- The interface between the frame-relay data terminal equipment (DTE) and the frame handler, which provides the status and configuration information about the permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) available at the frame relay network.
local management interface protocol
In NCP, a set of frame-relay network management procedures and messages used by adjacent frame-relay nodes to exchange line status information over DLCI X'00'. NCP supports both the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) versions of LMI protocol. These standards refer to LMI protocol as link integrity verification tests (LIVT).
In OSI, a managing process on the local node. See also remote manager.
The amount of memory consumed by a step. It is measured by comparing memory usage snapshots at the beginning and after the end of a step. See also peak memory.
- An operating mode in which RRSF nodes cannot communicate with other RRSF nodes.
- A mode that is used by the CICS TG local protocol. See also remote mode.
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)
A system for broadband microwave wireless transmission direct from a local antenna to homes and businesses within a line-of-sight radius; a solution to the so-called last-mile technology problem of economically bringing high-bandwidth services to users. LMDS is an alternative to installing optical fiber all the way to the user or to adapting cable TV for broadband Internet service.
That portion of a network physically connected to the host without intermediate gateways. See also foreign network.
- The node that the user is currently operating.
- The node on which a user is logged in. See also cluster node.
- In the OSI Communications Subsystem licensed program, the node from which one views the rest of the OSI network--the node for which resources are defined. See also remote node.
local non-root registry
A file created during a non-root installation of a DB2 product on a UNIX or Linux system. The file contains information such as service records (product level, installation path), instance records (instance name, instance path), and variable records (variable names, variable values).
local online change
An IMS function that performs online change to a local IMS system. To perform local online change in an IMSplex, local online change commands must be made manually on the IMS systems. See also global online change, online change.
Configuration options defined on each workstation in the localopts file. Each workstation in the Tivoli Workload Scheduler network must have a localopts file. The settings in this file are changed using a text editor and apply only to that workstation. See also global options.
In the NetView/PC program, the PC that has its keyboard locked by the remote control function. See also remote PC.
local presentation address
In OSI, the presentation address of an application entity at the local node. See also remote presentation address.
- In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a processor in the same installation that communicates with the controlling Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS processor through shared DASD or XCF communication links.
- In a complex of processors under JES3, a processor that runs user jobs and that can assume global functions if the global processor fails.
A queue that belongs to the local queue manager. A local queue can contain a list of messages waiting to be processed. See also remote queue.
local queue manager
The queue manager to which the program is connected and that provides message queuing services to the program. See also remote queue manager.
local registration file (LRF)
A file that provides information about an agent or daemon, such as the name, the location of the executable code, the names of processes dependent on the agent or daemon, and details about the objects that an agent manages.
local request queue
A recoverable VSAM data set used to store pending BTS requests - for example, timers and unserviceable requests. It is used to ensure that, if CICS fails, no pending requests are lost.
A name declared in a block that has local scope and can only be used in that block. See also namespace scope.
- In the DCE Distributed Time Service (DTS), a server that synchronizes with its peers and provides its clock value to other servers and clerks in the same network.
- A predefined server that designates the current computer to run the Integration Flow Designer.
local service requester
In OSI, a service requester process on the local node. See also remote service requester.
local session identification (LSID)
In SNA, a field in a format identification 3 (FID3) field transmission header that indicates the type of session and the local address of the directly attached logical unit (LU) or physical unit (PU). See also origin address field.
- In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a resource in the local resource pool. See also global shared resource, shared resource, VSAM record-level sharing.
- A file that shares a common pool of buffers and a common pool of strings; that is, control blocks supporting I/O operations, with other files. See also nonshared resource.
The unique relational database management system to which a user or an application program is directly connected. In the case of DB2 for z/OS, the connection is established by means of an attachment facility.
- For interactive jobs, the system to which the display device is directly attached. For batch jobs, the system on which the job is being processed.
- In an IMS multisystem environment, a specific system in the multiple configuration.
- In a multisystem environment, the system on which an application program is executing. A local application can process data from databases located on either the same (local) system or another (remote) system. See also remote system.
- An element of the CICS address space. It generally contains the control blocks for storage and contents supervision. See also high private area.
- In MVS, one or more segments associated with each virtual storage region that contain job-related system control blocks.
local topology database
A database in an APPN or LEN node containing an entry for each transmission group (TG) having at least one end node for an endpoint. In an end node, the database has one entry for each TG connecting to the node. In a network node, the database has an entry for each TG connecting the network node to an end node. Each entry describes the current characteristics of the TG that it represents. A network node has both a local and a network topology database while an end node has only a local topology database.
See local transaction program.
- A recoverable unit of work managed by a resource manager and not coordinated by an external transaction manager. See also remote transaction.
- In a multisystem environment, a transaction that is processed totally by the system in which it is defined. See also remote transaction.
local transaction program (local TP)
A transaction program that resides on the local system. See also partner transaction program.
- A variable that is available only to the query for which it is defined.
- A symbol defined in one program module or procedure that can only be used within that program module or procedure. See also scope of reference.
A description of the data that a particular business process requires. It includes a list of the data elements, a conceptual data structure that shows how the data elements are grouped according to the entities they describe, and the relationships among the groups of data elements.
