This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.
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A special 10-bit character used to indicate the beginning of a transmission word that performs Fibre Channel control and signaling functions. The first seven bits of the character are the comma pattern. See also comma.
A business practice that endorses continuous improvement and encourages feedback from all team members.
- Chinese characters or ideograms used in Japanese writing. The characters may have different meanings from their Chinese counterparts. See also Hiragana, Katakana.
- A graphic character set consisting of symbols used in Japanese ideographic alphabets. Each character is represented by 2 bytes.
See kilobits per second.
- A TCP/IP mechanism where a small packet is sent across the network at predefined intervals to determine whether the socket is still working correctly.
- Pertaining to the amount of time that elapses before a message is sent to verify a connection.
In Internet communications, a message sent among nodes when no data traffic has been detected for a given period of time. This communication ensures the vitality of the session by keeping the link "alive."
See key-encrypting key.
A network authentication protocol that is based on symmetric key cryptography. Kerberos assigns a unique key, called a ticket, to each user who logs on to the network. The ticket is embedded in messages that are sent over the network. The receiver of a message uses the ticket to authenticate the sender.
In Kerberos, an application or system that gets a service ticket for a Kerberos service.
In Kerberos, the host machine on which the Kerberos database resides.
In Kerberos, the password required to change or access the Kerberos database.
In Kerberos, a service or user that is known to the Kerberos system. See also principal name.
In Kerberos, a set of Tivoli clients that share the same Kerberos database.
A transparent application mechanism that transmits the identity of an initiating principal to its target. A simple ticket contains the identity of the principal, a session key, a timestamp, and other information, which are sealed using the secret key of the target.
- The part of an operating system that contains programs for such tasks as input/output, management and control of hardware, and the scheduling of user tasks. See also kernel address space.
- In OSI, a session-layer functional unit that supports the basic session services required to establish connections, transfer normal data, and release connections.
The address space containing support for z/OS UNIX services. See also kernel.
An open source virtualization software for Linux that is based on hardware virtualization extensions (Intel VT-X and AMD-V) and a modified version of QEMU.
See device head.
Major component of CICS providing a consistent linkage and recovery environment for CICS. The application programmer has no external interface to kernel linkage.
See system dump.
A component of CICSPlex SM that is responsible for building data structures and managing the interfaces between the other CICSPlex SM components. The environment built by Kernel Linkage is known as the method call environment.
The state in which a process runs kernel code. See also user mode.
The variables that specify how the kernel allocates certain system resources.
A one-to-one mapping between program threads and process threads where each thread is assigned to a machine task.
- The adjustment of horizontal space between individual characters in a line of text. Adjustments in kerning are especially important in large display and headline text lines. Without kerning adjustments, many letter combinations can look awkward. The objective of kerning is to create visually equal spaces between all letters so that the eye can move smoothly along the text.
- The placement of characters such that their bounding boxes (character boxes) overlap. This allows for a more natural-looking spacing between characters.
The API that is used to access the Pentaho data transformation engine that is capable of doing many different functions, including reading, manipulating, and writing data to and from various data sources.
- A column or an ordered collection of columns that is identified in the description of a table, index, or referential constraint. The same column can be part of more than one key.
- In sorting, a string of weights which can be used to compare characters or character strings.
- Information that characterizes and uniquely identifies the real-world entity that is being tracked by a monitoring context.
- A button on a keyboard or key pad.
- One or more characters within an item of data that are used to uniquely identify a record and establish its order with respect to other records. See also alternate-index record.
- A cryptographic mathematical value that is used to digitally sign, verify, encrypt, or decrypt a message. See also key table, private key, public key.
A data analysis that evaluates data tables to find primary, foreign, and natural key candidates.
- An attribute that is used in warehouse aggregation to identify rows of data that represent the same object.
- A simple attribute whose value is unique for each business object.
An input device consisting of various keys that allows the user to input data, control cursor and pointer locations, and control the dialog with the workstation.
An active grab of the keyboard by a client so that key events are sent to that client rather than the client to which the events would normally have been sent.
A list that establishes a correspondence between keys on the keyboard and characters displayed on a display screen, or action taken by a program, when that key is pressed.
In System i Access, a file that defines the way characters and functions are mapped to keys on the keyboard when the personal computer is emulating a host session.
