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This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


An enhancement of the C language that adds features supporting object-oriented programming.

C++ language
An object-oriented high-level language that evolved from the C language. C++ takes advantage of the benefits of object-oriented technology such as code modularity, portability, and reuse.

C++ library
A system library that contains common C++ language subroutines for file access, memory allocation, and other functions.

A level of security defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) published by the United States Government. To meet C2 requirements, a system must perform discretionary access control, authentication and verification, object reuse protection, and auditing of security-relevant events.

See Click-to-Action.

C/370 common anchor area (C-CAA)
A common anchor area (CAA), specific to the C/370, in the runtime environment.

A rule induction algorithm that builds either a decision tree or a rule set. The model works by splitting the sample based on the field that provides the maximum information gain at each level. See also rule induction.


  1. See control area.
  2. See certificate authority.
  3. See channel adapter.
  4. See change accumulation.


  1. See common anchor area.
  2. See Cluster Aware AIX.

A physical medium for transmitting signals. Cables include copper conductors and optical fibers.

cable modem
A modem that provides Internet access over cable TV networks (which use fiber-optic or coaxial cables). A cable modem is generally faster than a modem that uses phone lines.

cable path
A series of cables connected in sequence.

cable segment
A section of cable between components or devices on a network. A segment may consist of a single patch cable, multiple patch cables that are connected to one another, or a combination of building cable and patch cables that are connected to one another.

Pertaining to a function or feature of a display station that allows multiple work stations to be attached to one cable path.

CA certificate
See certificate authority certificate.


  1. To place, hide, or store frequently used information locally for quick retrieval.
  2. To place a duplicate copy of a file on random access media when the server migrates a file to another storage pool in the hierarchy.
  3. Storage or memory that is used to improve access times to instructions, data, or both. For example, data that resides in cache memory is normally a copy of data that resides elsewhere in slower, less expensive storage, such as on a disk or on another network node.
  4. A buffer that contains frequently accessed instructions and data; it is used to reduce access time.

cache coherency
Consistency of data in caches on multiple processors so that changing a single cache line does not create inconsistent versions of the cache line in the different caches.

cached inventory
Products that have their information, such as item attributes, inventory balance, or availability, stored in a local data cache. The consuming application, such as a web store, can access the information from the cache, reducing synchronous queries to the order management system.

cache eviction
A process by which data associated with a file is removed from the cache system. The data is removed either by using a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm when configured General Parallel File System (GPFS) hard or soft quota limits are exceeded or by issuing a command. When referenced again in the cache system, the data that is associated with the file is retrieved from the home system.

cache fast write
A storage control capability in which data is written directly to cache without using nonvolatile storage. Cache fast write is useful for temporary data or data that is readily re-created. See also DASD fast write.

cache file
A snapshot of a logical volume created by Logical Volume Snapshot Agent. Blocks are saved immediately before they are modified during the image backup and their logical extents are saved in the cache files.

cache hit

  1. A processor storage reference that is satisfied by information from a cache.
  2. An event that satisfies a read operation by retrieving data from cache instead of retrieving it from the intended storage or a lower level of cache. See also cache miss.

cache instance resource
A location where any Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application can store, distribute, and share data.

cache line

  1. A record that contains relevant information about the user data that is currently in the subsystem cache memory. Examples of this information include the current state of the data and the intended location of the data on one or more disks.
  2. The cache component that is normally loaded, stored, and interrogated during cache lookup.

cache miss

  1. An event that satisfies a read operation by retrieving data from the intended storage or a lower level of cache because the requested data is not available in the only level or a higher level of cache. See also cache hit.
  2. A delay that occurs when the processor references data or instructions that are not already in the data cache or instruction cache.

cache replication
The sharing of cache IDs, cache entries, and cache invalidations with other servers in the same replication domain.

cache set
A storage-class parameter, defined in the base configuration information, that maps a logical name to cache structure names in a coupling facility (CF).

cache structure
A coupling facility structure that stores data that can be available to all members of a Sysplex. A DB2 data sharing group uses cache structures as group buffer pools. See also group buffer pool.

cache table
In a federated system, a logical table object that is used to cache data from a data source table. A cache table comprises a nickname that identifies the data source table, one or more materialized query tables, and a schedule for replicating the data in each materialized query table.

cache timeout
The length of time that is allowed to pass before the cache is updated.

The process of storing frequently used results from a request to memory for quick retrieval, until it is time to refresh the information. The DB2 database manager provides many forms of caching, such as directory caching, package caching, file system caching, and LDAP caching.

caching I/O group
The I/O group in the system that performs the cache function for a volume.

caching proxy server
A proxy server that stores the documents that it retrieves from other servers in a local cache. The caching proxy server can then respond to subsequent requests for these documents without retrieving them from the other servers. This can improve response time.

See client acceptor daemon.

The modulated and rhythmic recurrence of an audio signal. For example, a series of beeps or a series of rings.

See call attachment facility.

See I/O cage.

CA key
See command attention key.

See customer acceptance laboratory.

CalConn server task
A Domino server task that is a component of calendar scheduling.

calc script
See calculation script.

calculated category
A category created based on a calculation. Calculated categories become part of the cube and can be applied to any measure.

calculated column
A column whose values are calculated from other columns, calculated columns, functions, and constants to derive new data for a model.

calculated expression
An expression that is not constant, but whose value depends upon other values. To be evaluated, a calculated expression must obtain and compute values from other sources, normally in other fields or rows.

calculated measure
A measure whose values are calculated from other measures, calculated measures, functions, and numeric constants in an arithmetic equation.

calculated member
A member of a dimension whose measure values are not stored but are calculated at run time using an expression. See also input member.

calculated metric
A metric that can be defined using a formula that is constructed from one or more existing metrics, operators, or constants. For example, users can create a metric named Repeat Visitor % using a calculated metric of [(Unique Visitors –New Visitors)/Unique Visitors].


  1. An equation within a database outline, a calculation script, or a report script that is used to determine a value for a particular member or point in a report.
  2. The process used to transform a series of records into a new result. Typically a calculation is mathematical, but may also include sorting, shifting, or adding to a prior result. Calculations enable the model admin to select records from their source data, perform operations on the data, segment results, and begin another calculation based on those results.

calculation account
An account used for calculating rations and formulas in reports. The abbreviation for calculation account is CALC account.

calculation code
A code associated with order items, catalog entries, or catalog groups to specify how discounts, shipping charges, sales or use taxes, and shipping taxes should be calculated.

calculation framework
A flexible, generic framework provided by the WebSphere Commerce order subsystem, used to implement calculations and apply them to the applicable business objects.

calculation method
A reference task command that implement parts of calculation framework.

calculation rule
A rule that defines how a calculation will be done.

calculation scale
A set of ranges that can be used by a calculation rule. For example, for shipping charges, there can be a set of weight ranges that each correspond to a particular cost. That is, a product that weighs between 0 to 5 kg might cost $10.00 to ship, while a product weighing 5 to 10 kg might cost $15.00 to ship.

calculation script (calc script)
A text file that contains instructions for how specified data sets within a database should be calculated.

calculation specification
In RPG, a specification on which the programmer describes the processing to be done by the program.

calculation strategy
The strategy used to calculate the final score of a scorecard table.

calculation usage
A type of calculation that the calculation framework performs.

An Internet standard allowing a client to access scheduling information on a remote server. It extends the WebDAV (HTTP-based protocol for data manipulation) specification and uses iCalendar format for the data. The access protocol is defined by RFC 4791.

CalDAV account
A calendar that has been set up using CalDAV.


  1. A list of scheduling dates. Calendars are defined in the database and are mostly assigned to run cycles. Calendars can be used either to identify the dates when job streams or jobs can be run (when used with inclusive run cycles), or when they cannot be run (when used with exclusive run cycles). A calendar can also be designated for use as a non-working days calendar in a job stream. See also exclusive run cycle, holidays calendar, iCalendar, inclusive run cycle, non-working days calendar, run cycle.
  2. A view in the Notes mail database that can be used to manage time and schedule meetings. Users can add appointments, meetings, reminders, events, and anniversaries to the Calendar view.

calendar exception
A partial or full day during which a resource does not work on a project

Software that provides users with the ability to schedule appointments and view contacts. Calendaring software generally works in accordance with other time management software and can be synchronized with additional devices (such as smartphones). See also synchronize.

calendar schedule
A schedule that defines both the days and time that processing occurs. For example, one could use a calendar schedule to make sure that a process runs every Tuesday starting between 19:00 and 19:30 and ending between midnight and 00:30.

A process to make paper smooth or glossy by passing it through a series of metal rollers during the last steps of a paper-making machine.

calender cut
Slits, glazed lines, or discolored lines across paper caused when wrinkles pass through the calender rolls.


  1. In capacity planning, the process of refining a model so that it represents the system the user is modeling. The predicted and measured values should match as closely as possible, with no more than a 10% difference for resource utilization, and no more than a 20% difference for response times.
  2. The comparison and adjustment of an instrument to a standard of known accuracy.

calibration drift
The difference between the as left value of the previous measurement compared to the as found value of the current measurement for an asset.

calibration point
The calibration requirement for each asset function.

The thickness of forms, usually expressed in thousandths of an inch.


  1. A physical or logical connection between one or more parties in a telephone call.
  2. A single runtime instance of a voice application.
  3. To start a program or procedure, usually by specifying the entry conditions and transferring control to an entry point.

callable interface

  1. The application server to which the QMF session is currently connected. After the connection is made, this server processes all SQL statements.
  2. The name of the interface program, the definition of the arguments passed to the interface program, and the definition of the data structures passed to the interface program.
  3. In query management, the Common Programming Interface (CPI) that includes the definitions of the control blocks and constants used for the interface. See also command interface.

callable service

  1. A set of documented interfaces between the z/OS operating system and higher level applications that want to access functions specified in the Single UNIX Specification and earlier standards. See also system call.
  2. Services that are provided by IMS for use by IMS exit routines. These services provide clearly defined interfaces that allow exit routines to request various functions, such as acquiring storage or finding an IMS control block.
  3. A program service provided through a programming interface. See also action service.

call-accepted packet
A call supervision packet that a called data terminal equipment (DTE) transmits to indicate to the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) that it accepts the incoming call. See also call connected packet, call request packet.

call analysis dimension
A category display that shows dispatch types along with location map and dispatch documents.

call attachment facility (CAF)
A DB2 for z/OS attachment facility for application programs that run in TSO or z/OS batch. The CAF is an alternative to the DSN command processor and provides greater control over the execution environment. See also Resource Recovery Services attachment facility.

call back
To invoke a callback or upcall.


  1. In the AIX operating system, a procedure that is called if and when certain specified conditions are met.
  2. Pertaining to a characteristic that tells a remote system whether the local system it tries to access will verify its identity.
  3. A way for one thread to notify another application thread that an event has happened.
  4. A message consumer or an event handler routine.

callback function
Executable code that allows a lower-level software layer to call a function defined in a higher-level layer.

callback handler
A mechanism that uses a Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) interface to pass a security token to the web service security run time for propagation in the web service security header.

callback mechanism
A method for authentication of a voice user who is requesting a system API. This mechanism places a callback request to VoiceLogistics Pro (VLP) to verify whether the user is logged into VLP.

callback registration
The identification and registration of a callback routine.

callback routine
A procedure that is called if and when certain specified conditions are met. This is accomplished by specifying the procedure in a callback list.

callback URL
A URL that is supplied in a call to an API method. The API will call that URL, usually when the API has finished its task.

call center

  1. A central point at which all inbound calls are handled by a group of individuals on a controlled sequential basis. Call centers are usually a front end to a business such as airline ticketing or mail order.
  2. A center that handles a large number of calls to either take orders or provide customer service.

call center dashboard
A user interface that provides information on how the telesales service representative, shift, or call center is performing.

call chain
A trace of all active routines and subroutines, such as the names of routines and the locations of save areas, that can be constructed from information included in a system dump.

call connected packet
In X.25 communications, a call supervision packet transmitted by a DCE to inform the calling DTE of the complete establishment of the call. See also call request packet, call-accepted packet.

call control
That set of telephony functions that includes call establishment, call transfer, and call disconnection (the program control of a telephone call).

call detail
A list of calls made or received on a device and plan.

call detail record (CDR)
In telephony, a unit of information containing data about a completed call, such as the time the call began, its duration and date, the originating extension, and the number called.

called DLS user
The data link service (DLS) user in connection mode that processes requests for connections from other DLS users. See also Data Link Service.

called NS user
A network service (NS) with which a calling NS user wants to establish a network connection.

called number
See dialed number identification service.

called party

  1. Any person, device, or system that receives a telephone call. See also caller.
  2. On a switched line, the location to which a connection is established.

called program
A program that is the object of a CALL statement combined at run time with the calling program to produce a run unit.

called routine
A program or sequence of instructions that is invoked by another program.

called segment
A segment that is called from another segment. It can be regarded as an extension of the calling segment, but some actions take place at the call and others at the return. Examples of actions are saving the addresses of the current position and the next order on the segment call stack at the call, and restoring those saved addressed at the return.


  1. The requester of a service.
  2. A function that calls another function.
  3. Any person, device, or system that makes a telephone call. See also called party.

caller ID
A feature that displays the phone number of the incoming caller.

call establishment
The complete sequence of events that is necessary to establish a data connection.

call forward
To send an incoming call to a different number.

call forwarding
The process of sending incoming calls to a different number.

A method for CSM code to request that an agent function is executed. The callgate request contains the function, along with an instruction on which nodes should execute the function. For example, a CSM callgate could request that the agent code checks a user privilege level, and that would only be executed on the active configuration node.

call graph
A graph that uses lines represents the flow of data between subroutines in a program.

call hold
A feature that places callers on hold while the user does something else (or answers another call).

call home
A communication link established between a product and a service provider. The product can use this link to place a call to IBM or to another service provider when it requires service. With access to the machine, service personnel can perform service tasks, such as viewing error and problem logs or initiating trace and dump retrievals.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can receive a call, but cannot send one.

In X.25 communications, pertaining to the location or user that makes a call.

calling address
See network user address.

calling command ID
A numeric identifier for a command that calls an API function.

calling convention
A specified way for routines and subroutines to exchange data with each other.

calling DLS user
In OSI networking, the Data Link Service (DLS) user in connection mode who establishes a data link connection.

calling line identification presentation (CLIP)
An ISDN supplementary service that advises the called party of the caller's number: for example, by displaying it on a telephone display panel.

calling party
On a switched line, the location that originates a connection.

calling program
A program that calls another program.

calling thread
The task in progress in a multitasking environment.

call intercept
A feature that prevents a call from being answered under certain conditions; for example, when the caller's phone number is invalid or unrecognized.

CALL interface
A part of the external CICS interface (EXCI). The CALL interface consists of six commands that allow you to allocate and open sessions to a CICS system from non-CICS programs running under MVS; issue DPL requests on these sessions from the non-CICS programs; and close and deallocate the sessions on completion of the DPL requests.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can send or receive a call.

call level
The position of an entry (program or procedure) in the call stack. The first entry has a call level of 1. Any entry called by a level 1 entry has a call level of 2, and so on.

call level interface (CLI)

  1. An API for database access that provides a standard set of functions to process SQL statements, XQuery expressions, and related services at run time. See also embedded SQL.
  2. A callable application programming interface (API) for database access, which is an alternative to using embedded SQL.

call level number
A unique number assigned by the system to each call stack entry.

call merging
A feature that allows a user who is on a call to accept a second call and merge it into the first, converting the two separate calls into a multi-person conference.

call message queue
A message queue that exists for each call stack entry within a job.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can send a call, but cannot receive one.


  1. A kernel parameter that establishes the maximum number of scheduled activities that can be pending simultaneously.
  2. An outbound message to request services or data from an enterprise application or web service.
  3. The action of bringing a computer program, a routine, or a subroutine into effect.

callout node
The connection point in a mediation request flow from which a service message is sent to a target. There must be one callout node for each target operation.

callout response node
The starting point for a mediation response flow. There must be one callout response node for each target.

callout table
A kernel table that keeps track of all sleeping processes and the channel on which each is waiting.

Software that provides basic computer-telephony integration (CTI) enablement and comprehensive CTI functionality. This includes access to, and management of, inbound and outbound telecommunications.

call profile
In telephony, a set of characteristics that may be used when establishing or manipulating a program-controlled telephone call.

call progress signal
A call control signal transmitted from the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) to the calling data terminal equipment (DTE) to indicate the progress of the establishment of a call, the reason why the connection could not be established, or any other network condition.

call redirection notification
In X.25 communications, an optional CCITT-specified facility that informs the caller that the call has been redirected to another DTE.

call request packet
A call supervision packet that a data terminal equipment (DTE) transmits to ask that a connection for a call be established throughout the network. See also call connected packet, call-accepted packet.

call request signal
During the establishment of a connection for a call, a signal that informs the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) that a data terminal equipment (DTE) has asked to make a call.

call session
The sequence of events that occurs from the time a call is initiated to the time all activities related to answering and processing the call are completed.

call stack

  1. A list of data elements that is constructed and maintained by the Java virtual machine (JVM) for a program to successfully call and return from a method.
  2. The ordered list of all programs or procedures currently started for a job. The programs and procedures can be started explicitly with the CALL instruction, or implicitly from some other event.

call stack entry
A program or procedure in the call stack.

call supervision packet
A packet used to establish or clear a call at the interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).

call thread
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a thread created by a remote procedure call (RPC) server's run time to execute remote procedures. When engaged by an RPC, a call thread temporarily forms part of the RPC thread of the call.

call transfer
A series of actions that directs a call to another telephone number.

call user data (CUD)
User-specified data that can be placed in an X.25 call request packet to be sent to the adjacent node.

camera-ready copy
Copy which is ready for photographic typesetting.

A planned series of operations including advertisements and suggestive selling techniques, that are pursued to achieve a defined set of business objectives. In the WebSphere Commerce Accelerator, campaigns are used to coordinate and aggregate groups of campaign initiatives.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
A not-for-profit membership-based association dedicated to standards development for business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. See also CSA International.

To end a task before it is completed.

cancelability point
A specific point within the current thread that is enabled to solicit cancel requests.

cancel closedown
A closedown in which a program is abnormally terminated either because of an unexpected situation or as the result of an operator command. See also orderly closedown, quick closedown.

cancellation cleanup handler
A function that you can specify to perform an action, such as releasing resources, that occurs after the thread returns from the start routine and calls pthread_exit() or after a cancellation request is performed on the thread.

cancellation point
A function that causes a pending cancellation request to be delivered if the cancellation state is enabled and the cancellation type is deferred.

cancellation state
One of two values, which are either enabled or disabled, that describe whether cancellation requests in the current thread are acted on or held in a pending state. If the value is enabled, the cancellation request is acted on immediately and is based on the current cancellation type. If the value is disabled, the cancellation request is held in a pending state until it is enabled.

cancellation type
One of two values (deferred or asynchronous) that describe how cancellation requests in the current thread are acted on when the cancellation state is enabled. If the value is deferred, the cancellation request is held pending. If the value is asynchronous, the cancel request is acted on immediately, thus ending the thread with a status of PTHREAD_CANCELED.


  1. An individual who has applied to requisition. A candidate must have expressed an interest in the position using electronic means, must be considered by the potential employer, must have the basic qualifications for the job, and cannot withdraw before an offer is made. Unless a candidate meets each criterion, that candidate is not an internet applicant for record-keeping purposes.
  2. An applicant profile that has been submitted in response to either a contingent staff or hybrid request.

candidate answer
An answer that is generated by the system which is evaluated for correctness and might be returned as the correct answer.

candidate column
A column that is used as a placeholder in a mapping.

candidate endpoint
A known service endpoint that implements an interface for a particular request. The set of candidates is then filtered by the dynamic assembler to select the best endpoint out of all the candidates.

candidate form
An electronic document that captures the full set of candidate data.

candidate form association
The field bindings that allow a user to designate which field values drive (pre-populate) other field values.

candidate list
A short list of entities that are potential matches of the incoming identity because they share certain attributes. See also attribute.

candidate score
A score based on the comparison of information in a candidate's resume to the job description. The score can be 1 to 1,000. The score can be used as a starting point in a search for qualified candidates, but is not a final indicator of qualifications.

candidate term
A term in a business glossary that is being considered but that has not yet become standard or accepted. See also accepted term, standard term.

candidate threshold
The minimum score at which a particular attribute value must match between the incoming identity and an existing entity to satisfy the resolution rule. See also resolution rule.

candidate type
A category that distinguishes candidates. The standard candidate types are: external, internal, former employee, inactive, temporary/contractor, co-op/intern, and employee referral.

A single processing unit within a storage system.

A process that uses a working component from an asset that is not in service, and replaces a broken component on an asset that is in service.

canonical address
In LANs, the IEEE 802.1 format for the transmission of medium access control (MAC) addresses for token-ring and Ethernet adapters. In canonical format, the least significant (rightmost) bit of each address byte is transmitted first. See also noncanonical address.

canonical format
A format for storing hierarchical names that displays the hierarchical attribute of each component of the name. For example, the canonical format for the name Reuben D. Smith/Ottawa/Renovations/CA is: CN=Reuben D. Smith/OU=Ottawa/O=Renovations/C=CA where: CN is the common name, OU is the organizational unit, O is the organization, and C is the region or country code.

canonical host name
A host name that is not an alias.

In computer science, a process that converts data with more than one possible representation to a standard, or canonical, form.

canonical mode
See line mode.

canonical processing
Processing that occurs according to a defined set of rules. Canonical processing is typically used by the shell and simple commands.

canonical XML
A standard format that defines the physical changes that can be made to the document without changing the logical representation of the document.

An area within a dashboard or workspace that users interact with to create, view, and manipulate content and data.

See Common Alerting Protocol.


  1. A group of functions and features that can be hidden or revealed to simplify the user interface. Capabilities can be enabled or disabled by changing preference settings, or they can be controlled through an administration interface.
  2. A function or feature that is made available by an application, tool, or product.
  3. Specific features or characteristics of a piece of software, such as the database version.

capability data
In OSI, a confirmed data transfer service provided by the session layer to transfer a limited amount of data outside of an activity. Capability data can be used by two peers to exchange information about their capability to start an activity.

capability exchange
A series of messages that pass between two CICS regions to establish if they can communicate using IP interconnectivity (IPIC). The capability exchange determines the security controls that are applied to the connection, the number of sessions to be made available, and resynchronizes any outstanding work if the connection has previously failed.

capability list
A list of associated resources and their corresponding privileges per user.

capability matrix
A data structure that represents the linguistic capabilities available within multiple language dictionaries, and allows searching for appropriate dictionaries.

capability type
A category, such as "database" or "hardware" that is used to group characteristics of a piece of software. For example, the "hardware" capability type includes characteristics such the BIOS vendor and BIOS version.

capable to promise (CTP)
Pertaining to the ability to fill and deliver an order in a specific time frame.

An electronic part that permits storage of electricity.


  1. A measure of how much volume or revenue can be handled by a specific resource.
  2. The actual number of parallel servers and workstation resources available during a specified open interval.

capacity break
In logistics, a level of shipment size at which the cost changes.

capacity ceiling
The maximum number of operations that a workstation can handle simultaneously.

capacity constraint
A rule that governs the amount of items that can be awarded to a supplier. Using a capacity constraint, business can be awarded to a preferred supplier or the volume of business for a supplier can be limited.

capacity licensing
A licensing model that licenses features with a price-per-terabyte model. Licensed features are FlashCopy, and Metro Mirror and Global Mirror, and virtualization. See also FlashCopy, Metro Mirror, virtualization.

capacity on demand (CoD)
The ability of a computing system to increase or decrease its performance capacity as needed to meet fluctuations in demand.

capacity organization
An organization definition for which all resource capacity information is consolidated.

capacity override
Override of typical capacity plans when additional capacity is required for specific date/time slot combinations to handle planned spikes in demand or shortfalls in resources.

capacity planner
A function that uses information about the system, such as a description of the system's workload, performance objectives, and configuration, to determine how the data processing needs of the system can best be met. The capacity planner then recommends, through the use of printed reports and graphs, ways to enhance performance, such as hardware upgrades, performance tuning, or system configuration changes.

capacity planning

  1. The process of determining the hardware and software configuration that is required to accommodate the anticipated workload on a system.
  2. The process of scheduling the resources required to perform project work.

capacity requirements planning (CRP)
The process of specifying the level of resources (facilities, equipment, and labor force size) that best supports the competitive strategy for production of the enterprise.

capacity type
A predefined value that determines the capacity units for licensing, such as online processors, configured processors, physical disks or physical memory.

Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD)
The capability to permanently activate one or more inactive processors without having to restart the server or interrupt the data flow of the business, through the purchase of a permanent processor activation. This capability adds significant value by enabling a fast and economical way to add capacity for new workloads, enabling the server to adapt to unexpected performance demands. See also activation code, application provisioning, dynamic LPAR, free pool, Hardware Management Console.


  1. See Coherent Accelerator Processor Interface.
  2. See computer assisted personal interviewing.
  3. See cryptographic application programming interface.

capital letter
An uppercase letter. See also simple letter.

capital lock (caps lock)
The keyboard function that invokes the uppercase of alphabetic characters, but does not change the response of numeric and other keys. This function is convenient for combining uppercase letters with numbers as in the string “M3C 1H7”. Capital Lock is a toggle key.

capitals lock state
A state that, if activated, will result in the generation of the capital form of all graphic characters on the keyboard for which such a form exists. National standards or usage may determine which graphic characters are affected by this state (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

cap-M height
The average height of the uppercase characters in a font. This value is specified by the designer of a font and is usually the height of the uppercase M.

capped partition
A logical partition in a shared processor pool whose processor use cannnot exceeds its assigned processing capacity.

caps lock
See capital lock.


  1. A description associated with an identifier. The caption is often used in preference to the identifier in reports to make them more comprehensible.
  2. A National Language Support-enabled text string in a policy expression that describes the policy.
  3. Text associated with, and describing, a table or figure.


  1. The process by which some printers can save downloaded fonts as temporary printer-resident fonts.
  2. The process by which an acquirer receives payment from the customer's financial institution and remits the payment. A "capture" is the guarantee that the funds are available and that the transfer will take place.
  3. In SQL replication, event publishing, and Q replication, to gather changes from a source database. These changes can come from the DB2 log or journal or from source transactions in a relational database that is not a DB2 database.
  4. To digitize an image into the video memory of the M-Video Capture Adapter.

Capture control server
In SQL replication, a database or subsystem that contains the Capture control tables, which store information about registered replication source tables. The Capture program runs on the Capture control server.

capture data
The business information collected by CICS for inclusion in an event.

capture device
See packet capture appliance.

captured UCB
A virtual window into the actual unit control block (UCB). Captured UCB resides in private storage below 16 MB. All the virtual windows on the actual UCB view the same data at the same time. Only actual UCBs above 16 MB are captured. See also actual UCB, unit control block.

capture file
A file used by a communication program to capture, or record, data being transmitted from a remote system or device.

capture filter
A software filter that collects the visitor-site traffic stream data.

Capture latency
In SQL replication, an approximate difference between the time that source data was changed and the time that the Capture program made the data available to the Apply program by committing the data to a CD table. Capture latency is a subset of the end-to-end latency in a replication configuration. See also Apply latency, end-to-end latency, latency, Q Apply latency, Q Capture latency.

capture point
A point in application logic or CICS system activity where an event is generated. Capture points are defined in a capture specification.

Capture program
In SQL replication, a program that reads database log or journal records to capture changes that are made to DB2 database source tables and store them in staging tables. See also Apply program, Capture trigger, Q Capture program.

Capture schema
In SQL replication, a name that identifies the control tables that are used by an instance of the Capture program.

capture specification
A capture specification provides the information that CICS will use to detect an event within an application or in the system. The capture specification can include the capture point, capture data, and predicates for filtering and is defined in the event binding file.

capture stream
The flow of hits (request/response combinations) through a system.

capture to file
To save data into a file.

Capture trigger
In SQL replication, a mechanism that captures delete, update, or insert operations that are performed on source tables other than DB2 source tables. See also Apply program, Capture program.

carbon cap
A limit on carbon emissions.

carbon copy
A process that allows a shipper to generate a copy of an outbound data exchange transaction, which is sent to other organizations.

carbon credit
A transferrable permit that allows an organization to release one ton of carbon dioxide into the environment. The implementation of carbon credits is an attempt to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that are being produced.

carbon emission sink
Carbon that is sequestered in forestry management, agricultural management, and other land management.

carbon footprint
The amount of greenhouse gas that a person or organization is responsible for producing. A smaller carbon footprint is associated with having less detrimental effect on the environment.

Carbon Responsibility Factor (CRF)
The percentage of a vehicle's carbon emissions that are attributable to the supply chain.


  1. In the Map Designer, a data object. There are two types of map cards: input and output.
  2. A record of information attached to an item. An item can have multiple cards.
  3. An electronic circuit board that is plugged into a slot in a system to give it added capabilities.
  4. A Wireless Markup Language (WML) document that provides user-interface and navigational settings to display content on mobile devices. See also deck.

card column
The column from a punch card that was used in early computers to read information. Punch cards typically contained 80 columns of 12 rows.

See Card Distributed Authoring and Versioning protocol.

Card Distributed Authoring and Versioning protocol (CardDAV)
An address book client or server protocol designed to allow users to access and share contact data on a server. The CardDAV protocol was developed by the IETF and was published as RFC 6352 in August 2011. CardDAV is based on WebDAV, which is based on HTTP, and it uses vCard for contact data.

card enclosure
The area in the system that contains the logic cards.

card image
A one-to-one representation of the hole patterns of a punched card; for example, a card image might be a matrix in which a one represents a punch and a zero represents the absence of a punch.


  1. The number of rows in a database table or the number of elements in an array. See also associative array.
  2. In information analysis, a measure of the number of unique values in a column.
  3. For OLAP data sources, the number of members in a hierarchy. The cardinality property for a hierarchy is used to assign solve orders to expressions.
  4. The number of elements in a set.
  5. For relational data sources, a numerical indication of the relationship between two query subjects, query items, or other model objects.

card object
An object used in the TX Programming Interface that represents an input or output card of a map in program memory.

Card Serial Number (CSN)
A unique data item that identifies a hybrid smart card. It has no relation to the certificates installed in the smart card.

card type
A 4-digit identifier printed on the logic card.

card verification value authorization code (CVV auth code)
A separate authorization code that might be returned in addition to a credit card authorization code when a financial institution approves a credit card transaction.

care management platform
A software platform that is used to manage care across the care continuum. It can identify clients in need of care, assess their needs, establish the appropriate care plan to support their needs, and manage the care and monitor results and outcomes.

See Continuous Association Rule Mining Algorithm.

A revolving type of contained storage system that brings locations to the operator.

carriage control character
A character that is used to specify a write, space, or skip operation. See also control character.

carriage control data set
A data set whose records are preceded by carriage controls.

carriage control print job
A print job whose records are preceded by carriage controls.

carriage return

  1. The action that indicates that printing is to be continued at the left margin of the next line. A carriage return is equivalent to the carriage return of a typewriter.
  2. The movement of the printing position or display position to the first position on the same line.
  3. A keystroke generally indicating the end of a command line.

carriage return character
A character that in the output stream indicates that printing should start at the beginning of the same physical line in which the carriage-return character occurred.


  1. A transportation service provider that provides delivery and shipping services between buyers, sellers, and customers.
  2. A service provider that provides the telecom services to customers.
  3. A continuous frequency (a pulse train, or an electric or electromagnetic wave) that may be varied by a signal bearing information to be transmitted over a communication system.
  4. The backing material for labels. Labels consist of the printable medium, the adhesive, and the carrier.

carrier hole
One of many holes in the side margins on continuous-forms paper. When placed on the tractor pins, the holes maintain paper alignment and registration, and control the movement of the paper.

carrier ID
A code that identifies a carrier organization in regions outside North America, which do not use a SCAC as an identifier. See also Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

carrier management system
A network management product that a communication common carrier provides to a customer; this product monitors and manages the telecommunication equipment that the communication common carrier provides for the customer's network.

carrier PRO number
A reference number that the carrier can assign to each shipment.

carrier sense
In a local area network, an ongoing activity of a data station to detect whether another station is transmitting.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
An arbitration protocol in which multiple stations access the network without explicit coordination, avoiding contention by checking for other signals (sensing the carrier) and deferring if a signal is already present. Should two signals collide, each station detects the collision and transmits again after a random amount of time.

carrier service capacity
The unit of measure that is maintained for a carrier service item. For example, the unit of measure could be defined as truck space for delivery items.

carrier signal
A signal with a constant frequency that can be modulated to carry a data signal.

carrier strip
The half-inch side margin of continuous forms containing the carrier holes.

carrier type
A method for classifying carriers as primary, secondary, or backup carriers.

See command and response token.

cart bar code
A number or bar code stuck on a cart that is used to identify a specific cart.

Cartesian product
The resulting set from performing a multiple-table query without any specified joining conditions among the tables.

A standard container with specific dimensions used in both storage and shipping of loose items.

carton flow rack
Storage rack consisting of multiple lanes of gravity fed carton flow conveyors. The lanes are replenished from the rear. The material flows through the rack and is picked from the front.

The process by which loose items from a common order or common customer are placed in standard cartons in preparation for shipment.

carton manifest
The list of cartons in a parcel carrier shipment.

cartridge eject
For an IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Automated Tape Library 3494, IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver, or a manual tape library, the act of physically removing a tape cartridge, usually under robot control, by placing it in an output station. The software logically removes the cartridge by deleting or updating the tape volume record in the tape configuration database (TCDB). For a manual tape library, cartridge eject is the logical removal of a tape cartridge from the manual tape library by deleting or updating the tape volume record in the TCDB.

cartridge entry
For an IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Automated Tape Library 3494, IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver, or a manual tape library, the process of logically adding a tape cartridge to the library by creating or updating the tape volume record in the tape configuration database (TCDB). The cartridge entry process includes the assignment of the cartridge to the scratch or private category in the library.

cartridge loader
A feature that allows a user to place tape cartridges in a loading rack for automatic loading. Manual loading of single tape cartridges is also possible.

Cartridge System Tape
The base tape-cartridge medium used with the IBM 3480 Magnetic Tape Subsystem and IBM 3490 Magnetic Tape Subsystem.


  1. See channel associated signaling.
  2. See China Association for Standards.
  3. See common analysis structure.
  4. See configuration auditing system.


  1. To connect in a series or in a succession of stages so that each stage derives from or acts upon the product of the preceding stage. For instance, network controllers might be cascaded in a succession of levels in order to concentrate many more lines than a single level permits.
  2. In AIX, to arrange in a series.
  3. An operation that propagates the exact same operation to all dependant objects.
  4. In certain printers, the layout of procedure windows on the operator console. Each new procedure window overlays the previous one, with only the previous window's title bar in view.

cascade delete
A process by which the DB2 database manager enforces referential constraints by deleting all descendent rows of a deleted parent row.

cascaded initiator
An intermediate node in a transaction program network that uses the two-phase commit protocol.

cascaded menu
A menu that appears from, and contains choices related to, a cascading choice in another menu.

cascaded transaction
A transaction that spans nodes and is coordinated by Resource Recovery Services (RRS). cascaded multisystem transaction. A transaction that spans systems in a sysplex and is coordinated by Resource Recovery Services (RRS).

cascaded UR family
A collection of nodes consisting of a unit of recovery (UR) and its descendants.

cascading choice
A choice on a menu that, when selected, presents another menu with additional related choices.

cascading delete
The process of deleting rows from a child table when the foreign key is deleted from the parent table. When any rows are deleted from the primary key column of a table, cascading deletes, if enabled, delete identical information from any foreign-key column in a related table.

cascading menu
A submenu of related choices that is invoked when the parent item is selected.

cascading permission
A permission of a parent folder in the content repository that has been propagated to its child objects.

cascading prompt
A prompt that uses values from a previous prompt to filter the values in the current prompt or pick list.

cascading replication
A replication topology in which there are multiple tiers of servers. A peer/master server replicates to a small set of read-only servers which in turn replicate to other servers. Such a topology off-loads replication work from the master servers.

cascading resource
A resource that can be taken over by more than one node. A takeover priority is assigned to each configured cluster resource group on a per-node basis. In the event of a takeover, the node with the highest priority acquires the resource group. If that node is unavailable, the node with the next-highest priority acquires the resource group, and so on.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
A language that defines a hierarchical set of style rules for controlling the rendering of HTML or XML files in browsers, viewers, or in print.

Cascading Style Sheets positioning (CSS-P)
Use of Cascading Style Sheets to position web page elements using pixel locations or locations relative to other elements.

cascading switches
Switches that are interconnected to build large fabrics.


  1. A group of related activities that address a specific business situation. The user or predefined conditions, instead of a defined flow, determines the sequence in which activities are performed. See also business process definition, case type.
  2. A container that holds a specified quantity of identical items (SKU) as packaged by a vendor. Cases are identified by license plate number and are generally put away into storage, in their original condition until picked.
  3. The basic unit of analysis. In a data set based on a simple survey, a case generally corresponds to a respondent.
  4. The information that is contained within a database that pertains to a particular investigation.

See Computer Assisted Software Engineering.

case clause
In a C or C++ switch statement, a CASE label followed by any number of statements.

case code
See factory carton code.

case data
The data that is recorded for each case. In a market research survey, the case data stores the answers given by each respondent.

Case Data Model (CDM)
A model that defines access to the case data that is stored in a standard database or in a proprietary format.

case data source component (CDSC)
A data source component (DSC) that exposes case data to the Provider.

CASE expression
An expression that is selected based on the evaluation of one or more conditions.

case folder
A folder that holds information pertaining to a case. The case folder stores case related information obtained from search queries.

case ID
A unique identifier for a case or carton stored in the warehouse.

case label

  1. In Pascal, a value or range of values that comes before a statement in a CASE statement branch. When the selector is evaluated to the value of a CASE label, the statement following the case label is processed.
  2. The word case followed by a constant expression and a colon. When the selector is evaluated to the value of the constant expression, the statements following the case label are processed.

case pick
The process of picking unbroken cases from bulk case storage for shipment.

case sensitive
Pertaining to the ability to distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.

case-sensitive search
A search in which a result will be found for the search string only if the particular combination of uppercase and lowercase letters are exactly matched.

case status
A label that is applied to a case by the Data Collection system that indicates its current level of completion.

case type
The definition of the activities that must be completed to address a specific type of business situation. For each activity, the case type specifies the document types that are required to support the activity, the user interface in the activity, and the teams that must complete the activity. Case types make up a case. See also case.

case weight (CW)
In cultural sorting, the combined weight value of case, subscripting, superscripting, fractions, and other factors. For example, the lowercase letter a precedes the uppercase letter A, and middle Arabic shapes precede final Arabic shapes. See also alphanumeric weight, diacritical weight, indifferent weight, level 3, mark weight, special weight.

A delivery method by which orders are fulfilled directly from a store and paid in full at the time of transaction. Cash-and-carry transactions require no additional processing.

A service that provides customers with the ability to receive cash in addition to the goods that they purchased in a store using an alternate payment method. The total amount of the transaction, which includes the cost of the purchased goods and the amount of the cash received, is debited from the customer's account. For example, a customer might charge $37 to their credit card for a $17 item in order to get that item and $20 back from the store.

See computer assisted self-interviewing.

CA-signed certificate
A certificate that is signed using a key maintained by a certificate authority. Before issuing a certificate, the certificate authority evaluates a certificate requestor to determine that the requestor is the certificate holder referenced in the certificate.

CAS processor
See common analysis structure processor.


  1. A software component which supports a particular payment protocol.
  2. In cut-sheet printers, a removable container for a supply of paper.


  1. A database object and an operator for converting data from one data type to another. Built-in data types have built-in casts to compatible data types within database server. See also explicit cast, implicit cast, user-defined cast.
  2. In programming languages, an expression that converts the value of its operand to a specified type.

cast expression
An expression that converts or reinterprets its operand.

cast function
A function that is used to convert instances of a source data type into instances of a different target data type. In general, a cast function has the name of the target data type and has one single argument whose type is the source data type. Its return type is the target data type.

Converting a value with a given data type to a different data type or to the same data type with a different length, precision or scale. See also downcasting, upcasting.

CAS tone
See Customer Premise Equipment Alerting Signal tone.

cast operator
An operator that is used for explicit type conversions.

The process of writing changed pages from a group buffer pool to disk.

castout owner
The DB2 member that is responsible for casting out a particular page set or partition.

cast support function
A function that is used to implement an implicit or explicit cast by performing the necessary operations for conversion between two data types.

casual connection
In an APPN network, a connection between an end node and a network node with different network identifiers.


  1. To enter information about a data set or a library into a catalog.
  2. The highest level of the category hierarchy. All of the groupings that exist below the catalog are referred to as categories.
  3. See process library.
  4. A container that, depending on the container type, holds processes, data, resources, organizations, or reports in the project tree.
  5. A collection of services.
  6. A data set that contains information about other data sets.
  7. A repository for storing specifications for builds, reference structures, connections, and other components.
  8. A selection of wireless devices and plans that are configured in the application and made available for purchase.
  9. A container that stores items. An item can belong to only one catalog. Each catalog must be associated with at least one hierarchy, the primary hierarchy, and can be associated with one or more secondary hierarchies. See also item.
  10. A container for one or more offerings that a user can request.
  11. A collection of tables and views that contains descriptions of objects such as tables, views, and indexes.
  12. To specify the record class and file plan location when declaring a record.
  13. A collection of apps.
  14. A directory of files and libraries, with reference to their locations.

catalog asset store
A collection of catalog artifacts that creates a virtual catalog. See also asset store, storefront asset store.

catalog cleanup
A process that deletes entries for which volumes are no longer available; catalog cleanup also allows deletion of a catalog even though it is not empty.

catalog connector
A catalog entry, either a user catalog entry or a catalog connector entry, in the master catalog that points to a user catalog's volume (that is, it contains the volume serial number of the direct access volume that contains the user catalog).

cataloged data set
A data set that is represented in an index or hierarchy of indexes that provide the means for locating it.

cataloged procedure
A set of job control language (JCL) statements that has been placed in a library and that is retrievable by name.

catalog entry
An object in an online catalog. An entry has a name, description, list price, and other details. The entry can be as simple as a SKU; it may also be a product that is automatically broken down into its component items such as a bundle or package. See also list price.

catalog filter
A filter that controls product entitlement by dividing catalogs into subsets as defined by the business owner. Catalog filters can also be used as one of the price rules conditions when determining the prices for the set of catalog entries that a set of customers are entitled to.

Catalog Filter and Pricing tool
A Management Center feature that is used to create and manage catalog filters, price lists, and price rules.

catalog group
A collection of one or more catalog entries or catalog groups which create a navigational hierarchy for an online catalog.

catalog index
A searchable index file that is built from the item data in an order management database. This index provides fast search capability on catalog items.

catalog member
The member in an installation that acts as an index to the information stored in the container server members and supports the data grid.

catalog node
See catalog partition.

catalog organization
An organization definition for which an item master is defined.

catalog partition
In a partitioned database environment, the database partition where the catalog tables for the database are stored. Each database in a partitioned database environment can have its catalog partition on a different database partition server. The catalog partition for a database is automatically created on the database partition server where the CREATE DATABASE command is run.

catalog recovery area (CRA)
An entry-sequenced data set (ESDS) that exists on each volume owned by a recoverable catalog, including the volume on which the catalog resides. The CRA contains copies of the catalog's records and can be used to recover a damaged catalog.

catalog request
One or more offerings that have been ordered by a service requester. Catalog requests are fulfilled via the activities of the Service Catalog approval workflow.

catalog rule
A rule that pertains to catalog management.

Catalog Search Interface
In z/OS, a particular application programming interface (API) that allows programs written in assembler or a high-level language to read information from a catalog.

catalog server
One of the four member types in an installation, the catalog server member acts as an index to the information stored in the container server members and supports the data grid.

catalog service
A service that controls placement of shards and discovers and monitors the health of containers.

catalog service domain
A highly available collection of catalog service processes.