A workstation that is connected directly to the system without a need for data transmission functions. See also remote workstation.
A temporary logical connection that spans a series of CP-CP sessions, between the control point at a search initiator and the control point at the search destination. The connection is set up when a search is initiated, and ends on completion of the search. The connection is used to transport directory search control traffic and enables route-outage reporting to the search endpoints if an outage occurs during the search.
A transmittal mode in which a pointer to a record is provided instead of copying the record. See also move mode.
- A physical space that is being monitored. A location can contain many areas. See also area.
- A particular occurrence or example of a location definition. If there is a location definition called USA Call Center, an example of a location would be Toledo Call Center.
- A specific relational database server in a distributed relational database system. Each location has a unique location name.
- In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a user-defined storage site where media and containers can be stored awaiting reuse or movement to other locations.
- A place where assets are operated, stored, or repaired.
- A specific plant, warehouse, or facility that each shipper defines. A location always has a street address associated with it. Multiple shippers can define a location that points to the same physical address. See also area.
location-based service (LBS)
A service offered to a user specifically because of where they are. For example, a restaurant app suggests restaurants close to the user by assessing where the user is, and presents the user with options without ever requiring the user to pick a neighborhood, city, state, and so on.
In NCS, a set of software including the Local Location Broker, the Global Location Broker, and the Location Broker Client Agent. The Location Broker maintains information about the locations of objects.
- A path from the adapter in the processor through the signal cables and fan out box, if there is one, to the device or workstation. The code consists of four fields of information: Drawer, Slot, Connector, and Port.
- The unique identifier that the shipper assigns to each location. See also standard point location code, Sterling TMS number.
The set of attributes of items that are defined in a location hierarchy spec. The attributes are properties of the relationship between an item and a specific location in a location hierarchy. Location data can reference attribute instances at higher locations in the hierarchy through location data inheritance. For example, the attribute "SalesPrice" might set a value for Europe and UK, but for France it might inherit the value set for Europe.
An explicit way to specify that a set of resource groups will always be online on the same node or on the same site, or that a set of resource groups will always be online on different nodes. Location policies can be combined with parent/child dependencies to have all children run on the same node while the parent runs on a different node, or to have all children run on different nodes for better performance. See also dependent resource groups, multitiered application, resource group.
A document in a user's Personal Address Book that contains communication and other location-specific settings used when users work with Notes in a specific place. Users can create as many location documents as needed.
A map or plan containing interactive areas that have been defined in the IBM Intelligent Operations Center. Events can be associated with one or more of these areas. For example, a diagram of seating areas in a major sports stadium can be defined so that events that have occurred can be associated with the appropriate area.
- The unique name of a database server. An application uses the location name to access a DB2 database server. See also LU name.
- In DFSMSrmm, a name given to a place for removable media that DFSMSrmm manages. A location name can be the name of a system-managed library, a storage location name, or the identifier for the shelf space outside a system-managed library or storage location.
An XPath expression that selects a set of nodes based on the evaluation of a series of navigation steps and filters, starting from the current context node. Navigation steps are separated by the / character. Steps can be expressed using a sequence of XML tags or abbreviations defined by XPath.
location service daemon
A component of the Remote Method Invocation and Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (RMI/IIOP) communication function that works with workload management to distribute RMI requests among application servers in a cell.
A part of a search path that consists of an axis (either implied or explicit), an object test, and zero or more predicates. A search path can have multiple location steps. They are used to select a set of objects that function as the context in which to evaluate the next location step.
- A page number or link leading from an index entry to the location of specific information in a topic.
- In computer graphics, an input device that provides coordinate data; for example, a mouse, tablet, or thumb wheel.
- To set a volume or snapshot as unwritable (read-only).
- A means of preventing uncommitted changes made by one application process from being perceived by another application process and for preventing one application process from updating data that is being accessed by another process. A lock ensures the integrity of data by preventing concurrent users from accessing inconsistent data.
- A function on mobile devices that prevents the keypad or touchscreen from responding to interactions until a valid unlock sequence is entered.
- A function that prevents data being entered into cells whether by typing or through a D-link.
- A means of serializing a sequence of events or serializing access to data.
- To temporarily restrict resources to provide protection from concurrent users of the system.
- The process by which integrity of data is ensured by preventing more than one user from accessing or changing the same data or object at the same time.
- A mechanism with which a resource is restricted for use by the holder of the lock.
A dimension to which new categories cannot be added. When processing data sources, any records which refer to values for this dimension that do not already exist as categories are ignored.
A level in a dimension to which new categories cannot be added. When processing data sources, any records which refer to values for this level that do not already exist as categories are ignored.
The response that occurs when the number of locks issued for one agent exceeds the limit specified in the database configuration; the limit is defined by the maxlocks configuration parameter. During a lock escalation, locks are freed by converting multiple locks on rows of a table into one lock on a table. This process is repeated until the limit is no longer exceeded.
lock manager domain
Major component of CICS that provides locking and associated queueing for CICS resources. Before using these facilities, a resource must add a named lock for itself. This lock can then be requested as either exclusive or shared. If an exclusive lock is obtained, no other task many obtain the lock with that name; if a shared lock is obtained, multiple tasks may obtain that lock.
lock sequence number (LSN)
A unique number, issued sequentially, given to a database resource to identify that it is in use (locked) by a requestor. A locked resource cannot be used until the current requestor has finished using it.