A facility that allows users to change the key assignments on the keyboard that they are using for emulation.
In DDS, a characteristic that can be specified for a field in a display file that automatically shifts the display station keyboard to control what the display station user can enter into the field. In IDDU and DDS, the keyboard shift can also be specified in database files, but only applies when these fields are referred to in a display file.
A key or combination of keys that a user can press to perform an action that is available from a menu.
In System i Access, the keyboard key assignments that are changed to match a particular keyboard type or user-defined arrangement.
An X widget resource that allows users to move the keyboard focus and activate user interface components using a key sequence rather than a mouse.
The physical key arrangement and assignments for the keyboard shipped from the factory.
A console that provides user control to multiple computers from a single keyboard, monitor, and mouse.
A combination of an ASCII-encoded certificate and an ASCII-encoded PKCS5 encrypted private key.
A file that is stored on the client system that contains an encrypted message to identify the client and enable client/server authentication during secure connections.
In EJB query language, a class that is used to create or find an entity bean. It represents the identity of the entity bean, corresponding to the primary-key columns of a row in a relational database.
In computer input devices, the unique numeric value generated when a key is pressed.
In an ODM table, a column that forms the unique (non-repeatable) key to the table. For example, if the key columns of a scheduling application are DepartmentName, Workday and Shift, no two rows in the table can contain the same DepartmentName, Workday and Shift.
In security, a storage object, either a file or a hardware cryptographic card, where identities and private keys are stored for authentication and encryption purposes. Some key databases also contain public keys. See also stash file.
See key ring.
A network service that provides tickets and temporary session keys. The KDC maintains a database of principals (users and services) and their associated secret keys. It is composed of the authentication server and the ticket granting ticket server.
A requirement whereby the user must have a license key (code) from the software provider to be able to change the usage limit or the expiration date of the license information.
An i5/OS data queue that contains individual pieces of data (messages) that are associated with a key value. Messages can be received from a keyed data queue by specifying the key value or a relational operator. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *DTAQ.
A type of record access that uses relative record number, exact key, approximate key, or generic key.
A mechanism for message authentication that uses cryptographic hash functions.
An order in which records are retrieved that is based on the contents of key fields in records. See also arrival sequence.
An access path to a database file that is arranged according to the contents of key fields contained in the individual records.
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record in its key or relative-record sequence, relative to the previously retrieved or stored record as defined by the sequence set of an index.
A type of record access that uses keyed direct retrieval to recover subsequent records implicitly in key or relative record-number sequence without specifying another key or relative record number.
The effect that results when a key on a keyboard is actuated, depending on the level of force, and possibly by a concurrent operation of a qualifier key or keys. The key effect may be the generation of a graphic character or of a control function (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).
A key that is used exclusively for encrypting and decrypting keys. See also data-encrypting key.
In AFP Utilities, an area shown at the lower part of the image area for entering the parameters for an element.
A protocol governing how two parties exchange keys to use in securing a transaction. Once keys have been exchanged, data can be encrypted at the sender’s end and decrypted at the receiver’s end.
An expression that specifies the value that one or more key fields in a data item must have in order to be retrieved in the IPL.
- The field in a database segment used to store segment occurrences in sequential ascending order. A key field is also a search field. See also search field.
- A field in a data file that contains the values that Gentran Server for Windows uses to determine the trading partnership code.
- A field that uniquely identifies a data item in a data type.
- The portion of a record that is used (possibly with other key fields) to locate a data record in a key file See also alternate key.
- See sequence field.
- A field used to arrange the records of a particular type within a file member.
- In EJB query language, a container-managed field in an entity bean that corresponds to one of the primary-key columns of a row in a relational database. Each key field is a member of the entity bean key class.
Data description specification coded on the lines following the last field specification. Key field level specifications are permitted only for physical files or logical files.
- See key ring.
- In computer security, a file that contains public keys, private keys, trusted roots, and certificates. See also stash file.
When used on a flat collection, a function that returns a reference to the key of an element.
An XML grammar and file format for modeling and storing geographic features such as points, lines, images, and polygons.
The unique name associated with the key for a thread in a process.
A measure of the size of the data that makes up a key, and determines how robust the key is. Longer keys, such as 128 bit, are considered to be harder to crack than shorter keys (48 bit).