Catalogs tool
A Management Center feature that can be used to manage catalogs, categories, catalog entries, merchandising associations, product attributes and attachments in your store.

catalog table
A table that is automatically created in the DB2 database catalog when a database is created. Catalog tables contain information about a database and its objects. See also catalog view.

catalog view

  1. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, a SYSCAT or SYSSTAT view on the catalog table.
  2. One of a set of views automatically created when a database is created. Catalog views contain information about the database and the objects in that database. Examples of information about the database are definitions of database objects and information about the authority that users have on these objects. See also catalog table.

catch block
A block associated with a try block that receives control when an exception matching its argument is thrown. See also try block.

A server that service personnel use to collect and retain status data that other machines, such as the TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server (ESS), send to it. See also catcher telephone number.

catcher telephone number
The telephone number that connects the ESS to the support-catcher server and enables the ESS to receive a trace or dump package. See also catcher, Remote Technical Assistance and Information Network.

catching message intermediate event
An intermediate event that is triggered when a specific message is received. See also intermediate event.

In a remote journal network, the process of replicating journal entries that existed in the journal receivers of the source journal before the remote journal was activated.

catch-up mount
A local mount that z/OS UNIX automatically issues to every other system's physical file system that is running sysplex-aware for that mode (read-write or read-only) when a file system mount is successful on a system in a shared file system environment.

catch-up processing
In an RSR environment, the process by which tracked log data is used to make all recoverable resources (for example, shadow databases) current with those resources on the active IMS.

catchup state
In high availability disaster recovery, a state in which the standby database might not have applied all logged operations that occurred on the primary database. In this state, the standby database retrieves and applies previously generated log data to synchronize with the primary database. There are two types of catchup states: local and remote.

categorical question
A question that has a limited number of categories with a choice of possible answers. Categorical questions can be single response or multiple response.

categorical response
A response that has a limited number of categories that represent the possible responses. Categorical responses can be single response or multiple response.

categorical variable
A variable that has a limited number of distinct values or categories, such as a variable that is based on a question that has a predefined set of answers. Categorical variables can be single response or multiple response.


  1. A classification of elements for documentation or analyses.
  2. A property that is set on an element of the business object model (BOM) and can be applied to business classes and filtered in business rules. This property allows the user to specify whether a business class and its members are visible in a rule.
  3. One possible answer in a set of answers that are defined in the category list of a categorical or grid question.
  4. A group within a system of classification whose contents share similar properties. See also category page.
  5. A set of catalog items in a number of different hierarchical and searchable groupings.
  6. A container that groups a set of related records within a file plan.
  7. A container used in a structure diagram to group elements based on a shared attribute or quality.
  8. An optional grouping of messages that are related in some way. For example, messages that relate to a particular application might be included in a single category. See also message.
  9. A word, phrase, or number used to group documents in a view.
  10. A type class that is used to organize types in a type tree in the Type Designer. Categories organize types that have common properties.
  11. A closed-ended response to a question or item in a shared list.
  12. A set of items that are grouped according to a specific description or classification. Categories can be different levels of information within a dimension. See also member.
  13. A classification of an item. Hierarchies are made up of categories and items. Items in a catalog can be associated to one or more categories from the specifications of the catalog. Items can also be unassigned, which is their default state, which means they are not in any category yet. Every hierarchy has exactly one root category. Every category can have any number of additional categories within it, called sub-categories. See also container, hierarchy.
  14. A logical subset of volumes in a tape library. A category can be assigned by the library manager (for example, the insert category) or by the software (such as, the private or scratch categories).
  15. The recommended security specifications needed for both the CICS transaction definitions and the corresponding RACF profiles.
  16. A word or phrase that classifies and organizes terms in the business glossary. A category can contain other categories, and it can also contain terms. In addition, a category can reference terms that it does not contain. See also business glossary.

category 1 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are never associated with a terminal: that is, they are for CICS internal use only and should not be invoked from a user terminal. For this reason, CICS does not perform any security checks when it initiates transactions in this category for its own use.

category 2 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either initiated by the terminal user or are associated with a terminal. You should restrict authorization to initiate these transactions to user IDs belonging to specific RACF groups.

category 3 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either invoked by the terminal user or associated with a terminal. All CICS users, whether they are signed on or not, require access to transactions in this category. For this reason, they are exempt from any security checks and CICS permits any terminal user to initiate these transactions. Examples of category 3 transactions are CESN and CESF, to sign on and off, respectively.

category attribute
An attribute instance on a category. The attribute is defined in the specification of the owning hierarchy or by a secondary specification associated to that category. See also attribute instance.

category bag
A container for keyed reference pairs used to aid discovery of a published web service. Each category bag includes a name and the value of a category to which the published item belongs.

category code
A value that uniquely identifies every category within a dimension. See also member unique name.

category count
A measure that records the number of unique, non-zero and non-missing values for the categories in the dimension and level specified by the user.

category distribution
The placement of categories among the columns of a category list that is displayed in more than one column or row.

category field
An additional field that is created by a buyer user to gather more information about categories and items. A category property is specific to the category for which it is created and applies only to items of that category.

category filter
A filter that is set on a business rule and removes the business element to which a category was attached from the completion menu.

category list
A list of predefined answers that are in a categorical or grid question. The respondent selects the answers to the question from this list. For example, a list of brand names is a category list.

category manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the category hierarchy by creating, modifying, and deleting categories. The category hierarchy organizes products or services offered by the store. The category manager also manages products, expected inventory records, vendor information, inventory, and return reasons.

category page
A web page in an online store that displays product categories. Category pages connect customers to child category pages or to products that belong to the selected category. See also category, child category.

category recommendation
A recommendation based on the category of a target product.

category replication
The answer portion of categorical, grid, and numeric grid Looks. The category replication controls which category rows in a Look are repeated when the Look is applied to a question.

category schema
A reusable group of categories and subcategories. Assets can be organized in repositories according to their category schemas.

category set
A subset of the categories in a dimension, either from a single level or from different levels in the same dimension. See also set.

category-specific item attribute
An attribute instance that applies to an item because of the presence of that item in a given category. A secondary specification with additional attributes is applied to that category, and all items in that category gain those extra fields. See also attribute instance.

category tree

  1. A hierarchy of categories. See also taxonomy.
  2. See hierarchy.

category viewer
The portion (right pane) of the Categories diagram that shows the category hierarchy of the selected dimension and provides a mechanism for manipulating the categories.

cathode ray tube (CRT)
A vacuum tube in which a beam of electrons can be moved to draw lines or to form characters or symbols on its luminescent screen.

See computer assisted telephone interviewing.

cause code
In X.25 communications, a 1-byte code included in clear-indication and reset-indication packets that indicates the origin of the packet and the reason for sending it.


  1. See cube adjusted weight.
  2. See channel address word.

See cipher block chaining.

See component-based development.

See control blocks in common.

See Class Broker for Java.

See Custom-built Product Delivery Option.


  1. See content-based retrieval.
  2. See content based routing.

See composite business service.

See computerized branch exchange.

See change control.

See Common Cryptographic Architecture.

See C/370 common anchor area.


  1. See conversation control block.
  2. See connection control block.
  3. See command control block.

CC-compatible SnapShot
See concurrent copy-compatible snapshot.

See client channel definition table.

CCD table
See consistent-change-data table.


  1. See Common Connector Framework.
  2. See channel control function.


  1. See common client interface.
  2. See Common Console Interface.

See custom card identification number.

See Comité consultatif international télégraphique et téléphonique.

See common communication layer.

See change and configuration management.

See Clinical Context Object Workgroup.

See Configuration Control Program.

See channel command retry.


  1. See Common Communications Support.
  2. See coded character set.
  3. See console communication service.
  4. See common channel signaling.

See coded character set identifier.

CCSID 65534
See coded character set identifier 65534.

CCSID 65535
See coded character set identifier 65535.

CCSID resource
A representation of the various elements associated with a CCSID in a system in a machine readable form.

CCSID resource repository
An organized collection of CCSID resources that are maintained by a service provider in a system.


  1. See coordinator control subsystem.
  2. See coordinator controller.

See closed-circuit television.

See central control unit.

See channel command word.


  1. See continuous delivery.
  2. See compact disc.


  1. See communications database.
  2. See conversation data block.


  1. See common data set descriptor record.
  2. See customization definition document.


  1. See Common Desktop Environment.
  2. See component descriptor editor.

See channel definition file.

See Channel Data Link Control protocol.

CDLC protocol
See Channel Data Link Control protocol.

See Common Data Link Interface.

See Case Data Model.

See code division multiple access.

See Commercial Data Masking Facility.

CDNM session
See cross-domain network manager session.


  1. See Continuous Data Protection.
  2. See collateral damage potential.

See cellular digital packet data.


  1. See call detail record.
  2. See critical design review.

See compact disc recordable.

See Character Data Representation Architecture.

See CD-ROM file system.

See cross-domain resource manager.

See compact-disc read-only memory.

CD-ROM file system (CDRFS)
An implementation of a read-only local file system that can be stored on CD-ROM media, write-protected CD-RW media, or DVD-ROM media.

See cross-domain resource.


  1. See control data set.
  2. See couple data set.
  3. See central directory server.
  4. See Cell Directory Service.

See CICS dynamic storage area.

See case data source component.

CDS clerk
The software that provides an interface between client applications and Cell Directory Service (CDS) servers.

CDS control program (CDSCP)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a program that Cell Directory Service (CDS) administrators use to control CDS servers and clerks.

See CDS control program.

CDSQ serialization
A technique that serializes DFSMShsm control data sets (CDSs) with a global enqueue product, such as global resource serialization (GRS).

CDSR serialization
A technique that serializes DFSMShsm control data sets (CDSs) with volume reserves.

See connect data set to line.


  1. See class descriptor table.
  2. See common development test.

CD table
See change-data table.

See conditional end bracket.

See central electronics complex.

See country extended code page.

A dump of the run-time environment for Language Environment and the member language libraries. Sections of the dump are selectively included, depending on options specified on the dump invocation. This is not a dump of the full address space, but a dump of storage and control blocks that Language Environment and its members control.

See Common Event Infrastructure.

CEI event
An event generated over the Common Event Infrastructure (CEI) and logged in a CEI data store.

The smallest integer that is greater than the floating-point number under consideration. For example, the ceiling of 3.5 is 4.

ceiling price
The cut-off value entered by the supplier for a bid in forward auction.

ceiling rate
The maximum price allowed for a product or a service.

CEI target
An application server or server cluster where the Common Event Infrastructure (CEI) server is enabled.

See Command Execution Language.


  1. A logical grouping of users, computers, data, and other resources that share either a common purpose or a common level of trust.
  2. One or more processes that each host runtime components. Each has one or more named core groups.
  3. A single cartridge location within an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS). See also rack number, slot.
  4. The rectangular juncture of a horizontal row and a vertical column. Examples include the cells of an electronic spreadsheet and the cells utilized by an XmRowColumn widget in an AIXwindows graphic interface.
  5. In a multidimensional clustering table, a unique combination of dimension values. Physically, a cell is made up of blocks of pages whose records all share the same values for each dimension column.
  6. In mobile computing, an area of radio coverage that is transmitted from a base station. See also base station, radio.
  7. In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a medium access control (MAC) protocol data unit (PDU) of fixed size.
  8. A group of managed processes that are federated to the same deployment manager and can include high-availability core groups.
  9. In a WebSphere Application Server distributed network, an arbitrary, logical grouping of one or more nodes that are managed together.
  10. A group of WebSphere Application Server nodes in a single administrative domain that is controlled by a deployment manager application.

cell code
An identifier for each segment in a campaign flowchart or in the target cell spreadsheet.

cell cube
In MSS, a block of 32 cartridge cells, four X addresses by four Y addresses by two Z addresses.

Cell Directory Service (CDS)
A Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) component that manages a database of information about the resources within a cell. See also Global Directory Service.

cell phone
A portable telephone that operates on a cellular radio network instead of a traditional wired network over a fiber optic network or the Internet. See also mobile phone.

cell-relative name
See local name.

cell-scoped binding
A binding scope where the binding is not specific to, and not associated with any node or server. This type of name binding is created under the persistent root context of a cell.

cell security
The access control level assigned to a single cell in a cube.

cell tower
See base station.

cellular digital packet data (CDPD)
A standard for transmitting data over a cellular network that places the data in digital electronic envelopes and sends it at high speed through underused radio channels or during pauses in cellular phone conversations. See also packet switching.

cell UUID
A Universally Unique Identifier for a cell that is based on the unique system ID of the workstation and a time stamp.

Pertaining to a thermometric scale at which water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at 0 degrees in standard atmospheric pressure.

See Central Europe, Middle East, and Africa.

center cell
The only cell in a star topology with the ability to make autonomic decisions.

Center for the Information of Industry data format (CII data format)
Data format that provides the Japanese syntax definition for EDI messages within Sterling B2B Integrator.

centering identifier
The category item with which all other identifiers have interacted. The centering identifier is the central item in an investigation.

center of competency (COC)

centimeter (cm)
One hundredth of a meter; 0.39 inch.

central control unit (CCU)
The communication controller hardware unit that contains the circuits and data flow paths needed to execute instructions and to control controller storage and the attached adapters.

central data warehouse
The component of Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse that contains the cleansed historical data. Data in the central data warehouse is derived from operational data, although operational data is not stored directly in the central data warehouse.

central data warehouse ETL
In Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse, the extract, transform, and load (ETL) process that reads the data from the operational data stores of the application that collects it (for example, a log file, a Tivoli Inventory repository, or a Tivoli Enterprise Console database), verifies the data, makes the data conform to the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse schema, and places the data into the central data warehouse. See also data mart ETL.

central directory
A repository for storing resource location information centrally registered by network nodes or cached as the result of network searches.

central directory architecture
Directory architecture in a Domino domain in which some servers store configuration directories and use primary Domino Directories on remote servers for lookups.

central directory server (CDS)
A network node that provides a repository for information on network resource locations. It also reduces the number of network searches by providing a focal point for queries and broadcast searches, and by storing the results of network searches to avoid later broadcasts for the same information.

central electronic complex
See central processor complex.

central electronics complex (CEC)
See central processor complex.

Central Europe, Middle East, and Africa (CEMA)
For organizational, legal, or administrative purposes, the region comprising Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Hungary, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, and IBM Middle East. See also Northeast Europe.

Central File Management (CFM)
A central location that receives files for translation from development and, using Translation Workbench (TWB), creates project folders, performs English-to-English word count, and helps identify the appropriate TM translation memories.

The relative importance of one entity compared to other entities in social network analysis, as determined by its relationships. See also authority, betweenness, closeness, degree, eigenvector, hub, social network analysis.

centralized control
A type of control in which in which all the primary station functions of the data link are centralized in one data station. See also independent control.

centralized directory service
In OSI, a method of organizing directory services so that one node provides directory service for other nodes. OSI Communications Subsystem supports only centralized directory service.

centralized installation manager
A component that remotely installs and uninstalls product and maintenance packages in server environments.

centralized processing
In CICS, processing in which the application is processed on a central processor, which users access using a terminal.

centrally managed service
A pureScale service that is fully managed by IBM Systems Director.

Central Message Store (CMS)
A mailbox system that processes documents and controls services such as messaging, archiving and queuing.

central office (CO)
A telephone switching system that connects customer-premise business and subscriber lines to other customer lines or trunks, both locally or remotely. A central office is located on the edge of the telephone service provider's network, rather than on a customer's premises.

central processing unit (CPU)

  1. See processor.
  2. See workstation.

central processor (CP)
The part of the computer that contains the sequencing and processing facilities for instruction execution, initial program load, and other machine operations.

central processor complex (CPC)
A physical collection of hardware that consists of main storage, one or more central processors, timers, and channels.

central registry
A server's database that logs requests for licenses, upgrades for licenses, and journals all license activity in a tamper-proof auditable file. The central registry is a component of the License Use Management network topology.

central resource registration
A process in which an APPN network node sends information about itself and its client end nodes to a central directory server.

central scheduler
A function that permits an administrator to schedule client operations and administrative commands. The operations can be scheduled to occur periodically or on a specific date. See also administrative command schedule, client schedule.

central site
In a network of systems, the system licensed to receive program temporary fixes (PTFs) and distribution media from IBM. This system is also used to provide problem handling support to other systems in a network. In a distributed data processing network, the central site is usually defined as the focal point in a communications network for alerts, application design, and remote system management tasks such as problem management.

central site control facility (CSCF)
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, NetView for VM, and NetView for VSE, a function that allows a network operator to run the test facilities of the IBM 3172 Nways Interconnect Controller and the IBM 3174 Establishment Controller remotely from the NetView console.

central storage
Storage that is an integral part of the processor unit. Central storage includes both main storage and the hardware system area. UNIX-experienced users refer to central storage as memory.

central system
A single system that handles all of the communications to an endpoint system.

See complex event processing.


  1. See Conference Europeenne des Administrations des Postes et Telecommunications.
  2. See Commission of European Post and Telegraph.

See CERT Coordination Center.

CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC)
A major reporting center for Internet security problems. Staff members provide technical advice and coordinate responses to security compromises, identify trends in intruder activity, work with other security experts to identify solutions to security problems, and disseminate information to the broad community. The CERT/CC also analyzes product vulnerabilities, publishes technical documents, and presents training courses.

In computer security, a digital document that binds a public key to the identity of the certificate owner, thereby enabling the certificate owner to be authenticated. A certificate is issued by a certificate authority and is digitally signed by that authority. See also certificate authority, certificate signing request, SSL server authentication.

certificate alias
A group that contains one or two certificates. If there are two certificates in the alias, one is the primary and one is the backup, based on the earlier effective from date.

certificate authority (CA)

  1. A component that issues certificates to each computer on which components are installed.
  2. A trusted third-party organization or company that issues the digital certificates. The certificate authority typically verifies the identity of the individuals who are granted the unique certificate. See also certificate, Globus certificate service, intermediate certificate, Secure Sockets Layer, SSL server authentication, trusted root.

certificate authority certificate (CA certificate)

  1. A digital certificate that is issued by a certificate authority. The CA verifies trusted certificates for trusted roots.
  2. In computer security, a digital document that identifies an organization that issues certificates. See also digital certificate.

certificate authority enterprise application
A company application that provides certificates and private keys for its client applications.

certificate chain
A path that traces certificates from a branch in the hierarchy to the primary CA certificate.

certificate filter
A filter that defines a set of similar distinguished name certificate attributes for a group of certificates in an X.509 source user registry.

certificate name filter
A general resource profile that maps multiple user IDs to a digital certificate in order to simplify administration of certificates, conserve storage space in the RACF database, maintain accountability, or maintain access control granularity.

certificate revocation list (CRL)
A list of certificates that have been revoked before their scheduled expiration date. Certificate revocation lists are maintained by the certificate authority and used, during a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) handshake to ensure that the certificates involved have not been revoked.

certificate signing request (CSR)
An electronic message that an organization sends to a certificate authority (CA) to obtain a certificate. The request includes a public key and is signed with a private key; the CA returns the certificate after signing with its own private key. See also certificate, keystore.

certificate store

  1. A collection of certificates.
  2. The Windows name for a key repository.

A process that creates special signed messages called certificates, which state that a particular public key is associated with a particular user or server name.

certifier ID
A file that generates an electronic "stamp" that indicates a trust relationship. It is analogous to the device used to stamp passports--it verifies that a person is trusted by that stamping authority.

certifier ID file
A file that generates an electronic "stamp" that indicates a trust relationship. It is analogous to the device used to stamp passports--it verifies that a person is trusted by that stamping authority.

See connection event sequence.


  1. See coupling facility.
  2. See cluster caching facility.

CF cache structure
See coupling facility cache structure.

See combined function IOP.

CF key
See command function key.

CF lock structure
See coupling facility lock structure.


  1. See Central File Management.
  2. See Configuration File Manager.

See coupling facility resource management.

CFRM policy
See coupling facility resource management policy.

See continuous-forms stacker.

A WebSphere MQ object used to describe the queue manager's use of a Coupling Facility list structure

See coded graphic character set global identifier.

See Common Gateway Interface.

CGI program
See CGI script.

CGI script
A computer program that runs on a web server and uses the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) to perform tasks that are not usually done by a web server (for example, database access and form processing).

See Computer Graphics Metafile.

See character generator utility.

The material separated from a data medium when punching a hole or from the carrier holes in continuous forms.

See Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm.


  1. A group of logically linked records that are transferred over a communications line.
  2. A set of enclosures that are attached to provide redundant access to the drives inside the enclosures. Each control enclosure can have one or more chains.
  3. In RPG, an operation code that reads input records identified by specified relative record numbers or keys.
  4. A group of request units delimited by begin-chain and end-chain. Responses are always single-unit chains.
  5. The name of a channel framework connection that contains an endpoint definition.
  6. In DFU, a way to change from one display format to another after the user signals that the first display format was completed.

chain assembly
In CICS intercommunication, a grouping of one or more request units to satisfy a single request. Instead of an input request being satisfied by one RU at a time until the chain is complete, the whole chain is assembled and sent to the CICS application satisfying just one request. This ensures that the integrity of the whole chain is known before it is presented to the application program.

chained order
An order that must finish its fulfillment process before its parent order can be considered fulfilled. An order is chained when a parent order must communicate some portion of the order fulfillment execution to a third party.

chain erase
The process of erasing a snapshot chain.


  1. A method of storing records in which each record belongs to a list or group of records and has a linking field for tracing the chain.
  2. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a mode of interaction optionally used by a directory system agent (DSA) that cannot perform an operation by itself. The DSA chains by invoking the operation in another DSA and then relaying the outcome to the original requester.

A request for certain information to a system. The information, which is sent back to the server in response to this request, is necessary for client authentication.

challenge handler
A client-side component that issues a sequence of challenges on the server side and responds on the client side. See also authenticator.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
An authentication protocol that protects against eavesdropping by encrypting the user name and password. See also Password Authentication Protocol.

challenge-response authentication
An authentication method that requires users to respond to a prompt by providing information to verify their identity when they log in to the system. For example, when users forget their password, they are prompted (challenged) with a question to which they must provide an answer (response) in order to either receive a new password or receive a hint for specifying the correct password.

chameleon schema
A schema that inherits a target namespace from a schema that includes the chameleon schema.


  1. An artifact that represents a generalized notion of a development work product, such as a task, defect report, or enhancement request. See also initiative.
  2. A function or mode that enables a user to modify a specified character string in previously entered text.

changeable media origin
In printers, the ability to accept a command that changes the point on the medium where printing begins.

change accumulation

  1. The process of merging log data sets and reducing the information they contain to the minimum required to perform recovery on a particular database or group of databases.
  2. The process of creating a compacted version of one or more IMS log data sets by eliminating records not related to recovery, and by merging multiple changes to a single segment into a single change.

change aggregate table
In SQL replication, a type of replication target table that contains data aggregations that are based on the contents of a CD table. See also base aggregate table.

change and configuration management (CCM)
A systematic approach to establish and maintain the consistent performance of a system or product throughout its lifecycle, and to effectively manage changes in that product or system.

change authority
An object authority that allows a user to perform all operations on the object except those limited to the owner or controlled by object existence authority, object management authority, object alter authority, and object reference authority. The user can add, change, and delete entries in an object, or read the contents of an entry in the object. Change authority combines object operational authority and all the data authorities.

change bar

  1. A character used in the left margin to indicate that a document line is changed.
  2. An indicator that displays when an object was last changed.

change basis version
The version of the server partition that changes were made against.

change-capture replication
The process of capturing changes that are made to a replication source table and applying them to a replication target table. See also full refresh.

change control (CC)
The use of change management commands for the installation or removal of software or data.

change control administrator
A person responsible for software distribution and change control activities.

change control client
A workstation that (a) receives software and data files from its change control server and (b) installs and removes software and data files as instructed by its change control server. See also change control single node.

change control domain
A change control server and its change control clients.

change control server
A system that controls and tracks the distribution of software and data files to other workstations. See also change control single node.

change control single node
A workstation that controls, tracks, installs, and removes software and data files for itself. A CC single node can also prepare software for distribution. See also change control client, change control server.

change-data table (CD table)
In SQL replication, a replication table on the Capture control server that contains changed data for a replication source table. See also synchpoint.

change-direction protocol
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which the sending logical unit (LU) stops sending normal-flow requests, signals this fact to the receiving LU using the change-direction indicator (in the request header of the last request of the last chain), and prepares to receive requests.

changed subfile record
A subfile record into which the work station user has entered data, or a subfile record for which a write or change operation was issued with the DDS keyword SFLNXTCHG or DSPATR(MDT) in effect.

change file
A file formatted to the specifications outlined by LLIS. A change file is used for bulk changes to existing user accounts.

change history
A section that displays modifications in the data records, such as supplier records and organization records.

change implementation schedule
A view in change management that shows the start and end dates for changes to selected configuration items in the environment, the RFC that defines the change, and other details.

change listener
In Java, a listener that is notified when an object is changed in any way.

change log

  1. For directory shadowing, a record of changes made to directory entries, departments, and locations for the purpose of sending only the updates and not the entire directory to collecting systems.
  2. The area of the checkpoint data set that contains the specific control blocks changed by the last member of the multi-access spool configuration to own the checkpoint data set.

change-managed relationship
A relationship between two artifacts. A change to either artifact affects the relationship. See also suspect relationship state.

change management

  1. The process of controlling and tracking modifications to artifacts.
  2. The process of planning (for example, scheduling) and controlling (for example, distributing, installing, and tracking) software changes over a network.
  3. The process of planning for and executing changes to configuration items in the information technology environment. The primary objective of change management is to enable beneficial changes to be made with minimum disruption to services.

change number of sessions (CNOS)
An internal transaction program that regulates the number of parallel sessions between the partner LUs with specific characteristics.

change order

  1. A record of the changes made during the course of a contract or project execution.
  2. An update to a purchase order that is already approved or printed and that changes information such as quantity or vendor.

change ownership
A method of transferring ownership of a case or a document to another user using Intel L.E.A.D.

change project
A project that is implemented on a staging or a testing environment before being implemented on a production environment to mitigate and minimize operational errors.

change proposal system
A system that allows users to review modules and suggest changes to them.

change record
A recorded instance that is created with each write action to the repository. The change record contains metadata about all repository changes (such as who was responsible for a commit action) and can be used as a version history view of the repository.

change request (CRQ)

  1. In System Manager, an instance of a change request description that has been submitted to run or is running. A change request is uniquely identified by the change request name and a sequence number.
  2. A request to change some aspect of the project, project plan, activity definition, or document.
  3. A small, independent unit of work into which each change project is divided.
  4. A request created in the Telecom Portal application to replace a device, or change a rate plan.
  5. A request from a stakeholder to change an artifact or process. See also defect, enhancement request.

change request description (CRQD)
An i5/OS object that describes a change to be made to the computing environment. The object, which is maintained only at the central site system or systems, consists of a list of activities that describe the steps needed to make the change.

change set

  1. A group of related changes to artifacts in a workspace or stream.
  2. A list of versions of elements that are associated with a Unified Change Management (UCM) activity.
  3. A cohesive unit consisting of a number of related changes that need to be made together.

change table
A table that is used to change company codes, account codes, extended dimension codes, or to merge accounts or dimensions.

change volume
A volume that is used in Global Mirror that holds earlier consistent revisions of data when changes are made.

change window
A period of time defined for one or more configuration items, which specifies when the CIs can be taken out of service for changes to be made, with minimal impact on services.

change window conflict
A condition that occurs when implementation tasks have been scheduled for a CI outside its change window.


  1. A collection of test environment properties that describes a delivery platform in your test effort.
  2. A communication path through a chain to an endpoint.
  3. In mainframe computing, the part of a channel subsystem that manages a single I/O interface between a channel subsystem and a set of control units.
  4. A WebSphere MQ object that defines a communication link between two queue managers (message channel) or between a client and a queue manager (MQI channel). See also message channel, MQI channel, queue manager.
  5. The means of distribution of a company's products. Examples are e-commerce and physical stores.
  6. A link along which signals can be sent, such as the channel that handles the transfer of data between processor storage and local peripheral equipment. See also trunk.
  7. A specialized web application within a portal to which a user can subscribe.

channel action
A business function that can be issued on a channel. Channel actions are role specific and an authorization policy makes it possible to control which role can perform which action in a channel.

channel adapter (CA)
A communication controller hardware unit that is used to attach the communication controller to a host channel.

channel address word (CAW)
An area in storage that specifies the location in main storage at which a channel program begins.

channel application
An application that is used to place an order in a store or online call center of a retail business.

channel associated signaling (CAS)
A method of communicating telephony supervisory or line signaling (on-hook and off-hook) and address signaling on T1 and E1 digital links. See also common channel signaling.


  1. Pertaining to devices attached to a controlling unit by cables, rather than by telecommunication lines. See also link-attached.
  2. Pertaining to the attachment of devices directly by input/output channels to a host processor.

channel-attachment major node
A major node that may include minor nodes that are resources (host processors, NCPs, line groups, lines, SNA physical units and logical units, cluster controllers, and terminals) attached through a communication adapter.

channel bank
A device that converts an analog line signal to a digital trunk signal.

channel callback
A mechanism that ensures that the channel connection is established to the correct machine. In a channel callback, a sender channel calls back the original requester channel using the sender's definition.

channel code
A number from 1 to 12 that identifies a position in a forms-control buffer or a page definition.

channel command
An instruction that directs a data channel, control unit, or device to perform an operation or set of operations.

channel command retry (CCR)
In mainframe computing, the protocol used between a channel and a control unit that enables the control unit to request that the channel reissue the current command.

channel command word (CCW)
In zSeries systems, an 8-byte command issued to the channel subsystem by a central processor and operating asynchronously with the issuing processor.

channel-control check
A category of I/O errors affecting channel controls and sensed by the channel to which a device is attached.

channel control function (CCF)
A program to move messages from a transmission queue to a communication link, and from a communication link to a local queue, together with an operator panel interface to allow the setup and control of channels.

channel counter
A counting device that identifies how many pages have been successfully received.

channel-data check
A category of I/O errors, indicating a machine error in transferring data to or from storage and sensed by the channel to which a device is attached.

Channel Data Link Control protocol (CDLC, CDLC protocol)
A channel communications protocol that is used to communicate between VTAM and a front end processor (either hardware or emulated).

channel definition file (CDF)
A file containing communication channel definitions that associate transmission queues with communication links.

channel event
An event reporting conditions detected during channel operations, such as when a channel instance is started or stopped. Channel events are generated on the queue managers at both ends of the channel.

channel exit program
A user-written program that is called from one of a defined number of places in the processing sequence of a message channel agent (MCA).

channel framework
A common model for connection management, thread usage, channel management, and message access within an application server.

channel ID
An identification number that is passed back from a multiplexed device to the file system as a result of calling the device driver multiplex (ddmpx) entry point.

channel initiator
A component of WebSphere MQ distributed queuing that monitors the initiation queue and starts the sender channel when triggering criteria are met.

channel interface
The circuitry in a storage control that attaches storage paths to a host channel.

channel link
A System/390 I/O channel-to-control-unit interface that has an SNA network address. A channel link can be a subarea link, a peripheral link, a LEN link, or an APPN link. See also subarea link.

channel listener
A component of WebSphere MQ distributed queuing that monitors the network for a startup request and then starts the receiving channel.

channel manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the channel hub, as well as the distributors and resellers associated with that hub, including creating and importing distributor and reseller contracts.

channel number

  1. A number that identifies the path by which data is transferred between a particular input or output device and the processor of the computer.
  2. The identifying number assigned to a licensed channel on the T1 or E1 trunk that connects DirectTalk to the switch, channel bank, or channel service unit.

channel path

  1. In mainframe computing, the interconnection between a channel and its associated control units.
  2. A single interface attaching one or more control units.

channel-path identifier (CHPID)

  1. A value assigned to each installed channel path of the system that uniquely identifies that path to the system.
  2. In a channel subsystem, a value that is assigned to each installed channel path of the system that uniquely identifies that path to the system.

channel process (CHP)

  1. The AIX process that executes the logic of the state table; each active caller session has one active channel process.
  2. In WebSphere Voice Server, the system process that manages call flow.

channel program
A sequence of one or more channel command words (CCWs) issued to one device.

channel service unit (CSU)

  1. A device used to connect a digital phone line to a multiplexer, a channel bank, or directly to another device producing a digital signal. A CSU performs certain line-conditioning and equalization functions, and responds to loopback commands sent from the central office (CO). See also data service unit.
  2. An American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) unit that is part of the AT&T nonswitched digital data system.

channel station
In certain printers, a page-counting device that counts the number of pages queued for printing.

channel status word (CSW)
A field that provides the program with the status of an I/O device or the conditions under which an I/O operation has been terminated.

channel subsystem (CSS)
A collection of subchannels that directs the flow of information between I/O devices and main storage, relieves the processor of communication tasks, and performs path management functions.

channel-subsystem image
In mainframe computing, the logical functions that a system requires to perform the function of a channel subsystem. With ESCON multiple image facility (EMIF), one channel-subsystem image exists in the channel subsystem for each logical partition (LPAR). Each image appears to be an independent channel-subsystem program, but all images share a common set of hardware facilities.

channel-to-channel (CTC)
Pertaining to the physical connection or the interaction of two devices.

channel-to-channel adapter (CTC adapter)
A device for connecting two channels on the same processor or on different processors.

chaotic relaxation
An iterative relaxation method that uses a combination of the Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi-Seidel methods. The array of discrete values is divided into subregions that can be operated on in parallel. The subregion boundaries are calculated using the Jacobi-Seidel method, while the subregion interiors are calculated using the Gauss-Seidel method. See also Gauss-Seidel.

See Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.

CHAP secret
In the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), a secret passphrase that is used to authenticate a storage system to iSCSI-attached hosts.


  1. Any symbol that can be entered on a keyboard, printed, or displayed. For example, letters, numbers, and punctuation marks are all characters.
  2. A sequence of one or more bytes representing a single graphic symbol or control code.
  3. In bar codes, a single group of bars and spaces that represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
  4. In a computer system, a member of a set of elements that is used for the representation, organization, or control of data. See also glyph.

character angle
In architecture, the angle that is between the baseline of a character string and the horizontal axis of a presentation space or physical medium.

character arrangement table
An array of data that translates input data into printable characters and identifies associated character sets and graphic character modification modules.

character array
A named list or table of character data.

character attribute
A code that defines a single property of a character or characters; for example, extended color, character set, or extended highlighting. A character can have more than one defined character attribute.

character-based interface
A computer interface that shows only characters and no graphics on the screen.

character baseline
See baseline.

character box

  1. The area that completely contains the character pattern.
  2. The maximum area in which a symbol and all associated elements, such as a cursor, an underline, or space surrounding the symbol to separate it from other symbols, can be printed or displayed.
  3. The imaginary parallelogram whose boundaries govern the size, orientation, and spacing of individual characters to be displayed on a graphics display device.

character-box reference edge
In architecture, one of the four edges of a character box.

character cell

  1. See character box.
  2. In the GDDM function, the imaginary box whose boundaries govern the size, orientation, and spacing of individual characters to be displayed on a work station.
  3. The physical width and height in pels of a font.
  4. An addressable location on a display surface or printing medium. The character cell defines the placement of characters with respect to preceding and following characters.
  5. As defined in ISO/IEC 10646, the place within a row at which an individual graphic character may be allocated.
  6. The maximum physical boundary of a single character. For example on the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a cell is made up of 24 rows with total height of 4.23 mm and 18 bit positions having a total width of 2.54 mm.

character cell size
In architecture, the size of a rectangle in a drawing space used to scale font symbols into the drawing space.

character class
A named set of characters sharing an attribute associated with the name of the class. The classes and the characters that they contain are dependent on the value of the LC_CTYPE category in the current locale.

character code

  1. In System i Access, an ASCII or EBCDIC value assigned to the symbols or functions that are used by a computer.
  2. An element of a code page or a cell in a code table to which a character can be assigned. The element is associated with a binary value.

character concatenated expression
A concatenated expression that consists of one or more character columns, string literals, or substrings of character columns.

character constant

  1. In the C language, a character or an escape sequence enclosed in quotation marks.
  2. The actual character value (a symbol, quantity, or constant) in a source program that is itself data, instead of a reference to a field that contains the data. See also numeric constant.

character conversion
The process of changing data from one character coding representation to another.

character conversion table
A table that converts one or more characters to alternative characters using hexadecimal encoding for the character sets. The character sets are defined in code pages.

character coordinate system
An orthogonal coordinate system that defines font and character measurement distances.

character data

  1. Data that has an associated coding representation that defines how to interpret each specific pattern of bits that are grouped into one or more bytes.
  2. Data in the form of letters and special characters, such as punctuation marks.

Character Data Representation Architecture (CDRA)
An IBM architecture that defines a set of identifiers, resources, services, and conventions to achieve consistent representation, processing, and interchange of graphic character data in heterogeneous environments.

character data representation identifier
A tag that is used to achieve data integrity. The Character Data Representation Architecture specifies that you should tag all character data as it flows through the system. You can tag using a short-form or a long-form identifier. A coded character set identifier (CCSID) is an example of a character data representation identifier.

character density
A measure of the horizontal spacing of characters.

character device
A device that handles data one character at a time.

character direction
In Graphic Object Content Architecture, an attribute controlling the direction in which a character string grows relative to the inline direction. Values are left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, and bottom-to-top. See also escapement direction.

character display
A display that uses a character generator to display predefined character boxes of images (characters) on the screen. This kind of display cannot address the screen any less than one character box at a time.

character encoding

  1. A character set consisting of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses. Encoding facilitates the storage and transmission of text through telecommunication networks.
  2. The mapping from a character (a letter of the alphabet) to a numeric value in a character code set. For example, the ASCII character code set encodes the letter "A" as 65, while the EBCIDIC character set encodes this letter as 43. The character code set contains encodings for all characters in one or more language alphabets.

character entity reference
A character string of the form &#xdddd or &#dddd, where dddd is the hexadecimal or decimal equivalent of the Unicode code point of a character. For example, &#x003E and &#0062 are both character entity references to the > (greater-than) sign.

character escapement point
The point where the next character reference point is usually positioned.

character expression
A character constant, a simple character variable, an element of a character array, a character-valued function reference, a substring reference, or a sequence of the above separated by the concatenation operator and parentheses.

character field
An area that is reserved for information that can contain any of the characters in the character set. See also numeric field.

character format
In REXX, a format that is used in the REXX conversion functions to indicate that data is in a textual form as opposed to machine-readable form.

character generator

  1. In word processing, the way to generate visual characters and symbols for coded data.
  2. In computer graphics, a function that converts the coded representation of a graphic character into the shape of the character for display or print.

character generator utility (CGU)
A function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that is used to define and maintain user-defined double-byte characters and related sort information.

character graphic

  1. The visual representation of a character, defined by toned or untoned picture elements. See also graphic character, graphic character.
  2. An image that is composed of symbols printed in a monospace font. Some symbols are standalone; others are intended for assembling larger figures.

character grid
In Business Graphics Utility, an invisible network of uniformly spaced horizontal and vertical lines covering the chart area. Used by the Business Graphics Utility to determine the physical dimensions of the chart and the placement of the data on it.

character grid unit
In Business Graphics Utility, the distance between two adjacent horizontal or vertical lines on a character grid.

character group
Any number of character graphics and character properties.

character ID
See character identifier.

character identifier

  1. On a system, a 4-byte binary value. The value is a concatenation of the graphic character set global identifier followed by the code page global identifier. For example, the character identifier for German (feature 2929) is 00697 00273.
  2. The standard identifier for a character, regardless of its style. For example, all uppercase A's have the same character identifier.

character image
See glyph.

character increment
The distance from the character reference point to the character escapement point. Character increment is the sum of the A-space, B-space, and C-space. Usually the distance between the current print position and the next print position.

character-increment adjustment
In a scaled font, an adjustment to character increment values. The adjustment value is derived from the kerning track values for the font used to present the characters.

A user-defined trait or property that is associated with an identity that is not commonly expressed as a name, number, address, or email. This attribute allows users to extend the product by defining customizable entity attributes that are meaningful to their data sources. See also attribute, identity.

characteristic type
A specific classification of a characteristic. Examples of characteristic types include gender and date of birth, but additional characteristic types can be defined.

character large object (CLOB)

  1. A data type whose value is a sequence of characters (single byte, multibyte, or both) that can range in size from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. In general, the CLOB data type is used whenever a character string might exceed the limits of the VARCHAR data type. See also large object.
  2. A character string that contains single-byte characters with an associated code page.

character literal
A literal that represents character data.

character mapping
The association of code-page code points to the appropriate graphic-character identifiers in a font.

character metric
Measurement information that defines an individual character value such as height, width, or space. Character metrics may be expressed in specific fixed units, such as pels, or in relative units that are independent of both the resolution and size of the font. Often included as part of the general term font metrics. See also character set metric.

character name
See character identifier.

character normalization
A process in which the variant forms of a character, such as capitalization and diacritical marks, are reduced to a common form.

character operator
A symbol representing an operation to be performed on character data, such as concatenation (joining the data or fields) in the control language (CL).

character pattern
See character raster pattern.

character-pattern descriptor
In architecture, information that the printer needs to separate font raster patterns. Each character pattern descriptor is 8 bytes long and specifies both the character box size and an offset value.

character position
On a display, the location of a character.

character positioning
The process of determining where a character is to appear on a presentation surface.

character precision
In architecture, the acceptable amount of variation in the appearance of a character on a physical medium from a specified ideal appearance, including no acceptable variation. Examples of appearance characteristics that can vary for a character are shape and position.

character printer
A device that prints a single character at a time. See also line printer.

character property
Any detail about how a character is printed relative to the other characters around it. Character properties are box size, horizontal and vertical character cell size, character ID, center line, baseline, left space, right space, above space, and below space.

character raster pattern
The scan (picture element) pattern for a character graphic of a particular size, weight, and style.

character recognition
The identification of geographic, phonic, or other characters by automatic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical means.

character reference point

  1. The point along the character baseline within the character box that coincides with the current print position.
  2. The point that corresponds to the origin of the character coordinate system. The character reference point coincides with the presentation position when the character is formed in the presentation process. See also current print position.

character rotation
The alignment of a character with respect to its character baseline, measured in degrees in a clockwise direction. See also orientation.

character set

  1. A list of characters (letters, numbers, and symbols such as #, $, and &) that are recognized by computer hardware and software.
  2. A set of binary codes that represent specific text characters.
  3. A defined set of characters with no coded representation assumed that can be recognized by a configured hardware or software system. A character set can be defined by alphabet, language, script, or any combination of these items.

character set attribute
In architecture, an attribute used to specify a coded font.

character set identifier 65534
The character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that a CCSID value for data at this level of processing is not relevant. When CCSID 65534 ( FFFE ) is associated with data, a CCSID value for the data should be obtained from the tagged fields of elements that are at a lower level in the defined hierarchy. For example, a file has CCSIDs tagged for each individual field it contains. If the file is tagged with CCSID 65534, processing is based on the CCSIDs assigned to each individual field instead of the CCSID assigned to the file.

character set identifier 65535
The character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that data associated with the CCSID should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data.

character set metric
One of the measurements used to describe a characteristic of the all the characters in that font. Examples are height, width, and character increment for each character of the font. See also character metric, font metric, relative metrics.

character shape
The visual representation of a graphic character.

character shape presentation
The formation of a character shape on a physical medium at an addressable position determined by the formatting process.

character shear
See shear.

character space
The horizontal space or size of a character. This size depends on the character, the font, and the device on which the character is printed.

character spacing
See character increment.

character special file
An interface file that provides access to an input or output device, which uses character I/0 instead of block I/0. See also block special file.

characters per inch (cpi)
The number of characters printed horizontally within an inch across a page.

characters per second (cps)
The number of characters that a device can print in one second.

character string

  1. A contiguous sequence of characters that are treated as a unit.
  2. A contiguous sequence of characters terminated by and including the first null byte.
  3. A sequence of bytes that represents bit data, single-byte characters, or a mixture of single-byte and multibyte characters.

character string delimiter
A character that is used to identify the beginning and the end of a character string.

character substring
A contiguous portion of a character string.

character times
In CCP, the maximum number of times that the temporary text delay character can (a) be sent to a terminal before the operation stops; or (b) be sent between the end of a receive operation and the beginning of a transmit operation.

character translation
In international character support, the dd command and various conversion subroutines that translate between extended characters and ASCII escape strings to preserve unique character information.

character type
A data type that consists of alphanumeric characters.

character variable

  1. Character data with a value that is assigned or changed while the program is running.
  2. In the C language, a data object having a value that can be changed while a program is running and having a data type that is a signed or unsigned character.