- A condition defined for an object that determines how it is locked, how it is used (read or write), and whether the object can be shared (used by more than one job).
- The state set by actuating a lock key, singly or in combination with a qualifier key (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).
See loopback virtual file system.
- A file used to record changes made in a system.
- In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a history of backup, archive, recovery, and media management operations. A log can be displayed online or printed.
- A record of events.
- A collection of messages or message segments placed in an auxiliary storage device for accounting or data collections purposes.
- A collection of records that sequentially describes the events that occur in a system.
- In WebSphere MQ, a file recording the work done by queue managers while they receive, transmit, and deliver messages, to enable them to recover in the event of failure.
- To record. For example, to record all messages on the system printer.
Log and Trace Analyzer tool
The core technology of the IBM Autonomic Computing initiative that defines the interfaces for logging and tracing, providing a central point of interaction with multiple data sources. See also problem determination.
log control file
In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and WebSphere MQ for Windows, the file containing information needed to monitor the use of log files (for example, their size and location, and the name of the next available file).
- A file that records actions and commands.
- A text file that records the execution of a fact build, dimension build, or JobStream.
- The file where the log of events is recorded.
- In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems, and WebSphere MQ for Windows, a file in which all significant changes to the data controlled by a queue manager are recorded. If the primary log files become full, WebSphere MQ allocates secondary log files.
An operator station task that requires a terminal and a logged-on user. See also autotask.
- A program that enables a user entity to log in (for example, identify itself, its purpose, and time of entry) and log off with the corresponding data. This enables the appropriate accounting procedures to be carried out in accordance with the operating system.
- A component that prepares log statements to be written to console or log file. See also appender.
- A functional unit that records events and physical conditions, and usually the time the entry was logged.
- A named and stateful object with which the user code interacts and that logs messages for a specific system or application component.
An agent that programmers can create in order to write data (for example Java primitives, objects, or predefined logging structures) to one or more output sources (for example text or XML), for an application under test.
- A preference setting that specifies the number of entries and the amount of detail generated by various loggers.
- A value that controls which events are processed by Java logging.
- The instructions in an application arranged in a prescribed order to solve a problem.
- The systematized interconnection of digital switching functions, circuits, or devices.
Specialization of an architecture through the addition of constraints that enable verification of consistency and validity for the architecture's components, relationships and their respective types.
- In a packet-switching data network, a path over which data flows between the network and the sending or receiving data terminal equipment.
- In X.25 communications, a means of two-way simultaneous transmissions across a data link, comprising associated send and receive channels. A logical channel can represent the path that data travels from its origin to the network or from the network to its destination.
logical channel subsystem (LCSS)
A channel subsystem structure that provides channel path and subchannel controls for configuring from one to four channel subsystem images. Each channel subsystem image can be configured with up to 256 channel paths, and each logical partition has access to one channel subsystem image.
logical character delete symbol
In VM, a special editing symbol, normally the AT (@) sign, that causes CP to delete it and the immediately preceding character from the input line. If many delete symbols are typed in consecutively, that same number of preceding characters are deleted from the input line. The value may be redefined or unassigned by the installation or user.
In a database, a pointer segment that establishes an access path between its physical parent and its logical parent. It is a physical child of its physical parent; it is a logical child of its logical parent.
A claim on a logical partition of a nonpartitioning index. See also claim.
logical control unit (LCU)
See control-unit image.
A database composed of one or more physical databases arranged in a hierarchical structure based on relationships among data segments. The structure of a logical database can be different from the physical structure of the data. See also physical database.
logical database record
In a database, a set of hierarchically related segments of one or more segment types. As viewed by the application program, the logical database record is always a hierarchic tree structure of segments. All of the segments that exist hierarchically dependent to a given root segment and that root segment. See also database record.
logical data group
A collection of data elements that gathers database system monitoring information for a specific scope of database activity. The snapshot monitor and event monitor each has its own sets of logical data groups. See also monitor element.
logical data model
The data model that captures the business definition of information assets by using the entity-relationship modeling approach. The logical data model consists of a set of related entities and their business associations. The logical data model can be represented graphically in the logical data model diagram. The logical data model contains logical entities, logical relationships, entity generalization hierarchies, and logical domains.
logical data stream (LDS)
In bidirectional text representation, a stream of data that is organized in a readable sequence. See also visual data stream.
A derivation from a physical document that can have additional service description metadata allocated to the derivation. See also logical model.
- A set of input or output operations for a physical or virtual device. For example, the Router logical device has logical device operations for creating a route and removing a route. Logical devices can be an abstraction of a physical device, such as a router, or virtual device, such as a software product.
- A file for conducting input or output with a physical device.
- A file for mapping user I/O between virtual and real devices.