A mechanism that retrieves the key for XML signing, XML digital signature verification, XML encryption, and XML decryption.
A security feature in which a lock and key can be used to restrict the use of the display station.
A switch on the control panel that can be set to one of four different positions to establish the power-on and power-off modes allowed for the system.
A file that defines the names and locations of installation and configuration files that are distributed automatically to client workstations.
A description of how an architectural pattern is realized in terms of patterns of interaction between elements in the system. Typically presented in a software architecture document.
A portal component that provides a view of multiple metrics in a single view. The view contains a list of the metrics and attributes of the metrics, such as actual values, threshold values, and percentage of actual to threshold.
In COBOL, the key, either prime or alternate, currently being used to access records within an indexed file.
A physical grouping of keys such as the numeric key pad and the cursor key pad on a keyboard or the buttons on a telephone.
The process of assigning special alphanumeric characters to the keys on a telephone keypad so that the telephone can be used as a computer terminal keyboard.
In computer security, a public key and a private key. When the key pair is used for encryption, the sender uses the public key to encrypt the message, and the recipient uses the private key to decrypt the message. When the key pair is used for signing, the signer uses the private key to encrypt a representation of the message, and the recipient uses the public key to decrypt the representation of the message for signature verification.
- A measurable quantity against which specific performance criteria can be set when a service level agreement is written.
- A quantifiable measure that is designed to track one of the critical success factors of a business process.
- A metric that is computed from performance data that indicates a level of compliance against expectations. For example, the acknowledgment response time to an order, an order fill rate, or an on time shipment rate.
The periodic recording of system information and control blocks on the system log - also the data so recorded.
A single, key-protection transform that the initiating key server offers to the responding key server. A key policy governs Phase I negotiations.
A product that is not being substantially redesigned or rewritten. New products will be classified as flagship or non-key. Existing key products will be reclassified as flagship if they are undergoing substantial re-engineering. See also flagship product, legacy product, non-key product.
The two key fields signifying a range of records to be processed sequentially. The range of records is selected by specifying either key values that bound the records to be selected or an individual key value for which all matching records should be selected in a shared index.
A store for digital certificates and their associated private keys.
- In computer security, a file that contains public keys, private keys, trusted roots, and certificates. See also keystore file.
- See key file.
A binary file that is protected by a password and stores one or more certificates on the server hard drives. There are two types of key ring files: server and CA.
In Cryptographic Support, sixteen 8-byte keys created by the Data Encryption Algorithm from the supplied cryptographic key that are used to encrypt or decrypt the supplied data.
The collating sequence of data records, determined by the value of the key field in each of the data records. It can be the same as, or different from, the entry sequence of the records. See also entry sequence.
A VSAM file or data set whose records are loaded in key sequence and controlled by an index.
A server that negotiates the values that determine the characteristics of a dynamic virtual private network (VPN) connection that is established between two endpoints.
An unordered flat collection that uses keys and does not allow duplicate elements.
A skill that is of particular importance to an individual in a given profession. A key skill is one that is critical to the successful execution of the role that is assigned to an employee.
- In security, a file or a hardware cryptographic card where identities and private keys are stored, for authentication and encryption purposes. Some keystores also contain trusted or public keys. See also certificate signing request, truststore.
- See key database.
A key ring that contains both public keys that are stored as signer certificates and private keys that are stored in personal certificates. See also key ring.
A password that is required to access a keystore file.
Additional specification of the entry within a naming service.
The part of the Front End Programming Interface that allows a front-end application to specify a sequence of key stroke-like commands, which is used to define input to a back-end application.
An encoding of a symbol on a keycap on a keyboard.
In telephony, the type of telephone system that provides telephones with more than one line for users. Outside lines appear directly on the telephones instead of being routed through an operator and transferred, as in PBX systems.
A file on the service's host system that contains entries each of which contains the service principal's name and encrypted secret key.
- See keytab file.
- In the Kerberos protocol, a file that contains service principal names and secret keys. The secret keys should be known only to the services that use the key table file and to the key distribution center (KDC). See also key.
In capacity planning, the time between interactive transactions such as typing, thinking, idle time, and so on. As an interactive user's proficiency with the application improves, the user's key/think time is likely to reduce, which can result in an increase in the observed throughput.