An assertion of a specific crime for which a suspect has been accused of committing.

charge and allowance code
An industry-standard identifier that the shipper assigns to each accessorial.

A financial penalty that is assigned to a vendor for violations to compliance rules and other criteria.

charge-back account
An account used for tracking computing resource usage by business departments or projects. Examples of charge-back accounts are "Marketing Department" or "Summer catalog project."

chargeback allocation
A charge category used for cost allocation.

charge-back identifier
A label, which is often tied to an algorithm or set of rules, that is not guaranteed to be unique, but is used to identify and distinguish a specific charge-back item or charge-back entity from others.

charge code
An accounting code that is used to register and categorize costs against project budgets.

charge feature
An optional feature for either software or hardware for which there is a charge.

charge out
To check out and track a physical record.

charge sequence
The sequence in which Sterling Selling and Fulfillment Foundation creates authorization or charge requests. For example, the charge sequence might specify that gift certificates are to be used before a credit card is charged.

charging requesting service
In X.25 communication, an optional facility that specifies that charging information (segment count data, monetary unit data, or call duration data) is required.


  1. A picture defined in terms of graphics primitives and graphics attributes.
  2. A visual representation of real-world objects, such as organizations, people, events, or locations, and the relationships between them.

chart area
In the GDDM function, the part of the picture space in which a business chart is to be drawn.

chart format
In Business Graphics Utility, an object containing chart characteristics, such as the chart type, chart heading, legend position, and so on. The chart format does not include the data values to be plotted. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CHTFMT.

chart fragment
A view of a chart that highlights particular items of interest.

charting scheme
A definition that describes how item data behaves when it is visualized on a chart. For example, how data is copied into chart item properties, the chart template and labeling scheme to use, and whether to display attributes and pictures. See also chart template.

chart layer
A map layer that contains the items that have been sent from the chart surface to the mapping tool.

chart layout
In Business Graphics Utility, the arrangement of the various parts in the chart area and surrounding margins.

chart of accounts (COA)
A detailed listing of all the accounts used by a company.

chart property
A characteristic of a chart, such as its summary description, time zone, grid size, background color, or merge and paste rules. Chart properties are saved with the chart. See also chart template.

chart series
A selection of a category of data that will be represented by a chart in a report. A chart can have multiple chart series to represent multiple types of data.

chart template
An object that is used for chart creation that contains preconfigured chart properties, and lists of permitted entity types and link types. See also chart property, charting scheme.

In SNA, a command used by the host system to determine when the secondary logical unit has finished processing all previously sent response units.

The metal frame in which various electronic components are mounted.

chassis detect-and-deploy profile
A profile that IBM Director automatically applies to all new BladeCenter chassis when they are discovered. The profile settings include management module name, network protocols, and static IP addresses. If Remote Deployment Manager (RDM) is installed on the management server, the chassis detect-and-deploy profile also can include deployment policies.

The sending of typed messages between online participants.

chat script
In remote communication, a list of expect-send sequences that a modem uses to establish a communication link with another modem.

chat transcript
A file that contains a copy of the typed messages between participants in a chat meeting.

cheat sheet
An interface that guides users through the wizards and steps required to perform a complex task, and that links to relevant sections of the online help.


  1. A process for determining accuracy.
  2. In printers, an action message that instructs the printer operator to inspect a component. For example, the CHECK TONER COLLECTOR message means that the operator should look at the toner-collector bottle and make sure that it is physically present, in the proper place, and correctly installed.
  3. A periodic inspection of an aircraft after a specified amount of time in service.
  4. To look for a condition.

check box
A square box with associated text that represents a choice. When a user selects the choice, the check box is filled to indicate that the choice is selected. The user can clear the check box by selecting the choice again, thereby deselecting the choice.

check character
A character used for the purpose of performing a check.

CHECK clause
In SQL, an extension to the SQL CREATE TABLE and SQL ALTER TABLE statements that specifies a table check constraint.

check condition
A restricted form of search condition used in check constraints.

check constraint
A user-defined constraint that specifies the values that specific columns of a base table can contain. See also constraint.

check digit

  1. A check key consisting of a single digit.
  2. The far right number of a self-check field that is used to verify the accuracy of the field.

checked-out version
A copy of a file that corresponds to a version of an element. See also version.

The action that creates a new version of an element on any branch of its version tree.

See check-in.

check in

  1. In certain software configuration management (SCM) systems, to copy files back into the repository after changing them.
  2. To upload the language of a checked out draft authored/received contract or amendment contract into the application.
  3. To replace an inactive document, project WBS element, scope element, requirement or resource record (with its modifications) to its repository directory so that others can view it or modify it.
  4. To save local changes in a change set that is part of a repository workspace. A checked-in change set can later be shared with a team by delivering the change set.

check-in screen
The screen identifying the host screen that should be active for a connection to be considered ready to be returned to the connection pool. If the application is not on the screen specified by the check-in screen, the connection will be discarded or recycled in attempt to return the connection to the host screen specified by the check-in screen. The check-in screen is only meaningful if connection pooling is specified for a connection.

check integrity
The condition that exists when each row in a table conforms to the check constraints that are defined on that table.

check out

  1. To remove an active document, project WBS element, scope element, requirement or resource record from its repository directory in order to modify it. Only one individual may check out the same element at a time.
  2. To download the language of a draft authored/received contract or amendment contract from the application to modify it.
  3. In certain software configuration management (SCM) systems, to copy the latest revision of a file from the repository so that it can be modified. See also reservation version status.

check pending

  1. A state that occurs when data for a constraint cannot be verified as valid. A constraint could be either a referential constraint or a check constraint.
  2. In DB2 for z/OS, a state into which a table can be put where only limited activity is allowed on the table and constraints are not checked when the table is updated. See also set integrity pending.


  1. A point at which the database manager records internal status information in the log; the recovery process uses this information if the subsystem abnormally terminates.
  2. A compressed file that contains configuration data from a specific point in time.
  3. A place in a program at which a check is made, or at which a recording of data is made to allow the program to be restarted in case of interruption.

checkpoint algorithm
The algorithm that determines when to commit all global transactions for the job steps in a batch application. See also results algorithm.

checkpoint data set
A local data set that contains Common Queue Server (CQS) system checkpoint information about a group of shared queues.

The periodic copying of processing information to the checkpoint data set. Checkpointing ensures that information about in-storage job and output queues is not lost in the event of a hardware or software error.

checkpoint reconfiguration
A process that allows a user to dynamically redefine checkpoint data-set specification for the JES multi-access spool (MAS) configuration.

checkpoint reconfiguration dialog
An interactive form of a JES2 checkpoint reconfiguration that directs the reconfiguration process with replies to a series of WTOR messages.

checkpoint restart
The process of resuming a job at a checkpoint within the job step that caused abnormal termination. The restart can be automatic or deferred. A deferred restart requires that the job be resubmitted. See also automatic restart, deferred restart, step restart.

checkpoint/restart facility
A facility for restarting execution of a program at some point other than at the beginning, after the program was terminated due to a program or system failure. A restart can begin at a checkpoint or from the beginning of a job step, and uses checkpoint records to reinitialize the system.

checkpoint size
In OSI X.400, the maximum amount of data (in units of 1024 bytes) that can be sent between two minor synchronization points. The checkpoint size is used by the X.400 reliable transfer server.

check point snapshot
A snapshot, created at the end of a snapshot chain, that contains all changes from the last incremental delta block.

checkpoint write
Any write to the checkpoint data set. A checkpoint write is a primary, intermediate, or final write that updates a checkpoint data set.

A severe error inside a processor core that causes a processor core to stop all processing activities.


  1. On a diskette, data written in a section for error detection purposes.
  2. A small piece of data that is derived from an arbitrary block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that might have been introduced during its transmission or storage.
  3. The sum of a group of data that is associated with another group of data and that is used for error detection.

checksum protection

  1. A function that protects data stored in an auxiliary storage pool from being lost because of the failure of a single disk. When checksum protection is in effect and a disk failure occurs, the system automatically reconstructs the data when the system program is loaded after the device is repaired. See also device parity protection, mirrored protection.
  2. In TCP/IP, the sum of a group of data associated with the group and used for error checking purposes.

checksum set
Units of auxiliary storage defined in groups to provide a way for the system to recover data if a disk failure occurs when checksum protection is in effect.

chicken role
In agile development, the peripheral participants in scrum development. This includes the product manager, testers, customers, customer advocates, and other stakeholders. See also pig role, scrum.

Chief Information Officer (CIO)

chief information security officer (CISO)
A person responsible for the protection of enterprise information and assets.


  1. A node that is subordinate to another node in a tree structure. Only the root node is not a child.
  2. In a hierarchy or auto-level hierarchy, a member that has at least one parent.
  3. In a generalization relationship, the specialization of another element, the parent.
  4. Pertaining to a secured resource, either a file or library, that uses the user list of a parent resource. See also parent.

child activity
An activity that is launched during the processing of another activity, which becomes the parent activity. See also parent activity.

child category
A category that is subordinate to another category in a hierarchy. See also category page, parent category.

child circuit
A circuit that is a subordinate circuit under a parent circuit.

child class
A class that inherits instance methods, attributes, and instance variables directly from the parent class (also known as the base class or superclass), or indirectly from an ancestor class.

child component
Optional second or lower level of a hierarchical item type. Each child component is directly associated with the level above it.

child device
A device that is connected to a parent device.

child document
A document that inherits its values from another document (the parent document).

child enclave
The nested enclave created as a result of certain commands being issued from a parent enclave. See also nested enclave, parent enclave.

child expression
A list of columns in a child table that relate to corresponding columns in a parent table. See also parent expression.

child item
An item that is a part of an item with variations and has the same set of attributes as the item with variations, with minor distinct differences.

child lock
In explicit hierarchical locking, a lock that is held on a table, a page, a row, or a large object. Each child lock has a parent lock. See also parent lock.

child node
A node within the scope of another node. See also parent node.

child order
For subscriptions or recurring orders, the subordinate to the parent order. For example, a parent order is the subscription to the magazine itself, while the child order is one of the monthly issues. See also parent order.

child organizational entity
One or more further levels of organizational entities that exist beneath the parent organizational entity.

child process
A process that is created by a parent process and that shares the resources of the parent process to carry out a request.

child resource
A secured resource, either a file or library, that uses the user list of a parent resource. A child resource can have only one parent resource.

child resource group
A resource group that depends on certain application services that a parent resource group provides. A child resource group is acquired on any node in the cluster only after the parent resource group has been activated. See also dependent resource groups, parent resource group.

child segment
In a database, any segment that is dependent on another segment above it (its parent) in the hierarchy.

child table
A table that has a referential constraint to a column in a different table; the referenced table is called a parent table. See also parent table.

child UR
A unit of recovery (UR) cascaded from a parent UR in a cascaded transaction.

child widget
In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, a widget that is managed by another widget, the parent. For example, Composite widgets typically manage the Primitive children widgets attached to them.

child window
A window that appears within the border of its parent window (either a primary window or another child window). When the parent window is resized, moved, or destroyed, the child window also is resized, moved, or destroyed. However, the child window can be moved or resized independently from the parent window, within the boundaries of the parent window.

child work item
A work item created for each participant in a multi-participant step and for each route taken simultaneously from an AND-split step.

China Association for Standards (CAS)
The national standards-setting organization in The Peoples' Republic of China.

Chinese numeral
One of the Chinese characters that represent numbers. For example, the Chinese characters for 1, 2, and 3 are written with one, two, and three horizontal brush strokes, respectively. See also Arabic numeral, Hindi numeral, number, Roman numeral.

See chad.

A test statistic used to indicate the probability that two fields are unrelated, in which case any differences between observed and expected frequencies are the result of chance alone. If this probability is very small (typically less than 5%) the relationship between the two fields is said to be significant.

Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm (CHAID)
A decision tree algorithm that uses chi-square statistics to identify optimal splits. Unlike the C & R tree and QUEST nodes, CHAID can generate nonbinary trees, meaning that some splits have more than two branches. See also decision tree algorithm, regression tree algorithm.

An option in a pop-up window or menu used to influence the operation of the system.

choice activity
One of three types of complex BPML activities. A choice activity is used to make decisions in the business process model and runs only one of the child activities it contains. The choice activity makes it possible to model branch processing.

choice list
A list of predefined property values. A choice list presents a list of valid choices, such as a list of states or ZIP codes.

choice point
A point that is set automatically by CP Optimizer as it executes a goal during the search for a solution. At the choice point, the engine records the current state of constraints, variables, and domains, along with other goals not yet executed. If execution of the goal leads to failure, CP Optimizer backtracks to the choice point, restores the state recorded, and tries one of the stored goals.

choice type
A group type with a subclass equal to choice that is used to define a selection from a set of components. A choice type defines a choice group, which is valid when the data matches one of the components in the choice group.

Cholesky factoring
A technique that is used to factor a matrix into the product of a lower triangular matrix and its conjugate transpose.

A short line segment whose end points lie on a circle. Chords are a means for producing a circular image from straight lines.

An object that executes one or more processes at a user-defined frequency.


  1. An ordered sequence of message exchanges between two or more participants. In a choreography there is no central controller, responsible entity, or observer of the process.
  2. An agreed upon sequence of business events that is allowed by a seller for each transaction.

See channel process.

See channel-path identifier.

See Simplified Chinese.

See Traditional Chinese.

See Compact Hypertext Markup Language.


  1. A group of archived business processes.
  2. A data storage location. For example, a raw disk device or a cooked file.

chunked-transfer encoding
A data transfer mechanism in HTTP that sends data in smaller sections of data called “chunks” that allows for dynamic generation and transmission of content.

chute dedication
In a warehouse, the exclusive assignment of a dock door or chute to a particular carrier.


  1. See callable interface.
  2. See control interval.
  3. See configuration item.
  4. See continuous integration.


  1. See cluster information base.
  2. See condition information block.


  1. See concurrent image copy.
  2. See circuit identification code.

In the didot point system, a unit of 0.1776 inch (4.512 millimeters) used in measuring typographical material.

An IBM licensed program that provides online transaction-processing services and management for business applications.

CICS attachment facility
A facility that provides a multithread connection to a DB2 database to allow applications that run in the CICS environment to execute DB2 commands.

See business transaction services.

CICS bundle
A set of XML files that defines or references the resources for a component of an application or a whole application, or another artifact relating to applications, such as a policy. A CICS bundle is installed in a CICS region. Multiple CICS bundles can be referenced by a management bundle. See also bundle, management bundle.

CICS-deployed JAR file
A deployed JAR file that has been produced specifically for the CICS EJB server and stored in the hierarchical file system.

CICS dynamic storage area (CDSA)
A storage area allocated from CICS-key storage below the 16 MB line. The CDSA is used for all non-reentrant CICS-key RMODE(24) programs, all CICS-key task-lifetime storage in 24-bit storage, and CICS control blocks that reside in 24-bit storage.

CICS EJB server
One or more CICS regions that support enterprise beans. A logical CICS EJB server typically consists of multiple (cloned) CICS listener regions and multiple (cloned) CICS AORs. The listener regions and AORs may be combined into listener/AORs.

CICS group
An i5/OS library containing the CICS resource definition for CICS tables.

Storage protection key in which CICS is given control (key 8) when CICS storage protection is used. This key is for CICS code and control blocks. CICS-key storage can be accessed and modified by CICS. Application programs in user-key cannot modify CICS-key storage, but they can read it. CICS-key storage is obtained in MVS key-8 storage. See also user-key storage.

CICS-maintained data table
A type of CICS data table, for which CICS automatically maintains consistency between the table and its source data set. All changes to the data table are reflected in the source data set and all changes to the source data set are reflected in the data table.

CICS monitoring facility
The CICS component responsible for monitoring and producing task-related statistics information, such as task CPU usage and waits for I/O request units on an individual task basis. Reporting is divided into classes.

A set of CICS systems that are managed and manipulated as if they were a single entity. A CICSplex can be managed by CICSPlex SM. See also multiregion operation.

CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS)
A CICSPlex SM component that is responsible for managing CICSplexes. A CMAS provides the single-system image for a CICSplex by serving as the interface to other CICSplexes and external programs. There must be at least one CMAS in each MVS image on which you are running CICSPlex SM. A single CMAS can manage CICS systems within one or more CICSplexes.

CICS primary connection region
The web owning region (WOR) of the Multi-Region Option (MRO) connected regions in a CICS test environment. This is the region in which the CICS resource definition server for Application Deployment Manager runs.

CICS region
An instance of CICS Transaction Server that runs in its own z/OS address space.

CICS region user ID
The user ID assigned to a CICS region at CICS initialization. It is specified either in the RACF started procedures table when CICS is started as a started task, or on the USER parameter of the JOB statement when CICS is started as a job.

CICS run unit
A set of statically bound, dynamically bound, or both, modules that can be loaded by a CICS loader.

CICS segment
The portion of a RACF profile containing data for CICS.

CICS system

  1. The entire collection of hardware and software required by CICS.
  2. In CICSPlex SM topology, a definition referring to a CICS system that is to be managed by CICSPlex SM.

CICS system definition data set (CSD)
A VSAM KSDS cluster that contains a resource definition record for every record defined to CICS using resource definition online (RDO).

CICS system group

  1. In CICSPlex SM topology, the user-defined name, description, and content information for a CICS system group. A CICS system group can be made up of CICS systems or other CICS system groups.
  2. A set of CICS systems within a CICSplex that can be managed as a single entity.
  3. In CICS business transaction services (BTS), a BTS set, that is the set of CICS regions across which BTS processes and activities may execute.

CICS Transaction Affinities Utility
A utility designed to detect potential causes of inter-transaction affinity and transaction-system affinity for those users planning to use dynamic transaction routing.

CICS-value data area (CVDA)
An argument to which CICS has assigned a specific and limited set of meaningful values. When a CVDA is specified in an EXEC CICS command, CICS converts the CVDA value name to the corresponding numeric representation.

CICS VSAM Recovery
An IBM product that recovers lost or damaged Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data.

CICS-WebSphere MQ API crossing exit
An exit that intercepts WebSphere MQ calls as they are being run, for monitoring, testing, maintenance, or security purposes.


  1. See connection identifier.
  2. See communication identifier.

See control interval definition field.

CID methodology
An IBM-specified way to install and configure products on, or remove products from, remote workstations and hosts. Response files and redirected installation and configuration may be used by a CID-enabled product to eliminate or reduce user interaction with the CID-enabled product. See also response file.

See Classless Inter-Domain Routing.

See customer impact event.


  1. See customer installable feature.
  2. See common interchange file.

See Common Internet File System.

CII data format
See Center for the Information of Industry data format.

See Common Information Model.

CIM agent
The code that consists of common building blocks that can be used instead of proprietary software or device-specific programming interfaces to manage devices that are compliant with the Common Information Model (CIM).

CIM object manager (CIMOM)
The common conceptual framework for data management that receives, validates, and authenticates the CIM requests from the client application. It then directs the requests to the appropriate component or service provider.

See CIM object manager.

See Common INET.

See control initiate.

C interface
The interface that is defined at a level that depends on the variant of C standardized by ANSI.

See Chief Information Officer.


  1. See customized installation package.
  2. See commit in progress.

A cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt data that is unreadable until converted into plain data with a predefined key.

cipher block chaining (CBC)
A method of reducing repetitive patterns in ciphertext by performing an exclusive-OR operation on each 8-byte block of data with the previously encrypted 8-byte block before it is encrypted.

cipher spec
See cipher specification.

cipher specification (cipher spec)
A specification that indicates the data encryption algorithm and key size to use for secure connections.

cipher suite
The combination of authentication, key exchange algorithm, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cipher specification used for the secure exchange of data.

Data that is encrypted. Ciphertext is unreadable until it is converted into plaintext (decrypted) with a key. See also cleartext.

An entity representation that can indicate an organization or a group on a chart. A circle is often used to enclose other entities. See also box, representation.


  1. In fibre-channel technology, an established communication path between two ports, which consists of two virtual circuits capable of transmitting in opposite directions. See also link.
  2. One or more conductors through which an electric current can flow. See also link, packet switching.
  3. A telecommunication circuit such as a line, conductor, or conduit through which information is transmitted.

circuit breaker
A switch that automatically interrupts an electric circuit because of an abnormal condition.

circuit identification code (CIC)
A 12-bit number that identifies a trunk and channel on which a call is carried.

circuit-switched data transmission service
A service that uses circuit switching to establish and maintain a connection before data can be transferred between data terminal equipment (DTE). See also packet-switched data transmission service.

circuit switching
A process that, on demand, connects two or more data terminal equipment (DTEs) and permits the exclusive use of a data circuit between them until the connection is released. See also message switching, packet switching.

circuit type
A template that specifies the layout for the type of circuit or service.

circuit type identifier
An identifier for an unmatched circuit. The identifier is based on the criteria that is stipulated against a specific invoice format.

circular file
A type of file that appends data until full; subsequent incoming data overwrites the data starting at the beginning of the file.

circular layout
A layout in which entities are arranged by type around the circumference of a circle. See also layout.

circular log
A database log in which records are overwritten if they are no longer needed by an active database. See also archive log.

circular logging
In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems and WebSphere MQ for Windows, the process of keeping all restart data in a ring of log files. See also linear logging.

circular reference
A series of objects where the last object refers to the first object, which can cause the series of references to be unusable.

circular traceability relationship
A relationship between a requirement and itself, or an indirect relationship that leads back to a previously traced-from node. Traceability relationships cannot have circular references.

See complex instruction set computer.

See chief information security officer.

An official order from a police officer to appear before a court for a minor offense.

Pertaining to improved government operations and services that are centered around a citizen's needs and preferences, and offer better public service processes.

See common interchange unit.


  1. See count-key-data device.
  2. See count key data.

CKD record
See count-key-data record.


  1. See control language.
  2. See Command Language.


  1. A request for reimbursement, replacement, or repair for an item or an asset that is under warranty.
  2. A notification to DB2 for z/OS that an object is being accessed. A claim prevents a drain from occurring until the claim is released, which usually occurs at a commit point. See also drain, logical claim.

claim class
A type of object access that can be defined by one of the following characteristics: cursor stability (CS), repeatable read (RR), or write.

C language
A language used to develop application programs in compact, efficient code that can be run on different types of computers with minimal change.


  1. A description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and semantics. A class can use a set of interfaces to specify collections of operations that it provides to its environment. See also interface.
  2. An attribute that is related to a transaction code and a message region that is used to determine scheduling. See also message class, region class.
  3. An object that contains specifications, such as priority, maximum processing time, and maximum storage, to control the run-time environment of a job. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CLS.
  4. A grouping of projects that has global properties. The properties are used to manage completed jobs, typically deleting them periodically or starting another job that performs specific cleanup tasks.
  5. In C++, a user-defined data type. A class data type can contain both data representations (data members) and functions (member functions).
  6. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a category into which objects are placed based on their purpose and internal structure.
  7. In RACF, a collection of defined entities (users, groups, and resources) with similar characteristics.
  8. A basic unit of the classification hierarchy used in the Type Designer. There are three classes: item, group, and category.
  9. A collection of processes (and their associated threads) that have a single set of resource limitation values and target shares applied to them.
  10. A section of a module. A class can represent program text, that is, the instructions and data that are loaded into virtual storage during execution. Other classes, such as an external symbol dictionary (ESD) and a relocation dictionary (RLD), are required for binding and loading the program.
  11. The set of all members of a type of object, such as all contracts, term definitions, organizations, and so on.
  12. A subdivision of a classification comprising of a group of suppliers that have common attributes or characteristics.
  13. In object-oriented design or programming, a model or template that can be used to create objects with a common definition and common properties, operations, and behavior. An object is an instance of a class.
  14. In printing, a single alphanumeric character assigned to a print job.
  15. The syntactic category for a group of related values. A value can be assigned to different classes in different contexts or scenarios. See also classification, classification, pattern, value.
  16. The definition of an object within a specific hierarchy. A class can have properties and methods and can serve as the target of an association.

class 0
See transport class 0.

class 1
Service that provides a dedicated connection between two ports (also called connection-oriented service), with notification of delivery or nondelivery.

class 1 terminal
A terminal for which the alternate IMS pre-opens backup sessions for the primary sessions that the active IMS opens; VTAM/NCP switches sessions from primary to backup at takeover.

class 2

  1. See transport class 2.
  2. Connectionless service between ports with notification of delivery or nondelivery.

class 2 terminal
A terminal for which IMS in the alternate reestablishes service at takeover.

class 3
In fibre-channel technology, connectionless service between ports without notification of delivery. Other than notification, the transmission and routing of class 3 frames is identical to that of class 2 frames.

class 3 terminal
A terminal that communicates with XRF IMS but whose sessions are not automatically reestablished at takeover.

class 4
See transport class 4.

class A network
In Internet communications, a network in which the high-order (most significant) bit of the IP address is set to 0 and the host ID occupies the three low-order octets.

class assignment rule
A rule that determines which values within a set of process attributes result in a process being assigned to a particular class (superclass or subclass within a superclass).

class attribute
A value in a class object that controls the processing of routing steps in a job. These values include the run priority, time slice, eligibility for purge, default wait time, maximum processing unit time, and maximum temporary storage parameters.

class authority (CLAUTH)
An attribute that allows a user to define RACF profiles in a class defined in the class descriptor table. A user can have class authority to zero or more classes. See also authority.

class binding signature
A hexadecimal value that contains the class signature (obtained from the signature bank) and the inheritance level. The class binding signature is added to the Interface Definition Language (IDL) source file by the signature emitter.

class B network
In Internet communications, a network in which the two high-order (most significant and next-to-most significant) bits of the IP address are set to 1 and 0, respectively, and the host ID occupies the two low-order octets.

Class Broker for Java (CBJ)
A Java tool that allows Java applications to run on a host system that does not have a graphical user interface (GUI). Because the IBM Developer Kit for Java Remote Abstract Window Toolkit is not recommended for complex graphics or highly interactive operations, CBJ for high-performance GUI services can be used.

class C network
In Internet communications, a network in which the two high-order (most significant and next-to-most significant) bits of the IP address are both set to 1 and the next high-order bit is set to 0. The host ID occupies the low-order octet.

class condition
In COBOL, a condition that specifies the character content of a data item as all alphabetic or all numeric.

class descriptor table (CDT)
A table containing a definition of general resource classes. The CDT contains the classes supplied by IBM and the installation-defined classes.

class diagram
A diagram that shows a collection of declarative (static) model elements, such as classes, types, and their contents and relationships.

class F
Connectionless service for inter-switch control traffic, which provides notification of delivery or nondelivery between two expansion ports (E_ports).

class file
A compiled Java source file.

class hierarchy
The relationships between classes that share a single inheritance.

classic command
A supported non-IMSplex command. A classic command generally requires a leading slash, for example, /DBRECOVERY.

classic row compression
Data row compression that is provided by static, table-level compression dictionaries. See also adaptive compression.

class identifier (CLSID)
A Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) that identifies a COM component. Each COM component has its CLSID in the Registry so that it can be loaded by other applications.


  1. A process for automatically acquiring document properties from the document content or another source.
  2. The system that defines classes and the relationships among those classes. See also class.
  3. The process of grouping values into specific classes. See also class.

classification and regression tree algorithm
A decision tree algorithm that uses recursive partitioning to split the training records into segments by minimizing the impurity at each step. See also Quick, Unbiased, Efficient Statistical Tree algorithm.

classification hierarchy
The hierarchy of a type tree in the Type Designer. The deeper the subtype, the more specific the data characteristics are. See also compositional hierarchy.

classification mechanism
A set of class assignment rules that determine the classes to which processes are assigned.

classification purpose
The determination of how an item classification is used. For example, one classification may be used for receiving preference and another may be used for procurement purposes.

classification rule
A rule used by the workload manager component of z/OS to assign a service class.

classification scheme
See file plan.

classification value
A value within the classification hierarchy that can be associated to an item attribute.

Pertaining to a record that has special access restrictions in addition to normal record security.


  1. A specialized attribute used for grouping and color-coding process elements.
  2. In QoS, a control function that selects packets according to the content within the packet headers.
  3. An XPath expression that determines the transformation to apply to an inbound event.

class inheritance
A feature that allows a subclass to inherit all of the properties of a superclass, which is its parent in a class hierarchy.

class key
One of the C++ keywords: class, struct, and union.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
A method for adding class C Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. The addresses are given to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) for use by their customers. CIDR addresses reduce the size of routing tables and make more IP addresses available within organizations.

class library
In object-oriented programming, a collection of prewritten classes or coded templates, any of which can be specified and used by a programmer when developing an application.

class loader
Part of the Java virtual machine (JVM) that is responsible for finding and loading class files. A class loader affects the packaging of applications and the runtime behavior of packaged applications deployed on application servers.

class mask
A network mask that is derived solely on the basis of the network class of an Internet Protocol (IP) address.

class method

  1. A method that creates class instances.
  2. In Java, a method that is called without referring to a particular object. Class methods affect the class as a whole, not a particular instance of the class. See also instance method.

class name

  1. A unique identifier of a class type that becomes a reserved word within its scope.
  2. In the X Window System, the name of a class of resources, widgets, or clients. Resource and widget class names are typically defined in the programming libraries used to create the client.

In COBOL, a user-defined word defined in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph of the Environment Division that assigns a name to the proposition, for which a truth value can be defined, to verify that the content of a data item consists exclusively of those characters listed in the definition of the class-name.

class object
An object that identifies the run attributes of a job. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CLS.

class of service (COS)

  1. A set of characteristics (such as route security, transmission priority, and bandwidth) used to construct a route between session partners. The class of service is derived from a mode name specified by the initiator of a session.
  2. A VTAM term for a list of routes through a network, arranged in an order of preference for their use.
  3. In fibre-channel technology, a specified set of delivery characteristics and attributes for frame delivery.
  4. A set of link and node characteristics, associated with a session or a set of sessions, that determine the route that is selected for the sessions through an APPN network.

class-of-service database
A database that is maintained independently by each network node, and optionally by APPN end nodes. The database contains one entry per class-of-service name. Each database entry contains: (a) A definition of the acceptable values for transmission group (TG) and node characteristics for routes described by that class-of-service name and the weight function to be used to compute the weights of nodes and TGs that meet the acceptable values; (b)The transmission priority to be used for traffic that flows on routes described by that class-of-service name.

class-of-service description
A system object created for Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) support that provides the information required to assign relative priority to the transmission groups and intermediate routing nodes for an APPN session. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *COSD.

class path
A list of directories and JAR files that contain resource files or Java classes that a program can load dynamically at run time.

class scope
The scope of C++ class members. See also namespace scope.

class signature
A hexadecimal value obtained from a server and placed in a signature bank on the workstation. The signature bank uniquely identifies an Interface Definition Language (IDL) interface. Class signatures are added to the IDL source file by the signature emitter.

class statistics
Statistical information that includes information such as the number of instances of the class in the application, the CPU time spent in that class, the number of calls made to the class, and so on.

class style
A combination of formatting characteristics, such as font, font size, and border, that the user names and stores as a set.

class template
A blueprint describing how a set of related C++ classes can be constructed.

class template declaration
A class template declaration introduces the name of a class template and specifies its template parameter list. A class template declaration may optionally include a class template definition.

class template definition
A definition that describes various characteristics of the class types that are its specializations. These characteristics include the names and types of data members of specializations, the signatures and definitions of member functions, accessibility of members, and base classes. See also base class.

class tier
In AIX Workload management, the value that specifies which class is most important. If no tier value is used, all classes are equally important.

class transition
A change in an object's management class or storage class when an event occurs that brings about a change in an object's service level or management criteria. Class transition occurs during a storage management cycle.


  1. A set of conditions and variable expressions that represent specific layers in a protocol stack.
  2. A building block of the contract language that may contain legal language or line data.
  3. A set of consecutive character strings that specify a characteristic of an entry. There are three types of clauses: data, environment, and file.
  4. In SQL, a distinct part of a statement in the language structure, such as a SELECT clause or a WHERE clause.
  5. The fundamental grouping of REXX syntax. A clause is composed of zero or more blanks, a sequence of tokens, zero or more blanks, and the semicolon delimiter.

clause instance
An occurrence of a clause in a contract where the term values are specific to the contract and the language of the clause may be modified to suit the current contract.

clause template
A template that contains the standard language of a clause and includes the legal language, terms, and other properties. See also template.

clause type
A defined clause category for purposes of information and search.

clause visibility feature
A feature which, if enabled, displays only those clauses in the contract language view for which read permission is granted.

See class authority.

See Common Link Access to Workstation.

See communication line block.

See Common Locale Data Repository.


  1. To transform the data extracted from operational systems to make it usable by a data warehouse.
  2. To ensure that all values in a data set are consistent and correctly recorded.

clean up
To remove or delete obsolete repository data.

In SNA products, a network services request, sent by a system services control point (SSCP) to a logical unit (LU), that causes a particular LU-LU session with that LU to be ended immediately without requiring the participation of either the other LU or its SSCP.

cleanup interval
The length of time to wait before removing obsolete data.

cleanup period
The time period during which a database record that has reached its final state or condition is to remain in the database. After the cleanup period expires for such a record, database cleanup causes the record to be deleted from the database.

cleanup procedure
A procedure that instructs the system to attempt to remove software products that were partially installed and to revert to the previous version of the product. If the system successfully reverts to the previous version, it becomes the currently active version; otherwise, the software product is marked as broken.

In X.25 communication, to reject a call (if it has not yet been accepted) or end a call.

The control and positioning of plant equipment for providing protection for personnel and equipment during work on plant devices.

clear area
In character recognition, a specified area that is to be kept free of printing or any other markings not related to machine reading. See also intercharacter gap.

ClearCase administrators group
A Windows domain group whose members have superuser access to ClearCase objects.

ClearCase registry
A network service that allows programs to access versioned object bases (VOBs) and views by name instead of network path.

clear cause
See cause code.

clear-confirmation packet
In X.25 communication, a packet transmitted by the DTE to inform the DCE that a call has been cleared.

clear data
See plain text.

clear diagnostic
See diagnostic code.

clear indication packet
In X.25 communications, a call supervision packet that a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) transmits to inform a data terminal equipment (DTE) that a call has been cleared.


  1. A central registry that connects users from multiple instant messaging communities.
  2. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a collection of directory replicas on one Cell Directory Service (CDS) server. A clearinghouse takes the form of a database file. See also control access.

clearing task
A process of reviewing the registration submitted by a supplier and accepting or rejecting the supplier as per the business requirements.

clear key encryption
Any type of encryption key not protected by encryption under another key.

clear message
A message displayed by DirectTalk to tell the operator that a red or yellow error message has been cleared.

clear request packet
A call supervision packet transmitted by a data terminal equipment (DTE) to ask that a call be cleared.

clear session
A session in which only clear data is transmitted or received. See also cryptographic session, selective cryptographic session.

A string of characters sent over a network in readable form. It might be encoded for the purposes of compression, but it can easily be decoded. See also ciphertext.

clear-text password
A password that is comprised of a string of characters sent over a network in readable form. It might be encoded for the purposes of compression, but it can easily be decoded.

The primary command-line interface to ClearCase and ClearCase LT version-control and configuration management software.

clear to send (CTS)
In data communication, a signal raised by data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) when it is ready to accept data, usually in response to request to send (RTS) being raised. See also request to send.

clear user data
In X.25 communications, data optionally included in the clear-request packet by the user application.

See Common Language for Expression Manipulation.

clerical record
A record for which the matching process cannot definitively determine if the record is a duplicate record or a nonmatched record or if the record is a matched record or a nonmatched record. See also duplicate record, matched record, nonmatched record.


  1. In the DCE Cell Directory Service (CDS), a software component that receives CDS requests from a client application, ascertains an appropriate CDS server to process the requests, and returns the results of the requests to the client application.
  2. In the DCE Distributed Time Service (DTS), a software component that synchronizes the clock for its client system by requesting time values from servers, computing a new time from the values, and supplying the computed time to client applications.


  1. See command-line interface.
  2. See call level interface.

C library
A system library that contains common C language subroutines for file access, string operations, character operations, memory allocation, and other functions.

To press and release a mouse button without moving the pointer off the choice.

In web advertising, the sequence of clicks or pages requested as a visitor explores a website.

Clickstream Engine
The Macromedia LikeMinds Personalization Server component that accesses transaction information and generates recommendations based on users' shopping behavior as they navigate a website. WebSphere Commerce generates events based on shopping behavior, including viewing a product detail page and adding items to a shopping cart or wish list. These events are forwarded to the Clickstream Engine.

A marketing tool that reports the number of times a customer clicks on the displayed content to find out more information about the subject.

clickthrough rate
In web advertising, the number of clicks on an ad on an HTML page as a percentage of the number of times that the ad was downloaded with a page. See also impression.

Click-to-Action (C2A)
A method for implementing cooperative portlets, whereby users can click an icon on a source portlet to transfer data to one or more target portlets. See also cooperative portlets, wire.

A feature that allows a user to select two or more contacts and then call them at the same time, initiating an audio conference.

A Sametime Unified Telephony feature that allows a user to select two or more contacts and then call them at the same time, initiating a conference.


  1. A person or organization that receives a deliverable or work product. See also interprocess communication.
  2. A software program or computer that requests services from a server. See also host, server.
  3. A runtime component that provides access to queuing services on a server for local user applications. The queues used by the applications reside on the server. See also WebSphere MQ fully managed .NET client, WebSphere MQ Java client, WebSphere MQ MQI client.

client acceptor
A service that serves the Java applet for the web client to web browsers. On Windows systems, the client acceptor is installed and run as a service. On AIX, UNIX, and Linux systems, the client acceptor is run as a daemon.

client acceptor daemon (CAD)
See client acceptor.

client API
The interface used by client applications to invoke services in CICS using the facilities of the Client daemon. See also external call interface, external security interface.

client application

  1. An application written with object-oriented or Internet APIs to access content servers from Information Integrator for Content.
  2. A storage management program that initiates Common Information Model (CIM) requests to the CIM agent for the device.
  3. An application that users the services of the database services by direct connection or via application servers. See also client/server architecture.
  4. An application, running on a workstation and linked to a client, that gives the application access to queuing services on a server.
  5. An application written with the Content Manager APIs to customize a user interface.
  6. A user application, written in a supported programming language other than Java, that communicates directly with the Client daemon.

Client Application for Windows
A complete object management system provided with Content Manager and written with Content Manager APIs. It supports document and folder creation, storage, and presentation, processing, and access control.

client application thread
In DCE remote procedure call (RPC), a thread executing client application code that makes one or more RPCs.

client authentication
The process by which a client's identity is verified.

client certificate
A certificate that is presented by the client to a server prior to forming an active connection.

client channel definition table (CCDT)
A file that contains one or more client-connection channel definitions.

client configuration tool
A Notes application that connects a Notes client to a cloud mail server.

client-connection channel type
The type of MQI channel definition associated with a WebSphere MQ client. See also server-connection channel type.

client context
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the state within a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) server generated by a set of remote procedures and maintained across a series of calls for a particular client.

Client daemon
A daemon that manages network connections to CICS servers. It processes ECI, EPI, and ESI requests, sending and receiving the appropriate flows from the CICS server to satisfy the application requests. The Client daemon (process cclclnt) exists only on distributed platforms.

client domain
The set of drives, file systems, or volumes that the user selects to back up or archive data, using the backup-archive client.

client end node
An end node for which the network node provides network services.

client framework
A set of scripts that are deployed with a web application or mobile native application to capture user interactions on the client that would not otherwise require a server interaction. By capturing these user interface events, a client framework can provide unique insight into the activities of visitors within their browsing devices.

client group
A group of clients that specify the volumes that are backed up. Client groups can also include SQL and Exchange databases for backup, even if they span across multiple disk volumes.

client ID
See client identifier.

client identifier (client ID)
A piece of information that identifies an individual application. An application can invoke an API only if it passes an application key that is recognized by the IBM API Management system and is granted access to the API. The application key is passed by the client by using an HTTP query parameter.

client initialization file
A file containing configuration information used to inform the CICS Client of the CICS servers it can connect to, and the communication protocols to be used.

Client Input Output Sockets (CLIO/S)
A set of commands and APIs that can be used for high-speed communication and to access tape devices on a network of AIX workstations and MVS mainframes.

client locale
The locale that a client application uses to perform read and write operations on the client computer. See also locale, server locale.

client logical partition
A logical partition that uses the I/O resources of another logical partition, for example, a logical partition that uses the resources of a Virtual I/O Server logical partition.

client message
A message from a client application that is to be sent by means of a network to its destination, or a message that is routed to a client application to acknowledge the receipt of a client message by a network.

client node

  1. In a single system image (SSI), a WebSphere Voice Response system that handles interactions with callers. A client node must have a telephony connection. It does not store application or voice data; it gets data from the server node of the SSI.
  2. A file server or workstation on which the backup-archive client program has been installed, and which has been registered to the server.

client node session
A session in which a client node communicates with a server to perform backup, restore, archive, retrieve, migrate, or recall requests. See also administrative session.

client option set
A group of options that are defined on the server and used on client nodes in conjunction with client options files.

client options file
An editable file that identifies the server and communication method, and provides the configuration for backup, archive, hierarchical storage management, and scheduling.

client pattern
A method to determine which clients to monitor, and how to group them for reporting.

client-polling scheduling mode
A method of operation in which the client queries the server for work. See also server-prompted scheduling mode.

client process
A process that requests services from a server process. See also server process.

client program

  1. In dynamic routing the application program, running in the requesting region, that issues a remote link request.
  2. A program that uses a C++ class.
  3. In the client/server model, the front-end transaction.

client project for RuleApps
A predefined project for Eclipse that contains a class to execute a ruleset within a RuleApp.

client proxy
An object on the client side of a network connection that provides a remote procedure call interface to a service on the server side.

client reroute
A method that allows a client application, upon the loss of communication with a database server and the predefinition of an alternative server, to continue working with the original database server or the alternative server with only minimal interruption of the work.

client schedule
A database record that describes the planned processing of a client operation during a specific time period. The client operation can be a backup, archive, restore, or retrieve operation, a client operating system command, or a macro. See also administrative command schedule, central scheduler, schedule.

client secret
A piece of information that is used with an application key to verify the identity of an application. An API can be configured to require that client applications supply their application secret with their application key. The application secret functions effectively as a password known only to the application. The application secret is passed by the client using an HTTP query parameter.

Pertaining to the model of interaction in distributed data processing in which a program on one computer sends a request to a program on another computer and awaits a response. The requesting program is called a client; the answering program is called a server. See also distributed application.

client/server architecture
A hardware and software design that allows the user interface and database server to reside on separate nodes or platforms on a single computer or over a network. See also client application, server-processing locale.

client/server connection statement
An SQL statement that can connect to a database. These statements include CONNECT, DISCONNECT, and SET CONNECTION.

client side
In an ebMS exchange, the partner using the service, or a service user.