- The facilities of a logical subsystem with which a host communicates when performing I/O operations to a single addressable unit over an I/O interface. The same logical device may be accessible over more than one I/O interface.
logical device component (LDC)
A subcomponent (for example, a printer or a console) configured with a 3601, 3770 batch, 3770, 3790 batch or LU Type4 terminal. Each subcomponent is handled by BMS output commands as if it is a separate terminal.
logical device operation
A generic instruction for a logical device that is independent of its implementation. For example, a logical device operation to add an IP address applies to all operating systems, but the steps for performing this instruction on each operating system are defined by workflows in a device driver for the operation system. See also logical management operation.
A drain on a logical partition of a nonpartitioning index. See also drain.
- See volume.
- A unit of virtual storage that is made available to the network through virtual logical unit numbers (VLUNs) and iSCSI client logical-unit number (iLUNs). A logical drive consists of one or more physical disks that are combined using Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) technology.
- A file that is stored in one or more server storage pools, either by itself or as part of an aggregate. See also aggregate, physical file, physical occupancy.
- A database file that describes how data is to be presented or received from a program. A logical file contains no data, but it defines record formats for one or more physical files. See also physical file.
logical file system (LFS)
A level of the file system at which users can request file operations by using a system call. The LFS provides the user with a consistent view of multiple physical file systems and multiple file system implementations.
A component of a user-defined index over XML data that contains XML pattern information specified by the CREATE INDEX statement. See also physical index.
In NCP, the representation of the connection between NCP and a node communicating with NCP over a physical line such as token-ring or frame-relay. A single physical line can support multiple logical lines. See also physical line.
- The logical connection between an application on the S/370 and an application on the workstation.
- In a multisystem environment, the means by which a physical link is related to the transactions and terminals that can use that physical link. See also physical link.
- A cluster network or a connection between nodes that allows messages and other information to pass between cluster nodes.
- A protocol for data-link-level transmission control. The protocol was developed by the IEEE 802 committee, and is common to all LAN standards.
- The data link control (DLC) LAN sublayer that provides two types of DLC operation for the orderly exchange of information. The first type is connectionless service, which allows information to be sent and received without establishing a link.
Logical Link Control protocol (LLC protocol)
In a local area network, the protocol that governs the assembling of transmission frames and their exchange between data stations independently of the Medium Access Control protocol.
logical link control protocol data unit
A unit of information that is exchanged between link stations in different nodes. The LLC protocol data unit contains a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field, and user data.
logical lock (L-lock)
The lock type that transactions use to control intra-DB2 and inter-DB2 data concurrency between transactions. See also physical lock.
The process of moving log records into the log buffers. See also physical logging.
logically detached partition
A partition that was successfully processed by the ALTER TABLE statement with the DETACH PARTITION clause, but is not yet a stand-alone table. The partition is still accessible to some queries that began reading the partition before the statement was issued. See also asynchronous partition detach.
logically partitioned mode
A capability provided by the Processor Resource/System Manager (PR/SM) that allows a single processor to run multiple operating systems using separate sets of system resources, or logical partitions. See also basic mode.
logical management operation (LMO)
A generic function that is supported by a set of devices. For example, configuring an IP address on a network interface is a logical management operation supported by all operating systems. Although this is logically the same function, the steps for performing this function on each operating system are different. These steps are supported by provisioning workflows for that operating system. See also logical device operation.
The address space, assigned to a logical partition, that the operating system perceives as its main storage. For a shared memory partition, a subset of the logical memory is backed up by physical main storage, and the contents of the remaining logical memory are kept in secondary storage.
- An input or output message that is in a queue associated with a logical rather than a physical terminal. The message queue can be moved, independent of an application, from device to device.
- A collection of formatted output data produced by chaining several smaller pieces of data. A user builds a logical message by issuing a series of BMS SEND commands.
A set of logical derivations. See also logical derivation.
A mount that attaches a file system to the root directory or to a directory of another file system so that the files and directories on the file system can be referenced. The attached file system can consist of a file or many files and directories.
A name assigned to a device that distinguishes it from all other device instances in the system. It is the name used to refer to a particular device. For example, "tok0" can refer to a token-ring adapter. This is the same as "device name," which is a field in the Customized Devices Object Class.
The space that is used by logical files in a storage pool. This space does not include the unused space created when logical files are deleted from aggregate files, so it might be less than the physical occupancy. See also physical occupancy.
In COBOL, the order in which records are sequentially read from a file. For sequential and relative files, the logical order corresponds to the physical order of the records in the file. For indexed files, the logical order is based on the order of the keys in the index of the file.
- In the IMS message format service, a user-defined group of related message segment and field definitions. See also physical page.
- In COBOL, a conceptual entity consisting of the top margin, the page body, and the bottom margin.
- The defined presentation space on the physical form. All the text and images in the print data must fit within the boundaries of the logical page, which has specified characteristics, such as size, shape, orientation, and offset.
logical page list (LPL)
A list of pages that are in error and that cannot be referenced by applications until the pages are recovered. These pages are in logical error even though the actual media (coupling facility or DASD) might not contain any errors. Usually, a connection to the media has been lost.
logical page origin
The point on the logical page from which positions of images, graphics, page overlays, and text with 0-degree inline direction are measured. See also media origin.