A utility used for creating SSL encryption keys and managing the keystores where they are maintained.
In Cryptographic Support, the conversion of a data encrypting key from encryption under a previous key-encrypting key to encryption under another key-encrypting key.
Information that is expressed as a paired set of parameters. For example, if you want to express that the specific sport is football, this data can be expressed as key=sport and value=football.
- A word that a customer enters in a website when searching for an item.
- A symbol that identifies a parameter in job control language (JCL).
- See reserved word.
- One of the predefined words of a programming language, artificial language, application, or command. See also keyword operand, operand, parameter, positional operand.
- A list of strings that can be used by a customer using the web channel application when searching for a category.
A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results, but also keywords related to the application being tested. The keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script for the test. (ISTQB) See also data driven testing.
The result of processing DDS keywords in a record format specified on an operation.
In REXX, one or more clauses, the first of which starts with a keyword that identifies the instruction. Some keyword instructions affect the flow of control, while others provide services to the programmer. CALL, DO, and PARSE are examples of keyword instructions.
The standard search method where the user supplies words and candidate documents are returned.
A multiple-choice field that lets users make selections by clicking, rather than typing, an entry. Keywords fields can display in several formats, including a drop-down list box, a check box, and a radio button.
A base-2 unit of measurement that is equal to 1,024 bytes (2 to the 10th power). See also kilobyte.
To automate and facilitate unattended installation and configuration of a Red Hat Linux operating system.
In UNIX operating systems, to terminate a process.
A character that deletes a line of characters entered after a prompt.
- For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the power of 10 or 1024 bits.
- For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1000 bits.
A measure of bandwidth on a data transmission medium, where 1 kbps = 1000 bits per second. This contrasts with units of storage where 1 Kb = 1024 bits (note upper case K). See also gigabits per second, megabits per second.
For processor storage, real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the power of 10 or 1,024 bytes. For disk storage capacity and communications volume, 1,000 bytes. See also kibibyte.
A unit of power.
A form of a node test that can select nodes based on their kind and name. See also node test.
Solutions for business center service providers such as hotel chains, airports and office service franchises that offer document services (storing, reproduction and distribution) through shared access devices in public spaces.
An individual item that comprises various components.
A line item that belongs to a higher-level kit; for example, a bed is one of the kit lines in an order for a bedroom set.
The process of picking components from a parts list or bill of materials (BOM) and assembling them into a new item or a higher level assembly.
A document external to the scope of the product that contains information associated to existing metadata.
- See software knowledge base.
- A collection of data that may be interpreted as a set of facts and rules considered true in a possible world.
A method of authentication where questions are used to validate the identity of a user. See also challenge-response authentication.
The autonomic manager component that creates and stores information that an autonomic manager needs, such as facts and policies.
A neural network that can be used to cluster a data set into distinct groups. When processing is complete, records that are similar should be close together on the output map, while records that are different will be far apart. See also neural network.
An IBM-defined double-byte character set for Korean, consisting of Korean non-Hangeul/non-Hanja set, Hangeul set, Hanja set and up to 1,880 user-definable characters.
A subset of the Korean DBCS, consisting of 2672 Hangeul characters and 52 Jamo characters.
A subset of the Korean DBCS, consisting of 5265 Hanja characters.
A subset of the Korean DBCS, consisting of non-Hangeul/non-Hanja characters, such as Greek, Russian, Roman numeric, alphanumeric and related symbols, Katakana, Hiragana, and special symbols. There are 940 characters in this set.
- A command interpreter developed for UNIX, which forms the basis for the z/OS shell.
- An interactive command interpreter and a command programming language.
A container for key performance indicators (KPIs) and their associated triggers and events.
The part of the monitor model that contains the KPI contexts, which in turn contain key performance indicators and their associated triggers and events.
A policy that determines if an incoming event is a KPI event update, then sends it for processing to generate a KPI update or an alert depending on parameters.
A numeric value that ranges from 0-100 and indicates key performance indicator reliability. Performance is considered reliable if the value is less than or equal to the configured performance tolerance. If the actual performance is always within tolerance, then the KPI value is 100. Otherwise, the KPI value is 0. Many KPI values are calculated over time to give an average rating.
See Korn shell.
See Kilovolt ampere.
See Know Your IBM.