Pertaining to an operation that is performed on the client application and not on the server.

client-side authentication component
A component that collects client information, then uses login modules to verify this information.

client-side human service
A human service that runs in the web browser and can call the server to obtain data. A client-side human service can be used to implement an interactive task, a dashboard, or a user interface for a case or process instance that users can use to manage cases or processes in an application. See also heritage human service, human service.

client state manager

  1. A station that consists of a control unit (a cluster controller) and the terminals attached to it.
  2. A component of the client kernel that provides protocol support for the client.

client stub
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the surrogate code for a remote procedure call (RPC) interface that is linked with and called by the client application code. In addition to general operations such as marshaling data, a client stub calls the RPC runtime library to perform remote procedure calls and, optionally, to manage bindings.

client system-options file
A file, used on AIX, UNIX, or Linux system clients, containing a set of processing options that identify the servers to be contacted for services. This file also specifies communication methods and options for backup, archive, hierarchical storage management, and scheduling. See also client user-options file, options file.

client tier
The client programs and consoles that are used for development, administration, and other tasks for the InfoSphere Information Server suite and product modules and the computers where they are installed.

client time
The time that it takes to process and display a web page in a browser.

client type detection
A process in which a servlet determines the markup language type required by a client and calls the appropriate JavaServer Pages file.

client user-options file
A file that contains the set of processing options that the clients on the system use. The set can include options that determine the server that the client contacts, and options that affect backup operations, archive operations, hierarchical storage management operations, and scheduled operations. This file is also called the dsm.opt file. For AIX, UNIX, or Linux systems, see also client system-options file. See also client system-options file, options file.

client workstation
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, a workstation that depends on a server workstation to provide it with views and status information. A client workstation receives status information from the server workstation over an LU 6.2 session.

Clinical Context Object Workgroup (CCOW)
A vendor independent standard, for the interchange of information between clinical applications in the healthcare industry.

See Client Input Output Sockets.

See calling line identification presentation.

In computer graphics, to remove those parts of a display image that lie outside of a given boundary.

An area of computer memory, or storage, that temporarily holds data. Data in the clipboard is available to other applications.


  1. In the GDDM function, the process of cutting off the image at the border of the display but allowing the coordinates of the lines to extend beyond.
  2. In computer graphics, removing those parts of display elements that lie outside of a given boundary.

clipping plane
In GL, primitive space that is mapped to normalized device coordinates before clipping occurs. The clipping planes x=+/-w; y=+/-w; or z=+/-w correspond to the left, right, top, bottom, near, and far planes bounding the viewing frustum.

clipping region
The image defined by the bitmap or rectangles used to restrict output to a particular region of a window.

See command list.

A word that syntactically functions separately but is phonetically connected to another word. A clitic can be written as connected or separate from the word it is bound to. Common examples of clitics include the last part of a contraction in English 'wouldn't' or 'you're'.

The process by which a complex word or expression is formed by attaching a clitic to another word. A common example of cliticization includes attaching a clitic to a verb, for example: "je t'aime" in French.

See clock.

See Collaborative Lifecycle Management.

CL module
See control language module.

CLM project
A project that was created using IBM Collaborative Lifecycle Management tools.

See connectionless-mode network protocol.

See connectionless-mode network service.

CLNS path
In OSI, a path used when the connectionless-mode network service is used. Each CLNS path names data terminal equipment (DTE) to be used for outbound communication.

CLNS path maintenance
In OSI, an option of whether or not to maintain a CLNS path to an adjacent node permanently (until OSI Communications Subsystem is restarted), or release the path when no active CLNS connection uses it. These connections include both network management and directory service connections and connections between customer programs.

CLNS path set
In OSI, a path set used when the connectionless-mode network service is used.

cloaked item
An item whose existence is known to the user but whose information is hidden from the user. See also item, placeholder, signpost message.

cloak option
A customization option that restricts access to selected information in the cube. The cloak option removes a category and its descendants from a dimension, but summarizes the values in the ancestor categories.

See character large object.

To delete a project and all of its associated jobs from the database.

clock (CLK)

  1. In data communication, equipment that provides a time base used in a transmission system to control the timing of certain functions, such as sampling, and to control the duration of signal elements.
  2. A device that generates periodic signals used for synchronization.

clock event
A special system event that is used to initiate a system-generated event.


  1. In binary synchronous communication, the use of clock pulses to control synchronization of data and control characters.
  2. In communications, a method of controlling the number of data bits sent on a communications line in a specified time.

clock time
The elapsed time in real time. Clock time differs from CPU time as thread switches and process context switches introduce uncertainty in performance calculation; clock time does not account for this execution behavior.


  1. To prepare a reference computer and create a system profile ready for deployment. See also unattended setup.
  2. To preserve the characteristics of the original but personalize instance-specific data. The result is a new instance of an entity (for example, of a virtual disk, a virtual computer system, or an operating system) rather than a backup of the original.
  3. An identical copy of the latest approved version of a component, with a new unique component ID.
  4. A copy of a volume on a server at a particular point in time. The contents of the copy can be customized while the contents of the original volume are preserved.
  5. A copy of an application, created so that it can be customized while the original is retained.
  6. An operation that enables an administrator to replicate profiles. This capability simplifies the task of creating multiple profiles with similar properties.
  7. An identical copy of the data and configuration of a server at a particular point in time.

clone device
A STREAMS device that returns an unused major or minor device when initially opened, rather than requiring the minor device to be specified by name in the open call.

cloned IMSplex
A group of IMSs in a sysplex that share databases, queues, or both, and have identical resource definitions.

clone object
An object that is associated with a clone table, including the clone table itself and check constraints, indexes, and BEFORE triggers on the clone table.

clone table
A table that is structurally identical to a base table. The base and clone table each have separate underlying VSAM data sets, which are identified by their data set instance numbers. See also base table.


  1. To end an activity and remove that window from the display.
  2. To end processing by ending the connection between the file and a program.

closed application
An application that requires exclusive use of certain statements on certain DB2 objects, so that the objects are managed solely through the external interface of that application.

closed-circuit television (CCTV)
The use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

closed registration
A registration process in which only an administrator can register workstations as client nodes with the server. See also open registration.

closed system
A system whose characteristics comply with proprietary standards and that therefore cannot readily be connected to other systems.

closed user group (CUG)
In data communication, a group of users who can communicate with other users in the group, but not with users outside the group. A data terminal equipment (DTE) may belong to more than one closed user group. See also bilateral closed user group.

closed workstation
A workstation that is unavailable to process work for a specific time, day, or period.

A measure of how quickly an entity can use links to get access to other entities on an association chart. Closeness is one of the centrality measures used in social network analysis. See also centrality.

close time
The time that is required to close an access point.

closing version
A reporting version that contains the reported values for a given period, plus one or more journal types.

closure line
In the GDDM function, a line added by the system to enclose an area being filled with a pattern, in instances when the routines that precede the GSENDA routine fail to form an enclosed area.

A network that delivers requested virtual resources as a service.

cloud application
An application that is extended to be accessible through the Internet. Cloud applications use large data centers and powerful servers that host web applications and web services.

cloud client
Software or hardware that is designed to deliver cloud services, or that relies on cloud computing to operate.

cloud computing
A computing platform where users can have access to applications or computing resources, as services, from anywhere through their connected devices. A simplified user interface or application programming interface (API), or both, makes the infrastructure supporting such services transparent to users. See also off-premises.

cloud deployment
The process of installing and configuring a software application and all of its components onto a virtual server. See also deployment.

Pertaining to a model or implementation of a public, private, or hybrid cloud environment.

cloud group
A collection of hypervisors from a single vendor.

cloud image
An information technology (IT) resource that can be provisioned for use on a cloud.

cloud infrastructure
See infrastructure as a service.

cloud instance
A piece of software or other information technology (IT) resource running on a cloud. Cloud instances are software instances created from cloud images.

cloud-oriented architecture (COA)
The design and optimization of architecture for use in cloud computing environments.

cloud portability
The ability to move applications and services across public or private cloud computing environments, or from different cloud providers.

cloud provider
An organization that provides cloud computing resources.

cloud request
A description of resources to be provided by a cloud. Typically, a cloud request consists of a list of cloud images to be provided by the cloud and information about how those cloud instances are to be configured.

cloud service
A service that provides software that is accessed on servers on the Internet rather than on on-premises servers at a company site.

cloud service provider (CSP)
A service provider that offers storage or software services or solutions through a public, private, or hybrid cloud.

cloud storage
A storage resource provided by a cloud, or the storage of data on virtual public or private servers in the cloud.


  1. See command line processor.
  2. See communication line processor.
  3. See container load plan.
  4. See current line pointer.

See create link pack area.

CL procedure
See control language procedure.

CL program
See control language program.

See common language runtime.

See class identifier.

See control logical unit.

See cluster-receiver channel.

See cluster-sender channel.


  1. A set of independent systems or logical partitions (called nodes) that are organized into a network for the purpose of sharing resources and communicating with each other.
  2. In WebSphere MQ, a group of two or more queue managers on one or more computers, providing automatic interconnection, and allowing queues to be advertised among them for load balancing and redundancy.
  3. A group of appliances in which one appliance acts as the central appliance, and the other appliances act as its clients.
  4. A collection of one or more servers within a cloud that provide a specific function.
  5. A group of entities that have more connections to each other than to entities outside the group.
  6. A group of two or more Domino servers that provides users with constant access to data, balances the workload among servers, improves server performance, and maintains performance when the size of an enterprise increases.
  7. In IBM System Storage DS8000, a partition capable of performing all DS8000 series functions. With two clusters in the DS8000 storage unit, any operational cluster can take over the processing of a failing cluster.
  8. Two or more connected copies of Sterling B2B Integrator that share a database.
  9. A group of application servers that collaborate for the purposes of workload balancing and failover.
  10. A loosely coupled collection of independent systems (or nodes) organized into a network for the purpose of sharing resources and communicating with each other. See also GPFS cluster.
  11. A set of independent systems or nodes that are organized into a network. The purpose of the cluster is to define a set of resources, nodes, networks, and storage devices that will keep applications highly available.
  12. A group of computers and other resources that operate together as a single system. See also clustered system, GPFS cluster.
  13. See clustered system.
  14. In SNA, a group of stations that consist of a controller (cluster controller) and the workstations attached to it.
  15. A group of servers connected by a network and configured in such a way that if the primary server fails, a secondary server takes over.
  16. In Microsoft Cluster Server, a group of computers, connected together and configured in such a way that, if one fails, MSCS performs a failover, transferring the state data of applications from the failing computer to another computer in the cluster and reinitiating their operation there.
  17. In Storwize® V7000, a pair of nodes that provides a single configuration and service interface.
  18. A collection of complete systems that work together to provide a single, unified computing capability.
  19. A data set defined to VSAM. A cluster can be a key-sequenced data set, an entry-sequenced data set, or a relative record data set.
  20. A related set of search results and their associated online resources that is automatically created.

Cluster Aware AIX (CAA)
A technology that builds clustering capabilities into the AIX operating system. This built-in clustering support provides commands and programming APIs to create a cluster from a group of AIX instances. CAA provides kernel-based heartbeat, monitoring, and event infrastructure.

cluster base table
In the Netezza database, a table that is organized on one to four columns, which collocates rows of the table in the same disk extents to improve query performance.

cluster caching facility (CF)
A subsystem, typically on a dedicated computer or LPAR, that assists in global locking and group buffer pool management for a DB2 pureScale instance on Linux and AIX operating systems. See also preferred primary cluster caching facility, primary cluster caching facility, secondary cluster caching facility.

cluster collection store
The set of machines on which the shards that are associated with a search collection are physically located. See also search collection, shard.

cluster configuration
A user definition of all cluster components. Component information is stored in the ODM. Components include cluster name and ID, and information about member nodes, network interface, and network modules. See also dynamic automatic reconfiguration.

cluster configuration data
The configuration data that is stored on the cluster configuration servers.

cluster configuration database
See Object Data Manager.

cluster controller
A device that can control the input/output operations of more than one device connected to it.

cluster domain
A virtual collection of physical elements such as computer systems and logical elements such as software instances that can provide services to a client as a single unit. See also cluster domain node.

cluster domain node
A physical element such as a computer system or a logical element such as a software instance in a cluster domain. See also cluster domain, management server domain, peer domain.

clustered hash table
A mechanism to enable the replicating and sharing of data between cluster nodes.

clustered index
An index whose sequence of key values closely corresponds to the sequence of rows stored in a table. The degree of correspondence is measured by statistics that are used by the optimizer.

clustered system
A collection of nodes that are placed in pairs (I/O groups) for redundancy, which provide a single management interface. See also cluster, GPFS cluster, system.

clustered trivial database (CTDB)
A cluster implementation of the trivial database (TDB) used by Samba and other projects to store temporary data.

cluster entry
A catalog entry that contains the following information about a key-sequenced or entry-sequenced Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) cluster: ownership, cluster attributes, and the cluster's passwords and protection attributes. A key-sequenced cluster entry points to both a data entry and an index entry; an entry-sequenced cluster entry points to a data entry only. See also alternate-index entry.

cluster environment

  1. See cluster configuration.
  2. A topology in which an application server is defined over several machines or CPUs. See also horizontal clustering, vertical clustering.

cluster event
Any state change in a resource that is defined to a cluster. A cluster event can be informational, such as a join adapter event which indicates that a failed adapter is now functional, or the event can be part of a recovery process, such as a node down event which includes the takeover of resources by a backup node. See also node down, node up.

Cluster feature
A feature that provides four cable connections and allows up to four work stations to be attached to a 5251 Model 12 Display Station.

cluster hardware
Hardware that is included in the cluster, such as disks and disk devices, processors, network interfaces, and networks.

cluster information base (CIB)
A replicated store of cluster-related information. It typically includes static configuration data which defines the resources, cluster nodes, and constraints (or dependencies) in the cluster, as well as information about the current state of the cluster.


  1. The process of grouping records together based on similarity. Similar records are labeled according to their group, so there is no predefined target field for the model to predict.
  2. The ability to group independent systems to work together as a single system.

clustering block index
See dimension block index.

clustering index
An index that determines how rows are physically ordered (clustered) in a table space. If a clustering index on a partitioned table is not a partitioning index, the rows are ordered in cluster sequence within each data partition instead of spanning the partitions.

cluster interconnect netname
The IP address or host name of the interconnect used for high-speed communication between members, or between members and cluster caching facilities, in a DB2 instance.

cluster joining
The process whereby additional nodes join an existing cluster when they can communicate with another active clustered node and can validate the node name and version compatibility.

cluster log
A log that maintains a history of routine activities and error conditions that are generated by all metadata servers in the cluster.

cluster manager

  1. A software daemon that runs on every node in the cluster and is responsible for responding to failures and coordinating recovery actions.
  2. The node that monitors node status using disk leases, detects failures, drives recovery, and selects file system managers. The cluster manager is the node with the lowest node number among the quorum nodes that are operating at a particular time.

cluster member
An identically configured copy of an object, such as an application server. Cluster members can be used for workload management purposes, for example, to support horizontal scaling and vertical scaling.

cluster membership list
A set of cluster nodes that have been configured for a cluster.

cluster name
A user-defined ASCII text string that uniquely identifies a cluster in a system.

cluster node
A system that is a member of a cluster. See also local node, remote node, system.

cluster processor complex (CPC)
The unit within a cluster that provides the management function for the ESS. It consists of cluster processors, cluster memory, and related logic.

cluster profile record (CPR)
A set of data that describes the VSAM data sets of various control-interval sizes for the storage of documents.

An IBM designation that defines certain high-availability requirements that are applied to a software product either by itself or in combination with other software products. A solution that satisfies the technical criteria of these requirements can be validated with IBM and licensed to be marketed with IBM's ClusterProven trademark.

cluster queue
A local queue that is hosted by a cluster queue manager, and defined as a target for messages being put from an application connected to any queue manager within the cluster. All applications retrieving messages must be locally connected.

cluster queue manager
A queue manager that is a member of a cluster. A queue manager can be a member of more than one cluster.

cluster-ready hardware server (CRHS)
A software component that provides management subsystem communication and methods for discovering components within a management subsystem.

cluster-receiver channel (CLUSRCVR)
A channel on which a cluster queue manager can receive messages from other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information from the repository queue managers.

cluster resource
Any part of the system that is available across multiple cluster nodes. The two types of system resources that can be resilient are the following: Objects that are kept up to date by using replication. A resilient application and its associated IP address, which can be switched.

cluster resource group (CRG)
A collection of related cluster resources that defines actions to be taken during a switchover or failover operation of the access point of resilient resources. The group describes a recovery domain and supplies the name of the cluster resource group exit program that manages the movement of an access point.

cluster resource group manager (CRGM)
A highly available client application that uses the integrated cluster resource services to configure, define, monitor, and administer a cluster of systems.

cluster resource service
An i5/OS system service function that supports cluster implementations.

cluster-root container
A special container that is the root of the global file system.

cluster-sender channel (CLUSSDR)
A channel on which a cluster queue manager can send messages to other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information to the repository queue managers.

cluster service
A Windows (TM) service that manages the cluster specific activities and is installed on each node of the cluster. The components of the Cluster service provide high availability, easy management and enhanced scalability for Windows.

cluster services
The high availability services, such as the cluster manager and other services running on the nodes, that monitor the cluster resources. The resources and data maintained on the cluster for access by clients and their applications are cluster services.

cluster snapshot
An ASCII file containing a record of the data that defines a particular cluster configuration. Applying a cluster snapshot can save and restore a particular cluster configuration.

cluster split event
An event that occurs when one or more nodes that are actively running cluster services cannot communicate with other nodes that are also running cluster services.

cluster storage subsystem
A group of clusters where each cluster consists of one or more logical partitions that have a shared storage pool.

Cluster Systems Management (CSM)
Systems management software that is designed to scale to large-size clusters.

cluster takeover
The process of the DB2 product taking over the ownership of a user-managed GPFS cluster.

cluster template
A template that defines the tiers for a cluster in a system. Tiers work together to create a cluster for a specific application environment, for example a GPFS application environment.

cluster topic
An administrative topic that is defined on a cluster queue manager and made available to other queue managers in the cluster.

cluster transmission queue
A transmission queue that holds all messages from a queue manager destined for another queue manager that is in the same cluster. The queue is called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.TRANSMIT.QUEUE.

cluster virtual IP address
An IP address that is shared between the primary or secondary host and the HA cluster.

cluster VLAN
The virtual LAN that connects nodes to each other and to the management server through an Ethernet connection. Installation and administration tasks are done on the cluster VLAN.

See color lookup table.

See customer lifetime value.

CL variable
See control language variable.


  1. See Content Manager.
  2. See conversion mode.

See centimeter.


  1. See conversion mode.
  2. See conversion mode*.

See CICSPlex SM address space.

CMAS link
A communications link between one CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) and another CMAS or a remote managed application system (remote MAS). CMAS links are defined when CICSPlex SM is configured.


  1. See Common Messaging Call.
  2. See communication management configuration.

See Configuration Management Database.

See control message interface.

See Common Management Information Protocol.

CMIP services
The VTAM implementation of the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), which provides a common set of program services for application programmers to use in writing CMIP application programs. These services include controlling associations, converting basic encoding rules (BER) syntax, and validating protocols.


  1. See Content Management Interoperability Services.
  2. See common management information service.

CM item
See configuration-managed item.


  1. See common management model.
  2. See common MPTN manager.

See complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

See Common Management Information Protocol over TCP/IP.

See container-managed persistence.

See Common Manageability Programming Interface.

CMRO task
See cross-memory resource-owning task.


  1. See Central Message Store.
  2. See Conversational Monitor System.
  3. See configuration management system.

CMS extended parameter list
A type of parameter list available in the CMS environment consisting of a string composed exactly as the user typed it at the terminal. There is no tokenization performed on the string.

CMS tokenized parameter list
A type of parameter list available in the CMS environment consisting of 8-byte tokens, which are folded to uppercase and end with a double word of FF.

See Configuration Management and Version Control.

CNAME record
An entry in the Domain Name System that is used to define a host name alias for an Internet domain. The ability to create the record can be used to prove ownership of a domain.

See communication network management.

See communication network management interface.

See composite network node.

See change number of sessions.

See communication name table.


  1. See central office.
  2. See configuration object.


  1. See cloud-oriented architecture.
  2. See chart of accounts.

A user interface that can be created to collect input that is required for an underlying service.

coalescing interval
The interval at which events are bundled. Event bundling occurs in 10 second intervals and begins with the first event that does not match any currently coalescing events. Within the coalescing interval, the first three matching events are bundled and sent to the event processor.

COA report
See confirm-on-arrival report.

Pertaining to viewing a group of objects from an abstract or high level. See also fine-grained.

coated paper
Paper to which a surface coating is applied to make it smooth.

The concept of VTAM's writing PIUs to NCP and reading PIUs from NCP with a single channel program. The values coded for the DELAY keywords on the VTAM PCCU definition statement and the NCP LINE definition statement affect the degree of coattailing. A user can increase the probability of VTAM's writing and reading PIUs with a single channel program by adjusting these DELAY keywords. An increase in the degree of coattailing improves channel efficiency but may increase response time.

coaxial cable
A cable consisting of one conductor, usually a small copper wire, within and insulated from another conductor of larger diameter, usually copper tubing or copper braid.

See Common Business Oriented Language.

COBOL character
Any of the 51 characters of the COBOL character set.

COBOL run unit
A COBOL-specific term that defines the scope of language semantics. A COBOL run unit is equivalent to a Language Environment enclave.

COBOL word
In COBOL, a character string of not more than 30 characters that forms a user-defined word, a system-name, or a reserved word.

A collection of individual modules that are packaged into a single load module in order to reduce the time that would otherwise be needed to load the individual load modules.

The interaction of multiple users sharing information about their individual web interactions. With this interaction users can share a view of the same web page simultaneously and share further interactions with the web page they are jointly viewing.

See center of competency.

See capacity on demand.

See confirmation of delivery.

A bar code symbology characterized by a discrete, self-checking, numeric code with each character represented by a stand-alone group of four bars and the three spaces between them.

See Conference on Data Systems languages.


  1. A set of instructions for a computer.
  2. A system of bit patterns to which a specific graphic or a control meaning has been assigned.
  3. To write instructions for the computer; to program.
  4. A number that uniquely identifies a catalog entry in the WebSphere Commerce system. A product code is used as the prefix for creating individual SKU codes.
  5. A representation of a condition, such as an error code.

Code 128
In architecture, a bar code symbology characterized by a variable-length, alphanumeric code with 128 characters.

Code 39
A bar code symbology characterized by a variable-length, bidirectional, discrete, self-checking, alphanumeric code. Three of the nine elements are wide and six are narrow. It is the standard for LOGMARS (the U.S. Department of Defense) and the AIAG.

code assist
See content assist.

Works together with the code attribute in the APPLET tag to give a complete specification of where to find the main applet class file: code specifies the name of the file, and codebase specifies the URL of the directory containing the file.(Sun)


  1. A technology that compresses and decompresses data for the purpose of reducing the bandwidth required to send streaming data.
  2. A program that can encode and decode a digital data stream or signal. In mobile computing, there are separate codecs for multimedia processing and voice processing.

code churn
A report that shows the volume of changes in a project over time.

code completion
A feature of many IDEs and text editors that predictively completes content (words, phrases, tags, and so on) while the user types.

coded character
A control or graphic character with its assigned code point.

coded character set (CCS)
A set of unambiguous rules that establishes a character set and the one-to-one relationships between the characters of the set and their coded representations. See also invariant character set.

coded character set identifier (CCSID)
A 16-bit number that includes a specific set of encoding scheme identifiers, character set identifiers, code page identifiers, and other information that uniquely identifies the coded graphic-character representation. See also binary string.

coded character set identifier 65534 (CCSID 65534)
The coded character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that a CCSID value for data at this level of processing is not relevant. When CCSID 65534 (X'FFFE') is associated with data, a CCSID value for the data should be obtained from the tagged fields of elements that are at a lower level in the defined hierarchy. For example, a file has CCSIDs that are tagged for each individual field it contains. If the field is tagged with CCSID 65534, processing is based on the CCSIDs assigned to each individual field instead of the CCSID assigned to the file.

coded character set identifier 65535 (CCSID 65535)
An identifier that is used to show that the associated data should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data. CCSID 65535 ( FFFF ) cannot be represented in long form. Data that is associated with CCSID 65535 should be interpreted as actual representation is unknown as defined in Character Data Representation Architecture-Level 2, IBM Registry. You cannot convert data that is associated with CCSID 65535 from one CCSID to another. The coded character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that data associated with the CCSID should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data.

coded font
In AFP support, a font file that associates a code page and a font character set. For double-byte fonts, a coded font associates multiple pairs of code pages and font character sets.

coded font local identifier
A 1-byte identifier that the Map Coded Font structured field assigns to each coded font it selects. The identifier is then specified in the text-control sequence that precedes the string of text to be printed with the particular font. See also local identifier.

coded font section
A font character set and code page pair. A single-byte coded font consists of only one coded font section; a double-byte coded font can consist of more than one.

coded graphic character
A graphic character that has been assigned one or more code points within a code page.

coded graphic character set
A set of graphic characters with their assigned code points.

coded graphic character set global identifier (CGCSGID)
A 4-byte binary or a 10-digit decimal identifier consisting of the concatenation of a GCSGID and a CPGID. The CGCSGID identifies the code point assignments in the code page for a specific graphic character set, from among all the graphic characters that are assigned in the code page.

coded graphic character-set ID
A 10-digit identifier (two 5-digit identifiers separated by a space) that is the combination of a graphic character-set ID and a code-page ID. See also code page ID.

coded image
In computer graphics, a representation of a display image in a form suitable for storage and processing.

code division multiple access (CDMA)
The term that is generally used to reference a type of 2G cellular network (standardized by IS-95). See also 2G, Global System for Mobile Communications, IS-95.

coded overlay
An overlay loaded in a printer in a coded format, rather than as a raster pattern. See also raster pattern overlay.

code element set
The result of applying rules that map a numeric code value to each element of a character set. An element of a character set may be related to more than one numeric code value but the reverse is not true. However, for state-dependent encodings the relationship between numeric code values to elements of a character set may be further controlled by state information. The character set may contain fewer elements than the total number of possible numeric code values; that is, some code values may be unassigned. X/Open.

code extension method
A method prescribed in an encoding scheme for representing characters that cannot be accommodated within the limits of the basic structure of the code. It prescribes a method to alter the interpretation of one or more code points that follow a prescribed single control character or a control sequence.

code generation template
The mixed-mode source file that is used by a generic operator to generate specific customizations. See also generic operator.

code generator
The part of the compiler that physically generates the object code.

code group
In a computer security code system, an apparently meaningless sequence of letters, digits, or both, that represents a plaintext element, which may be a word, phrase, or sentence.

code injection
A technique that introduces new code into an application. Code injection can be used by an attacker to introduce code into a computer program to change the course of execution.

code list

  1. One or many dynamic pairs of code values that contains sender code and receiver code. Each code pair has one description and up to four additional codes relating to the pair.
  2. A list that contains codes corresponding to the services provided by service providers.

code list table
A repository for lists of codes that can further define fields.

code load
In System Manager, the type of product load that contains all of the product code that does not require translation to other languages, such as the code for displays, menus, and messages. However, if a product is never going to be translated, the code may contain all the product code.

code page

  1. An ordered set of up to 256 predefined display symbols. The first 32 code points of each code page are reserved for control codes and are the same for all code pages, leaving up to 224 distinct display symbols per page.
  2. A specification of code points from a defined encoding structure for each graphic character in a set or in a collection of graphic character sets. Within a code page, a code point can have only one specific meaning. See also invariant character set.
  3. A particular assignment of code points to graphic characters. Within a given code page, a code point can have only one specific meaning. A code page also identifies how undefined code points are handled. See also code point.

code page global identifier (CPGID)
A 5-digit decimal or 2-byte binary identifier that is assigned to a code page. The range of values is 00001 to 65534 (X'0001' to X'FFFE').

code page ID
A 5-digit registered identifier used to specify a particular assignment of code points to graphic characters. The code-page ID is the second part of the QCHRID system value or the CHRID parameter value. See also coded graphic character-set ID.

code point

  1. A unique bit pattern that represents a character in a code page. See also code page.
  2. In QoS, pertaining to a specific value in the Differentiated Services field of a data packet that signals to a network the behavior that is assigned to that packet.
  3. For SNA alerts, a 1-or 2-byte hexadecimal code that designates a particular piece of text to be displayed at the focal point.
  4. An identifier in an alert description that represents a short unit of text. The code point is replaced with the text by an alert display program.
  5. A unique bit pattern defined in a code. Depending on the code, a code point can be 7-bits, 8-bits, 16-bits, or other. Code points are assigned graphic characters in a code page.

code respect
In programming, a feature that preserves the order of elements in the original code structure during code generation.

code server
A system that provides a code service for other computers on a network.

code set

  1. See code page.
  2. A set of unambiguous rules that establish a character set and the one-to-one relationship between each character of the set and its bit representation.

The artifact repository for IBM UrbanCode Deploy. CodeStation tracks artifact versions as they change and maintains an archive for each artifact.

code table
In architecture, a table showing the character allocated to each code point in a code.

code type
A code category. Standard 2x code types are: req code, job code, and source code.

code unit
The fundamental binary width in a computer architecture that is used for representing character data, such as 7 bits, 8 bits, 16 bits, or 32 bits. Depending on the character encoding form that is used, each code point in a coded character set (CCS) can be represented by one or more code units.

The process by which the responses to open-ended questions are sorted into categories.

coding variable
A categorical variable that stores the responses to an open-ended question after they have been sorted into categories.

COD report
See confirm-on-delivery report.

To collaborate on a single file with one or more other people. Updates to the file are made at the time that people make the edits, whether at the same time or different times.


  1. During migration, the state during which two releases exist in the same data sharing group.
  2. The ability of two or more different versions of WebSphere MQ to function on the same computer.
  3. The ability of two or more entities to function in the same system or network.
  4. The state during which two QMF releases exist in the same database.

cognitive analytics
A set of technologies and processes that analyze data for the purposes of learning, contextualization, and making recommendations.

cognitive car
A car that has the technology to predict vehicle malfunctions before they happen, divert drivers to less congested routes, and help reduce traffic accidents.

cognitive computing
A category of technologies that uses natural language processing and machine learning to enable people and machines to interact more naturally to extend and magnify human expertise and cognition.

coherency check
Verification that the current state of an object satisfies the programmer-defined invariant properties of its class.

Pertaining to an object in which all data values satisfy the invariant properties. If any invariant property is not satisfied, the object is not coherent.

Coherent Accelerator Processor Interface (CAPI)
A port that is used to connect auxiliary specialized processors for external communication.

coherent cache
Cache that maintains integrity so that all clients see the same data.

A list of security tags that specify the level of user access to the row.

A typesetter postprocessor that buffers typeset output so that printers and workstations that do not support backscrolling can print.

cold backup
For programs that are resident on backup systems, a configuration in which a copy of the program is installed for backup purposes, but has not been started. See also hot backup, warm backup.

cold project
A project that contains only a work breakdown structure and schedule that are imported from another project-scheduling tool.

cold queue
A Common Queue Server (CQS) private queue type that contains in-doubt data objects for a client that had a cold start or a CQS that had a cold start.

cold standby
A recovery method in which backup servers with installed applications are in place and in a stopped state.

cold start

  1. The starting of IMS when it is initialized for the first time or when some error condition prevents a warm or emergency restart. See also emergency restart, normal restart.
  2. A method of starting CICS where all local resources are refreshed, but information relating to remote systems and resource managers is preserved.
  3. A process by which DB2 restarts without processing any log records. See also warm start.
  4. A process in which the system is initialized. All jobs that were active or in the job queue at the time of the cold start are removed from the system. See also warm start.
  5. The process of starting a system or program using an initial program load procedure.
  6. The process of starting an existing data replication configuration without regard for prior replication activity, causing reinitialization of all subscriptions.


  1. A diagram that shows the exchange of messages between two or more participants in a BPMN model.
  2. The ability to connect customers, employees, or business partners to the people and processes in a business or organization, in order to facilitate improved decision-making. Collaboration involves two or more individuals with complementary skills interacting together to resolve a business problem. See also web-based editor.

collaboration area
A runtime instance of a workflow for a specific hierarchy or catalog. A collaboration area provides a staging area where entries from that container can be modified without affecting the original entry. These changes can be copied back to the original or discarded when the entry completes the workflow. Each collaboration area must be associated with a workflow (but not vice versa). See also container, workflow.

collaboration portfolio
The set of collaboration-based offerings and solutions within a brand unit or business unit. For example, IBM's collaboration portfolio includes IBM Connections, IBM Lotus Sametime Connect, and IBM SmartCloud and other applications.

collaboration service
A service that connects customers, employees, or business partners to the people and processes in a business or organization, in order to facilitate improved decision-making.

collaboration subscription
An account subscription that provides access to a collaboration service.

collaborative components
UI-neutral API methods and tag libraries that allow developers to add collaborative functionality to their portlets.

collaborative filtering
Personalization technology that calculates the similarity between users based on the behaviors of a number of other people and uses that information to make recommendations for the current user.

Collaborative Lifecycle Management (CLM)
The integration of products on Jazz technology to connect the work of analysts with development and test teams. These integrations provide a common approach to artifact linking, dashboards, security, and user interface frameworks.

collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
A concept that allows working together across the supply chain, using a set of process and technology models that are: open, yet allow secure communications; flexible across the industry; extensible to all supply chain processes; supportive of a broad set of requirements.

collaborative unit
The configuration of the part of a deployment environment that delivers required behavior to an application module. For example, a messaging collaborative unit includes the host of the messaging engine and deployment targets of the application module, and provides messaging support to the application module.

To compact a hierarchical view so that only higher levels or organization are displayed.

collapsed subprocess
A subprocess that hides its flow details. The collapsed subprocess object has a marker that distinguishes it as a subprocess, rather than a task. The marker is a small square with a plus sign inside.


  1. To combine and arrange in order.
  2. To determine the sorting order of strings of characters.

collateral damage potential (CDP)
A measurement of the potential impact of an exploited vulnerability on a physical asset or on an organization.

collating element

  1. The smallest entity used to determine the logical ordering of strings. A collating element consists of either a single character, or two or more characters collating as a single entity. The value of the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale determines the current set of collating elements. See also collating sequence.
  2. One or more characters that match a sequence in a regular expression.

collating sequence

  1. The sequence in which the characters are ordered for the purpose of sorting, merging, comparing, and processing indexed data sequentially.
  2. A specified arrangement used in sequencing. See also collating element.
  3. The relative ordering of collating elements as determined by the setting of the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale. The character order, as defined for the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale, defines the relative order of all collating elements, such that each element occupies a unique position in the order.
  4. An ordering assigned to a set of items, such that any two sets in that assigned order can be collated.


  1. The separation of storage types into general categories (i.e. pallet, case, and single unit) that require very different means of handling.
  2. The logical ordering of characters and strings according to defined rules.

collation order
The logical order that character-string values in a database are sorted and indexed by. The ordering is either based on the order of the code set or a locale-specific order.

collation table
A table that provides an ordered character set and character equivalence classes used by functions.

A device that combines and arranges pages in order.

collect - credited to customer payment method
A payment method in which the consignee pays for the freight charges and is reimbursed by the shipper.


  1. A container that provides a single view of related resources.
  2. An instance of a collection data type; a group of elements of the same data type stored in a SET, MULTISET, or LIST data type.
  3. An abstract class without any ordering, element properties, or key properties.
  4. A set of data sources and options for crawling, parsing, indexing, and searching those data sources.
  5. Data obtained by a collector that represents the system status at a given point in time. Collections are timestamped and stored in a management collection object. See also schema.
  6. In Ada language, the entire set of objects created by evaluation of allocators for an access type.
  7. A group of objects that typically have similar performance, availability, backup, retention, and class transition characteristics. A collection is used to catalog a large number of objects which, if cataloged separately, could require an extremely large catalog.
  8. A distinct named set of data that is associated with a case. For example, an ordered set of captured network packets.
  9. The process of monitoring and storing application performance data, aggregating it to a time interval, and saving it into data files on the endpoint.
  10. A logical container for storing archived documents, as well as the retention and access policies that specify how the documents are managed. Each collection is represented by a separate file system. See also file archive collection, System Storage Archive Manager collection.
  11. A group of packages that have the same qualifier.
  12. A group of objects with a similar set of management rules.
  13. A data type. The three types of collections are a list, set, or map.

collection certificate store
A collection of intermediate certificates or certificate revocation lists (CRL) that are used by a certificate path to build up a certificate chain for validation.

Collection Class Library
A complete set of abstract data structure such as trees, stacks, queues, and linked lists.

collection cursor
A database cursor that has an IBM Informix ESQL/C collection variable associated with it and provides access to the individual elements of a column whose data type is a collection data type.

collection data type
A complex data type whose instances are groups of elements of the same data type, which can be any opaque data type, distinct data type, built-in data type, collection data type, or row data type. See also complex data type.

collection-derived table
In Informix, a table that can be mapped to a transient table, and its elements can be mapped to rows of the transient table.

collection page
A type of page in the administrative console that displays a collection list of administrative objects. From this type of page, you can typically select objects to act on or to display other pages for.

collection point block (CPB)
In the NetView Performance Monitor (NPM), a control block used to coordinate the collection of network and session data.

collection processing engine (CPE)
An engine that performs collection processing through the combination of a collection reader, an optional CAS Initializer, an analysis engine, and one or more CAS Consumers.

collection processing manager (CPM)
A module in the framework that manages the execution of collection processing, routing CASs from the collection reader to an analysis engine, and then to the CAS Consumers. The CPM provides feedback such as performance statistics and error reporting, and may implement features such as parallelization.

collection reader
A component that reads documents from a source, such as a file system or database, and returns each document as a CAS that may be processed by analysis engines.

collection resource
A resource that provides access to information about a set of artifacts of the same type, such as jobs, operators, or processing elements.

Collection Services
A System i Navigator tool that collects performance data independent of the system monitors in System i Navigator. This function is intended for subsequent analysis by performance personnel either by writing queries against the collected data or by reviewing reports produced by the Performance Tools for i5/OS licensed program.

collection subquery
A collection subquery enables users to construct a collection expression from a subquery expression.

collection variable
An IBM Informix ESQL/C host variable or SPL variable that holds an entire collection and provides access, through a collection cursor, to the individual elements of the collection.


  1. A set of Liberty servers in one management domain that has at least one server with the collective-controller feature enabled.
  2. A set of appliances that are grouped together for scalability and management purposes.

collective communication
A communication operation that involves more than two processes or tasks. Broadcasts and reductions are examples of collective communication operations. All tasks in a communicator must participate.

collective controller
A centralized administrative control point where operations such as MBean routing, file transfer, and cluster management in a collective are performed. A core role of the collective controller is to receive information from the members within the collective so that the data can be retrieved readily without having to invoke an operation on each individual member.


  1. An object that determines what information is collected from, or assigned to, server resources. The information is specified through properties in the collector. The collector, assigned to a server, serves as a specification for the server’s manifest.
  2. A web service that accepts uploads of recordings and stores them into a permanent storage medium. This web service is a component of the session recording server.
  3. A generic name for a program that at regular intervals collects data about the status of the system.
  4. In an AIX PowerSC environment, an AIX logical partition or a virtual machine that has VTPM enabled and has the OpenPTS.collector fileset installed.

collector system
For directory shadowing, a system that receives initial or changed Enterprise Address Book (EAB) data from a supplier system in a network. See also supplier system.

collect payment method
A payment method in which the consignee pays for the freight charges.


  1. In X.25 communication, a condition that occurs when data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) simultaneously transmit packets (for instance, a clear request packet and a clear indication packet) over the same logical channel. The types of collision are clear collision, call collision, or reset collision.
  2. An unwanted condition that results from concurrent transmissions on a channel, causing the transmissions to be unintelligible.

collision arbiter
A plug-in that specifies how to handle change collisions in map entries.

collision avoidance
In carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), the process of sending a jam signal and waiting for a variable time before transmitting data. The process is designed to avoid two or more simultaneous transmissions.

collision detect
In Performance Tools, a counter that counts the total number of times the terminal equipment (TE) detected that the frames it transmitted were damaged by another TE trying to use the same bus.

collision detection
In carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD), a signal indicating that two or more stations are transmitting simultaneously.

collocated join
The result of two tables being joined under one of two conditions. The first condition is where the tables are located in a single-partition database partition group in the same database partition. The second condition is where the tables are in the same database partition group, the number of partitioning columns is the same, the columns are partition compatible, both tables use the same partitioning function, and pairs of the corresponding partitioning key columns participate in the equijoin predicates. See also partition-compatible join.


  1. The process of keeping all data belonging to a single-client file space, a single client node, or a group of client nodes on a minimal number of sequential-access volumes within a storage pool. Collocation can reduce the number of volumes that must be accessed when a large amount of data must be restored. See also anti-collocation, distribution preference.
  2. An optional policy which can be applied to certain cluster resources such as persistent IP addresses and resource groups. Collocation specifies that, whenever possible, the entity will be brought online using the same resources as another cluster entity. For example, if a persistent IP address is configured to collocate with a service IP address, the persistent and service IP addresses will both be placed on the same network interface. See also anti-collocation, distribution preference.

collocation frequency
A statistic that indicates the likelihood of certain words occurring together in text.

collocation group
A user-defined group of client nodes whose data is stored on a minimal number of volumes through the process of collocation.

colon format
A format into which data files can be organized. Each data record consists of one line in the colon file, and data fields in each data record are separated by colons.

In Sterling Order Management and Sterling Configure, Price, Quote, a set of database shards required to provide complete sharding functionality.

colony address space
An address space in which a physical file system (PFS) can be initialized. The address space can be viewed as a logical extension to the kernel address space.

colony prefix
See primary key prefix.

In computer systems, a color is usually represented by a triplet called RGB (red, green, and blue) signals. Most computer monitors require RGB signals to drive the 3-colored phosphors of a color monitor.

color attribute
An attribute that affects the color values provided in a graphics primitive, a text control sequence, or an IPDS command; for example, foreground color and background color.

color cell
In Enhanced X-Windows, an entry in a color map that consists of three values based on red, green, and blue intensities. The values are 16-bit, unsigned numbers. Zero represents the minimum intensity. The values are scaled by the server to match the particular display in use.

color depth
The number of screen colors that are available to visitors that are accessing a website.

color display
A display device capable of displaying more than two colors and the shades produced by combinations of two colors, as opposed to a monochrome display.

color image
In architecture, images whose image data elements are represented by multiple bits or whose image data element values are mapped to color values. Constructs that map image-data-element values to color values are look-up tables and image-data-element structure parameters.

color lookup table (CLUT)
See color map.

color map

  1. A set of color cells. A pixel value indexes the color map to produce RGB-intensities. A color map consists of a set of entries defining color values that, when associated with a window, is used to display the contents of the window.
  2. A lookup table in which each index is associated with a red, green, and blue value.

color mapping file
File CICSCOL.INI used by the CICS Transaction Gateway to customize the 3270 screen color attributes on client workstations.

color mapping table
An architected MO:DCA object that is used to map color values specified in a source color space to color values specified in a target color space. This object is loaded into printers that support the color mapping table.

color model
A technique for describing a color. For example, the RGB color model specifies color in terms of three intensities for red (R), green (G), and blue (B).

color palette

  1. A set of colors that can be displayed on the display at one time. This can be standard set used for all images or a set that can be customized for each image.
  2. In Business Graphics Utility, the range of colors defined by hue, lightness, and saturation to be used when a chart is displayed on a graphics-capable display.
  3. See color map.

color ramp
A progression of colors in a color map. Most color ramps are smooth and have only a small number, if any, of discontinuities. For instance, if the full set of colors of the rainbow were loaded into the color map, that would constitute a color ramp.

color selection
The ability to specify a color other than black to print data in more than one color. Some printers support selection of several colors, depending upon the color of ribbon installed in the printer. Other printers support the selection of black or "color of media," which can cause white lettering on a background that has been shaded black, for example.

color separation
The process of making separate masters of a document for color printing.

color table

  1. See color map.
  2. In AFP architecture, a collection of color element sets. The table can also specify the method used to combine the intensity levels of each element in an element set to produce a specific color. Examples of methods used to combine intensity levels are the additive method and the subtractive method. See also lookup table.