In MFS, the means by which output message segments are grouped for formatting. See also operator logical paging.
- In a partitioned database environment, a database partition server on a processor that has more than one database partition server assigned to it.
- A set of key or RID pairs in a nonpartitioning index that is associated with a particular partition.
- One or more virtualized images of a hardware computing system that can include shared and dedicated resources assigned from the pool of resources available on a physical server. Each image appears to the operating system running within it to be a unique instance of a physical server. See also dynamic LPAR, path group, virtual server, virtualization.
In ESS Copy Services, a relationship between a source logical subsystem and target logical subsystem that is created over a physical path through the interconnection fabric used for Copy Services functions.
- A group of logically related fields. Portions of the same logical record may be located in different physical records, and several logical records or parts of several logical records may be located in one physical record.
- In COBOL, the most inclusive data item. The level number for a logical record is 01.
- A software construct, such as a lock or a buffer, that is required for the execution of a program and is in limited supply.
- In OSI, an abstract resource--such as a layer entity. See also physical resource.
- On z/OS, a subsystem that is running DB2 for z/OS.
- In replication, on Linux, UNIX, and Windows, a DB2 database.
- A conceptual storage layout in which an application maps first into logical addresses, which are then mapped into real addresses by control blocks.
- The amount of central storage required by a job or a job step to execute efficiently on a processor.
- With respect to data, the attributes that describe the data and its usage, as opposed to the physical location of the data. See also physical storage.
logical subsystem (LSS)
The logical functions of a storage controller with which one or more host I/O interfaces can access a set of devices. The controller groups the devices according to the addressing mechanisms of the associated I/O interfaces. One or more LSSs exist on a storage controller. In general, the controller associates a given set of devices with only one LSS.
In Q replication, all of the copies of one table that are distributed across servers in bidirectional or peer-to-peer replication. If a user replicates two logical tables, then copies of both tables are distributed across the servers.
- A message destination logically associated with a physical terminal or user. An LTERM is represented by a CNT control block. See also remote logical terminal.
- In SWIFT, the logical entity through which users send and receive SWIFT messages. A logical terminal is identified by its LT name.
logical terminal pool
A user-defined group of logical terminals to be associated with non-VTAM switched communication lines through the /IAM command. Each logical terminal pool consists of one or more logical terminal subpools.
logical terminal subpool
A user-defined group of logical terminals to be associated with non-VTAM switched communication lines through the /IAM command. Each logical terminal pool consists of one or more logical terminal subpools.
In a database, all occurrences of one type of logical child with a common logical parent occurrence. See also physical twins.
- An entity to which Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) commands are addressed, such as a volume or managed disk (MDisk).
- An access point through which a user or application program accesses the SNA network to communicate with another user or application program. See also local logical unit.
- In open systems, a logical disk drive.
- A unit of linear measurement. For example, in Mixed Object Document Content Architecture (MO:DCA) and AFP data streams, the following measurements are used: 1 L-unit = 1/1440 inch, 1 L-unit = 1/240 inch.
- The work that occurs between the start of a transaction and commit or rollback and between subsequent commit and rollback actions. This work defines the set of operations that must be considered part of an integral set.
- The processing that a program performs between synchronization points.
logical unit of work identifier (LUWID)
A name that uniquely identifies a thread within a network. This name consists of a fully qualified logical unit network name, a logical unit of work instance number, and a logical unit of work sequence number.
logical unit of work state (LUW state)
The condition of a logical unit of work (LUW). The LUW state reflects the actions that have been done in that LUW and determines what the next set of actions may be.
An architectural view that describes the main classes in the design of the system: major business-related classes, and the classes that define key behavioral and structural mechanisms (persistency, communications, fault-tolerance, user-interface).
- A collection of physical partitions organized into logical partitions, all contained in a single volume group. Logical volumes are expandable and can span several physical volumes in a volume group.
- A set of logical partitions, each of which is stored on one or more physical partitions from one or more of the physical volumes of a given volume group. A logical volume has a device name (of the form /dev/hdn) and contains a single file system.
- The storage medium associated with a single logical unit (LU). An LVOL typically resides on one or more storage devices.
- A portion of a physical volume that contains a file system.
Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
A set of system commands, library routines, and other tools that allow the user to establish and control logical volume (LVOL) storage. The LVM maps data between the logical view of storage space and the physical disk drive module (DDM).
The process of signing on to a given computer system by typing in one's user ID and password. See also concurrent login.
To connect to a computer system or network by entering identification and authentication information at the workstation. See also login.
A function in Distributing Computing Environment (DCE) that initializes a user's security environment in DCE. A login facility employs the user's password to authenticate the user to the DCE Security Service and returns authentication information associated with the user.
- A string of characters that uniquely identifies a user to the system.
- In Lotus Learning Management System, the name a user enters to log in to the Lotus Learning Management System. Not to be confused with user ID.
A statistical technique for classifying records based on the values of the input fields. Logistic regression is similar to linear regression, but takes a categorical target field instead of a numeric one. See also regression.