  1. In a relational database, a field defined for a given record or row.
  2. A subdivision of a band, such as baseline or actual.
  3. A character position within a print line or on a display. The positions are numbered consecutively from 1, starting at the leftmost character position and extending to the rightmost position.
  4. The vertical component of a database table. A column has a name and a particular data type (for example, character, decimal, or integer).
  5. In FD:OCA, a subarray consisting of all elements that have an identical position within the low dimension of a regular two-dimensional array. See also row.

column analysis
A data quality process that describes the condition of data at the field level.

columnar vector memory
Sort heap memory that is used in the vector processing of data that is stored in column-organized tables.

column balancing
The process of redistributing lines of text among a set of columns so that the amount of text in each column is as equal as possible.

column compression dictionary
A column-level dictionary that is used to compress data in a column of a column-organized table.

column constraint
A rule that limits the values that can be inserted, deleted, or updated in a table column.

column data
The data in a column of a relational database table or view. The type of the data can be any data type supported by the database manager.

column distribution value
See data distribution.

column expression
An expression that includes a column name and optionally uses column subscripts to define a column substring.

column function
See aggregate function.

column heading
Text appearing near the top of a column of data for the purpose of identifying or titling the data in the column.

column inch
A unit of measure for printed text. One column inch is the amount of text contained in an inch of type depth, one column wide.

column-major order
A way of storing array elements such that the leftmost subscript varies most rapidly as memory-adjacent elements are accessed.

column map
A map that defines the specifications for mapping columns of compatible data between source and destination tables.

column option
In a federated system, a parameter of the CREATE NICKNAME and ALTER NICKNAME statements that describes the values in certain columns of the data source object that a nickname references. This information is added to the global catalog and used by the query optimizer to develop better access plans.

column-organized table
A table where the data pages contain column data instead of row data. See also row-organized table.

column position
A unit of horizontal measure related to characters in a line. It is assumed that each character in a character set has an intrinsic column width independent of any output device. Each printable character in the portable character set has a column width of one. The standard utilities, when used as described in this document set, assume that all characters have integral column widths. The column width of a character is not necessarily related to the internal representation of the character (numbers of bits or bytes). The column position of a character in a line is defined as one plus the sum of the column widths of the preceding characters in the line. Column positions are numbered starting from 1. X/Open.

column separator
A symbol on each side of a position of a field on a display. This symbol does not occupy a position on the display.

column token
A level attribute that has certain properties, irrespective of the reference structure level. For example, the level attribute that provides the identifier for each row of data is represented by the $ID column token.

column width
The width of each text column on a page.

column wrapping
The formatting of values in a report so that the values occupy several lines within a column. Column wrapping is often used when a column contains a value with a length that exceeds the column width.


  1. See computer output microfilm.
  2. See Component Object Model.

In a magnetic disk unit, an assembly of access arms that moves as a unit.

combination box
A control that combines the capabilities of an entry field and a list box. The list box contains choices that a user can select from to complete the entry field.

combination coupon
A coupon that is used to make price adjustments.

combination pricing rule
A pricing rule that changes the price of an item based on the combination of items being ordered. For example, an organization can create a pricing rule under which, for every home theatre system a customer buys, the customer gets a free DVD player.

combined alert
In the NetView program, an alert that includes both a nongeneric alert and a generic alert in one network management vector transport.

combined code page
See mixed code page.

combined condition
In COBOL, a condition that is the result of connecting two or more conditions with the AND or the OR logical operator.

combined file
In RPG, a data file that is used as both an input file and an output file. The fields are not necessarily the same in the input and output records.

combined function IOP (CFIOP)
A type of IOP that can connect to a variety of different input/output adapters to support disk units, a console, and communications hardware. It contains some multifunction IOP (MFIOP) capabilities as well as Ethernet and token-ring controllers. This processor does not contain server processor functions. See also multifunction IOP.

combined search
A query that combines one or more of the following types of searches: parametric, text, or image.

combined sewer overflow (CSO)
A discharge of untreated waste water from a combined sewer system at a point prior to the headworks of a publicly owned treatment works. CSOs generally occur during wet weather (rainfall or snowmelt). During periods of wet weather, these systems become overloaded, bypass treatment works, and discharge directly to receiving waters.

combined sewer system (CSS)
A waste water collection system which conveys sanitary waste waters (domestic, commercial and industrial waste waters) and stormwater through a single pipe to a publicly owned treatment works for treatment prior to discharge to surface waters.

combined station
In high-level data link control (HDLC), the part of a data station that supports the combined control functions of the data link, generates commands and responses for transmission, and interprets received commands and responses.

combining sequence
A single UNICODE character that is the combination of multiple characters with unique code point values.

COM component
A binary file, such as .dll, .ocx, and some .exe files, that supports the COM standard for providing objects. COM components contain code for one or more class factories, COM classes, registry-entry mechanisms, loading code, and so on.

COM device
See microfilm device.

come from checking
An SNA LU 6.2 security option that defines a list of authorization identifiers that are allowed to connect to DB2 for z/OS from a partner LU.

COM interops
A component that provides a bridge between COM components and the .NET Framework.

Comitato Elettrotechnico Italiano
The Italian standards organization responsible for signaling protocols.

Comité consultatif international télégraphique et téléphonique (CCITT)
See International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.


  1. A token that represents a separator of arguments in an argument list or decimal separator.
  2. A unique pattern (either binary 1100000 or binary 0011111) used in 8B/10B encoding to specify character alignment within a data stream. See also K28.5.

comma-delimited file
A file whose records contain fields that are separated by a comma.

comma expression
An expression that contains two operands separated by a comma. Although the compiler evaluates both operands, the value of the right operand is the value of the expression. If the left operand produces a value, the compiler discards this value.


  1. A statement used to initiate an action or start a service. A command consists of the command name abbreviation, and its parameters and flags if applicable.
  2. In SNA, any field set in the transmission header (TH), request header (RH), or request unit (RU) that states an action or that starts a protocol. See also data traffic reset state.
  3. A request to perform an operation or run a program. When parameters, arguments, flags, or other operands are associated with a command, the resulting character string is a single command.
  4. In SDLC, a frame transmitted by a primary station. Asynchronous balanced mode stations send both commands and responses. See also response.
  5. A request from a terminal or automated operator for the performance of an operation or service, or for the execution of a particular program. See also response.
  6. In data communication, an instruction represented in the control files of a frame and transmitted by a primary or combined station. It causes the addressed station to run a data link control function.

command alias
An abbreviation of a long command line or a new name for a command. [OSF]

command and response token (CART)
An 8-byte token that is added to write-to-operator (WTO) commands; it enables the response WTO to be associated with the command that invoked it.

command area
An area of a display screen in which the user enters commands.

command attention key (CA key)
In DDS, a keyboard key that can be specified with the CA keyword to request the function specified by the keyword. Data is not returned to the system. See also command function key.

command authorization
The process of authorizing a network operator to use various commands. See also NetView command authorization table, Resource Access Control Facility, System Authorization Facility.

command bag
In the MQAI, a type of bag that is created for administering WebSphere MQ objects, but cannot change the order of data items or create lists within a message.

command bean

  1. A bean that contains the programming logic to handle a particular request.
  2. A proxy that can invoke a single operation using an execute() method.

command buffer
A temporary storage area where commands are stored before being carried out.

Command Center

  1. A menu from which a user can carry out tasks and monitor the status for companies and groups.
  2. A component of the Control Center for IMS that is used to issue IMSplex commands from both a workstation or multiple IMS systems.

command code
The portion of the segment search argument that enables an application program to access a database segment based on some variation in either the call function, the segment qualification, or the setting of parentage.

command control block (CCB)
In the IBM Token-Ring Network, a specifically formatted block of information provided from the application program to the adapter support software to request an operation.

command definition
An object that contains the definition of a command (including the command name, parameter descriptions, and validity-checking information) and identifies the program that performs the function requested by the command. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CMD.

command definition statement
A source statement that defines keywords and parameter values, qualified names, elements in a list, parameter requirements and interrelationships, and prompt text for a command. Command definition statements are used to create a CL command.

command direction
An RRSF function that allows a user to issue a command from one user ID and direct that command to run in the RACF address space on the same system or on a different RRSF node, using the same or a different user ID. See also automatic command direction, directed command.

command entry field
In Common User Access (CUA) architecture, an entry field in which a user types commands.

command event
A notification that an MQSC or PCF command has run successfully.

Command Execution Language (CEL)
The language used to create commands that work across cluster nodes. C-SPOC commands use CEL.

command execution manager
The service that manages remote command execution through a function in the policies.

command facility
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, the component that is a base for command processors that can monitor, control, and automate network operations.

command file

  1. In PC operating systems, a file with a file name extension of .CMD that functions like a batch file in DOS.
  2. In RJE, a remote job input stream that can contain host system commands and job control language (JCL), data, and RJE control statements (READFILE or EOF). See also data file.
  3. A system file that contains one or more statements or commands.

command frame
A link-level frame or packet that is serviced as a command and (in most cases) expects a response.

command function key (CF key)
In DDS, a keyboard key that can be specified with the CF keyword to request the function specified by the keyword. Data is returned to the system. See also command attention key.

command history
An automatic listing of previously issued commands.

command indicator
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, a numeric identifier that is assigned to a network resource by its controlling resource manager. Each resource manager is assigned a range of values that can be defined.

command interface
An interface for running QMF commands. The QMF commands can only be issued from within an active QMF session. See also callable interface.

command interpreter
See command language interpreter.

command key indicator
In RPG, an indicator defined to correspond with the function keys to tell the program when one of the function keys is pressed.

Command Language (CL)
In WebSphere MQ for iSeries, a language that can be used to issue commands, either at the command line or by writing a CL program.

command language interpreter
A program that reads commands and changes them into computer instructions.

command language translator
A batch program (part of CICS program preparation utilities) that prepares a source application program that includes EXEC CICS or EXEC DLI commands. The translator program translates the EXEC commands into CALL statements in the language of the application program. The translator output can be compiled or assembled in the usual way.

command length
In query management, one of the arguments passed to the language-specific interface programs that specifies the length of the query command to be run.

Pertaining to an operation that is performed for a specific command in a program. For example, a Monitor Message (MONMSG) command that immediately follows a specific command in a CL program is a command-level MONMSG command. See also program level.

command-level interface
See application programming interface.

command-level interpreter
A transaction that enables CICS commands to be entered, syntax-checked, and executed interactively at a 3270 screen. It provides a reference to the syntax of the whole of the CICS command-level application programming and system programming interface.

command line
The blank line on a display where commands, option numbers, or selections can be entered.

command-line argument
A part of a command line, delimited by white space. Arguments are used to specify detailed behavior to a program. They are usually either command line options selecting variations in program operation, or path names of files to be processed.

command-line client
A component used to run selected Tivoli Workload Scheduler master domain manager commands from any workstation where it is installed. The command-line client does not need to be installed on the master domain manager and is a selectable option for installation on other nodes in the network. See also master domain manager.

command-line interface (CLI)
A computer interface in which the input and output are text based. See also Copy Services command-line interface.

command line manager
The service that manages the command-line interface.

command line processor (CLP)
A text-based interface for entering SQL and XQuery statements and database manager commands.

command list

  1. A list of commands and statements designed to perform a specific function for the user.
  2. A language for performing TSO tasks.

command master
In an IMSplex, the IMS that Operations Manager (OM) designates to process a command when a command is issued through the OM API. Commands are routed to all IMS systems that are registered for the command and, if the command requires only one IMS to process it, the command master processes the command.

command mode
A state of a system or device in which the user can enter commands.

command name
The first term in a command, a verb, which specifies the action to be performed and is usually followed by operands.

command prefix

  1. A 1-character to 8-character command identifier. The command prefix distinguishes the command as belonging to an application or subsystem rather than to z/OS.
  2. In WebSphere MQ for z/OS, a character string that identifies the queue manager to which WebSphere MQ for z/OS commands are directed, and from which WebSphere MQ for z/OS operator messages are received.

command prefix facility (CPF)
A z/OS facility that provides a registry for command prefixes. CPF ensures that two or more subsystems do not have the same or overlapping command prefixes for operator commands.

command procedure
In the NetView for z/OS, a command list or a command processor that is written in a high-level language or a pipeline.

command processing client
An entity that can process commands or perform other work as directed by an Operations Manager (OM). In an IMSplex, an IMS control region is a command processing client.

command processing program (CPP)
A program that processes a command. This program performs some validity checking and processes the command so that the requested function is performed.

command processor
A module designed to perform a specific function for the user. Users can write command processors in assembler language or in a high-level language. Command processors are started as commands.

command processor parameter list (CPPL)
A list that contains addresses required by the command processor.

command programming language
A facility with which a user can program by combining commands rather than by writing statements in a conventional programming language.

command prompt
A displayed character (or string of characters) that indicates that a user may enter a command to be processed.

command recognition character (CRC)

  1. In MVS, a character that denotes an operator command.
  2. A character that permits a z/OS console operator or an IMS subsystem user to route DB2 commands to specific DB2 for z/OS subsystems.

command scope
The breadth of the impact of a command in a data sharing group. In a data sharing environment, a command can have a group scope or a member scope.

command security
A form of security checking that can be specified for the PERFORM, COLLECT, DISCARD, INQUIRE, and SET commands. Command security operates in addition to any transaction security or resource security specified for a transaction. For example if a terminal invokes a transaction that the user is authorized to use, and the transaction issues a command that the user is not authorized to use, the command fails with the NOTAUTH condition.

command server
The WebSphere MQ component that reads commands from the system-command input queue, verifies them, and passes valid commands to the command processor.

command set
In architecture, a collection of IPDS commands.

command-set vector
In architecture, information that identifies an IPDS command set and data level supported by a printer. Command-set vectors are returned with an Acknowledge Reply to an IPDS Sense Type and Model command.

command significant status
The command status that is associated with a resource, for example, the status of STOP, TRACE, and MFSTEST commands. If a resource structure is defined, the recovery of command significant status is always maintained globally by the Resource Manager (RM) in the resource structure. See also end-user significant status.

command string

  1. In query management, a character string that contains a query command.
  2. A request to perform an operation, along with the operands that provide all instructions needed for running the operation.

command substitution
In UNIX-based operating systems, a shell feature that makes it possible to use the output from one command as an argument to another command.

command synonym
The verb or verb/object portion of a site-defined command. After command synonyms are defined and activated in the QMF profile, users can enter the synonyms on the QMF command line as they do with regular QMF commands.

command synonym table
A table that stores one site-defined command in each row. A set of command synonyms is assigned to a user by storing the name of this table in the user's profile.

command thread
A thread which is reserved by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for commands issued to DB2 using the DSNC transaction. See also entry thread, pool thread.

command word
The name of the 16-bit units used for storing graphic primitive strings. The first command word determines the primitive type and sets the length of the string.

See communication area.

See communications data set.


  1. An annotation attached to an artifact, element, or a collection of elements.
  2. Explanatory text in a program or file that is not translated by the compiler.
  3. Text that is included within a contract for communication with other users.

Any additional information attached to Contributor cells, tabs, or e.List items, including both user annotations and attached files.

In COBOL, an entry in the Identification Division of the source program that may be any combination of characters from the character set of the computer. The comment-entry is written in area B on one or more lines. Comment-entries serve only as documentation and are not translated by the compiler.

comment line
In COBOL, a source program line represented by an asterisk (*) in the indicator area of the line and any characters from the computer's character set in area A and area B of that line. The comment line serves only for documentation in a program.

Commerce Composer tool
A Management Center feature that business users can use to create pages and build page layouts for an e-commerce store without involving IT. The Commerce Composer tool provides a library of prebuilt layout templates and widgets to give business users greater control over page design.

Commerce Composer widget
A small application that retrieves and displays a specific type of content on a page of an e-commerce store. Examples of content are ads, product recommendations, and navigational links. In the Commerce Composer tool in Management Center, business users can design store pages by adding widgets to page layouts.

commercial address
The street address as defined by the freight carrier for commercial sites.

Commercial Data Masking Facility (CDMF)
An encryption function that uses a 40-bit key with the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm.

commercial invoice
A list of the pertinent information about a shipment, such as shipper, consignee, third party (if present), the goods being shipped, their cost and value for customs (and for the transaction), and so on.

commercial processing workload (CPW)
An application that is run on System i models and processors to determine processor performance. The CPW workload is representative of commercial applications, particularly those that do significant database processing in conjunction with journaling and commitment control.

Commission of European Post and Telegraph (CEPT)
A European standards-setting organization replaced by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). See also European Telecommunications Standards Institute.


  1. To transfer to a specific version of the software product. When committing, the saved files from all previous versions are removed from the system, thereby making it impossible to return to a previous version without reinstallation. Committing does not change the currently active version of the software product.
  2. To store a snapshot of the current state of a project.
  3. To move managed assets from a task group in a workspace to the production-ready data on the authoring server. See also authoring server, production-ready data, quick publish, task group, workspace, workspace task group approver.
  4. To apply all the changes made during the current unit of recovery (UR) or unit of work (UOW). After the operation is complete, a new UR or UOW can begin.
  5. A snapshot of the current state of a project in a repository. A project's history is defined by a series of commits.
  6. To make a document immutable.
  7. To end a unit of work by releasing locks so that the database changes made by that unit of work can be perceived by other processes. This operation makes the data changes permanent. See also atomic, recoverable data set.

commit coordinator
See sync point manager.

commit cycle
The sequence of changes made between commitment boundaries.

commit cycle identifier
The journal sequence number associated with the start commitment operation that is used to identify the journal entries in a particular commit cycle.

commit identifier
The information that associates the commit operation with a specific set of committable resource changes. The commit ID is placed in the notify object if a system or routing step failure occurs, or if uncommitted changes exist when a routing step ends normally. The commit ID contains information (supplied on the commit statement) about the last successful transaction (group of changes that appear as a single change); for example, the transfer of funds from savings to a checking account.

commit in progress (CIP)
The commit in progress logical unit of work (LUW) state indicates that all the resources associated with this logical unit of work have been prepared after a unanimous vote to commit. The protected resource managers are in the process of committing.

commitment boundary

  1. In a commitment controlled environment, any time there are no outstanding changes for a committable resource existing within a job.
  2. A point at which there are no changes to a database file pending within a job. See also roll back.

commitment control

  1. A way of grouping file operations that allows the processing of a group of database changes as a unit or the removal of a group of database changes as a unit. See also roll back.
  2. A means of grouping committable resource operations to allow either the processing of a group of committable resource changes as a single unit through the Commit command, or the removing of a group of committable resource changes as a single unit through the Rollback command.

commitment definition
Information used by the system to maintain the commitment control environment throughout a routing step and, in the case of a system failure, throughout an IPL (initial program load). This information is obtained from the Start Commitment Control (STRCMTCTL) command, which establishes the commitment control environment, and the file open information in a routing step. The commitment definition has a scope either to the job or to a particular activation group within the job.

commit operation

  1. An operation that saves a file to permanent storage.
  2. A change management operation that causes all the updates prepared in the preparation phase to take effect. See also transactional mode.

commit phase
The second phase in a XA process. If all participants acknowledge that they are prepared to commit, the transaction manager issues the commit request. If any participant is not prepared to commit, the transaction manager issues a back-out request to all participants.

commit point
A point in time when data is considered to be consistent. See also point of consistency, synchronization point.

commit processing
The processing that IMS performs at a commit point.

committable resource
A local or remote i5/OS object that can be placed under commitment control.

committable update
An operation that results in a change to an object such that the object is under commitment control.

committed change
A change that is not backed out in the event of a failure. Changes made by a logical unit of work (LUW) are committed when the sync point at the end of the LUW is complete.

committed copy counter
A counting device that identifies the number of copies of a page that have been committed to printing but have not been counted by the committed page counter.

committed date
A date on which the supplier agrees to send the shipment to the buyer after a purchase order (PO) is placed.

committed page counter
A counting device that identifies the number of pages that have been committed to printing and have been removed from the page buffer.

committed read
In Informix, an isolation level under which a query in a transaction can read only rows that are committed at the moment when the query is requested. The user cannot view rows that were changed as a part of a currently uncommitted transaction. Committed read is available through a database server and set with the SET ISOLATION statement. It is the default level of isolation for databases that are not ANSI compliant. See also read committed, uncommitted read.

The process by which goods and services that were once unique offerings become more generic in the marketplace. Commoditization occurs when the goods or services can be produced on a larger scale by more companies.

A procurement entity representing a product or service that can be purchased and tracked throughout its lifecycle in the procurement process.

common agent
An agent that provides shared infrastructure for management applications. The common agent is self-monitoring and self-starting, and provides remote deployment capability, shared machine resources, secure connectivity, and a single entry point. See also agent, subagent.

Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)
A simple but general format for exchanging all-hazard emergency alerts and public warnings over all kinds of networks. 

In information analysis, a measure of the number of matching values in a set of paired columns.

common analysis structure (CAS)
A structure that stores the content and metadata of a document, and all analysis results that are produced by an analysis engine. All data exchange during document analysis is handled by using the common analysis structure. See also annotation, common analysis structure consumer, common analysis structure initializer, common analysis structure processor, Java common analysis structure, text analysis engine, XML common analysis structure.

common analysis structure consumer
A consumer that does the final processing on the analysis results that are stored in the common analysis structure. For example, a consumer indexes the contents of the common analysis structure in a search engine or it populates a relational database with specific analysis results. See also common analysis structure.

common analysis structure initializer
A component that populates a Common Analysis Structure from a raw document. For example, if the document is HTML, a CAS Initializer might store a detagged version of the document in the CAS and also create inline annotations derived from the tags. See also common analysis structure.

common analysis structure processor (CAS processor)
A component that takes a common analysis structure as input and returns a CAS as output. See also common analysis structure.

common anchor area (CAA)
Dynamically acquired storage that represents a z/OS thread. This area acts as a central communications area for the program, holding control blocks and addresses of various storage and error-handling routines, and control blocks.

common area

  1. A control section used to reserve a virtual storage area to which other modules can refer.
  2. In a web page that is based on a page template, the fixed region of the page.

Common Base Event
A specification based on XML that defines a mechanism for managing events, such as logging, tracing, management, and business events, in business enterprise applications. See also situation.

common block
In FORTRAN, a storage area that can be referred to by a calling program and one or more subprograms.

Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
A high-level programming language that is used primarily for commercial data processing.

common channel signaling (CCS)
A method of communicating telephony information and line signaling events (for example, call setup and call clearing) on a dedicated signaling channel. See also channel associated signaling.

common client interface (CCI)
A standard interface that allows developers to communicate with enterprise information systems (EISs) through specific resource adapters, using a generic programming style. The generic CCI classes define the environment in which a J2EE component can send and receive data from an EIS.

common code
A value that enables a user to choose from options rather than having to enter data manually.

common communication layer (CCL)
The communication infrastructure that unites the various components, such as controller, parser, crawler, and index server, of WebSphere Information Integrator OmniFind Edition.

Common Communications Support (CCS)
The Systems Application Architecture (SAA) component that defines architectures and protocols that interconnect systems and devices in an SAA environment and allow data to be interchanged among them.

common component
A component that is intended to be used in more than one product. See also assembly.

Common Connector Framework (CCF)
A product offering interface and class definitions that provide a consistent means of interacting with enterprise resources (for example, CICS and Encina transactions) from any Java execution environment.

Common Console Interface (CCI)
The interface definition that enables console components to run either in a previously installed console or in a web console, such as the Integrated Solutions Console (ISC).

Common Criteria
A framework for independent assessment, analysis, and testing of IT products to a set of security requirements.

Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA)
IBM software that enables a consistent approach to cryptography on major IBM computing platforms. It supports application software that is written in a variety of programming languages. Application software can call on CCA services to perform a broad range of cryptographic functions, including DES and RSA encryption.

Common Data Link Interface (CDLI)
The device drivers that interface with kernel services to provide support for sockets and STREAMS interfaces.

Common Data Model
A logical data model that defines the standard representation of resources and how those resources are associated to each other. The Common Data Model uses influences from various standards bodies in the industry and serves as a best practice conglomeration of all standards.

common data set descriptor record (CDD)
The record that precedes a user's data set on a DFSMShsm-owned volume and that is used to return the data set to the user's format.

Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
A graphical user interface running on UNIX.

common development test (CDT)
A development and test environment for GNA/GWA applications, designed and built in accordance with customer requirements and GWA and GNA standards.

common domain
In information analysis, the set of columns that share overlapping and potentially redundant values.

common error bucket
An additional error status element (ESE) generated for each terminal error block (TEB), if fewer ESEs than the maximum number of error types recognized by the CICS terminal abnormal condition program are specified when the terminal error program (TEP) tables are generated.

Common Event Infrastructure (CEI)
The implementation of a set of APIs and infrastructure for the creation, transmission, persistence, and distribution of business, system, and network Common Base Events. See also event emitter.

common filter service
A subcomponent of DFSMSdfp common services that compares data items with filter keys, and then indicates which data items match the keys and how many matches have been found.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
An Internet standard for defining scripts that pass information from a web server to an application program, through an HTTP request, and vice versa.

A physical file system layer for the address families AF_INET and AF_INET6 that multiplexes sockets across several other physical file systems or transports.

Common Information Model (CIM)
An implementation-neutral, object-oriented schema for describing network management or systems management information. The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) develops and maintains CIM specifications. See also common management model.

common interchange file (CIF)
A file that contains one ImagePlus Interchange Architecture (IPIA) data stream.

common interchange unit (CIU)
The independent unit of transfer for a common interchange file (CIF). It is the part of the CIF that identifies the relationship to the receiving database. A CIF can contain multiple CIUs.

Common Internet File System (CIFS)

  1. A protocol that manages shared, remote file access for applications to files, printers, serial ports, and so on over a TCP/IP network.
  2. A protocol that enables collaboration on the Internet by defining a remote file-access protocol that is compatible with the way applications already share data on local disks and network file servers. See also Server Message Block 2.0, Server Message Block.

common key
In COBOL, the key fields that are common to all record formats in the file starting with the first key field (the most significant) and ending with the last key field (the least significant).

Common Language for Expression Manipulation (CLEM)
A powerful language for analyzing and manipulating the data that flows along SPSS Modeler streams. A subset of the CLEM language can be used when scripting in the user interface, allowing many of the same data manipulations to be automated.

common language runtime (CLR)
The runtime interpreter for all .NET Framework applications. See also .NET Framework.

Common Link Access to Workstation (CLAW)

  1. A continuously executing program designed to minimize host interrupts while maximizing channel utilization.
  2. The architecture that defines the channel commands used between the host and the channel attachment adapter.

Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
A standard repository of locale data. This data is used for such tasks as formatting dates, times, time zones, numbers, and currency values and sorting text.

Common Manageability Programming Interface (CMPI)
A common C-based interface that is between the CIM server and provider. The provider that is implemented with CMPI can run with the CIM server.

Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP)
In OSI, the management protocol (ISO 9596-2) that supports the common management information service.

Common Management Information Protocol over TCP/IP (CMOT)
An Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) specification for the use of CMIP over a TCP/IP protocol stack.

common management information service (CMIS)
In OSI, the set of services defined by ISO 9595. The common management information service is used by agent processes and managing processes to communicate.

common management model (CMM)
A model that describes how to represent IT entities as managed resources and services. See also Common Information Model.

common message log
A log that contains messages from several Infoprint Server components, including Print Interface, NetSpool, and IP PrintWay extended mode. Infoprint Central and the aoplogu command can display messages in the common message log.

Common Messaging Call (CMC)
An application programming interface (API) defined by the X.400 API Association.

common MPTN manager (CMM)
The component of the MPTN architecture that provides services independent of any transport protocol. Examples include registering transport users with the MPTN address-mapper component, selecting a transport provider, and establishing MPTN connections.

common neighbor
An entity that is directly connected to at least two other entities. For example, if C is connected to A and B, then C is a common neighbor of A and B. See also binding strength, connection.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
An architecture and a specification for distributed object-oriented computing that separates client and server programs with a formal interface definition. See also Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.

common operations services (COS)
The portion of SNA management services that pertains to the major vectors for limited remote operations control.

Common Platform Storage Subsystems
A strategy and family of storage products based on common hardware parts.

common program
In COBOL, a program that, despite being directly contained within another program, can be called from any program directly or indirectly contained in that other program.

Common Programming Interface (CPI)
In Systems Application Architecture (SAA), a set of software interfaces, conventions, languages, and protocols that provide a framework for writing applications with cross-system consistency.

Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C)
A call-level interface that provides a consistent application programming interface (API) for applications that use program-to-program communications. CPI-C uses LU 6.2 architecture to create a set of interprogram services that can establish and end a conversation, send and receive data, exchange control information, and notify a partner program of errors.

Common Queue Server (CQS)
The address space that manages the shared queues for its clients (IMS).

common section
See common area.

Common Secure Interoperability Version 2
An authentication protocol developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) that supports interoperability, authentication delegation and privileges.

common service
A function available to applications on a variety of operating system platforms, accessible through any supported programming language. A common service can include support for character classification, collation, case conversion, data formatting, and so on.

common service area (CSA)
In a z/OS operating system, a part of the common area that contains data areas that can be addressed by all address spaces but is protected during its use by the key of the requester.

Common Service Layer (CSL)
A collection of IMS manager address spaces that provide the infrastructure that is needed for systems management tasks. The CSL address spaces include Open Database Manager (ODBM), Operations Manager (OM), Resource Manager (RM), and Structured Call Interface (SCI). The CSL is built on the Base Primitive Environment (BPE) layer.

Common Service Layer client (CSL client)
A z/OS address space that uses the services that are provided by the Common Service Layer (CSL). The IMS control region is an example of a CSL client.

Common Services
A component of CICSPlex SM that provides commonly requested services (such as GETMAIN, FREEMAIN, POST, and WAIT processing) to other CICSPlex SM components.

common storage area (CSA)
A shared region of memory.

Common System Administration
A core capability of the IBM Autonomic Computing Initiative that addresses the need to reduce the complexity of computer operations.

common system area

  1. In MVS, an area that contains system control programs and control blocks.
  2. A major CICS storage control block that contains areas and data required for the operation of CICS.

common table expression
An expression that defines a result table with a name (a qualified SQL identifier). The expression can be specified as a table name in any FROM clause in the fullselect that follows the WITH clause.

common tooling platform (CTP)
A Watson platform for developing tools, customizations, and integrations to existing CTP tools for Watson system development, testing, and accuracy analysis.

common transport semantics (CTS)
The layer of the Networking Blueprint above the transport layer that makes the services of transport providers available to the transport user.

common-use form
A paper size commonly used throughout the world.

Common User Access (CUA)
The Systems Application Architecture (SAA) specification for a user interface.

Common User Access architecture
Guidelines for the dialog between a human and a workstation or terminal.

common user ID
See common user identification.

common user identification (common user ID)
In System i Access, the user identification of a System i Access user that is used by the router when establishing a communications connection with a host system if a user ID is not specified in either the CONFIG.PCS file or in an alternative configuration file. The router uses this common user ID when connecting the personal computer to each additional host system. See also user identification.

common-use sizes
A set of paper sizes most commonly used throughout the world. Common-use sizes are used on AFP printers.

common VTOC access facility (CVAF)
A set of macros that enables programs to access data in the volume table of contents (VTOC) and the VTOC index.

Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS)
A scoring system by which the severity of a vulnerability is measured.

common warehouse metamodel (CWM)
A metamodel written to be a common standard by the Object Management Group (OMG).

common widget
A widget provided by IBM that is not associated with a particular product. See also widget.

common work area (CWA)

  1. A work area that can be accessed by any transaction in the CICS system.
  2. An area within the CSA that can be used by application programs for user data that needs to be accessed by any task in the system. See also transaction work area.

The process of sending or receiving data between two points of a network.

communication adapter

  1. An optional hardware feature, available on certain processors, that permits communications facilities to be attached to the processors.
  2. A device that allows network communication.

communication area (COMMAREA)
A CICS area that is used to pass data between tasks that communicate with a given terminal. The area can also be used to pass data between programs within a task.

communication attached
In PSF, pertaining to a device that is SNA-attached and that uses a communication controller. See also attached processor, local attached.

communication buffer exit library
A dynamically loaded, shared library that interacts with the DB2 communication layer and has access to the contents of the unencrypted communication buffers that are received at the server from clients and sent from the server to clients.

communication call
A conversation statement that transaction programs can issue to communicate through the LU 6.2 protocol boundary. The specific calls that a transaction program can issue are determined by the program's current conversation state.

communication card
In a personal computer, an expansion board that contains a modem or that allows use of network services.

communication control character
See transmission control character.

communication controller

  1. A controller that regulates the exchange of data between Gentran Server for Windows and its organizations (value-added networks (VANs) or trading partners). Through the Gentran Server for Windows file interface, the communication controller can support leased or dialed connections, as well as interaction with third-party communications packages. To be a communications controller, a machine must be capable of sending and receiving files via a modem or other communications device. In a single workstation system, all three controllers (communications controller, process controller, and the Gentran Server for Windows Primary System Controller) all reside on the same machine.
  2. A device that directs the transmission of data over the data links of a network; its operation may be controlled by a program executed in a processor to which the controller is connected or it may be controlled by a program executed within the device. (T)
  3. A type of communication control unit whose operations are controlled by one or more programs stored and executed in the unit. It manages the details of line control and the routing of data through a network. See also transmission control unit.

Communication Controller for Linux on System z
The replacement for the 3745/6 Communication Controller. Using the Communication Controller for Linux on System z enables the Network Control Program (NCP) software to continue to provide the following functions: SNI, XRF, BNN, INN, and SSCP takeover.

communication control unit
A communication device that controls transmission of data over lines in a network.

communication endpoint
In X.25, the local communication channel between a Data Link Service (DLS) user and a DLS provider.

communication exit library

  1. See runtime communication exit library.
  2. See communication buffer exit library.

communication group
A grouping of systems that are associated with a given transport mechanism.

communication identifier (CID)
In VTAM, a key for locating the control blocks that represent a session. The key is created during session establishment and deleted when the session ends.

communication interface
See network interface.

communication line block (CLB)
An IMS control block that represents a VTAM node or a BTAM line. Each VTAM node or BTAM line has a single CLB.

communication line processor (CLP)
In a communication controller, the processor that manages telecommunication lines.

communication management configuration (CMC)
In VTAM, a technique for configuring a network that allows for the consolidation of many network management functions for the entire network in a single host processor.

communication management configuration host node
The type 5 host processor in a communication management configuration that does all network-control functions in the network except for controlling devices that are channel-attached to data hosts. See also data host node.

communication management host
See communication management configuration host node.

communication method
The method by which a client and server exchange information. See also Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

communication name table (CNT)
An IMS control block that represents a logical terminal.

communication network management (CNM)
The process of designing, installing, operating, and managing the distribution of information and control among users of communication systems.

communication network management application program
A VTAM application program that issues and receives formatted management service request units for physical units. The NetView program is an example of a CNM application program.

communication network management interface (CNMI)
An interface that the access method provides to an application program for handling data and commands that are associated with communication systems management. CNM data and commands are handled across this interface.

communication network management processor
A program that manages one of the functions of a communications system. A CNM processor is executed under control of the NetView program.

communication path
An IP label or address or a fully qualified domain name that corresponds to the host name of the cluster node. The communication path is used for communication with remote nodes during the cluster configuration process.

communication port

  1. On a personal computer, a serial port to which a stand-alone modem can be attached.
  2. An access point for data entry or exit to or from a communication device such as a workstation.

communication protocol
A set of defined interfaces that permit computers to communicate with each other.

communication resource manager
A resource manager that coordinates a two-phase commit across multiple nodes in a distributed transaction. These nodes may be on the same system or multiple systems.

communications adapter
An adapter that performs activities that control the transmission of business process data between Sterling B2B Integrator and external applications.

communications area
In query management, a control block used to communicate between the system code supporting the Common Programming Interface (CPI) and the application program using the CPI.

communication scanner processor (CSP)
A processor in the 3725 Communication Controller that contains a microprocessor with a control code. The code controls transmission of data over links attached to the CSP.

communications channel
An electrical path that facilitates transmission of information from one location to another.

communications configuration
The physical placement of communications controllers, the attachment of communications lines, and so forth; and the configuration descriptions that describe the physical configuration to the system and describe how the configuration will be used by the system.

communications controller
The I/O processor card in the card enclosure.

communications database (CDB)
A set of tables in the DB2 for z/OS catalog that is used to establish conversations with remote database management systems.

communications data format
In RJE, the output data received from the host system is left the same as it was received (either compressed, or data cut off at the end, or both).

communications data set (COMMDS)
The primary means of communication among systems governed by a single storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration. The COMMDS is a linear data set (LDS) that contains the name of the active control data set (ACDS) and current usage statistics for each system-managed volume, which helps balance space among systems running SMS. See also active control data set, control data set, source control data set.

communication section
Part of the task control area (TCA) that is used by CICS and by user-written application programs for communication between the application program and CICS management and service programs.

communications enabled application
A software application that uses an IP network and communications technology to accomplish business objectives. Enterprise applications can be communications enabled with web telephony components and collaborative web services that allow users to dynamically interact through shared browser sessions over a secure network.

communication session
The connection between two stations that lets them transmit data.

communications gateway
Software or a computer running software that enables two different computers to communicate.

communications infrastructure
In the AIX operating system, a framework of communication that consists of a postmaster, an object registration service, a startup file, communication protocols, and application programming interfaces.

communications job
A batch job that is started by a program start request from a remote system.

communications line

  1. The physical link (such as a wire or a telephone circuit) that connects one or more work stations to a communications controller, or connects one controller to another. See also data link protocol.
  2. The line over which data communications take place; for example, a telephone line.

communications link
See data link.

communications manager
A function that manages the use of the system's communication facilities.

communications protocol
In networking, a set of standards defining how computers are to exchange information.

communications security
A system option that requires the identity of a remote location to be verified before that location can run programs on a system.

Communications Server
IBM SecureWay Software that supports (a) the development and use of application programs across two or more connected systems or workstations, (b) multiple concurrent connections that use a wide range of protocols, and (c) several application programming interfaces (APIs) that may be called concurrently and that are designed for client/server and distributed application programs.

communications session
Everything sent and received to/from one telephone number in one continuous period of connection. This could include sending two or three interchange envelopes to a network, each for a different trading partner.

communications side information
In CPI Communications, an object that contains initialization parameters, such as the name of the partner program with which a program can establish a conversation and the name of the logical unit (LU) at the partner program's node, which CPI Communications requires to establish a conversation. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CSI.

communications software
Software that enables a computer to connect with another computer and to exchange information. Communications software can maintain settings for the connection, coordinate transmission of data and messages, as well as other tasks relating to the connection between the computer systems.

communications storage manager (CSM)
In VTAM, a buffer management technology that reduces performance overhead resulting from the movement of large amounts of data. CSM enables authorized host application programs to put data in buffers that can be addressed and accessed by other authorized host application programs without any need to copy the data.

communications type
A method for application programs to communicate on a local system, or between a local system and a remote system using the intersystem communications function (ICF). Examples of these communications methods include (a) asynchronous communications, (b) binary synchronous communications (BSC), (c) intrasystem communications, or (d) Systems Network Architecture (SNA), such as advanced program-to-program communications (APPC) and SNA upline facility (SNUF).

Communications Utilities
The IBM licensed program that contains the VM/MVS bridge and the remote job entry function. Communications Utilities provides a method of exchanging mail or files and submitting or receiving jobs between connected systems.

communication timeout
The intentional ending of an incomplete task after waiting a specified amount of time.

communication vector table (CVT)
A structured communication area that contains information fields for z/OS control blocks.

A Message Passing Interface (MPI) object that describes the communication context and an associated group of processes.


  1. A collection or grouping of trading partners for the purpose of achieving a common goal.
  2. An online resource where groups of people with a common interest can interact with each other.
  3. A collection of consumer organizations. It is used as a grouping construct when publishing APIs. Communities are used to restrict the visibility and accessibility of APIs.
  4. In SNMP, the relationship between an agent and one or more managers. The community describes which SNMP manager requests the SNMP agent should honor.
  5. A group of users whose accounts are stored in the same user registry.
  6. A repository area where an assigned group of users can work together.
  7. An online resource where groups of people with a common interest can interact with each other.
  8. A web trading group that enables buyers and sellers to conduct business. Partners receive invitations from the sponsor to join their community. See also partner.

community administrator
A person who manages users in and across communities.

community invitation
An email invitation to join a community.

community library
A library created directly in a community using the Library widget that provides community members with content management capabilities such as check-in/check-out, version control, and enhanced social features such as tagging and liking. See also linked library.

community name
The part of an SNMP message that represents a password-like name and that is used to authenticate the SNMP message.

community of interest
A group of people with a common interest or a common goal.

Combining mathematical elements or having elements that combine in a way that the result is independent of the order in which they are processed. For example, such that a + b = b + a and a x b = b x a.

commutator function
A Boolean function whose arguments are the reverse of, and evaluates to the same result as another Boolean function. Commutator functions might execute quicker depending on the nature of the query.


  1. To compress a database, in order to reclaim space freed by the deletion of documents and attachments.
  2. To replace repetitive bits in a file or folder with control bits so that the file or folder takes up less space when saved.

compact disc (CD)
An optical disc that stores digital data.

compact-disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
High-capacity read-only memory in the form of an optically read compact disc.

compact disc recordable (CD-R)
A device that can write data to compact disc recordable (CD-R) discs. A CD-R then can be read like CD-ROM media.

compact drawing
A drawing that is stored as one file so that its information can be merged with the information of other drawings.

Compact Hypertext Markup Language (cHTML)
A format for publishing hypertext information on wireless devices.

See compression.

compact peacock layout
A layout in which complex groups of linked entities are arranged to highlight the structure of associations. It is most suitable for charts with many linked entities. See also layout.

compact tree display
A display type in which data is presented in a compressed radiating tree.

The data model and content for a particular business unit or enterprise that can be used to manage, link, and synchronize product information both internally and externally. See also data model.

company administrator
A person with the Administrator account role who has access to administer the cloud service for a company.

company application
An application that is designed for internal use inside a company.

Company Hub
An application that can distribute other specified applications to be installed on a mobile device. For example, Application Center is a Company Hub. See also Application Center.

comparison operator

  1. A built-in function that is used to compare two values and is based on the selected term data type.
  2. In SQL, a symbol used in comparison expressions to specify a relationship between two values. Comparison operators are = (equal to), <> (not equal to), < (less than), > (greater than), <= (less than or equal to), and >= (greater than or equal to).
  3. A built-in function that is used to compare two values. The comparison operators are ==, !=, <, >, <= and >=. See also operator.
  4. In REXX, an operator that compares two terms and returns the value 1 if the result of the comparison is true, or 0 if it is not true.

comparison rule
A component of a reconciliation task that is used to compare attributes of linked objects from two data sets. See also link rule, reconciliation task, task filter.

The ability of a device or system to work with another device or system without modification.

compatibility font
An AFP font designed to emulate the uniformly spaced and fixed-pitch fonts used with line printers.

compatibility mode

  1. A mode of operation in which a device can simulate the function of another device or model. The device will function like a different device of the same type, ignoring some or all of the additional features that the device might possess. Compatibility mode permits a migration between devices with minimal impact on programs that have device dependencies. See also 32-name mode, page mode.
  2. A mode of processing in which the IEAIPSxx and IEAICSxx parmlib members determine system resource management.
  3. See conversion mode.

compatibility mode*
See conversion mode*.

compatibility mode aggregate
A Virtual Storage Access Method linear data set (VSAM LDS) that contains a single read-write zFS file system.

compatibility TRC
Table reference characters acceptable for print jobs printed on the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem Model 1 that can be used when printing on a page printer with little or no change to the application or to the job control statements.

Pertaining to the ability of a device or program to work with another device or program.

compatible data types
Two different data types that can be cast to one another in the database. See also implicit cast.

compatible disk layout
A disk structure for Linux on System z that permits access from other System z operating systems. See also Linux disk layout.

compatible offerings
Offerings that have identical sets of base offering components such as resource type and measurement source. The corresponding offering components in each compatible offering can have different sets of metrics.

compatible query mode (CQM)
The query processing mode that is consistent with version 8.4.1 of Cognos Business Intelligence, and that is maintained for upgrade success. See also dynamic query mode.

compatible schedule
A schedule that has the states needed by the breach values in the offering components for an offering.

compatible server
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a server that offers the requested Remote Procedure Call (RPC) interface and RPC object and that is accessible over a valid combination of network and transport protocols.

compatible unit (CU)
A construction template that defines labor, materials, services, and tools resources that are required to perform construction work, such as installing a utility pole. Compatible units are used as the basis for estimating the costs and resource requirements that are associated with construction work orders.


  1. On a federated system, the ability to process a portion of an SQL statement that is not supported by a data source. See also pushdown, query optimizer.
  2. The means by which operations in a process that have successfully completed can be undone if an error occurs, to return the system to a consistent state.
  3. In MPTN architecture, the action of making up for differences in functions that are requested by the transport user and those provided by the transport provider.

compensation flow
Flow that defines the set of activities that are performed while the transaction is being rolled back to compensate for activities that were performed during the normal flow of the process. A compensation flow can also be called from a compensate end or intermediate event.

compensation service
The operation that is performed to compensate for a successful operation when a process generates a fault (which is not handled within the process).

A work-related role or field that is used to identify resources, for example, Manager, Programmer, Network Technician.

competitive advantage
The distinct way in which a business entity is positioned in the market to obtain leadership over competitors, providing the ability to maintain sustained levels of profitability above the industry average.

competitive association
An association between similar items from different manufacturers. For example, if a store sells a basketball shoe made by Company X, the store might also offer buyers a similar basketball shoe made by Company Y.

A retailer who is identified when price matching an item, and who may be offering the item at a lower price than that offered by the corresponding enterprise.


  1. In Ada language, the translation of an Ada source program into an executable object module.
  2. Translation of a source program (such as RPG or COBOL specifications) into a program in machine language. In Integrated Language Environment (ILE) languages, compilation translates source statements into modules, which then can be bound into programs or service programs.

compilation time
See compile time.

compilation unit
A portion of a computer program sufficiently complete to be compiled correctly.


  1. In Integrated Language Environment (ILE) languages, to translate source statements into modules that then can be bound into programs or service programs.
  2. To translate all or part of a program expressed in a high-level language into a computer program expressed in an intermediate language, an assembly language, or a machine language.

compiled grammar file
A grammar in binary format, built by the WebSphere Voice Server grammar development tools.

compiled map
A source map that has been compiled to provide instructions for translating from one format to another in a way that can be interpreted by the translator.

compiled map component
An Integration Flow Designer object that references an executable map in compiled file format.

compiled program
In the original program model (OPM), the set of machine-language instructions that is the output from the compilation of a source program. The actual processing of data is done by the machine-language program. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *PGM.

compiled SQL PL
SQL procedure language statements that are compiled into sections within a package. See also inline SQL PL.

A program that translates a source program into an executable program (an object program).

compiler-directing statement

  1. In RPG, an instruction that controls a compilation listing or causes records to be inserted. The four compiler directives are /TITLE, /EJECT, /SPACE, and /COPY.
  2. In COBOL, a statement, beginning with a compiler-directing verb, that causes the compiler to take a specific action during compilation. The compiler-directing statements are the COPY, ENTER, REPLACE, and USE statements.
  3. A statement that controls what the compiler does rather than what the compiled program does.

compiler directive
A statement that controls what the compiler does rather than what the user program does.

compiler listing
A printout that is produced by compiling a program or creating a file and that optionally includes, for example, a line-by-line list of the high-level language source, a cross-reference list, diagnostic information; and for programs, the description of the externally described files.

compiler optimization
A change that the compiler makes to code at compile time to make it more efficient.

compiler option
A keyword that can be specified to control certain aspects of compilation. Compiler options can control the nature of the load module generated by the compiler, the types of printed output to be produced, the efficient use of the compiler, and the destination of error messages.

compile time
The time period during which a computer program is being compiled into an executable program.

compile-time array
In RPG, an array that is compiled with the source program and becomes a permanent part of the program. See also preruntime array, runtime array.

compile-time option
A keyword that can be specified to control certain aspects of compilation. Compiler options can control the nature of the load module generated by the compiler, the types of printed output to be produced, the efficient use of the compiler, the destination of error messages, and other things.

compile-time table
In RPG, a table that is built into the source program and that becomes a permanent part of the compiled program. See also runtime table.


  1. The value that can be added to the number to equal a given value.
  2. In Cryptographic Support, a binary value that, in an exclusive-OR operation with a given binary value of the same length, produces a binary value of all ones.

complementary item
An item that a customer might want to buy with another item.

complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
A technology that combines the electrical properties of n-type semiconductors and p-type semiconductors.


  1. A table attribute that indicates that the table contains a row for every primary key value of interest. As a result, a complete source table can be used to perform a refresh of a target table.
  2. A property of a search algorithm such that, when it returns failure in a search, it has proved that no solution exists satisfying the constraints that governed the search, and when it returns success, it is capable of finding all the possible solutions satisfying the constraints of the problem.

complete CCD table
In data replication, a CCD table that initially contains all of the rows from the replication source table or view and any predicates from the source table or view. See also noncomplete CCD table.

complete class name
The complete qualification of a nested C++ class name including all enclosing class names and namespaces.

completed change set
A change set that can no longer be changed. Change sets can be shared with others only after they are marked as a completed change set.

completed session
Any session in which the visitor is no longer actively exploring the web application or has been timed out by the web application.

complete lifecycle server
A server that the user can create and manage within the administrative console.

complete overwrite installation
An installation method that completely overwrites an existing version of BOS that is installed on a system.

complete packet sequence
Either an individual X.25 data packet or a sequence of packets with the more-data bit (M-bit) set to 1 and the delivery-confirmation bit (D-bit) set to 0, followed by a further data packet with the M-bit set to 0 and the D-bit set as required.

complete recovery
The CICS VSAM Recovery (CICSVR) function that consists of forward recovery followed by backout, if needed. In complete recovery, CICSVR restores a DFSMShsm or DFSMSdss backup.

complete type name
The name of a type that represents its hierarchical structure within a type tree, which includes the names of all the types in the path from the root type down.

Complete Zip Auditing and Rating (CZAR)
A rating used as a basis for pricing the shipping of products by carriers.

completion code

  1. An indicator that reflects the status of a task set at the time of its completion.
  2. A return code indicating how a message queue interface (MQI) call has ended.
  3. In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a system code that indicates how the processing of an operation ended at a workstation. See also error code.
  4. A message the storage system sends as a result of running a command-line interface (CLI) command.

completion message
A message that tells the operator when work is successfully ended.


  1. The maximum set of hardware and software resources that support one or more images of a single operating system.
  2. In data processing or software engineering, pertaining to an application that may have many components, such as a graphic user interface, a client-server architecture, an engine, a database connection, an output device, input facilities, and so forth.

complex activity
A step in a business process that provides direction for how the next step should be executed. There are three kinds of complex activities: sequence (serial), choice (conditional), and all (parallel).

complex change
A single operation that impacts one or more ontologies and spans multiple repository versions. Examples of a complex change are ontology content pack (OCP) imports and ontology deletions.

complex condition
In COBOL, a condition in which one or more logical operators (AND, OR or NOT) act on one or more conditions. Complex conditions include negated simple conditions, combined conditions, and negated combined conditions. See also simple condition.

complex constant
In FORTRAN, an ordered pair of real or integer constants separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. The first constant of the ordered pair represents the real part of a complex number; the second represents the imaginary part.

complex data type
A data type that is built from a combination of other data types by using an SQL type constructor and whose components can be accessed through SQL statements. See also collection data type, data type, row data type.

complex element
A named structure that contains simple elements within the message. Complex elements can contain other complex elements, and can also contain groups. The content of a complex element is defined by a complex type. See also element.

complex event processing (CEP)

  1. The processing of events that have rules that rely on the data and timing of more than one event.
  2. A set of tools that processes event transactions and generates event alerts based on configured business rules.

complex flat file
A file that has hierarchical structure, especially mainframe data structures and XML files.

complex formula
A formula that contains query tokens, association tokens, or both.

complex image
An image divided into regions called image cells. See also simple image.

complex instruction set computer (CISC)
A computer that uses the traditional processor architecture to process instructions. See also reduced instruction set computer.

A measurement of how many more computing resources the solution of a problem requires as the problem grows in number of variables. Complexity is expressed in notation known informally as Big O notation or more formally as Omega notation.

complexity attribute
An attribute that enables the selection of another attribute by which work items are sized. This attribute is used in release plans to compute the progress of each plan.

Complex Mathematics Library
A C++ class library that provides the facilities to manipulate complex numbers and perform standard mathematical operations on them.

complex number
A number consisting of an ordered pair of real numbers, expressible in the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers and i squared equals minus one.

complex qualification
A WHERE clause in a query that uses two or more logical operators on the same column as where the R-tree index is defined.

complex scorecard
A collection of multiple scorecards within one rule flow. The rule flow is used to identify the dependency, the flow and the order in which the score from each of the scorecards will be included in the overall score.

complex text language (CTL)
A language that has the properties of a simple text language but also additional characteristics of bidirectionality, automatic character shaping, or combining sequences. They use typically small character sets. Combining sequences include characters combined to form new characters, and characters combined with tone marks. In languages that are written in a bidirectional manner, the native words are written from right to left (as in Hebrew and Arabic), while numbers and borrowed words are written from left to right. Arabic and similar scripts use cursive writing and require automatic shaping of characters for rendering. See also ideographic language, simple text language.

complex type

  1. In Enterprise Service Tools, a structure within a message. A complex type contains elements, attributes, and groups organized into a hierarchy.
  2. A type that contains elements and can include attributes. See also simple type.
  3. In Fortran, a data type that represents values of complex numbers. A value is expressed as an ordered pair of real data items separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. The first item represents the real part of the complex number, and the second item represents the imaginary part.
  4. A type definition for an XML element that contains nested structures.

complex word
A word formed by combining a root word with affixes, for example: the prefix 'un-' and the suffix '-ful' attach to the root word 'faith', which creates the complex word 'unfaithful'.

complex word processing
In lexical analysis, the process in which algorithmic processing is used to determine the boundaries of words. In the case of Indo-European languages, the LanguageWare algorithm uses constraints in order to determine optimal boundaries. For Chinese, LanguageWare uses statistical processing - word frequencies and collocation frequencies. For Japanese LanguageWare uses a combination of statistical and grammatical processing.


  1. The state of being in accordance with regulated standards
  2. The state of an implementation that fully meets each and every requirement of the standards specification. Specifically, each transaction, action, or data element produced by the implementation must be valid as defined by the standard.
  3. A state of being in accordance with established software and security specifications on target computers, or the process of becoming so.

compliance check
A group of settings used to determine whether a computer or group of computers is compliant or not. There are two types of compliance checks: software and security.

compliance report
A report that shows the number of available systems that specified installation activities can be performed on, and the percentages of the states of the installation activities.

compliance rule
A rule that is set and enforced by a buyer for a supplier to follow.

compliance service
A service that allows the buyer to customize products for their customers. For example, a compliance service might be configured for an item so that the item is shipped to the buyer with the buyer’s brand label.

compliance type
In i5/OS licensed management, the value that determines the action the product must take when the authorized usage limit is reached or exceeded. The warning compliance type indicates users are never denied access to a product. The operation action compliance type means that new users are denied access to the product once the usage limit is reached, but users that are currently using the product still have access.

compliant state
The state of conforming to the defined rules of compliance.


  1. An element of the system under test. A component can include service providers and infrastructure elements.
  2. In Eclipse, one or more plug-ins that work together to deliver a discrete set of functions.
  3. A grouping of related artifacts in a stream or repository workspace. A component can contain any number of folders and files.
  4. A reusable object or program that performs a specific function and works with other components and applications.
  5. A ClearCase object that is used to group a set of related directory and file elements within a Unified Change Management (UCM) project. Typically, the elements that make up a component are developed, integrated, and released together. A project must contain at least one component, and it can contain multiple components. Projects can share components.
  6. A part of a structured type or value, such as an array element or a record field.
  7. A software item that is part of a software product, and might be separately identified, but is not individually licensed.
  8. A connection, build, reference dimension, reference structure, template, JobStream, user-defined function, metadata dimension, or metadata collection in a catalog.
  9. A representation of deployable items and the user-defined processes that operate on them, usually by deploying them.
  10. A visual element of a host screen, such as a command line, function key, or selection list. HATS applications transform host components into widgets.
  11. The main building block that is used to define trigger events in a trigger system.
  12. A hardware or software entity forming part of a system, or a piece of logic that controls the operation of a device, modifies, or stops a control function.
  13. A unit of organization consisting of a reusable set of engineering artifacts. See also artifact, stream.
  14. A container that is used to organize a model. When creating a new model, components should be created first, in order to give the model a framework and ensure that it is easy to navigate. Once components have been created, model elements, such as tables, calculations, and plans can be built. See also baseline, stream.
  15. A named, cataloged collection of stored records, such as the data component or index component of a key-sequenced file or alternate index. A component contains no named subsets.
  16. In VisualAge RPG, a functional grouping of classes and related files within a product.
  17. A part of a specified source that generates an audit message (such as the Gentran Server for Windows Unattended program).
  18. An entity about which measurements are collected for reporting purposes. Sample components include a specific network storage device; the web address http://www.ibm.com; and a person with whom one has a customer relationship. Each component type in the data model has a set of metrics and attributes that apply to all components of that type.
  19. A set of modules that performs a major function within a system.

component association
In the IBM Director Rack Manager task, a function that can make a managed system or device rack-mountable when the inventory collection feature of IBM Director does not recognize the managed system or device. The function associates the system or device with a predefined component.

component-based development (CBD)
The creation and deployment of software-intensive systems assembled from components as well as the development and harvesting of such components.

component data element
A simple data element that belongs to a composite data element. Component data elements are also called subelements.

component descriptor editor (CDE)
A tool that allows the user to edit UIMA descriptors.

component dump table
A structure used by kernel components to identify data structures that should be collected by the kernel dump program.

component element
An entity in a component where a breakpoint can be set, such as an activity or Java snippet in a business process, or a mediation primitive or node in a mediation flow.

component instance
A running component that can be running in parallel with other instances of the same component.

component inventory
A list of all of the resources on which a component is deployed. See also environment inventory, resource inventory.

component model
A software development model that provides for consistent packaging of software components; the ability to upgrade part of a system as it is executing; the ability to control, monitor, and deploy software across global networks; and the ability to locate and implement services on a global scale. When developed according to the component model, components have interfaces that are rigorously implemented, are packaged into JAR files, and have dynamic execution environments.

Component Object Model (COM)
A software architecture from DEC and Microsoft, allowing interoperation between ObjectBroker and OLE (Object Linking and Embedding). Microsoft later evolved COM into DCOM.

component package
A utility that allows the import and export of components between catalogs. See also multi-developer support.

component process
A series of user-defined steps that operate on component artifacts. See also application process, generic process, process.

component product
A product (child) that is part of a bundle (parent) that can consist of many components.

component project
One of the individual projects in a program; may consist of multiple projects within the same organization.

component queue
A queue holding work items that can be completed by an external entity that interacts with the workflow. See also queue.

component rule
An expression about one or more components, which is defined in the Type Designer. A component rule is used for validating data and specifies what must be true for the data that is defined by that component to be valid.

component set
In NetDA/2, a set of nodes, transmission groups (TGs), or both.

component set expression
In NetDA/2, a user specification that defines a set of components (nodes and transmission groups).

component store archive
A starter store archive for a component of a composite store archive. Component store archives are available for each business model. See also composite store archive.

component test
An automated test of one or more components of an enterprise application, which may include Java classes, EJB beans, or web services. See also abstract test, test pattern.

component trace (CTRACE)
A service that provides a way for z/OS components to collect problem data about events.

component tracing
A facility provided by CICS to track transactions through CICS components and user programs.

component tree
In JavaServer Faces, a view that is used to build and maintain state and events for a page.

composable business
A cloud-based collaboration model used by IT, line of business, and development teams to assemble an application or programme that meets the needs of the company.

composed page
See composed-text page.

composed text
Text that has been formatted and that contains text-control information to direct the presentation of the text.

composed-text block
In PSF, an internal object that specifies text and optional text controls defined entirely in structured fields.

composed-text data
Data that has been composed into pages. Text formatting programs such as DCF can produce composed text data, which consists entirely of AFP structured fields.

composed-text data file
A file containing text data and text-control information that determines the format, placement, and appearance of the data to be printed.

composed-text data stream
A data stream that contains composed-text data.

composed-text page
In Advanced Function Presentation, a page that can be printed only on an all-points-addressable output medium. It can contain composed text and raster images.

composed-text print data
Data that is the output of a text formatting program such as DCF and that is composed entirely of AFP structured fields.

composed-text print data set
A print data set consisting entirely of structured fields.

composed-text print job
In VSE, a print job that has been composed into pages. The composed-text print job is usually the output of a text formatting program such as DCF and is composed entirely of AFP structured fields.

In Java, a class used to map a single complex bean field to multiple database columns. Composition is needed for complex fields that are themselves objects with fields and behavior.


  1. A group of related data elements used in EDI transactions.
  2. In multimedia applications, the combination of two or more film, video, or electronic images into a single frame or display.
  3. A Service Component Architecture (SCA) element that contains components, services, references, and wires that connect them.
  4. A class that is related to one or more classes by a composition relationship.

composite application
An application representing an open architecture in which components of the applications can be developed by IBM or by independent software vendors.

composite bar chart
In the GDDM function, a bar chart in which multiple vertical axis values for the same horizontal axis value are stacked one on top of another. See also floating bar chart, multiple bar chart.

composite bar graph
In Performance Tools, a bar graph in which multiple vertical axis values for the same horizontal axis value are stacked one on top of another. See also floating bar graph.

composite block index
An index that contains only dimension key columns and is used to maintain the clustering of data during insert and update activity in a multidimensional clustering (MDC) or insert time clustering (ITC) table. See also dimension block index.

composite business policy
A runtime aggregation of business policies based on context, content and contract of a service request.

composite business service (CBS)
A collection of business services that work together, along with the existing applications of a client, to provide a specific business solution.

composite catalog entry
A collection of catalog entries that breaks down to its separate components when ordered. See also dynamic kit.

composite column
A column that contains data that corresponds to similar data stored in two or more columns in another table.

composite data element
A data element that contains two or more component data elements or subelements. Composites are defined by the EDI standards that use them (EDIFACT, TRADACOMS, and certain ANSI X12 standards).

composite data type
See row data type.

composite event
A "high-level" event, typically formed from the combination of two or more atomic events. However, composite events can be "empty" - that is, they may contain no sub-events. See also atomic event, user-defined event.

composite expression
In Q Language, a large expression that has been created from a series of smaller expressions. See also arithmetic operator.

composite index
An index constructed on two or more columns of a table. The order imposed by the composite index varies least frequently on the first-named column and most frequently on the last-named column.

composite key

  1. An ordered set of key columns of the same table.
  2. An ordered set of key columns or expressions where the referenced column names are from the same table. See also key.
  3. A key for a file or record format that is composed of more than one key field.

composite LEN node
A type 5 node and its subordinate type 4 nodes that support LEN protocols and appear to an attached APPN or LEN node as a single LEN node.

composite library
The host's virtual view of the Peer-to-Peer Virtual Tape Server (PtP VTS) subsystem. In general, host communication with a library will occur at the composite level with the virtual volumes and drives being defined to the composite library.

composite network
In MPTN architecture, a single-protocol transport network made up of multiple individual networks running the same transport protocol, each with its own unique net ID.

composite network node (CNN)
A type 5 node and its subordinate type 4 nodes that support APPN network node protocols and appear to an attached APPN or LEN node as a single network node.

composite object
An object that contains other objects. For example a document object that contains not only text, but also graphics, audio, image, and video objects, each of which can be manipulated separately as an individual object.

composite operator
An operator that is implemented in the Streams Processing Language (SPL) that encapsulates a subgraph of a data flow graph that can be parameterized to make it reusable in multiple streams processing applications. See also data flow graph, main composite operator, operator, streams processing application, subgraph.

composite part
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of controls selected by the user on the GUI designer tool suite and then placed in the parts palette.

composite project
A container holding projects or composite projects, or both. Composite projects are used to organize the projects associated with the software application.

composite rotation
The total amount of rotation done by the printer to place text in the correct orientation on the page.

composite service
In service-oriented architecture, a unit of work accomplished by an interaction between computing devices.

composite state
In a business state machine, an aggregate of one or more states that is used to decompose a complex state machine diagram into a simple hierarchy of state machines.

composite store archive
A compressed file that contains the organization structure, predefined user roles, and necessary access control policies to create the appropriate store environment, plus a working starter store or site. Each of the parts that make up the composite store archive are also available as separate store archives. See also component store archive, store archive.

composite type
A data type modeled using structural features instead of verbatim, language-specific text.

The act or result of formatting a document.

compositional hierarchy
A hierarchy in which the composition of the data is reflected in the structure of the group type in the group window. See also classification hierarchy.

Composition Services
The component of the WebSphere Commerce messaging system that provides a formatted output for messages using JSP templates.

composition unit
A unit that represents a configured asset and enables the asset contents to interact with other assets in the application.

A person or program that composes text.

A number of related questions, grouped for presentation purposes, that share a category list.

compound activity
An activity that has detail that is defined as a flow of other activities. A compound activity is a branch (or trunk) in the tree-structure hierarchy of process activities. Graphically, a compound activity is a process or subprocess.

compound command processor
A series of commands that appear to run as a single command. The commands can have interactions with tasks in the same domain or in other domains.

compound condition
In COBOL, a statement that tests two or more relational expressions. The result can be true or false.

compound document
A collection of files that are used together to create a group of linked documents.

compound key
In a relational database, a key that consists of two or more attributes in a relation.

compound license
In License Use Management, a type of license that allows a system administrator to generate license passwords for a given number of licenses. Such a license is valuable when an administrator needs a certain number of licenses, but does not yet know what machines or who will use them.

compound Look
A compound that describes how questions, that are to be presented as a compound question, are to appear.

compound password
A password from which it is possible to extract multiple simple passwords, each representing one or more licenses. See also password, simple password.

compound SQL statement
A block of SQL statements that is executed in a single call to the application server.

compound string
A type of string designed to simplify foreign language support by allowing text to be displayed without hard-coding the language-dependent attributes (character set, text, and direction).

compound symbol
In REXX, a symbol that permits the substitution of variables within its name, when referred to. A compound symbol contains at least one period and at least two other characters. It cannot start with a digit or a period, and if there is only one period in the compound symbol, it cannot be the last character. The compound symbol begins with a stem (that part of the symbol up to and including the first period). The stem is followed by the tail (the parts of the name, delimited by periods, that are constant symbols, simple symbols, or null). Compound symbols allow the construction of arrays, associative tables, lists, and so on.

compound test
A test asset type that is used to group tests into larger test flows. The tests in a compound test can all be of the same test type or of a different type.

compound variable
In REXX, a symbol that contains at least one period, one character before the period, and one character after the period. A compound variable cannot start with a digit or period.

compound word
A morphologically complex word constructed out of two or more word formation elements, such as 'snowboard' and 'post office'. See also multiword expression, solid compound.

comprehensive command authority
In DFSMShsm, the level of permission that lets a user issue the ABACKUP command for all aggregate groups.


  1. To reduce the size of a set of data, such as a file, to save space or transmission time. See also compressed format.
  2. To hide objects within a data hierarchy. A plus sign is used in a compressed section to indicate that objects are hidden.

compressed audio
A method of digitally encoding and decoding several seconds of voice quality audio per single videodisc frame. This increases the storage capability to several hours of audio per videodisc. Sometimes referred to as still frame audio or sound over still.

compressed bitmap
An indexing method that identifies records through a fragment identifier and a record identifier.

compressed format
A type of extended-format data set. In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), individual records are put in a compressed-format data set; in the sequential access method (SAM), individual records or blocks are put in a compressed-format data set. See also compress, extended format.

compressed-format data set
A type of extended-format data set created in a data format that supports record-level or block-level compression.

compressed listing
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a graphical representation of the listing of the program currently being debugged. See also compressed source.

compressed output
See compression.

compressed-pattern storage (CPS)
In certain printers, storage that holds the extended (double-byte) fonts.

compressed source
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a graphical representation of the source of the program currently being debugged. See also compressed listing.

compressed video
Video resulting from the process of digitally encoding and decoding a video image or segment using a variety of computer techniques to reduce the amount of data required to represent the content accurately.


  1. In SNA, the replacement of a string of up to 64 characters by an encoded control byte to reduce the length of the data stream sent to the LU-LU session partner.
  2. The act of hiding child items of a selected object when the outline view is selected.
  3. A function that removes repetitive characters, spaces, strings of characters, or binary data from the data being processed and replaces characters with control characters. Compression reduces the amount of storage space that is required for data.

compression accelerator
Hardware onto which the work of compression is off-loaded from the microprocessor.

compression algorithm
An algorithm used to compress image data. Compression of image data can decrease the volume of data required to represent an image.

compression dictionary
The dictionary that is referred to during the process of compression and decompression. In DB2 for z/OS, this dictionary is created from the data in a table space or table space partition. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, this dictionary is created from data in each table partition, data in each table in a database partition, or XML data stored in the XML storage object of a table. A compression dictionary is specific to the table space, table space partition, table, or XML storage object from which it was created. See also automatic dictionary creation.

computational memory
The set of all virtual-memory pages in real memory that are part of working-storage or program-text segments.

The property of a transaction whereby the elapsed time for its execution is governed by its computational content rather than by its need to do input/output.

computed attribute
An attribute type that is specific to the pricing administration.

computed constructor
A constructor that creates element, attribute, document, text, processing-instruction, or comment nodes in which the content of the node is based on enclosed expressions. See also constructor, direct constructor.

computed field
On a form, a field whose value is determined by a formula that the application designer writes.

computed time
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the resulting time after a Distributed Time Service (DTS) clock synchronization. Computed time is the value that the clerk or server process computes according to the values it receives from several servers.

compute node

  1. A Blue Gene core node on which user applications run.
  2. A node that runs a virtual machine instance, which provides a wide range of services, such as providing a development environment or performing analytics.
  3. An independent machine that contains one or more microprocessors, memory, storage, and network controllers and runs its own operating system and applications. See also integrated technology element.
  4. A processing node in a parallel processing environment that handles elements of the job logic. Any processing node that is not a conductor node is a compute node. See also processing node.

computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)
An interviewing method in which an interviewer, equipped with a computer to record the respondent's answers, meets face-to-face with the respondent.

computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI)
An interviewing method in which respondents use computers to record their answers to questionnaires.

Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE)
A set of tools or programs to help develop complex applications.

computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)
An interviewing method in which an interviewer, equipped with a computer to record the respondent's answers, interviews the respondent by telephone.

computer graphics
The use of a computer to produce visual representations of data, such as charts and multi-dimensional drawings by means of dots, lines, and curves.

Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)
A device-independent graphics file format used for storing object-oriented graphics.

computer group
A group of related computers. An administrator can create computer groups to organize systems into meaningful categories, and to facilitate deployment of patches to multiple computers.

computer instruction
An instruction that can be recognized by the processing unit of the computer for which it is designed. See also computer language.

computerized branch exchange (CBX)

  1. An exchange in which a central node acts as a high-speed switch to establish direct connections between pairs of attached nodes.
  2. A computer-driven, digital communications controller providing telephone communication between internal stations and external networks.

computer language
A language that can be used directly by a computer without intermediate processing. See also computer instruction.

computer micrographics
Methods and techniques for converting data to or from microform with the assistance of a computer. (I) (A)

In COBOL, a system-name that identifies the computer on which the program is to be compiled or run.

computer output microfilm (COM)
The hardware controller that manages the microfilm print engine and processes the functions unique to COM.

Computer Science Network (CSNET)
A large computer network, mostly in the United States but with international connections. CSNET sites include universities, research labs, and some commercial companies. CSNET has merged with the Because It's Time Network (BITNET) to form the Consortium for Research and Education Network (CREN).

computer-telephony integration (CTI)
The use of a general-purpose computer to issue commands to a telephone switch to transfer calls and provide other services. Typically, CTI is used in call centers.

computer template
A template that defines the compliant state for installed software and software configuration on the system.

computer word
See fullword.

computer workstation
A workstation that performs z/OS processing of jobs and started-task operations and that usually reports status to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS automatically.

computing system catalog
In DFSMShsm, the master catalog and any associated user catalogs used as sources during the audit process.

computing system RPQ
A customer request for a price quotation on alterations or additions to the functional capabilities of a computing system, hardware product, or device. The RPQ can be used in conjunction with programming RPQs to solve unique data processing problems. See also programming request for price quotation.

COM setup data
Data that enables the PSF user to designate unique microfilm printing functions for AFP print jobs. The parameter values, structure, syntax, and semantics are defined by the COM manufacturer, not by IBM-controlled architectures.


  1. To join two character strings.
  2. To link together.

concatenated data set
A group of logically connected data sets that are treated as one data set for the duration of a job step.

concatenated expression
An expression that combines column values or combines a column value with another value, using a concatenation operator.

concatenated field
Two or more fields that are combined to make one field in a logical file.

concatenated key
The key that is constructed to access a particular segment. A concatenated key consists of the key fields, including that of the root segment and successive children, down to the accessed segment.

The process of joining two characters or strings to form one string.

concatenation bit
In distributed transaction processing, high order bit of the first byte of the header of a GDS record.

concatenation operator

  1. In REXX, an operator used to combine two strings into one by adding the second string to the right end of the first string. The concatenation operators for REXX are a double vertical bar (which concatenates without a blank) and the blank (which concatenates with a blank).
  2. The symbol used to join two character data items. The concatenation operator is often represented as two vertical bars (||).


  1. Any device that combines incoming messages into a single message (concentration) or extracts individual messages from the data sent in a single transmission sequence (deconcentration).
  2. In data transmission, a functional unit that permits a common transmission medium to serve more data sources than there are channels currently available within the transmission medium.
  3. An FDDI node that has additional parts beyond those required for its own attachment to a FDDI network. These additional parts (type M) are for attaching other FDDI nodes (type S) in a tree topology. Primarily, a concentrator is used to allow more than two single attachment stations (SAS) to communicate. It can also connect multiple SAS to a dual attachment station (DAS) ring.


  1. A description of information in XBRL. See also fact.
  2. A class of objects and terms in a domain. For example, in a health care domain, concepts can include doctor, patient, symptom, and disease.
  3. A class of entities that are represented by general metadata definitions rather than physical document standards.

concept extraction
A text analysis function that identifies significant vocabulary items, such as people, places, or products, in text documents and produces a list of those items. See also theme extraction.

concept phase
Business transformation operations process (BTOP) phase in which the PDT understands requirements and develops concepts, confirms need and ability to develop a solution, develops initial project proposal including templates, determines funds for next phase.

conceptual architecture
The most abstract form of specialization of an architecture, favoring coverage over precision, and specifying a finite set of types for components and for relationships in the system.

conceptual model
A representation of the key elements of an offering and their relationships. For systems, such as computers and computer software, the conceptual model conveys a user’s perspective of the system, including the elements of the system as perceived by users and what users can do with them.

concrete class

  1. In DCE X/Open Object Management, an OM class that permits instances.
  2. A class defining objects that can be created.
  3. A class that is not abstract.
  4. A class that can be directly instantiated. See also abstract class.

concrete element
An element for which the attribute abstract in its XML schema declaration has the value of false and which therefore might appear in an instance document. See also abstract element.

concrete factory
In object-oriented programming, a class that is used to create instances of another class. A concrete factory isolates the creation of objects of a particular class into one place so that new functions can be provided without widespread code changes.

concrete portlet
A logical representation of a portlet object distinguished by a unique configuration parameter (PortletSettings).

concrete type
A type that can be instantiated and is derived from an abstract type.

The shared use of resources by multiple interactive users or application processes at the same time.

concurrency control

  1. The management of contention for data resources.
  2. In a multi-user environment, a system of controls that ensure that modifications made by one person do not adversely affect another concurrent user.


  1. Pertaining to the occurrence of two or more activities within a given interval of time. Concurrent processes can alternately use shared common resources.
  2. Pertaining to the shared use of resources by multiple interactive users or application programs at the same time.

concurrent access
Simultaneous access to a shared volume group or a raw disk by two or more nodes. In this configuration, all the nodes defined for concurrent access to a shared volume group are owners of the shared resources associated with the volume group or raw disk.

concurrent access volume group
A volume group that can be accessed by more than one host system simultaneously.

concurrent addition
The addition of hardware to a hardware unit while it is operational.

concurrent capable volume group
A volume group that can be varied on in either nonconcurrent or concurrent access mode in a cluster environment.

concurrent cold repair
Repair to hardware that is electrically isolated from the running system. The hardware that is isolated has no resources that are being used by the system when the repair is started.

concurrent connection limit
In OSI, the maximum number of concurrent connections allowed for a given OSI Communications Subsystem node.

concurrent copy

  1. A function that increases the accessibility of data by creating a consistent copy of the data concurrent with regular processing.
  2. A function of the DFSMSdss component that is used to back up any collection of data at a point in time with minimum down time for the database or application that uses the collection of data.

concurrent copy-compatible snapshot (CC-compatible SnapShot)
See virtual concurrent copy.

concurrent hot repair
Repair to hardware that is electrically connected to the system. The hardware being repaired might have resources that are being used by the system when the repair is started.

concurrent image copy (CIC)
A batch utility program that is used to make a copy of OSAM data sets and VSAM entry-sequenced database data sets (DBDSs), whether or not IMS is running and the database is online.

concurrent installation of Licensed Internal Code
The process of installing Licensed Internal Code in a device while the device is in use.

concurrent license
A type of license, administered by the network license server, that can be used by different users from any node that is connected to a network license server. Concurrent licenses enable as many users to use a particular software product concurrently as there are licenses. See also concurrent offline license.

concurrent login
A login that occurs simultaneously with other logins. See also login.

concurrent maintenance
Service or maintenance that is performed on a hardware unit in the system while the system is fully or partially operational.

concurrent media maintenance
Service performed on a disk drive module (DDM) without losing access to the data.

concurrent offline license
A type of license that allows authorized users to reserve a concurrent license for a certain number of days and to use it on a portable computer that is disconnected from the network. See also concurrent license.

concurrent repair
Repair to hardware in a hardware unit while it is operational.

concurrent resource group
A resource group that attempts to become activated on all the nodes in the node list with no priority among the owner nodes. If one node fails, the other nodes continue to offer the service. See also nonconcurrent resource group, resource group, resource group policies.

concurrent server
A server that can handle many connections at the same time. It can accept new connection requests while still processing the transactions started by previous requests. See also iterative server.

concurrent-use license
A license that limits the number of users that can be connected to a resource concurrently.

Concurrent Versions System (CVS)
An open-source, network-transparent version control system.

concurrent virtual shared disk
A virtual shared disk that can be accessed at the same time by more than one server.

In SQL replication, a table attribute that indicates that the table contains current data rather than a history of changes to the data. A condensed table includes no more than one row for each primary key value in the table. As a result, a condensed table can be used to supply current information for a refresh.

condensed CCD table
In data replication, a CCD table that contains only the most current value for a row and has only one row for each key value. See also consistent-change-data table, noncondensed CCD table.

condensed directory catalog
A directory catalog optimized for small size and used primarily on Notes clients.

condensed print
A print format where characters are smaller and spaced closer together horizontally, typically at a density of 17 characters per inch.

condensed type
A typeface in which all characters are narrowed, making them appear taller. See also expanded type.


  1. A specified term, its value, and an operator that are used for comparison with a contract. One or more conditions may be used to select an approval rule.
  2. A database object that names an SQL exception or warning, optionally with an associated SQLSTATE, that can be signaled or referenced by a handler in SQL PL. See also module object.
  3. An exception that has been enabled, or recognized, by the Language Environment and thus is eligible to activate user and language condition handlers. Conditions can be detected by the hardware/operating system and result in an interrupt. They can also be detected by language-specific generated code or language library code.
  4. In a business state machine, an expression that guards the transition and allows transition to the next state only when and if the incoming operation evaluates to 'True'. Otherwise, the current state is maintained.
  5. The state of an event, which might trigger a response.
  6. In the Integrated Language Environment (ILE) model, a system-independent representation of an error condition within a high-level language (HLL). For an i5/OS program, each ILE condition has a corresponding exception message.
  7. A test of a situation or state that must be in place for a specific action to occur.
  8. A specified property, a value, and an operator that defines a comparison relationship between them. One or more conditions can be used to create a query or a conditional formatting specification. See also parameterized query.
  9. An expression that can be evaluated as true, false, or unknown. It can be expressed in natural language text, in mathematically formal notation, or in a machine-readable language. See also selection.
  10. The component of a policy expression that specifies the states for which a policy is relevant.
  11. In REXX, a specific event, or state, that can be trapped by the REXX CALL ON or SIGNAL ON instruction.
  12. The part of a standardization rule that defines the requirements that the record must meet for the rule to apply to that record. A pattern is a type of condition. See also action, pattern, standardization rule.
  13. An expression that consists of an agent attribute, an operator such as greater than or equal to, and a value. It can be read as "If - system condition - compared to - value - is true". See also situation.
  14. In an event definition, one or more criteria that must be true in order for the event to be executed. Any or all of the conditions may be configured as the requirement for event execution.
  15. A situation that matches document attributes against decision points and routes the documents to different paths based on the specified attribute and value combinations.
  16. The circumstances or state information of a managed resource that are examined during policy evaluation.

conditional access list
In RACF, an access list within a resource profile that associates a condition with a user ID or group ID and the corresponding access authority, allowing otherwise unauthorized access if the specified condition is true. See also access list.

conditional block
A compound statement that can run portions of a test depending on the value of a reference or field reference.

conditional branch
A branch that is taken when a specified condition is met.

conditional breakpoint
A breakpoint where processing is suspended when a specified condition evaluates to TRUE. See also unconditional breakpoint.

conditional end bracket (CEB)

  1. An SNA indicator in the request header, FMH5, denoting the end of a conversation between two transactions. See also begin bracket.
  2. In SNA, the value (binary 1) of the conditional end bracket indicator in the request header (RH) of the last request of the last chain of a bracket; the value denotes the end of the bracket. See also end bracket.

conditional expression

  1. A statement that compares the relationship (such as greater than or equal) of two items.
  2. A compound expression that contains a condition (the first expression), an expression to be evaluated if the condition has a nonzero value (the second expression), and an expression to be evaluated if the condition has the value zero (the third expression).
  3. In COBOL, a simple condition or a complex condition specified in an IF, a PERFORM, or a SEARCH statement.

conditional external reference
An external reference that causes automatic linking to be performed.

conditional force
A function that replaces the specified control field character before the record is sorted only if the control field in the input record contains a particular entry.

conditional formatting
The process of defining and applying rules to change the appearance of chart items automatically, based on their properties. See also conditional formatting specification.

conditional formatting specification
A collection of conditional formatting rules. See also conditional formatting.

conditional hold
See dynamic hold.

conditional loop
In REXX, a loop that allows a set of instructions to be repeated either WHILE or UNTIL a specified condition is met.

conditional mean
An alternative method for choosing a reason code assignment. It is a reasoning strategy that the user specifies in the scorecard requirements, which evaluates every attribute’s possible value ranges. The reason codes are determined based on the expected value of the attributes and rank order. Typically, the four lowest expected and their corresponding reason codes are chosen. A conditional mean can be used in neural nets and fused scorecards.

conditional phrase

  1. In REXX, a phrase in a DO instruction, introduced by the subkeyword WHILE or UNTIL, that is used to change the iteration of a repetitive DO loop.
  2. In COBOL, a phrase that specifies the action to be taken on the determination of the truth value of a condition resulting from the running of a conditional statement.

conditional processing
A page-definition function that allows input data records to partially control their own formatting.

conditional prompting
A type of prompting that is provided by the system depending on the values selected by the user for other parameters. See also selective prompting.

conditional restart
A DB2 restart that is directed by a user-defined conditional restart control record (CRCR).

conditional restart control record (CRCR)
A queue of records in the bootstrap data set (BSDS) that is associated with a conditional restart of DB2 for z/OS. Each element in the queue indicates the choices that were made when the record was created and the progress of the restart operation it controls.

conditional route
A route between two steps in a workflow that is followed only when certain conditions are met.

conditional statement

  1. In COBOL, a statement that controls program flow based on the result of the evaluation of a condition.
  2. A statement that permits execution of one of a number of possible operations, with or without a transfer of control.
  3. A statement used to express an assignment or branch based on specified criteria.
  4. A statement that runs if a specified expression evaluates to a nonzero value.

conditional variable
In COBOL, a data item, one or more values of which has a condition-name assigned to it.

condition code
A code that reflects the result of a previous input/output, arithmetic, or logical operation.

condition column
The condition part of a decision table.

condition-enabled item
An item that has a value or worth that is assigned and tracked based on its physical condition.

condition handler
A user-written routine or language-specific routine (such as a PL/ION-unit or C signal() function call) invoked by the Language Environment condition manager to respond to conditions.

condition handling
The diagnosis, reporting, or tolerating of errors that occur while a routine is running.

condition information block (CIB)
The platform-specific data block used by the Language Environment condition manager as a repository for data about conditions raised in the Language Environment run-time environment.


  1. In data communications, the addition of equipment to a nonswitched voice-graded channel to provide minimum values of line characteristics required for data transmission.
  2. The use of indicators to control when calculations or output operations are to be performed.
  3. The use of indicators in a program to control when calculations or output operations are done, or in a file, the use of indicators or condition names to control when certain functions or operations are done.

conditioning indicator
In RPG, an indicator used to specify when to do calculations or which characteristics apply to a record format or field.

condition manager
The condition manager is the part of the common execution environment that manages conditions by invoking various user-written and language-specific condition handlers.

condition name

  1. In COBOL, a name assigned to a specific value, set of values, or range of values within the complete set of values that a conditional variable can have.
  2. For display files, a name used to control the selection of DDS keywords and display locations based on the model of the display station.
  3. The name assigned to a status of a user-defined switch.

condition-name condition
In COBOL, a statement that the value of a conditional variable is one of a set (or range) of values assigned to a condition name associated with the conditional variable.

condition node
A node in a decision tree that defines a rule condition and groups a set of branches.

condition pattern
In regular expressions, a pattern that the regular expression defines. The regular expression can be used to find items that match the pattern.

condition set
A group of independent conditions where each condition describes all of the activities for an order to be performed in the warehouse.

condition step
The step of the Language Environment condition handling model that follows the enablement step. In the condition step, user-written condition handlers, C signal handlers, and PL/I ON-units are first given a chance to handle a condition. See also enablement step, termination imminent step.

condition token

  1. A 12-byte data structure, which is consistent across multiple Systems Application Architecture (SAA) participating systems, that allows the application programmer to associate the condition with the underlying exception message.
  2. In Language Environment, a data type consisting of 96 bits (12 bytes). The condition token contains structured fields that indicate various aspects of a condition including the severity, the associated message number, and information that is specific to a given instance of the condition.

condition trap
In REXX, the method by which the explicit flow of processing in a REXX program can be changed. Condition traps are enabled or disabled using the ON or OFF subkeywords of the CALL and SIGNAL instructions.

condition variable
An object that allows a thread to suspend execution when it finds an untrue condition, and to resume execution when another thread makes the condition true.

conductor node
The processing node that initiates the job run. See also processing node.

A plastic or metal piping system that is used to protect and route electrical wiring.

Conference Europeenne des Administrations des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT)
European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administration.

Conference on Data Systems languages (CODASYL)
An organization founded in 1959 by the U.S. Department of Defense. CODASYL was known for its definition of COBOL, but it was also involved with the network database model and the data description language (DDL) for defining database schemas.

The predicted probability of an answer being correct. Precision and accuracy are both related to the confidence metric produced by Watson for each possible answer it returns. Candidate answers are ranked by confidence; if the customized pipeline is providing high-quality answers, confidence should show a strong correlation with answer quality.

confidence factor
A number between 0 and 100 indicating the level of accuracy of the trended value. The number 0 indicates no confidence. The number 100 indicates a perfect correlation between trended and actual measured values.

confidence score
An estimate of the accuracy of a prediction, usually expressed as a number from 0.0 to 1.0.

confidential informant
A person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.