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages fulfillment. The logistics manager has access to all operational tasks, including the duties of the pick packer, receiver, and returns administrator. See also pick packer, receiver, returns administrator.
See log stream merge.
See logon mode table.
The name of the CICS system log currently in use. See also exchange log name.
A letter, combination of letters, or symbol that identifies a product or company. See also corporate identity.
log of logs
A form of user journal containing copies of the tie-up records written to forward recovery logs. It provides a summary of which recoverable Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data sets the Customer Information Control System (CICS) has used, when they were used, and to which log stream the forward-recovery log records were written. The log of logs is written by CICS to provide information to forward recovery programs such as CICS VSAM Recovery (CICSVR).
- To connect to a computer system or network.
- In SNA products, to initiate a session between an application program and a logical unit (LU).
An ETO descriptor that provides information required by IMS to build terminal-related control blocks. See also ETO descriptor.
In VTAM, a subset of session parameters specified in a logon mode table for communication with a logical unit (LU). See also session parameter.
- An entry in a log view that consists of properties and their values. A log record does not contain instances of other log records but has nested levels of entries or children.
- A discrete piece of information that describes an event that occurs in a system. For example, a record of an update to a database performed during a unit of work (UOW) is written after the log tail of the active log.
- A set of data that is treated as a single unit in a log file.
- A predefined structure into which the log data is formatted. Records have a specific size and format, and contain a certain set of related information. A log record can be identified by its log sequence number (LSN).
log record sequence number (LRSN)
A unique identifier for a log record that is associated with a data sharing member. DB2 for z/OS uses the LRSN for recovery in the data sharing environment. See also log sequence number.
In an RSR environment, the component of the tracking subsystem that receives log data from active subsystems, stores the data in tracked log data sets, and routes the log records to tracking components.
- In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, an ordered identifier for a log record. The log sequence number is used by recovery operations. See also log record sequence number.
- See log record identifier.
The process of copying whole log files to a standby machine, either from an archive device or through a user exit program running against the primary database. See also high availability disaster recovery.
A set of log files that is associated with a member or the result of merging the logs of multiple members. See also log stream merge.
log stream merge
The process of ordering log records from the log streams of multiple members so that the merged log stream is in chronological order. See also log stream.
In Tivoli software, a utility that filters logs stored in a common XML format, and generates output in text or HTML format for easier viewing. See also Tivoli common directory, Tivoli XML log format.
The year that a document was filed. Used to identify a printed document number. For example, 88-0001, where 88 is the log year and 0001 is the sequence number. All documents filed in 1988 have a log year of 88.
Up to a full-screen description of a field, record format, or file. Long comments are typed when the field, record format, or file is created or changed, and displayed either from IDDU or Query.
See long description.
- An HTML attribute used within the image element, frame element, or iframe element. It associates an image description with the code that places the image in the web page. See also alternative text.
- An extended description of a term in a business glossary that fully defines the term. See also short description.
A variable-length identifier that includes three parts: An encoding scheme identifier. One or more coded graphic character set global identifiers. Each coded graphic character set global identifier is a concatenation of a graphic character set global identifier and a code page global identifier. Additional coding-related required information.
longitudinal parity check
See longitudinal redundancy check.
- A method of error-checking during data transfer that involves checking parity on a row of binary digits that are members of a set that form a matrix.
- See logical redundancy check.
long table space
See large table space.
long-term evolution (LTE)
An upgrade to both EDGE and HSPA networks (and considered a candidate for the 4G standard). LTE networks are not compatible with 2G or 3G networks. See also 4G.
long-term plan (LTP)
A high-level plan of system activity that covers a period of at least 1 day and not more than 4 years. It serves as the basis for a service level agreement with your users and as input to daily planning.
long wavelength (LWL, LX)
A type of fiber-optic cabling that is based on 1300-mm lasers and supports link speeds of 1.0625 Gbps. LWL also refers to the type of gigabit interface converter (GBIC) or small form-factor pluggable (SFP). See also short wavelength.
A blueprint for how questionnaire items are to appear in a printed questionnaire. A Look controls which information held in the questionnaire definition for the questionnaire item is displayed and controls how that information is positioned and formatted.
A simple, single-level reference structure in an extract, transform, and load (ETL) catalogue. Look-ups track the relationships between fact data and the operational data store that contributes to the fact.
The association between data, such as attributes in business objects. The data can be related on a one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many basis. Each participant in the relationship is associated with a simple data type, not a business object. Lookup relationships typically transform non-key attributes whose values are represented with codes, such as marital status or currency code. Use a lookup relationship if the data in the attributes is static, that is, if new values are not often added or existing values removed.
- Tables that map data in item or category attribute instances to other values. For example, lookup tables can be used to map color codes to color values, so that only color codes are stored in item or category attribute instances, but when required, the corresponding color values can be retrieved. Lookup tables are used to create and maintain item and category information, to perform search and replace functions within an item or category, and to validate data contained in specific item or category fields.
- A data source that has a key value that jobs use to retrieve reference information.
- A data source that is used by a lookup policy to mask data in another data source.
- A database table used to map one or more input values to one or more output values.
- A table used to convert information from a file in an external system to correspond with the local system.
- A configuration of devices connected to the fabric by way of a fabric loop port (FL_port) interface card.
- A sequence of instructions performed repeatedly.
- A closed unidirectional signal path connecting input and output devices to a system.
- A set of questions that are to be asked more than once. In a categorical loop, the number of times that the loop is to be iterated is controlled by the categories in a category list. For example, a set of questions can be asked for each product in a product list. In a numeric loop, the number of times that the loop is to be iterated is controlled by a numeric expression. See also slice.
- A connectivity topology that connects a series of systems or expansion units together. Signals can travel in either direction for optimized performance. Redundancy is provided to each unit by treating the connection as a string when a failure occurs somewhere in the loop.
- The physical connection between a pair of device adapters in the ESS. See also device adapter.
A feature of the IBM 4300 Processor family that allows the attachment of a variety of SNA and non-SNA devices. To VTAM, these devices appear as channel-attached type 2 physical units (PUs).
An interface that bypasses unnecessary communications functions when the information is addressed to an entity within the same system. See also loopback test.
A test in which signals from a tester are looped at a modem or other network element back to the tester for measurements that determine or verify the quality of the communications path. See also loopback interface.
loopback virtual file system (LOFS)
A file system that is created by mounting a directory over another local directory, also known as mount-over-mount. A LOFS can also be generated using an automounter.
- A unique code that identifies an EDI loop.
- A hex value representing one of the 127 possible arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA) values in an arbitrated loop.
The logical procedure used by a loop port (L_port) to discover its environment. Loop initialization can be used to assign arbitrated loop physical addresses (AL_PAs), detect loop failure, or reset a node.
In SPL routines, an SQL identifier whose declaration immediately precedes an iterative statement, and whose name immediately follows the terminating END FOR, END LOOP, or END WHILE keywords. The EXIT label statement can transfer program control to the first executable statement that follows the last statement in the FOR, FOR LOOP, LOOP, WHILE LOOP, or WHILE loop that has the specified loop label.
An optimization that increases the step of a loop, and duplicates the expressions within a loop to reflect the increase in the step. This can improve instruction scheduling and memory access time.
loosely coupled analysis engine
An aggregate analysis engine whose component analysis engines do not run in the same address space, but each is remote from the others that make up the aggregate. See also analysis engine.
See level of service.
An update that gets overwritten by another user's update before it surfaces in the table. An update is considered "lost" when the first update was not visible to the person overwriting the update. See also concurrency.
Lotus Domino for i5/OS (Domino for i5/OS)
The System i implementation of the Lotus Domino server. Lotus Domino for i5/OS is a full-function Domino server that follows the Domino architecture. The server software includes email, groupware, workflow, calendar and scheduling, and web server functions.
Lotus multibyte character set (LMBCS)
The format in which Notes stores all internal text, except file attachments and objects. As a result, any user can edit, forward, and mail documents and work with databases in any language.
Any object that is an instance of a Lotus-product class. LotusObjects can be manipulated using LotusScript. LotusObjects share a common design. Many are implemented either the same way across products, or almost the same way, with slight variations from product to product.
Lotus QuickPlace place
A web venue that is provided by Lotus QuickPlace that enables geographically dispersed participants to collaborate on projects and communicate online in a structured and secure workspace. See also place.
A version of BASIC that offers not only standard capabilities of structured programming languages, but a powerful set of language extensions that enable object-oriented development within and across products. Its interface to Notes is through predefined object classes.
LotusScript Data Object (LS:DO)
The ODBCConnection, ODBCQuery, and ODBCResultSet classes, collectively called the LotusScript Data Object (LS:DO). These classes provide properties and methods for accessing and updating tables in external databases through the ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) Version 2.0 standard.
- A node in an APPN network that uses the LU session type 6.2 node type 2.1 architecture without the APPN extension.
- A node that provides a range of end-user services, attaches directly to other nodes using peer protocols, and derives network services implicitly from an adjacent APPN network node, that is, without the direct use of CP-CP sessions.
A limit that indicates the least value that a variable can assume. In operations research, a lower bound may or may not be in the domain of a variable. When a lower bound is in the domain of the variable, the variable may assume precisely that value, but no less. When a lower bound is not in the domain of the variable, the variable may assume values strictly greater than the lower bound, but not precisely the lower bound itself. See also bound, bound strengthening, greatest lower bound, minimum, upper bound.
- Pertaining to those graphic characters of a layer which can be input from a keyboard without the use of any shift key (see IBM Corporate Standard C-S 2-0161-008).
- Pertaining to the small alphabetic characters, whether accented or not, as distinguished from the capital alphabetic characters. The concept of case also applies to alphabets such as Cyrillic and Greek, but not to Arabic, Hebrew, Thai, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and many other scripts. Examples of lowercase letters are a, b, and c.
See link pack area.
See logical partition.
See link protocol converter.
See line printer daemon.
See Link Problem Determination Aid.
See Link Problem Determination Aid-1.
See Link Problem Determination Aid-2.