  1. In computer security, assurance that sensitive information is not visible to an eavesdropper.
  2. The security service that protects sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Encryption is a common mechanism for implementing this service.

config spec
See configuration specification.

configurable item
A product or item that offers different options from which a customer can select before purchasing that item. The choice of options or available combinations of options may be constrained so that customers can only choose certain combinations of options for their purchase.

configurable product
A product that is available with different options. The options can be chosen based on the customer's requirements.

configurable service
A service that requires the specification of parameters (other than a name and description), before they are ready to be used in a business process.


  1. A type of decision, for both solicited and unsolicited interactions, that controls the properties of a managed resource.
  2. The manner in which the hardware and software of a system, subsystem, or network are organized and interconnected.
  3. The process of describing to a system the devices, optional features, and program products that have been installed so that these features can be used. See also customization, system customization.
  4. See topology.
  5. In a broker domain, the brokers, execution groups, deployed message sets, and deployed message flows, and the defined topics and access control lists.
  6. The machines, devices, and programs that make up a system, subsystem, or network.
  7. A modification of an existing model, such as a new derivative of an existing engine.
  8. The operating system parameters of a system profile.
  9. A unique set of versions of artifacts. Configurations commonly identify one version of each artifact in the set. The artifacts can be unchanging (from a baseline) or open to change (in development). In some systems, configurations can be hierarchical, so that they contain other configurations. See also artifact, baseline, configuration provider, configuration specification, global configuration provider, version.
  10. The set of attributes that define how a program is run.

configuration administration
The administration of the configuration object types (CTs), configuration objects (COs), and configuration object sets (COSs) that comprise the configuration data of organizational units (OUs). This is carried out after the product has been installed and customized.

Configuration Application
A Systems Monitor feature that is used (a) to configure the Mid-Level Manager (MLM), the System-Level Manager (SLM), and the System Information Agent (SIA), (b) to reinitialize daemons, and (c) to control data retrieval and collection from remote nodes.

Configuration Assistant
An interface application used to perform post-installation system configuration tasks.

configuration audit
A physical check on the infrastructure to determine whether the Configuration Management database (CMDB) and the physical configuration items correspond.

configuration auditing system (CAS)
An agent that is installed on a monitored server and reports on changes to the content, ownership, or permissions of monitored files.

Configuration Control Program (CCP)
An IBM licensed program that is used interactively to define, display, and alter configurations that contain network controllers.

configuration data
Data that contains the configuration details of an enterprise.

configuration definition
A collection of files on the framework server that represents a WebSphere cell or other configuration.

configuration directory
A directory in a central directory architecture that contains only documents related to Domino configuration.

configuration entity
Entities used to model an organization and to specify how messages are processed. These entities include configuration object types (CTs), organizational units (OUs), configuration object sets (COSs), configuration objects (COs).

configuration environment
A logical container for a configuration definition.

configuration event
Notifications about the attributes of an object. The notifications are generated when the object is created, changed, or deleted and also by explicit requests.

configuration file

  1. In performance, a file that contains information about a collection as well as certain system attributes.
  2. A file read during database server disk or shared-memory initialization that contains the parameters that specify values for configurable behavior. A database server and its archiving tool use configuration files. See also parameter.
  3. A Struts file that contains information about data sources, form beans, global forwards, and action mappings.
  4. A file that contains the values of configuration parameters. See also database configuration file, database manager configuration file.
  5. A file that specifies the characteristics of a program, system device, system, or network.
  6. See parameter file.

Configuration File Manager (CFM)
A file repository that synchronizes and maintains file consistency across nodes in a cluster.

configuration item (CI)
Any component of an information technology infrastructure that is under the control of configuration management. See also asset.

configuration list
A list of local or remote locations, network addresses, or pass-through device descriptions used by some types of communications descriptions. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CFGL.

configuration-managed item (CM item)
A specialized item type that represents a part number that is under configuration management control as part of the reference engineering data.

configuration management

  1. The control of information necessary to identify both physical and logical information systems and their relationship to one another.
  2. The process of planning for, identifying, controlling, and verifying the configuration items within a service, recording and reporting their status and, in support of change management, assessing the potential impact of changing those items.

Configuration Management and Version Control (CMVC)
A library management system that is used for code development projects.

Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
A database that contains details about the attributes and history of each configuration item and the details about the relationships between configuration items.

configuration management system (CMS)
A set of databases and tools that are used to manage configuration data. A CMS can include one or more CMDBs, plus data about changes, incidents, and other artifacts and processes. The CMS is maintained by the configuration management process and used by all service management processes.

Configuration Manager
The component that provides an interface between the workbench and a set of runtime brokers. It provides brokers with their initial configuration, and updates them with any subsequent changes. It maintains the broker domain configuration.

configuration manager

  1. A server that distributes configuration information, such as policies and schedules, to managed servers according to their profiles. Configuration information can include policy and schedules. See also enterprise configuration, managed server, profile.
  2. A program to supervise device configuration during initial program load (IPL).

configuration node
A node that acts as the focal point for configuration commands and manages the data that describes the clustered-system configuration.

configuration object (CO)
An instance of a configuration object type (CT) that represents an object in an organizational unit (OU). Which attributes can be added to a CO is determined by the definition of the CT on which the CO is based.

configuration object set (COS)
A set of configuration objects, used to limit the scope of configuration data provided to message flows.

configuration object type (CT)
A description of the class of configuration objects, including the attributes that each member of this class can have.

configuration parameter

  1. A variable that controls the behavior of the system or the behavior of all applications running on the system.
  2. A parameter whose value limits or defines the resources that can be used by the database manager or a database. Some configuration parameters are informational and define characteristics about the environment that cannot be changed. See also database configuration parameter.

configuration profile
A WebSphere Application Server container for runtime configurations that administer a particular set of services; for example, the deployment manager configuration profile administers a cell.

configuration provider
An application that manages sets of versioned artifacts, for example, change management or test management artifacts. See also artifact, configuration.

configuration report program (CRP)
An SSP utility program that creates a configuration report that lists the network resources and resource attributes for networks with NCP, EP, PEP, or VTAM.

configuration report server (CRS)
A function that resides on each ring in an environment of multiple token-ring networks in which configuration is being monitored. This function receives notifications about inserting and removing stations and notifications about active monitor failures.

configuration repository

  1. A RIM repository that contains information stored by inventory scans and software distributions.
  2. A storage area of configuration data that is typically located in a subdirectory of the product installation root directory.

configuration restart
In VTAM, the recovery facility used to restore the domain status after a failure or deactivation of VTAM, a major node, or the host processor.

Configuration Rules Object Class
An object class that contains the configuration rules used by the configuration manager during initial program load (IPL).

Configuration Section
In COBOL, a section of the Environment Division of a program, which describes the overall specifications of the source and object computers.

configuration service
Service activating, deactivating, and maintaining the status of physical units, links, and link stations. See also session services.

configuration shard
In a sharded deployment, a database shard that contains configuration data. It is shared by all the colonies that exist within an application version, and stores sourcing rules, routing guides, shipping preferences, and other business rules.

configuration specification (config spec)
A set of rules that specify versions of artifacts. Commonly a configuration specification identifies at most one version of a given versioned artifact. See also artifact, configuration, version.

Configuration Test tool
A Notes application that tests whether servers in an on-premises Domino environment are configured correctly to connect with servers in the SmartCloud Notes service.

Software that provides a dynamic rules-based kit (bundling) capability to determine a group of items that may be sold together. The configurator may also supply a price for the configuration. This grouping is based on pre-defined rules in addition to user interaction with the configurator. See also dynamic kit.


  1. To describe the interconnected arrangement of the devices, programs, communications, and optional features installed on a system.
  2. To describe setting up auxiliary storage pools and checksum protection.
  3. In storage, to define the logical and physical configuration of the I/O subsystem through the user interface that the storage facility provides for this function.

configured name binding
Persistent storage of an object in the name space that is created using either the administrative console or the wsadmin program.

configured test case
A test case that is used to run a test script for a specific test configuration.

configure method
Takes a device from the defined state to the available state. If a device has a device driver, the configure method is responsible for loading and binding the driver into the kernel. If the device supports the optional stopped state, the configure method takes the device from the defined state to the stopped state.


  1. In X.25 communications, to respond to the arrival of a clear-indication or reset-indication packet.
  2. In OSI, a service primitive issued by a service provider to complete the procedures associated with a confirmed service.

A transmission by a receiver that permits a sender to continue.

confirmation of delivery (COD)
The automatic notification to the sender of a message, note, or document as to when action is taken on the message, note, or document. Confirmation of delivery must be requested by the sender.

confirmation of receipt (COR)
The automatic notification to the sender of a message, note, or document that the receiver has accepted the message note or document.

confirmation panel
In DFSMSrmm, a panel that signals DFSMSrmm whether to continue or stop a delete or release action. Confirmation of delete or release requests is specified in the dialog user options.

confirmed instance
An instance of an installed software product that has been explicitly assigned to one or more bundles.

confirmed service
In OSI, a service that indicates to the sender whether or not data or control information was properly received. A confirmed service involves a request, indication, response, and confirm service primitive. See also unconfirmed service.

confirm-on-arrival report (COA report)
A WebSphere MQ report message type created when a message is placed on that queue. It is created by the queue manager that owns the destination queue.

confirm-on-delivery report (COD report)
A WebSphere MQ report message type created when an application retrieves a message from the queue in a way that causes the message to be deleted from the queue. It is created by the queue manager.


  1. In an infeasible model, a set of constraints that cannot all be true at the same time. See also relaxation.
  2. See role alert.
  3. A result that occurs when two simultaneous edit submissions are processed for the same object and where the intended outcome of the edit is unclear.
  4. A situation in which two or more change sets independently modify the same item in a repository workspace.

conflict detection
The process of determining whether a replicated change (an insert, an update, or a delete) is incompatible with some characteristic of a target. An incompatibility exists, for example, if changes were made to both a source and a target before replication occurred. See also master table, replica table.

conflicting reference
An external reference from a Fortran or assembler language routine to a Fortran library routine with a name that is the same as the name of a C/C++ library routine. The reference is considered to be a conflicting reference only when the intended resolution is to the Fortran library routine rather than to the corresponding C/C++ library routine.

conflict rule
See role alert rule.

To adhere to a prevailing standard.

The ability to unambiguously demonstrate that a particular implementation is correct with respect to its formal model.

conformance document
A document provided by an implementer (such as IBM) that contains implementation details as described in the current POSIX.1 standard.

conformance policy
A subset of the ebMS specification that provides guidelines for secure and payload-agnostic exchange of B2B documents using web services. A conformance policy defines which profiles to use to validate whether received messages conform to the specified profiles.

conformant array
In DCE Remote Procedure Call (RPC), an array whose size is determined at runtime. A structure containing a conformant array as a field is a conformant structure.

conformed dimension
A dimension with a single definition that can be reused or shared across multiple coordinated data marts.

A bit string that is used to initialize the encryption-block chaining value so that the encrypted result is different each time a data value is encrypted.

confusion matrix
A table that provides a detailed numeric breakdown of predicted and actual answers. The table is used to evaluate model predictions for candidate answers.


  1. A situation that occurs when network traffic exceeds a connection's bandwidth.
  2. See network congestion.
  3. A network condition that occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that the quality of service is degraded. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss, or the blocking of new connections.

congestion charge
A transportation fee that is charged to drivers for using roads during peak periods, encouraging drivers to use public transportation, reduce emissions, and lighten traffic congestion.

congruence class
In a cache, the group of lines to which a given memory location can be mapped.

conjoined names
A grouping of name segments that contains two or more given names, two or more titles, pairs of titles and given names, two or more entire names, or any combination of these name elements. For example, "Mr. and Mrs. John Smith" contains conjoined titles and "Mr. and Mrs. John and Mary Smith" contains conjoined titles and conjoined given names in the same construction.

The Boolean operation whose result has the Boolean value 1 if and only if each operand has the Boolean value 1.

In a LAN, to physically join a cable from a station to an access unit or network connection point.

connect data set to line (CDSTL)
In SNA, an option that determines how the data terminal ready (DTR) signal to the modem operates. It is used if a DTR indicates an unconditional command from the data terminal equipment (DTE) to the attached data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) to connect to or remove itself from the network.

In VTAM, pertaining to the state of a physical unit (PU) or a logical unit (LU) that has an active physical path to the host processor containing the system services control point (SSCP) that controls the respective PU or LU.

connected employee
An employee who participates in every aspect of enterprise social software.


  1. A set of parameters used by HATS to connect to a host application, stored in an .hco file. See also background connection, default connection.
  2. A direct relationship between a pair of entities on a chart, represented by one or more links. See also common neighbor, connection multiplicity, directed connection.
  3. A link between two process elements. Connections can be used to specify the chronological sequence of activities in a process.
  4. A relationship between nodes in an Application Diagram.
  5. A set of properties, such as host name, server launcher settings, and security settings that is required to communicate with a specific remote system.
  6. The information required to connect to a database. The actual information required varies according to the DBMS and connection method.
  7. A combination of two endpoints that the virtual private network (VPN) protects and a security policy. Such a connection can exist between any combination of a host and a gateway.
  8. In Open Systems Interconnection architecture, an association established by a given layer between two or more entities of the next higher layer for the purpose of data transfer.
  9. A feature that allows the question to connect to a business object within the application for pre-filling of answers and configure if a supplier or person master data should be updated upon submission of answer sheet by the respondent user.
  10. In data communication, an association established between entities for conveying information. See also SQL connection.

connection affinity
A channel attribute that specifies the client channel definition that client applications use to connect to the queue manager, if multiple connections are available.

connection alias
A short name used to identify a database connection.

connection broker
An intermediary program that assigns a user to an available virtual desktop upon request.

connection concentrator
A mechanism that allows applications to stay connected without any resources being used on the DB2 host server. Thousands of connections can be active while only a few agents are active on the DB2 host server.

connection context
In SQLJ, a Java object that represents a connection to a data source.

connection control block (CCB)
A control block created by CICS for each IRC session. The CCB contains control information for the inter-region connection and a pointer to the CSB.

connection declaration clause
In SQLJ, a statement that declares a connection to a data source.

connection document
A document that enables communication between two servers and specifies how and when the information exchange occurs.

connection establishment
The phase in connection mode that enables two data link service (DLS) users to create a data link connection between them.

connection event sequence (CES)
This value is copied to full name (NCC) records and used by the path manager to determine the most current record pertinent to the tracking of full name (NKJE) connections.

connection factory
A set of configuration values that produces connections that enable a Java EE component to access a resource. Connection factories provide on-demand connections from an application to an enterprise information system (EIS) and allow an application server to enroll the EIS in a distributed transaction.

connection graph
A graph that shows connections from remote network nodes and local IP addresses to local network nodes.

connection handle

  1. The identifier or token by which a program accesses the queue manager to which it is connected.
  2. A representation of a connection to a server resource.
  3. The data object containing information that is associated with a connection that DB2 ODBC manages. This information includes general status information, transaction status information, and diagnostic information. See also handle, statement handle.

connection ID
See connection identifier.

connection identifier (CID)

  1. A value used to identify a resource. The value is returned to the connecting program after connect processing has established a session and must be used on subsequent requests to the resource.
  2. A DB2 for z/OS identifier that is supplied by the attachment facility and that is associated with a specific address space connection.

connection key
A descriptor that identifies a subclass of devices that can connect to the intermediate device at the specified location.

connectionless mode
A mode of transfer in which data is passed from one user to another in self-contained units with no logical relationship required among the units.

connectionless-mode network protocol (CLNP)
The OSI protocol defined by ISO 8473. This protocol is used to provide the connectionless-mode network service (CLNS).

connectionless-mode network service (CLNS)
In OSI, an unacknowledged network service that enables an entity to send a unit of data from a source service access point to one or more destination service access points without establishing a connection. The OSI protocol that provides this service in the Network Layer is defined by ISO 8473 (internet protocol, or IP).

connectionless-mode transmission
The transmission of a single unit of data from a source service access point to one or more destination service access points without establishing a connection.

connectionless network
A network in which the sending logical node must have the address of the receiving logical node before information interchange can begin. The unit is routed through nodes in the network based on the destination address in the unit. The sending node does not receive an acknowledgement that the packet was received at the destination.

connectionless packet delivery
A method of data packet delivery that treats each packet of information individually and does not guarantee delivery.

connectionless protocol
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a remote procedure call (RPC) transport protocol, such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP), that does not require a connection to be established prior to data transfer. See also connection-oriented protocol.

connectionless service

  1. See unacknowledged service.
  2. A network service that treats each packet or datagram as a separate entity that contains the source address and destination address and for which no acknowledgment is returned to the originating source. Connectionless services are on a best-effort basis and do not guarantee reliable or in-sequence delivery. See also connection-oriented network service, connection-oriented service.

connection line
A line on the connection graph between a remote network node and a local network node or between two local network nodes.

connection list
A communications object for ISDN that provides a list of information used to determine when to accept incoming calls and what information to send with outgoing calls. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CNNL.

connection location
A descriptor that identifies a specific location on the intermediate device where a child device can be connected.

connection management stream
In X.25, a special stream that receives all incoming connect indications destined for DLSAP addresses that are not bound to any other streams associated with a particular PPA.

Connection Manager
A daemon program that manages and redirects client connection requests based on service level agreements configured by the system administrator.

connection manager
A Content Manager component that helps maintain connections to the library server, rather than starting a new connection for each query. The connection manager has an application programming interface.

connection mode
A circuit-oriented mode of transfer in which data is passed from one user to another over an established connection in a sequenced manner.

connection modem
In Operations Console, a driver (cwbopaoc.inf file) that allows a console to connect to the server.

connection-mode network service
In OSI, an acknowledged network service that enables an entity to send a unit of data from a source service access point to a destination service access point by establishing, maintaining, and disconnecting a connection. The OSI protocol that provides this service in the network layer is defined by the X.25 Packet-Level Protocol defined by CCITT 1980 and 1984.

connection multiplicity
A setting that controls whether multiple links between the same items are displayed as a single line, as directed lines, or as multiple lines. See also connection.

connection network
A switched network (such as a local area network, X.25, or public-switched dial network) that allows a local node to establish APPN connections to more than one undefined adjacent node.

connection-oriented network service (CONS)
A type of networked data communication in which a dedicated connection between two peer entities is established before data is transferred. A connection-oriented service consists of three phases: establishment, data transfer, and release. The two networks exchange address information only while the connection is being established. See also connectionless service.

connection-oriented protocol
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol that runs over a connection-based transport protocol. It is a reliable, virtual-circuit transport protocol, such as TCP. See also connectionless protocol.

connection-oriented service
A service that establishes a logical connection between two partners for the duration that they want to communicate. Data transfer takes place in a reliable, sequenced manner. See also connectionless service.

connection point
An object that identifies a specific workflow system and isolated region.

connection point manager
In SNA, a component of the transmission control layer that (a) performs session-level pacing of normal-flow requests, (b) checks sequence numbers of received request units, (c) verifies that request units do not exceed the maximum permissible size, (d) routes incoming request units to their destinations in the half-session, and enciphers and deciphers FMD request units when cryptography is selected.

connection pool
A group of host connections that are maintained in an initialized state, ready to be used without having to create and initialize them.

connection pooling

  1. A technique used for establishing a pool of resource connections that applications can share on an application server.
  2. A process in which an application server or any product that interacts with a database on behalf of applications establishes a finite set of connections to the database and maps requests from the applications to this set of connections. Using these connections reduces the overall connection time for these applications and removes the cost of establishing a database connection from the host.

connection profile

  1. A set of data that is used to establish a connection.
  2. A data management file that contains parameters that associate other defined profiles to the connection of two logical units.

connection script
Data, such as sign-on and password information, that is exchanged between the host and remote systems when a connection is established.

connection string
A string that specifies the information to permit a workstation to access a particular database.

connection type
A field in the Predefined Connection Object Class that identifies the subclass of devices that can be connected to an intermediate device

In COBOL, a word or a punctuation character that associates a data name, paragraph name, condition name, or text name with its qualifier; links two or more values in a series; or forms a conditional expression.


  1. The capability of a system or device to be attached to other systems or devices without modification.
  2. An object class that is used for objects that connect different parts of the network and route or switch traffic between these parts. This class includes gateways, repeaters (including multiport repeaters), and bridges.
  3. The degree to which storage controls are joined to a direct access storage device (DASD) and processors to achieve adequate data paths (and alternative data paths) to meet data availability needs.
  4. An algorithm that determines if two machines on different networks can communicate. If the machines can communicate, connectivity also determines which host names should be used and which TCP/IP routing information must be added.

connectivity subsystem (CSS)
An expansion frame, such as the 3746 Model 900, that extends connectivity and enhances the performance of the IBM 3745 Communication Controller.


  1. In Enterprise Service Tools, a well-defined, durable communication or programming interface to an enterprise information system. A connector provides a means of accepting data in a definable format, invoking an operation, and receiving results in a definable format.
  2. A component that provides data connectivity and extraction capabilities for external data sources, such as relational databases or messaging software.
  3. A servlet that provides a portlet access to external sources of content, for example, a news feed from a website of a local television station.
  4. A plug-in that is used to access and update data sources. A connector accesses the data and separates out the details of data manipulations and relationships.
  5. A component that provides data connectivity and metadata integration for external data sources, such as relational databases or messaging software. A connector typically includes a stage that is specific to the external data source. See also bridge, operator, plug-in.
  6. An arrow that connects activities in a process diagram.
  7. In a query management command, the TO word in the EXPORT command, the FROM word in the IMPORT command, or the AS word in the SAVE DATA command.
  8. See desktop plug-in.
  9. An electrical part used to join two other electrical parts.
  10. In Java EE, a standard extension mechanism for containers to provide connectivity to enterprise information systems (EISs). A connector consists of a resource adapter and application development tools (Sun). See also container.
  11. An installed component that provides the interface between the engine and the Tivoli Dynamic Workload Console and the Job Scheduling Console. See also engine, job scheduling console.

connector class

  1. Object-oriented programming class that provides standard access to APIs that are native to specific content servers.
  2. An object class that is used for objects that connect different parts of the network and route or switch traffic between these parts. This class includes gateways, repeaters (including multiport repeaters), and bridges. See also network class.

connector packet
The set of data that is passed between the event processing server (runtime server) and external systems using the technology connectors.

connect phase
An optional phase of link activation during which initial communication is established. It includes dialing and answering on switched links and can include modem equalization. The connect phase is followed by the optional prenegotiation phase or by the contact phase. See also prenegotiation phase.

connect-time accounting
The record of the amount of time each user spends logged in to the system.

See connection-oriented network service.

consecutive processing
A method of processing in which the records in the file are read, written to, or deleted in the order in which they exist in a file. See also random processing, sequential processing.

consequence cost
The impact on cost if a risk is not addressed.

A part of an association rule that specifies the predicted outcome. See also antecedent, Continuous Association Rule Mining Algorithm.

consigned inventory
An enterprise's inventory that is owned by vendors. Ownership is transferred to the buyer at the end of the transaction.

The company that receives the delivered goods from the shipper, which is known as the consignor. For example, the consignee might be a retailer or distribution center that receives deliveries from the manufacturing plant of the shipper.

A classification type for inventory materials that are stored on-site but that are owned by an external vendor. The vendor retains ownership of the consignment items until they are used and paid for by the organization that is storing them.

The shipper that delivers goods to the consignee.

A state of data. A transaction updates the data and checks its state. If the transaction detects any inconsistency, the change is rolled back and the data is returned to its previous consistent state. See also ACID property, ACID transaction.

consistency group

  1. A group of copy relationships between virtual volumes or data sets that are maintained with the same time reference so that all copies are consistent in time.
  2. A group of volumes whose snapshots are taken at the same point in time. See also snapshot set, unassociated volume.

consistency point
The point in time when the application quiesces all buffers to a disk.

consistency token
A unique identifier that is generated during precompilation, stored in the application source, and sent to the database when the package is bound. The consistency token is used to ensure the integrity of the shared application information that is stored in the database as a package.


  1. A type of read integrity in which a program is permitted to read only committed data - data that cannot be backed out after it has been passed to the program issuing the read request. Therefore, a consistent read request can succeed only when the data is free from all locks. See also read integrity, repeatable.
  2. Pertaining to a file system with no internal discrepancies.

consistent-change-data table (CCD table)
In data replication, a type of replication target table that is used for storing history, auditing data, or staging data. A CCD table can also be a replication source. See also condensed CCD table, external CCD table, internal CCD table, noncondensed CCD table, staging table.

consistent copy
A copy of a data entity (a logical volume {LVOL}), for example) that contains the contents of the entire data entity at an instant in time.

consistent read
An integrity option that Virtual Storage Access Method record-level sharing (VSAM RLS) obtains for a share lock on a record. Consistent read ensures that the reader does not see an uncommitted change made by another transaction.

consistent read explicit
An integrity option that Virtual Storage Access Method record-level sharing (VSAM RLS) obtains for a share lock on a record; VSAM RLS then keeps the share lock on the record until the end of transaction. This option is available only to Customer Information Control System (CICS) transactions because VSAM does not recognize the end of transaction for non-CICS usage. This capability is also referred to as repeatable read.


  1. In Linux, an output device for kernel messages.
  2. A graphical user interface that simplifies the tasks for managing network security, such as monitoring events and scheduling scans.
  3. A user interface that can be used to list and manage objects or entities, such as catalogs, hierarchies, and items. See also module.
  4. A display station from which an operator can control and observe the system operation.
  5. In COBOL, a function name associated with the operator's display station.
  6. A user interface to a server, such as can be provided by a personal computer.
  7. A user interface for one or more administrative tasks. For example, the Integrated Solutions Console integrates the administrative tasks for multiple products and solutions into a single console.

console authority level
A numeric value from 0 - 15 assigned to remote job processing (RJP) consoles, which governs the set of commands that can be issued from the console.

console communication service (CCS)
The SNA facility that acts as an interface between the control program and the VSCS component of VTAM for VM.

console destination class
One of a set of named classes used to direct messages to certain consoles. Console destination classes also are used in specifying the messages to be received at a remote job processing (RJP) console.

console device
During the installation of the Base Operating System (BOS), the system console is the display device at the system on which you are installing the software.

console display
A display at a system console on which an operator can display, send, and reply to messages and use all control commands.

console event
An event sent by a monitor to a console.

console module
A package of web-based applications, developed as standard portlets, that are installed into Integrated Solutions Console and displayed by the console to provide an interface for administering software and computer networks and resources.

console module deployment descriptor
An XML file that describes the following elements that need to be known when a console module is included in the Integrated Solutions Console framework: navigation tree contributions, page layout definitions, access control information, prerequisite portlet or console modules, and extension points.

console resource
An element of the console that can be managed. Console resources include pages, portlets, roles, and views.

console server
The hardware device through which the management server opens a remote console session for a node.

console service
A dynamic support program (DSP) that performs traffic management for consoles.

To compute a relationship for one or more hierarchies of data. For example, consolidating the total sales for January, February, and March by adding them together results in the total sales for Quarter 1.

consolidated data stream
A data stream table that captures data streams from different, but similar data stream sources and combines them into a single data stream.

consolidated software inventory (CSI)
A key-sequenced VSAM data set, used by SMP/E and logically divided into zones.


  1. In a data tree, an entry that has one or more children.
  2. A process that is used to group similar database objects from disparate sources or the same source into a common record.
  3. The process of manually combining orders and shipments into larger loads.
  4. The process of combining two or more duplicate records from a structural data source into a single record in the cube. See also duplicate record.

consolidation process
A process during which the data collectors process the nightly accounting and storage files that were created by the data collection scripts and produce an output CSR file.

consolidation structure
A legal or management structure that consists of a company structure and extended dimension structures.

Consortium for Research and Education Network (CREN)
A large computer network that was formed from the merging of the Because It's Time Network (BITNET) and the Computer Science Network (CSNET).

CONS path
In OSI, a path that indicates both quality-of-service values through a network QOS mode and values to indicate how splitting and multiplexing is to be accomplished. A CONS path can optionally be reserved for outbound communications to a specific DTE at an adjacent node.

CONS path set
In OSI, a path set used when the connection-mode network service is used.


  1. A language element that specifies an unchanging value. Constants are classified as string constants or numeric constants.
  2. A standard rule that enables the movement of a literal constant value to a specified element or field, to indicate a qualifying relationship with another element or field, and map the current date or time to the specified element or field.
  3. In a business object model (BOM), a vocabulary element that verbalizes the public static final attribute of a class with the same type as the BOM class. See also verbalization.
  4. Data that has an unchanging, predefined value to be used in processing.

constant data
In printers, data that does not change; for example, the company letterhead and standard text in form letters, or the headings and boxes on a preprinted form. See also variable data.

constant expression
An expression that has a value that can be determined during compilation and that does not change during the running of the program.

constant field

  1. A field defined by a display format to contain a value that does not change.
  2. In an externally described display or printer file, an unnamed field that contains actual data that is passed to the display or printer but is unknown to the program passing it.

constant propagation
An optimization technique where constants used in an expression are combined and new ones are generated. Mode conversions are done to allow some intrinsic functions to be evaluated at compile time.

constant spaced font
See uniformly spaced font.

constant special item ID list (CSIDL)
In Windows environments, a list that identifies frequently used special folders whose location might vary on different systems.

constant standard rule
A rule that enables the user to move a constant value to the specified field, indicate a qualifying relationship with another field, and map the current date or time to the specified field.

constant symbol
In REXX, a symbol that starts with a digit (0-9) or a period. The value of a constant symbol cannot be changed.

In AIXwindows, a class of objects from which a unique resource set can be inherited. For example, a PanedWindow widget can specify the size of its children by using the inherited XtNmin and XtNmax Constraint resources. The reference material associated with each widget specifies those that inherit resources from the Constraint class.


  1. A place in the system where contention for a resource is affecting performance.
  2. In lexical analysis, a morphotactics rule that accurately processes compound words using dictionaries of word formation elements.
  3. In NetDA/2, the set of essential requirements that are specified with the node, connection, or application definitions. A change in a constraint value changes the input to the network design. See also parameters.
  4. A rule that limits the values that can be inserted, deleted, or updated in a table. See also check constraint, foreign key, informational constraint, primary key, referential constraint, unique constraint, unique key.
  5. A restriction on the possible values that users can enter in a field.
  6. A security specification that denies one or more users the ability to access a model component or to perform a modeling or authoring task.
  7. A limit to set controls on the start and finish dates for project tasks, such as start-no-earlier-than or finish-no-later-than.
  8. A condition that must be satisfied by the solution of a problem. A constraint may be arithmetic, requiring that a solution satisfy certain numeric properties, or symbolic, requiring that a solution meet other properties, such as membership of a collection, uniqueness, or cardinality. See also requirement.

constraint block
An element that defines a generic or basic mathematical formula. Constraint blocks can be used to create parametric diagrams.

constraint cycle
A sequence of constraint relationships in which a descendent of a parent file becomes the parent to the original parent file.

constraint programming (CP)
A nondeterministic method of computer programming that is based on logic and symbolic reasoning to solve intractable problems. It offers a technique for solving combinatorial problems based on applying constraint propagation on the domains of decision variables. Commercially, it offers a means of representing business rules as constraints, goals, wishes, preferences, strategies, and criteria. See also mathematical programming.

constraint propagation
A process that dynamically reduces the domain of each variable in a problem. Modifications in the domain of one constrained variable may have implications for the domains of other constrained variables. Constraint propagation involves transmitting these implications and carrying out their effects.


  1. A detailed record of a request from a data repository.
  2. In architecture, an architected set of data such as a structured field or a triplet.
  3. One of the following collective concepts: data class, storage class, management class, storage group, aggregate group, and base configuration.

constructed data type
A complex data type created with a type constructor.

constructed reentrancy
The attribute of applications that contain external data and require additional processing to make them reentrant. See also natural reentrancy.

User-defined lines and circles that form reference geometry.


  1. A special C++ class member function that has the same name as the class and is used to create an object of that class.
  2. An XQuery expression that creates XML structures within a query. See also computed constructor, constructor function, direct constructor.
  3. In object-oriented programming, a special method used to initialize an object.

constructor function
In XQuery, a constructor where the expression is a function invocation that creates a typed atomic value. See also constructor.

constructor method
In programming languages, a method that has the same name as a class and is used to create and initialize objects of that class.

The ease with which customers can evaluate, buy, attain, install, and deal simply and effectively with product maintenance throughout the offering lifecycle.

consumable inventory organization
A vendor's inventory organization that is participating in the consigned inventory program.

To remove a message from a queue and return its contents to the calling application.


  1. An entity that receives data from another entity.
  2. An application that receives and processes messages. See also message consumer.
  3. An individual who purchases products or services from an enterprise.

consumer application

  1. In the context of OSLC, an application that can retrieve and process the resource data that is shared by a provider application.
  2. An application that uses the data in the central data warehouse for a specific business need. Consumer applications use reporting and third-party online analytical processing (OLAP) tools as well as planning, trend-tracking, analysis, accounting, and data mining tools. See also source application.

consumer customer
A Business-to-Customer business scenario, where the customer is an individual or group of individuals and are modeled in Sterling Field Sales or Sterling Business Center as a contact and do not have any buyer organizations associated with them.

consumer direct
The consumer direct business model supports commerce transactions involving products, services, or information between businesses and consumers. Consumers typically purchase goods or services directly from a business in a consumer direct scenario. The Madisons starter store is an example of a consumer direct business. See also B2B direct business model, direct sales business model.

consumer packaged goods (CPG)
Consumable goods such as food and beverages, apparel and footwear, cleaning products, and tobacco related products. Consumer goods are products that are used regularly and need to be replaced frequently.

consumer portal
A portal that uses the portlets that a producer portal provides. See also producer definition, producer portal.

consumer server
A server which receives changes through replication from a supplier server.

consuming inventory organization
An enterprise's inventory organization that is participating in the consigned inventory program.

The usage of a resource. See also saturation.


  1. An individual in the Emptoris suite of applications who is associated with an organization. In Emptoris Contract Management, a contact is also associated with a contract for administration purposes within the contract and can receive notifications.
  2. A person whose ID is configured to receive email or pager notifications of DB2 administration messages that are written to the administration notification log. The definition for each contact contains the name and the email or pager address of the person to receive notifications and is stored in the contact list of the system that is specified by the CONTACT_HOST configuration parameter of the DB2 administration server. See also administration notification log, administration notification message, orphaned contact.
  3. A named email address to which reports and agent e-mails can be sent. Contacts are never authenticated.

contact history
A complete historical view of a company’s marketing communications. The contact history includes targets that are contacted through campaigns; hold-out controls who do not receive a communication but are measured for comparison purposes against the target group, and the exact version offer that is given to each ID, including the values of personalized offer attributes.

contact list
A directory database that is stored on a Notes client and contains the names and addresses of users and groups added by Notes users.

contact phase
A phase of link activation during which negotiation-proceeding XID3s are exchanged between the connected link stations to establish the primary and secondary roles of the link stations, the TG number to be used, and other characteristics of the link, and during which the mode-setting command is sent and acknowledged after the primary and the secondary roles are established. Link activation may consist only of the contact phase, or it may also have either a connect phase or a prenegotiation phase or both preceding the contact phase. See also prenegotiation phase.

contained folder
A contract folder that is a child of a parent folder.

contained term
A term in a category in a business glossary. A term must be contained by only one category.


  1. A data storage location, for example, a file, directory, or device. See also table space.
  2. A specialized logical storage space that resides in a dbspace and stores time series data for the TimeSeries data type.
  3. A virtual software object that encompasses all of the elements that are needed for an application to run within an operating system. See also image, registry.
  4. A software object that holds or organizes other software objects or entities.
  5. An entity that provides life-cycle management, security, deployment, and runtime services to components. (Sun) See also connector, resource adapter.
  6. An object that holds entries. A container can be a catalog, containing items, a hierarchy, containing categories, or a collaboration area, which will hold items or categories only (depending on the type of the container with which it is associated). See also category, collaboration area, hierarchy, item.
  7. An item that can contain other items. Tags that are added to a container inherit the position of the container.
  8. A worldwide dimensional standard for a reusable transportation vessel that can be hauled like a trailer, loaded onto a container ship, or loaded onto a freight train for transportation. The container can be loaded with cartons and sealed at the shipping dock for protection during transport.
  9. A column or row that is used to arrange the layout of a portlet or other container on a page.
  10. In a virtual tape server (VTS), a receptacle in which one or more exported logical volumes (LVOLs) can be stored. A stacked volume containing one or more LVOLs and residing outside a VTS library is considered to be the container for those volumes. See also stacked volume.
  11. In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a system object that contains and organizes source files. An i5/OS library or an MVS-partitioned data set are examples of a container.

container class
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, an object that defines the types of physical containers that are used to store and transport removable media. Container classes are distinguished by attributes such as capacity and media class.

Using standardized containers for the storage and transport of loose units from a warehouse.

container load plan (CLP)
A plan that specifies how items are placed in a container to maximize use of space.

container-managed persistence (CMP)
The mechanism whereby data transfer between an entity bean's variables and a resource manager is managed by the entity bean's container. (Sun) See also bean-managed persistence.

container-managed transaction
A transaction whose boundaries are defined by an EJB container. An entity bean must use container-managed transactions. (Sun)

container management
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a function that assigns container classes and tracks containers by storage location for retention, reuse, and recovery.

container member
One of the four member types in an installation that stores the cache grid information.

container server
A server instance or Java virtual machine (JVM) that hosts one or more shard containers. See also shard.

container transaction
See container-managed transaction.

container window
A window that lists the names of all existing objects of the same type.

containment hierarchy
A namespace hierarchy consisting of model elements, and the containment relationships that exist between them. A containment hierarchy forms an acyclic graph.

containment relationship
A relationship between two objects where one object is contained within the other. The destination is nested within the source.


  1. Solution-related information or a product produced by a variety of organizations within IBM.
  2. The data portion of a document, as opposed to the properties that identify and describe the document. See also form data.
  3. See corpus.
  4. The data semantics of a message that is received by the dynamic assembler.

content area

  1. In a web page that is based on a page template, the editable region of the page.
  2. In an editor, the working area that can be used to create or edit source.

content assist
A feature of some source editors that prompts the user with a list of valid alternatives for completing the current line of code or input field.

content-based retrieval (CBR)
The process of searching for documents based on their content in addition to, or instead of, searching on properties.

content based routing (CBR)
An optional feature of the caching proxy that provides intelligent routing to back-end application servers. This routing is based on HTTP session affinity and a weighted round-robin algorithm.

content cache area
A storage area that holds temporary copies of files retrieved from remote file storage areas, as well as content retrieved from local or remote database storage areas. See also content storage area.

content capture
A process that captures a configurable amount of payload and then stores the data in a flow log.

content class

  1. See MIME type.
  2. A collection of subjects that users need to complete a universal task. Examples include planning, installing, administering and problem determination.

content editor
An editor that modifies educational materials for technically correct content.

content element
A unit of information that is a semantic representation of the subject and that is used in building the structure of an information type. Each information type defines a standard set of content elements. Content elements are defined by a schema or document type definition (DTD), which include required and optional properties that define the content element and which are used to structure the information types.

content event
An event that responds to document or folder changes on an Enterprise Content Management (ECM) system. See also event.


  1. A condition on a session when two programs try to start a conversation at the same time. See also control operator.
  2. A situation in which a transaction attempts to lock a row or table that is already locked.
  3. In a local area network, a condition on a communications channel when two or more stations are allowed by the protocol to start transmitting concurrently and thus risk collision.

contention loser
On an LU-LU session, the LU that must use an SNA BID command (LUTYPE6.1) or an LUSTATUS command (APPC) to request permission to begin a conversation.

contention-loser session
To a network accessible unit (NAU), a session for which it was defined during session initiation to be the contention loser. See also contention-winner session.

contention mode
In data communication, a mode of transmission in which any station may transmit whenever the line is available, This occurs when a session is between brackets. If stations transmit simultaneously, protocols determine who wins the contention.

contention polarity
The role of each LU when contention occurs for use of a session. One LU is the contention winner and the other LU is the contention loser.

contention scope
The group of threads against which a given thread must compete for the CPU. If local, the thread competes against other threads in the same process. If global, the thread competes against all other threads in the system.

contention state
In data communications, a type of half-duplex line or data link control in which either user may transmit any time the line or link is available. If both users attempt to transmit at the same time, the protocols or the hardware determines who goes first.

contention winner
On an LU-LU session, the LU that is permitted to begin a conversation at any time.

contention-winner session
To a network accessible unit (NAU), a session for which it was defined during session initiation to be the contention winner. See also contention-loser session.

contentless document
A document with properties, but no content, that is typically used to track a physical item, such as a video tape.

content link
A simple hypertext link in rich text or graphical artifacts that provides navigation only. See also trace link.

content locale
A code that is used to set the language or dialect used for browsers and report text, and the regional preferences, such as formats for time, date, money, money expressions, and time of day.

content management

  1. Software designed to help businesses manage and distribute content from diverse sources.
  2. The process of managing, organizing, storing, tracking ownership of, and distributing information that was created for a common purpose.

Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS)
An open standard designed to facilitate the interoperability of content management systems using web protocols.

Content Manager (CM)
The service that retrieves information from the content store, and saves information to the content store.

content model
The representation of any data that may be contained inside an XML element. There are four kinds of content models: element content, mixed content, EMPTY content and ANY content.

content pane
An interactive pane in the contract language view that lists the clauses of a contract, in sequence, along with indicators of required actions, and other clause properties. It is used to navigate to a particular component of the contract and allows mapping of text from the contract language to clause templates and term definitions in the contract template. See also outline.

content particle
An element type that defines a choice, sequence, or activity. A content particle can only contain one pcdata. These objects can repeat in sequence until the content particle data ends or the maximum number of times the loop is allowed to repeat is exhausted. A content particle can not be referenced by standard rules or links.

content plan
A planning document that is used by a content provider to manage delivery of that type of content, for example: information developers produce an ID information plan.

content provider

  1. An individual or team who produces content, for example: ITSO representatives, developerWorks brand content teams, and information development teams.
  2. A source for content that can be incorporated into a portal page as a portlet.

content repository
A centralized location for storing analytical assets, such as models and data. Content repository includes facilities for security and access control, content management, and process automation.

content server
A software system that stores multimedia and business data and the related metadata required for users to work with that data. Content Manager and Content Manager ImagePlus for OS/390 are examples of content servers.

content spoofing
An attack technique used to trick a user into believing that certain content appearing on a website is legitimate and not from an external source.

content spot
A class file that is added to a JSP file to designate display of personalized data or content. Each content spot has a name and will accept a specific type of data from a rule.

content storage area
A physical storage area, such as a file storage area, database storage area, or content cache area, used for content. See also content cache area, database storage area, file storage area.

content store

  1. The database that contains the data needed to operate, such as report specifications, published models, and security rights.
  2. A repository that is used to hold specifications of reports, models, and data sources.
  3. A database that is used to store files and other content that users add to their activities.

contents view
A view of an object that shows the contents of the object in list form. Container views are provided for containers, and for any object that has container behavior, for example, a device object such as a printer. Icons view and details view are examples of contents views.


  1. A named part of the CICSPlex SM environment that is currently being acted upon by CICSPlex SM. For configuration tasks, the context is a CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS); for all other tasks, it is a CICSplex. See also scope.
  2. A set of one or more grammars that are enabled and used during a recognition action.
  3. An element in an XBRL instance document that defines the entity, period, and scenario that provide understanding for the values of items.
  4. The address space for a process, hardware registers, and related kernel data structures.
  5. The means that are used to group tracking data as part of a transaction flow.
  6. An object created for a service request in the business service model. The object contains one or more of the following details of information captured from the metadata: a business process, organization, role, channel, and domain specific information. See also context propagation.
  7. An application's logical connection to the data source and associated DB2 ODBC connection information that allows the application to direct its operations to a data source. A DB2 ODBC context represents a DB2 thread.
  8. The hierarchy of elements within which an element exists. For example, the context of a term in a business glossary is the hierarchy of categories in which the term is contained.
  9. One or more units of recovery, with the associated application programs, resource managers, and protected resources. A context represents a work request in an application, and the life of a context consists of a series of units of recovery.
  10. The information about an issue that is captured during a scan.

context address
A regular expression enclosed in slashes (/).

context authorization
The authority for the owner of a human task to access the BPEL process that contains the human task.

context-aware search
A search function that uses natural language terms to search for work items and source code in Java, C, C++, and COBOL. Regular expressions and wildcard characters are not required.

context data

  1. A set of data values describing the context at the capture point in a running system; for example, the transaction ID, the user ID, and the current program.
  2. Input data that is passed with a scoring request in real time. For example, when a score is requested for a customer based on credit rating and geocode, the credit score and geocode will be the context data for the request.

context definition
A set of events, each with an associated context ID, that is used as a group for complex event processing. Rules that are associated with the events can be part of the context definition. Actions that are fired by the rules are also part of the context definition. See also context instance.