The default editor for source files in the Remote System Explorer. It can be used to create and edit many kinds of files, including program source files, documentation, and data files. In addition to basic editing functions, the LPEX Editor offers language parsing, location marking, elaborate search, and keystroke recording facilities.
See lexical parsing item.
See lines per inch.
See logical page list.
See Live Partition Mobility.
See license plate number.
See licensed program offering.
See licensed program product.
See line printer removal.
See lexical parsing stream.
See loop port state machine.
See logical recovery pending.
See local registration file.
See log record header.
See logical record interface.
See log record identifier.
See linear referencing method.
See log record sequence number.
See least recently used.
See LotusScript Data Object.
See link-state advertisement.
See link service access point.
See least significant bit.
See least significant byte.
See local session identification.
See local system queue area.
See local shared resource.
See logical subsystem.
See local transaction containment.
See long-term evolution.
See logical terminal.
See less than truckload.
See less than truckload carrier.
See Linear Tape-Open technology.
See long-term plan.
See Lightweight Third Party Authentication.
See local transaction.
See logical terminal table.
See logical unit.
See LU type 0.
See Logical Unit type 2.
See LU type 3.
See LU type 4.
See LU type 6.
See LU type 6.1.
See logical unit 6.2.
LU 6.2 conversation level security
In SNA, a conversation level security protocol that enables a partner transaction program to authenticate the transaction program that initiated the conversation. See also end-user verification.
- In SNA, a session between two logical units (LUs) of type 6.2.
- A session that is initiated by VTAM on behalf of a logical unit (LU) 6.2 application program, or a session initiated by a remote LU in which the application program specifies that VTAM is to control the session by using the APPCCMD macroinstruction.
LU 6.2 verb
A syntactical unit in the LU 6.2 application programming interface that represents an operation. See also verb.
See least upper bound.
LU-LU session type 0
In SNA, a type of session between two LU half-sessions using SNA-defined protocols for transmission control and data flow control, but using end-user or product-defined protocols to supplement or replace function management data services protocols. The system uses the SNA upline facility support.
LU-LU session type 1
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and single- or multiple-device data processing display stations in an interactive, batch data transfer, or distributed processing environment. The system uses the SNA remote job entry (RJE) support.
LU-LU session type 2
In SNA, a type of session between an application program and a single display station in an interactive environment, using the SNA 3270 data stream. The System i product uses the 3270 display emulation support.
LU-LU session type 4
In SNA, a type of session between (a) an application program and a single-device or multiple-device data processing or word processing display station in an interactive, batch data transfer, or distributed processing environment; or (b) logical units in peripheral nodes. The system uses the 5250 printer support.
In the VTAM implementation of the LU 6.2 architecture, the coupling of an LU name entry and a mode name entry. This coupling allows a pool of sessions with the same characteristics to be established.
See logical unit number.
The name by which VTAM refers to a node in a network. See also location name.
See logical unit number map.
- A process where a host object can detect more LUNs than it is intended to use, and the device-driver software masks the LUNs that are not to be used by this host.
- A process that allows or prevents I/O to the disk drives through the host-bus-adapter (HBA) device or operating-system device driver.
The classification of a logical unit in terms of the specific subset of SNA protocols and options that it supports for a given session. LU type specifies the values allowed in the session activation request, the usage of data stream controls, function management headers, request unit parameters, sense data values, and presentation services protocols.
LU type 0 (LU0)
Type of logical unit used for communicating with non-SNA terminals, using binary synchronous communication (BSC). LU0 enables the transmission of non-SNA protocols across an SNA network, and is heavily used for connecting non-SNA terminals. LU0 is more primitive than LU6.
LU type 1
An SNA logical unit type that provides a communication protocol among host application programs and terminals. Some printers also use this protocol to communicate with host application programs.
LU type 2
See Logical Unit type 2.
LU type 6 (LU 6)
Type of logical unit, used for processor-to-processor communication. LUTYPE6 defines a number of processes (applications - the file model, the queue model, the DL/I model, and so on) which are used in CICS intersystem communication (ISC). LUTYPE6 also supports user application to user application communication. There is no BMS support for this LU Type.
LU type 6.1 (LU 6.1)
Type of logical unit used for processor-to-processor sessions. LU type 6.1 is a development of LU type 6. CICS - DL/I, IMS, or SQL/DS intercommunication uses LU type 6.1 sessions.
LU type 6.2
An SNA logical unit type that converges functions from existing LU types to provide a single, interchangeable communication protocol. See also Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.
See logical unit of work.
See logical unit of work identifier.
See logical unit of work state.
See logical volume.
An expression that represents a data object that can be viewed, tested, and changed. An lvalue is usually the left operand in an assignment expression. See also rvalue.
See Logical Volume Manager.
LVM split-site mirroring
A mechanism that replicates data between the disk subsystems located and configured at two remote sites to ensure disaster recovery. Disks use remote LVM mirroring (using a SAN, for example). Mirrors are automatically synchronized after a disk or node failure and subsequent reintegration.
See logical volume.
See Logical Volume Snapshot Agent.
See log write-ahead.
See long wavelength.
See long wavelength.
See Lempel-Ziv Welsh.