Context Dependent Scoring analysis engine
An analysis engine or annotator that creates machine learning features based on the question text, the answer, and the context in which the answer appeared, such as a passage.

context handle
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Remote Procedure Call (RPC), a reference to a client context maintained across remote RPCs by a server on behalf of a client.

context ID
See context identifier.

context identifier (context ID)

  1. A common data value that is used to group events into a context instance.
  2. A value that identifies the default values, such as the process instance ID or the activity instance ID, that a task depends on.

Context Independent Scoring analysis engine
An analysis engine or annotator that creates machine learning features based on the question text and the answer without regard to the context of the answer.

context instance
A group of events, actions, and context-scoped business objects that occur within the same context definition and have matching context ID values. See also context definition.

context interest token
A token provided to the resource manager expressing interest in a context.

context item
The item in a sequence that is currently being processed in an XQuery expression. See also context node, context position.

context line
In the Performance Toolbox, menu items ending in a slash and three dots (/...). The slash and three dots signify that the line itself represents a list at the next hierarchical level. See also statistic line.

context name
The name given to a context in a context profile used for WebSphere Voice Server.

context node
A context item that is a node. See also context item.

context organization
The organization that is being administered at a given point in time.

context position
The position of the context item within the sequence of items. See also context item.

context profile
Describes to the WebSphere Voice Server process which contexts should be loaded into an engine. A DirectTalk for Windows application specifies which context profiles to load into the engine it has reserved.

context propagation
In a multiple service transaction, the information about the details of a service request that passes from one invocation to another via the message header. See also context.

context root
The web application root, which is the top-level directory of an application when it is deployed to a web server.

context-scoped business object
A summary object or accumulating array object that is used to share data from events across events in a context.

context security
On z/OS, the authority checks that are performed when an application opens a queue and specifies that it will set the context in messages that it puts on the queue, or pass the context from messages that it has received to messages that it puts on the queue.

context-sensitive help
Help information about the specific choice or object that the cursor is on. The help is contextual because it provides information about the item in its current context. See also extended help.

context services
The z/OS system component that provides services used to track a work request and allow a resource manager to express interest in the work request.

context size
The number of items in the sequence of items that is currently being processed. See also focus.

context structure
An ordered group of variables specifying the interface properties (notably location) of a shadow widget.

context switch
The activation of a process or activity either in a separate unit of work from the requestor or with the transaction attributes specified on the DEFINE PROCESS or DEFINE ACTIVITY command, rather than with those of the requesting transaction. The relationship of the process or activity to the requestor is as between separate transactions, except that data can be passed between the two units of work. A context switch occurs when a process or activity is activated by a RUN command, but not when it is activated by a LINK command.

context token
A token that represents a work request's context.

context type
Indicates to the recognition engine how to interpret the grammar file. Possible types are: VOCAB_FILE, GRAMMAR_FILE, TEXT, MNR_FILE, MNR, PERSONAL_FILE, PERSONAL_WDS, BASEFORM_FILE.

contextual assistance
The type of user assistance that is readily accessible from the product and that provides information about the user interface element with which the user is interacting. A context-sensitive help system is one implementation of contextual assistance, but contextual assistance can be provided in a variety of ways. For example, contextual assistance includes hover help, field-level help, and other user interface topics.

context variable
One of a set of variables in an automation context.

contiguous item
In COBOL, an elementary or group item that is adjacent to another elementary or group item in the Data Division, contained in the same data hierarchy.

contiguous space
An unbroken consecutive series of storage locations.

contingency capacity
For thin-provisioned volumes that are configured to automatically expand, the unused real capacity that is maintained. For thin-provisioned volumes that are not configured to automatically expand, the difference between the used capacity and the new real capacity.

contingent allegiance
In mainframe computing, a relationship that is created in a control unit between a device and a channel when the channel accepts unit-check status. Contingent allegiance causes the control unit to guarantee access; that is, the control unit does not present the busy status to the device. It also enables the channel to retrieve sense data that is associated with the unit-check status on the channel path associated with the allegiance. See also implicit allegiance, reserved allegiance.

contingent resource
Monies or time placed in reserve to accommodate assessed project risks.

contingent staff
A temporary staff that supplements a company's workforce.

continuation character

  1. A character represented by a plus sign (+) that lets a command be extended to more than one line.
  2. In REXX, a character represented by a comma that lets a clause be extended to more than one line. This character is functionally replaced by a blank and cannot be used in the middle of a string or comment.

continuation handle
A value, which is passed between a high-level language program and a list application programming interface (API), used to mark the last value put in the user space.

continuation line

  1. In RPG, additional lines specified on the file description specifications to provide more information about the file being defined.
  2. In RLU, a report line or sample line that is part of a record format or a group of sample lines excluding the first line in the record format or group of sample lines.
  3. A line of a source statement where characters are entered when the source statement cannot be contained on the previous line or lines.
  4. An additional line (or lines) required to continue the coding of a CL command or a DDS keyword and its value.

continuation mode
In VTAM, the state of a conversation or session, which is either continue-any mode or continue-specific mode.

continuation processor
A set of ODF programs that search the DST for reports that are ready to print when the continuation/wait indicator for a distribution is C (continued) or the DRT status has been changed to continued by an initiate transaction from the RL panel.

continue-any mode
A state into which a session is placed that allows its input to satisfy a request issued in any-mode or specific mode. See also any-mode.

continued-entry field
In DDS, a panel element that contains a field that contains a set of associated entry fields.

continue-specific mode
A state into which a session is placed that allows its input to satisfy only requests issued in specific mode.

continue statement
A C language control statement that contains the keyword continue and a semicolon.

Continuous Association Rule Mining Algorithm (CARMA)
An association algorithm that extracts a set of rules from the data without requiring input or target fields to be specified. See also antecedent, consequent.

continuous code
In architecture, a bar code symbology characterized by designating all spaces within the symbol as parts of characters, for example, Interleaved 2 of 5. There is no intercharacter gap in a continuous code. See also discrete code.

Continuous Data Protection (CDP)
A tool that records all activity between snapshots, permitting the restoration of a system to a point in time.

continuous delivery (CD)
A software development practice that employs techniques such as continuous testing, continuous integration, and continuous deployment so that new features and fixes are packaged and deployed rapidly and at low risk to test environments and then to customers.

continuous-form media
In architecture, connected sheets; for example, sheets of paper connected by a perforated tear strip. See also cut-sheet media.

continuous forms
A series of connected forms that feed continuously through a printing device. The connection between the forms is perforated so that the user can tear them apart. Before printing, the forms are folded in a stack, with the folds along the perforations. See also cut form, cut-sheet paper.

continuous-forms paper
See continuous forms.

continuous-forms printer
A printer that requires continuous-forms paper. See also cut-sheet printer.

continuous-forms stacker (CFS)
In continuous-forms printers, an output assembly that refolds and stacks continuous forms after printing.

continuous integration (CI)
A software development practice where members of a team integrate their work frequently so that there are multiple integrations each day. Integrations are verified by an automated build to detect integration errors as quickly as possible.

continuously collected electronic presence
An attacker's online identity as a collection of digital impressions that are linked.

continuously powered main storage (CPM)
The function of supplying power only to main storage (cards) for a varied amount of time (for example, one day) when utility power is lost on systems that have a system power control network (SPCN).

continuous move
Two or more shipments that shippers string together to obtain a discount from a carrier. See also round trip.

continuous replenishment
A strategy of replenishment that monitors the physical inventory in the reserved location, and based on the minimum and maximum configuration, releases replenishment tasks for execution when inventory falls below the minimum (trigger) level.

continuous speech recognition
Recognition of words spoken in a continuous stream. Unlike isolated or discrete word recognition, users do not have to pause between words. See also discrete word recognition.

continuum of care
An integrated system of healthcare that guides and tracks patients over time through a comprehensive array of health services that spans all levels of intensity of care including wellness, episodic care, chronic care, care management, and end-of-life care.

A map of scheduled work and its distribution over time, for example, 4 hours per day, every second day for 2 weeks.

The process of mapping scheduled work over time. For example, work on a task might be scheduled for 4 hours per day, every second day for 2 weeks.


  1. In WebSphere Commerce, an agreement representing the terms and conditions that apply to a transaction.
  2. A legal document that is created based on the mutual understanding of the organization and the service provider for availing telecom services.
  3. The set of business policy assertions that have to be met by service provider at run time based on the context and content.
  4. A legal agreement between two parties. The common representation of an authored contract, filed contract, quote contract, or authored amendment contract. A contract begins as a draft version, and is either withdrawn or is executed. See also amendment contract, executed contract.
  5. A set of information about a software license for a product or products, its cost and entitlement period. When a contract is assigned to a computer group, it indicates which computers are entitled to the licenses described by that contract.
  6. An agreement that contains all of the essential pricing and rating information for a specific carrier. A shipper can define one or more contracts for each carrier.

contract category
The classification of a contract. A contract may be a purchase agreement, sales agreement, or other.

contract class
A defined contract and contract template classification for purposes of information, categorization, and search.

contract contact
An individual who represents a party associated with the contract for purposes of contract approval management, contract presentation, and contract execution.

contracted component
In the Integration Flow Designer, a component that does not display the sources and targets associated with it. See also expanded component.

contract editor
A place to view and edit the components of the contract including parties, language, terms, lines, security, and approvals.

contract event
A generic occasion of significance that occurs within a contract and that can be identified. It can be based on a contract date or other dates. See also notification.

contract folder
A user-defined, hierarchical categorization of contracts within the repository. A contract folder may be personal or shared and may be assigned to zero or many folders.

contracting conversion
A process that occurs when the length of a converted string is smaller than that of the source string. See also expanding conversion.

contracting organization
The internal organization that manages the collaboration and negotiation process.

A form of compounding that can occur either by cliticization or by phonological contraction. For example, 'ain't' is a contraction of 'is not'.

contract lane
See lane.

contract language
The language of a contract which consists of various clauses, terms, and lines.

contract line
A line item that is applied to an executed contract.

contract lock holder
The first user to open a contract, thereby locking it and preventing other users from making changes.

contract nature
The classification of a contract as null, local, or global.

contract notice
A call for requests from prospective suppliers or service providers, to submit tenders for a procurement activity that the contracting authority is interested in.

contractor classification
A division or grouping of contractors based on location.

contract presenter
The internal user who last presented an authored contract or authored amendment contract to an external party.

contract template
The basis for an authored contract or authored amendment. It may contain contract clauses, contract folders, events, security lists, terms, a contract class, a contract category, line definitions, approvals list, and other information. See also template.

contributing test
A test that examines the risk indicators that are specified in a question.


  1. Data that is entered into an e.List in the Contributor application.
  2. The primary asset that can contain Service Component Definition Language (SCDL) with composite definitions, as well as artifacts such as Java classes and Web Services Description Language (WSDL) and XML Schema Definitions (XSD).

contribution calculation
The ability to view a financial amount contributed from the top level in a company hierarchy.

contribution version
A summary of preferred automatic journal types that is used in reports.

A designated user who can process an assigned change request and take it to completion. Once the contributors complete the change requests, they move them to a completed status.

Contributor Administration Console
A tool that enables administrators to publish an Analyst business model to the Web, manage access settings and model distribution, and configure the user's view of the model.


  1. In WebSphere MQ and VisualAge RPG, the result of selecting a part from the parts palette and placing it on the design window. An example of a control is an entry field.
  2. See widget.
  3. A component of a graphic interface that allows a user to select choices or type information. For example, list boxes, check boxes, push buttons, and entry fields.

control access
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Cell Directory Service (CDS), an access right that grants users the ability to change the access control on a name and to perform other management tasks, such as replicate a directory or move a clearinghouse. See also clearinghouse.

control analysis
A type of analysis that displays variations in values of the business measures over a specific period of time. This type of analysis reduces data variation, and is often used for quality control. Allowable variation is three times the standard deviation of the data.

control area (CA)

  1. In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a group of control intervals used as a unit for formatting a data set before adding records to it. In a key-sequenced data set (KSDS), each CA is pointed to by a sequence-set index record, and used by VSAM for distributing free space and for placing a sequence-set index record adjacent to its data. See also control block.
  2. See control block.

control argument type
An option that can be configured for the check box, the drop-down list, and radio input control UDF type.

control block

  1. A storage area used by a program to hold control information.
  2. In CICS, a storage area used to hold dynamic data during the execution of control programs and application programs. See also control area, control table.
  3. In the IBM Token-Ring Network, a specifically formatted block of information provided from the application program to the Adapter Support Interface to request an operation.

control blocks in common (CBIC)
A facility with which a user can open a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set so that the VSAM control blocks are placed in the common service area (CSA) of the MVS operating system. CBIC provides the capability for multiple memory accesses to a single, VSAM, control structure for the same VSAM data set.

control boundary
A call stack entry used as the point to which control is transferred when an unmonitored error occurs or a high-level language termination verb is used. A control boundary can be either of the following: a) any Integrated Language Environment (ILE) call stack entry for which the immediately preceding call stack entry is in a different activation group, or b) any ILE call stack entry for which the immediately preceding call stack entry is an original program model (OPM) program.

control break
In RPG, a change in the contents of a control field that indicates all records from a particular control group were read and a new control group is starting.

control character

  1. A character whose occurrence in a particular context initiates, modifies, or stops a control function. See also carriage control character.
  2. A character that by itself or as the start of a sequence is a representation of a control function in a particular context. The coded representation of a control character consists of a single bit combination.

control command

  1. In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems and WebSphere MQ for Windows, a command that can be entered interactively from the operating system command line. Such a command requires only that the WebSphere MQ product be installed; it does not require a special utility or program to run it.
  2. A command that allows conditional or looping logic flow in shell procedures.

control cube
A cube that contains the structural information used to combine multiple time-segmented PowerCubes into a time-based partitioned cube.

control database
In Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse, the component that contains the metadata that describes the data in the warehouse, including the source of the data, how the data was transformed before being placed in the warehouse, when the data was collected, and the formats used to publish the data (for example, the star schemas used to create Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse data marts).

control data set (CDS)
A data set containing configurational, operational, and communication information. The z/OS storage management subsystem (SMS), DFSMSrmm, and DFSMShsm use control data sets. See also active control data set, backup control data set, communications data set, migration control data set, offline control data set, source control data set.

control data set ID
In DFSMSrmm, a 1 - 8 character identifier for the DFSMSrmm control data set (CDS) used to ensure that, in a multi-system, multi-complex environment, the correct management functions are performed.

control data structures
Data structures needed to manage file data and metadata cached in memory. Control data structures include hash tables and link pointers for finding cached data; lock states and tokens to implement distributed locking; and various flags and sequence numbers to monitor updates to the cached data.

control desk
The Tivoli NetView interface that enables the network operator to group application instances.

control enclosure
A hardware unit that includes the enclosure chassis, node canisters, drives, and system function.

control field

  1. In AFP Utilities, an input field on the screen view that is used to move the image area up, down, left, or right.
  2. In Application Development ToolSet, one or more specified fields that are compared to determine the record sequence in the output file.
  3. In RPG, one or more fields that are compared from record to record to determine when the information in the fields changes. When the information changes, the control level indicator (L1 through L9) assigned to a control field is set on.
  4. In data communications, a field within a frame that contains the commands, responses, sequence numbers, and poll or final bit for data link control.

control file

  1. An automatically generated file that records process specifications and the success or failure of processing.
  2. A file that is used to specify additional options that the command line does not support.
  3. In DFSMShsm aggregate backup and recovery processing, one of three aggregate files generated by the aggregate backup process. It contains the catalog, allocation, volume, and related information necessary to perform aggregate recovery.

control flow

  1. In DB2 data warehousing, a graphical model that sequences data flows and mining flows, integrates external commands, programs, and stored procedures, and provides conditional processing logic for a data warehouse application.
  2. Transmission of control indicators over a link when there is no user data available to send. This is often necessary during complex procedures, such as establishing synchronization points.

control function

  1. In TELNET, the standard representation for interconnection functions. The i5/OS implementation of these functions includes IP, AO, AYT, and SYNCH.
  2. A command to a processing component represented by a single bit combination (a control character) or a sequence starting with a control character followed by the parameter values for the command. Some examples of such functions are: Horizontal Tabulation, nul-terminated text strings in C, End of File, or ESCape sequence indicating change in Colour for the following text.
  3. A function that identifies how tasks are managed and how resources are allocated by defining default options once.
  4. An element of a character set that affects the recording, processing, transmission, or interpretation of data, and that has a coded representation of one or more bit combinations (see ISO/IEC 6429).

control group
In Backup, Recovery, and Media Services, a group of libraries, special values, special operations, and lists that share common characteristics and are processed together due to their similar process cycles. The control groups used are backup control groups and archive control groups.

control initiate (CINIT)
A network services request sent from a system services control point (SSCP) to a logical unit (LU) asking that LU to establish a session with another LU and to act as the primary end of the session.

control instruction
In architecture, a data construct transmitted from the controlling environment and interpreted by the environment interface to control the operation of the graphics processor.

control interval (CI)

  1. A fixed-length area of direct access storage in which VSAM stores records and creates distributed free space. The control interval is the unit of information that VSAM transmits to or from direct-access storage. A control interval always includes an integral number of physical records.
  2. In a key-sequenced data set or file, the set of records that an entry in the sequence-set index record points to.

control interval definition field (CIDF)
In VSAM, a field located in the 4 bytes at the end of each control interval; it describes the free space, if any, in the control interval. See also record definition field.

control interval update sequence number (CUSN)
An indicator used in a data-sharing environment to determine which sharing partner last read a control interval (CI). IMS compares the value of the CUSN for each CI to determine whether a CI should be updated during area restart or recovery.

control key

  1. A key combination, made by pressing the Ctrl key followed by another key on the keyboard, that performs a function or makes a special character.
  2. The keyboard key labeled Ctrl.

control language (CL)
The set of all commands with which a user requests system functions.

control language module (CL module)
A module object (*MODULE) that results from compiling a CL source program using the Integrated Language Environment (ILE) CL compiler.

control language procedure (CL procedure)
The single Integrated Language Environment (ILE) procedure that is contained within a CL module. A CL procedure can be called by other ILE procedures when the CL module is bound with other ILE modules to create a program object (*PGM) or service program object (*SRVPGM).

control language program (CL program)
A program that is created from source statements consisting entirely of control language commands.

control language source program
A set of control language (CL) source statements that can be compiled into either an original program model (OPM) program or an Integrated Language Environment (ILE) module.

control language variable (CL variable)
A program variable that is declared in a control language program and is available only to the CL program.

controlled-access area
An area where access is limited to authorized personnel.

controlled flow
A flow that proceeds from one flow object to another through a sequence flow link but is subject to either conditions or dependencies from another flow as defined by a gateway. Typically, a controlled flow is a sequence flow between two activities, with a conditional indicator or a sequence flow that is connected to a gateway.

controlled load service
In QoS, a level of service that supports the class of applications that are highly sensitive to overloaded networks. This service emulates a lightly loaded network in congested environments. For example, audio and videoconferencing would work well using controlled load service.

controlled program
A RACF function with which an installation can control who can run RACF-controlled programs. See also dirty address space.

controlled repetitive loop
In REXX, a repetitive DO loop in which the repetitive phrase specifies a control variable. The variable is given an initial value before the first run of the instruction list and is then stepped (by adding the result of an optional expression) before the second and subsequent times that the instruction list is run.

controlled shutdown
See quiesced shutdown.

controlled vocabulary
A standardized list of terms that are used when assigning classification metadata to a topic.

controlled white space
In architecture, white space caused by execution of a control sequence.


  1. In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, the component that runs on the controlling system and contains the tasks that manage the plans and databases.
  2. See node canister.
  3. A component or a set of virtual storage processes that schedules or manages shared resources.
  4. See control unit.
  5. The functional component responsible for resource management (load balancing and admission control). The controller communicates with one or more data pumps to initiate and terminate connections to clients.
  6. A device that coordinates and controls the operation of one or more input/output devices (such as workstations) and synchronizes the operation of such devices with the operation of the system as a whole.

controller card
A generic term for any of the I/O controller logic cards, such as storage device controller, work station controller, or communications controller.

controller command
A command that interacts with a web controller directly. On completion, a controller command returns the name of a view task to be executed. The web controller determines the correct implementation class of the view command and then invokes it. See also task command.

controller configuration
The process of creating configuration descriptions for the local (device configuration) and remote (communications configuration) controllers that make up a data processing system.

controller description (CTLD)
An object that contains a description of the characteristics of a controller that is either directly attached to the system or attached to a communications line. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CTLD.

controller unit
See control enclosure.

control-level indicator
In RPG, an indicator (L1 through L9) used to specify certain fields as control fields and to control the operations that are performed at total and detail time in the RPG program cycle.

controlling application program
In VTAM, an application program with which a secondary logical unit (other than an application program) is automatically put in session whenever the secondary logical unit is available. See also controlling logical unit.

controlling area
A team area that controls access to a configuration of artifacts.

controlling block task
The outermost block that controls a transaction for a task and all nested tasks, regardless of how the nested tasks are configured.

controlling computer
In printing, the processing unit to which the printer is attached through a channel interface or a communication attachment.

controlling computer system
In printing, the data-processing system to which a network is connected and with which the system can communicate.

controlling environment
In architecture, the environment in which an object is embedded, for example, the IPDS and MO:DCA data streams.

controlling item
A chart item whose position on the chart is defined by its date and time, and whose position affects the positions of other timed items. See also free item, ordered item.

controlling logical unit
In VTAM, a logical unit with which a secondary logical unit (other than an application program) is automatically put in session whenever the secondary logical unit is available. A controlling logical unit can be either an application program or a device-type logical unit. See also automatic logon, control logical unit, controlling application program.

controlling process
A session leader that has control of a terminal.

controlling subsystem
The interactive subsystem that is automatically started first when the system is started and through which the system operator controls the system.

controlling system
The system that the controller runs on.

controlling terminal
The active workstation from which the process group for that process was started. Each session may have at most one controlling terminal associated with it, and a controlling terminal is associated with exactly one session.

control link
An object in a process that links nodes and determines the order in which they run.

control logical unit (CLU)
A logical unit that resides in a Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) type 2.1 node and that is used to pass private protocol request units between this TPF type 2.1 node and the logon manager (a VTAM application program). The communication flow between the control logical unit and the logon manager enables a logical unit controlled by VTAM to establish a session with TPF. See also controlling logical unit.

control menu
See system menu.

control message

  1. In Internet communications, a message that governs the aspects of a tunnel and sessions within a tunnel.
  2. In Q replication, a message from a Q Apply program or a user application that requests a Q Capture program to activate or deactivate a Q subscription or a publication, invalidate a send queue, or confirm that a target table has been loaded.

control message interface (CMI)
A set of control signals that are used to pass hardware-level messages between ports.

control number
An incrementing number in an EDI envelope.

control object
Any object used to store system information statistics including system performance.

control on servers
A setting that prevents Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS from starting more operations at the workstation than there are available servers.

control operation
An action that affects the recording, processing, transmission, or interpretation of data; for example, starting or stopping a process, carriage return, font change, rewind and end of transmission. (I) (A)

control operator

  1. For logical unit (LU) 6.2, a service transaction program that describes and controls the availability of certain resources. For example, it describes network resources accessed by the local LU, and it controls session limits between the LU and its partners. See also contention.
  2. A token that performs a control function such as the symbols ().

control palette
The area at the top of the application window containing a search field and a set of buttons.

control panel
A panel that contains lights and switches that are used to observe status and to operate or service the system.

control point

  1. In computer graphics, a point in real space that controls the shape of a spline curve. The system provides hardware support for wire frame rational cubic splines, and for NURBS surfaces, the specifications of which require four control points.
  2. In APPN, a component of a node that manages resources of that node and optionally provides services to other nodes in the network. Examples are a system services control point (SSCP) in a type 5 node, a physical unit control point (PUCP) in a type 4 node, a network node control point (NNCP) in a type 2.1 (T2.1) network node, and an end node control point (ENCP) in a T2.1 end node. See also physical unit.

control point control block operation code (CPCB operation code)
Indicates the type of VTAM process that is represented by the work element.

control point management services (CPMS)
A component of a control point, consisting of management services function sets, that provides facilities to assist in performing problem management, performance and accounting management, change management, and configuration management.

control point management services unit (CP-MSU)
The message unit that contains management services data and flows between management services function sets. This message unit is in general data stream (GDS) format. See also management services unit, multiple-domain support message unit, network management vector transport.

control point server (CP-SVR)
The pair of conversations that are used to transmit encapsulated SNA.

CONTROL privilege
The authority to completely control an object, which includes the authority to access, drop, or alter an object and the authority to extend privileges on the object to other users or to revoke their privileges on the object.

control program (CP)
A routine, usually part of an operating system, that aids in controlling the operations and managing the resources of a computer system.

control record

  1. A checkpoint record containing data used to initiate, modify, or stop a control operation or determine the manner in which data are processed.
  2. In AFP, a subset of structured fields that can be intermixed with line data records in a print data set.

control region
The MVS main storage region that contains the IMS control program.

control region adjunct
A servant that interfaces with service integration buses to provide messaging services.

control report
A document that contains information that tracks EDI throughout its lifecycle.

control section (CSECT)
The part of a program specified by the programmer to be a relocatable unit, all elements of which are to be loaded into adjoining main storage locations.

control sequence
A sequence of bytes that specifies a control function. A control sequence consists of a control sequence introducer and zero or more parameters.

control sequence chaining
In architecture, a method used to identify a sequential string of control sequences so they can be processed efficiently. See also spanning, text control chaining.

control sequence class
In architecture, an assigned coded character that identifies a control sequence's syntax and how that syntax is to be interpreted. An example of a control sequence class is X'D3', which identifies presentation text object control sequences.

control sequence function type
In architecture, the coded character occupying the fourth byte of an unchained control sequence introducer. This code defines the function whose semantics can be prescribed by succeeding control sequence parameters.

control sequence introducer
In architecture, the information at the beginning of a control sequence. An unchained control sequence introducer consists of a control sequence prefix, a class, a length, and a function type. A chained control sequence introducer consists of a length and a function type.

control sequence length
In architecture, the number of bytes used to encode a control sequence excluding the control sequence prefix and class.

control sequence prefix
In architecture, the escape character used to identify a control sequence. The control sequence prefix is the first byte of a control sequence, for example, X'2B'.

control server

  1. In SQL replication, a database server that contains replication control tables for the Capture program, Apply program, or Replication Alert Monitor. See also Apply control server, Apply server, Monitor control server, Q Capture server.
  2. In database replication, the database location of the applicable subscription definitions and Apply program control tables.

control specification
In RPG, a specification that provides information about program generation.

control state
A state that represents the current Network Installation Management (NIM) operation being performed on a machine. This state is one of two machine states.

control statement

  1. A statement placed into an input stream to identify special processing options for jobs
  2. In programming languages, a statement that is used to interrupt the continuous sequential processing of programming statements. Conditional statements such as IF, PAUSE, and STOP are examples of control statements.
  3. In RPG, an entry on a control specification.

control station
The controlling or primary computer on a multipoint line. The control station controls the sending and receiving of data.

control storage

  1. Printer storage in which data can be entered, held, and retrieved. Control storage contains microcode instructions and other control information; for example, the print buffer.
  2. High-speed memory, containing microcode, that can be implemented as read only or direct access.
  3. Computer storage that contains the programs used to control input and output operations and the use of main storage.

control structure
A statement block in the policy that is executed when the terms of the control condition are satisfied.

control subpool
A CICS area that holds the dispatch control area (DCA), interval control elements (ICEs), automatic initiate descriptors (AIDs), queue element areas (QEAs), and other control information. Generally, the control subpool occupies only one page.

control table

  1. In CICS, a storage area used to define or describe the configuration or operation of the system. See also control block.
  2. A pre-defined table used by automatic journals to eliminate acquisitions, intercompany balances and intercompany profit.

control unit (CU)

  1. A device that coordinates and controls the operation of one or more input/output devices, and synchronizes the operation of such devices with the operation of the system as a whole.
  2. In printers, the electronics and code that control the printer and the communication attachment.

control unit address
The high order bits of the storage control address, which are used to identify the storage control to the host system.

control unit and unit address
A form of addressing for System z devices using device numbers.

control-unit image
In mainframe computing, a logical subsystem that is accessed through an ESCON or FICON I/O interface. One or more control-unit images exist in each control unit. Each image appears as an independent control unit, but all control-unit images share a common set of hardware facilities.

control-unit initiated reconfiguration

  1. An automation of the process used by service representatives to vary off and vary on subsystem resources for maintenance.
  2. A software mechanism that the ESS uses to request that an operating system of a zSeries or S/390 host verify that one or more subsystem resources can be taken offline for service. The ESS can use this process to automatically vary channel paths offline and online to facilitate bay service or concurrent code installation. Depending on the operating system, support for this process might be model-dependent, might depend on the IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server Subsystem Device Driver, or might not exist.

control unit terminal mode (CUT mode)
An IBM protocol used for communications with an IBM 3174 or 3274 Control Unit or other appropriate interface unit. In this protocol, a program in the workstation emulates a 3278 or 3879 terminal for a user at a virtual terminal, and the interface unit is responsible for enforcing the protocol. See also distributed function terminal.

control vector
One of a general class of RU substructures that has variable length, is carried within some enclosing structure, and has a one-byte key used as an identifier.

control word

  1. All control fields used to sort or merge a particular group of records. The major field appears first and other fields follow in descending order of importance.
  2. An instruction within a document that identifies its parts or indicates how to format the document.

control word line
An input line that contains at least one control word.

control word statement
In DCF, a control word and its parameters.

control workstation
A single point of control with which the administrator or operator can monitor and manage a system.

convenience function
A function that performs a frequently needed series of tasks automatically to create or manage widgets or other code structures. Convenience functions are included in the AIXwindows Toolkit.

convenience input
The process of adding a small number of cartridges to an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) without interrupting automated operations. The cartridges are added by inserting them directly into cells in a convenience input station.

convenience input/output station
A transfer station with combined tape-cartridge input and output functions in the IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Automated Tape Library 3494 only.

convenience input station
A transfer station, accessible from outside the enclosure, that is used by the operator to add tape cartridges to an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS).

convenience method
A method that simplifies the use of another, more complicated method by providing a simpler signature and by using default arguments where the client supplies no arguments.

convenience output
The process of removing a small number of cartridges from the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS) without interrupting automated operation.

convenience output station
A transfer station, accessible from outside the enclosure area, which is used by the operator to remove tape cartridges from the Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS).

convenience station
The part of the tape library that is used to load and unload small numbers of cartridges into the tape library.

conventional memory
Personal computer memory that is addressed by DOS from 0 KB to 640 KB. See also expanded memory.

converged keyboard
See 1A keyboard.

converged service processor
A common card in both System i and RS/6000 systems. The primary function of a converged service processor is to start the system and diagnose hardware failures.


  1. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the degree to which the Cell Directory Service (CDS) attempts to keep all replicas of a directory consistent.
  2. The idea that all platforms are merging into a single presence. The implication of convergence on the software industry is an increased importance on aligning and enforcing consistency across product UIs, devices, and deployments.
  3. In an algorithm, the process of repeated iterations moving closer and closer to an optimal feasible solution, as opposed to sometimes moving closer and sometimes moving further away.

convergence level
The level at which two or more alternate drill-down paths meet.


  1. A dialog between a terminal and a message processing program using IMS conversational processing facilities. Also, a dialog between an LU 6.2 program and an IMS application program. A conversation between a terminal and a message processing program is significant status that is kept in RM, if RM is used. Status for a held conversation is not kept in RM. The IMS conversation is represented by a CCB. See also conversational processing.
  2. A connection between two programs over a session that allows them to communicate with each other while processing a transaction. See also session, SQL processing conversation, transaction.
  3. Interaction between a computer and a user.
  4. A forensically reconstructed flow of data between two or more network endpoints. For example, a social network conversation.
  5. A series of related messages between client and server components of a system, such as the request/response exchange between a browser and a server.
  6. See speech recognition session.


  1. Pertaining to a program or a system that conducts a dialog with a terminal user, alternately receiving and transmitting data.
  2. Pertaining to an SNA conversation or a dialog between two programs.

Conversational Monitor System (CMS)
A virtual-machine operating system that provides general interactive time sharing, problem solving, and program development capabilities.

conversational processing
An optional IMS facility with which an application program can accumulate information acquired through multiple interchanges with a terminal, even if the program stops between interchanges. See also conversation, IMS conversation.

conversational state
The field values of a session bean plus the transitive closure of the objects reachable from the bean's fields. The transitive closure of a bean is defined in terms of the serialization protocol for the Java programming language, that is, the fields that would be stored by serializing the bean instance. (Sun)

conversational transaction
In APPC, two or more programs communicating using the services of logical units (LUs).

conversation characteristic
In distributed transaction processing, one of the attributes of a conversation that determine the functions and capabilities of programs within the conversation.

conversation control block (CCB)
An IMS control block that represents a conversation between a terminal and an application program.

conversation correlator
In LU6.2 distributed transaction processing, a field passed in the attach header when the conversation is initiated.

conversation data block (CDB)
An area used by a program to obtain information about the outcome of a DTP command on an APPC basic (GDS) conversation.

conversation group ID
An identifier that represents a specific session between two specific LUs.

conversation identifier
A value used to identify the conversation.

conversation key
See session key.

conversation-level security
See end-user verification.

conversation security
In APPC, a process that allows validation of a user identifier or group identifier and password before establishing a connection.

conversation state
The condition of a conversation, such as send or receive state. The conversation state reflects the actions that have been taken pertinent to that conversation and determines what the next set of actions may be.


  1. In programming languages, the transformation between values that represent the same data item but belong to different data types. Information may be lost because of conversion since accuracy of data representation varies among different data types.
  2. In DFSMSrmm, the process of moving removable-media-library inventory from another media management system to DFSMSrmm. DFSMSrmm manages the inventory and policies after conversion.
  3. The process of changing from one form of representation to another. Changing a code point that is assigned to a character in one code page to its corresponding code point in another code page is an example of conversion.
  4. The process of replacing a code point that is assigned to a character in one code with its corresponding code point assigned in another code.

conversion code
In a print function call, a specification of the type of the value, as the value is to be printed (in octal format, for example).

conversion event
A non-monetary action that a visitor can accomplish such as downloads, registrations, sign-ups, and store locator views. A conversion event is a non-commerce business objective.

conversion function
A C++ member function that specifies a conversion from its class type to another type.

conversion mapping
An entry in a mapping table which allows you to map identifiers to accounts or other identifiers.

conversion method
An algorithm used during conversion. It includes the necessary logic to separate the input code point string into appropriate substrings, converting the substrings and assembling the resultant substrings, for a particular set of criteria to be used during conversion. A conversion method may use associated conversion tables as resources during the conversion.

conversion mode (CM, CM*)
The first stage of the version-to-version migration process. In a DB2 data sharing group, members in conversion mode can coexist with members that are still at the prior version level. Fallback to the prior version is also supported. When in conversion mode, the DB2 subsystem cannot use most new functions of the new version. See also conversion mode*, enabling-new-function mode, enabling-new-function mode*, new function mode.

conversion mode* (CM*)
A stage of the version-to-version migration process that applies to a DB2 subsystem or data sharing group that was in enabling-new-function mode (ENFM), enabling-new-function mode* (ENFM*), or new-function mode (NFM) at one time. Fallback to a prior version is not supported. When in conversion mode*, a DB2 data sharing group cannot coexist with members that are still at the prior version level. See also conversion mode, enabling-new-function mode, enabling-new-function mode*, new function mode.

conversion rate
The rate at which customers respond to cues provided by a website towards a specific desired action.

conversion specification
In a print function call, a specification of how the system is to place the value of zero or more format parameters in the output stream. Each conversion specification contains a % (percent) symbol that is followed by conversion modifiers and a conversion code.

conversion table

  1. A resource used with a conversion method to perform conversion. Typically, a conversion table contains a set of input code point values corresponding to a given set of output code point values. Its structure and contents are designed to suit the conversion algorithm with which it is to be used.
  2. A table that contains a set of characters that can be replaced with alternative characters.
  3. An object that contains a set of hexadecimal characters used to convert one or more characters of data. The table can be used for the conversion of data being moved between the system and a device. For example, data stored in one coded character set may need to be displayed or entered on display devices that support a different coded character set. The table can also be used to specify an alternative collating sequence or field conversion functions. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *TBL.

conversion template table
A CICS table containing entries that identify how data is to be converted when transported to or from a remote system.

converted command
An intermediate form of a character-coded command that is produced by VTAM through use of an unformatted system services definition table. The format of a converted command is fixed; the unformatted system services definition table must be constructed in such a manner that the character-coded command (as entered by a logical unit) is converted into the predefined, converted command format. See also unformatted.

converted journal entry
The version of a journal entry that can be displayed, printed, or written to a database output file.


  1. In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, a class that translates a database representation to an object type and back.
  2. A device that converts data from one form to another without altering the underlying information.

converter/interpreter processing
The system function that converts and interprets job control language (JCL) for z/OS.

convert in place
See in-place conversion.

Pertaining to a set of points in which every possible line between any two points in the set contains only points that are also in the set. See also convex hull.

convex hull
The minimal set of points that is both convex and fully contains the original set of points. See also convex.

A mechanism used to transport products by means of a flat belt that moves over two end pulleys that are powered.

Information that a server stores on a client machine and accesses during subsequent sessions. Cookies allow servers to retrieve specific information about clients.

cookie ID
See cookie identifier.

cookie identifier (cookie ID)
A unique identifier assigned to a cookie discovered during a scan.

cookie poisoning
A technique used for conducting identity theft or session hijacking. By manipulating the information stored in a browser cookie, hackers assume the user’s identity and have access to that user’s information for malicious purposes.

cooperative application
In the Systems Application Architecture (SAA) environment, a type of distributed application in which the user interface portion of the application runs on a programmable work station while some or all of the remaining code runs on one or more linked systems.

CoOperative Development Environment/400
A feature of the WebSphere Development Studio Client licensed program that provides System i application development and maintenance tools for editing, compiling, and debugging third-generation programming languages.

cooperative portlets
Two or more portlets on the same web page that interact by sharing information. See also Click-to-Action, property broker, wire.

cooperative processing
Distributed processing in which processors, typically a programmable workstation and a host computer, accomplish the work of an application by means of coordinated or synchronized use of processing functions and system resources.


  1. A member of an ordered set of N numbers that identifies a position in N-dimensional space. For example, in a two-dimensional map of the Earth, a position can be referenced by two coordinates. The first coordinate identifies the latitude value of the position, and the second coordinate identifies the longitude value of the position.
  2. In architecture, one of a pair of values that specify a position in a coordinate space.
  3. To bring into a common action, movement, or condition.

coordinated data mart
A data mart that shares its dimensions with many other data marts.

coordinated online change
See global online change.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
The international standard of time that is kept by atomic clocks around the world.

coordinate graphic
A computer graphic generated from display commands and coordinate data. See also graphic, raster graphic.

coordinate system

  1. In Advanced Function Presentation (AFP), a Cartesian coordinate system. An example is the image coordinate system that uses the fourth quadrant with positive values for the Y-axis. The origin is the upper-left corner of the fourth quadrant. A pair of (x,y) values corresponds to one image point. Each image point is described by an image data element.
  2. A reference framework that is used to define the positions of points in space in two or three dimensions.
  3. A given convention for locating pixels on a given display or window, where, in AIXwindows, X is the horizontal axis and Y is the vertical axis. The origin is [0,0] at the upper-left or lower-left corner, depending on the convention in use. For a window, the origin is at the upper left or lower left (depending on the convention in use), inside the border. Coordinates are discrete and specified in pixels. Each window and pixmap has its own coordinate system.

coordinating agent
The agent that is directly responsible for processing requests from and responding to an application. If the connection concentrator is not used, the agent remains associated with the application during the life of the application and initiates subagents that work for the application. See also subagent.

coordinating server
In a query that spans multiple database servers, the server in which the query is initiated. To respond to the query, the coordinating server starts sessions on the other servers involved in the query. See also distributed query, remote table, subordinate server.


  1. In a multi-MVS configuration, a region that receives requests from master regions to initiate a takeover. It then instructs all the alternate regions to take over. See also master, subordinate.
  2. A user role that is responsible for managing one or more criteria of the scorecard and assigning corresponding evaluators to the scorecard.
  3. The system component that coordinates the commit or rollback of a unit of work that includes work that is done on one or more other systems.

coordinator agent
The agent responsible for accepting and processing application requests on a database connection or an instance attachment.

coordinator controller (CCTL)
A z/OS subsystem that consists of the database resource adapter (DRA) and a transaction management subsystem, such as CICS.

coordinator control subsystem (CCTL)
In IMS, the transaction management subsystem that communicates with the DRA, which in turn communicates with DBCTL. In a CICS-DBCTL environment, the CCTL is CICS. The term is used in a number of IMS operator commands that apply to DBCTL, and in the IMS manuals.

coordinator node
See coordinator partition.

coordinator partition
The database partition server to which the application originally connected and on which the coordinating agent is located.

coordinator subsection
The subsection of an application that starts other subsections (if any) and returns results to the application.

coordinator system
In a RACF data sharing group, the system on which the system operator or administrator enters a RACF command that is propagated throughout the group. See also peer system.

The secondary owner of an opportunity.


  1. A supplementary processor that performs operations in conjunction with another processor.
  2. In personal computers, a microprocessor on an expansion board that extends the address range of the processor in the system unit or adds specialized instructions to handle a particular category of operations.


  1. A product of a document copying process.
  2. To read data from a source, leaving the source data unchanged, and to write the same data elsewhere.

copy backup
A full backup in which the transaction log files are not deleted so that backup procedures that use incremental or differential backups are not disrupted.


  1. In Enterprise Service Tools, a COBOL header file that describes all the columns in an underlying data file.
  2. A piece of source code that is designed to be copied into many source programs.

copy constructor
A C++ constructor used to make a copy of a class object from another class object of the same class type.

copy control
Those functions that determine the number of copies to be printed for each sheet of paper and print job, and which copies will have copy modification.

copy counter
In architecture, bytes in an Acknowledge Reply that identify the number of copies of a page that have passed a particular point in the logical paper path.

copy group

  1. An internal object in a form definition or a print data set that controls such items as modifications to a form, page placement, and overlays.
  2. One or more copies of a sheet of paper or form. Each copy can have modifications, such as text suppression, page position, forms flash, overlays, paper-source, and duplex printing.
  3. A policy object containing attributes that control how backup versions or archive copies are generated, where backup versions or archive copies are initially located, and when backup versions or archive copies expire. A copy group belongs to a management class. See also archive copy group, backup copy group, backup version, management class.
  4. See medium map.

copy helper
An access bean that contains a local copy of attributes from a remote entity bean. Unlike bean wrappers, copy helpers are optimized for use with a single instance of an entity bean.

copy modification
The process of adding, deleting, or replacing data on selected copies of either a presentation space or certain pages of a print job.

copy modification segment
In the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, the portion of copy change that has the six control bytes and a maximum of 204 text bytes. When transferred to a printer, these bytes alter specific copies of a data set.

An option that creates a mapped file with changes that are saved in the system paging space, instead of saving the changes to the copy of the file on the disk.

copy pool
A collection of names of storage groups that are processed collectively for fast replication operations.

copy proposed to plan
In Rational Portfolio Manager, the act of moving a project from a planning stage into a scheduled, executable state.

copy separation
The method or printer mechanism for distinguishing consecutive copies of a single data set or print file. In the continuous-forms stacker, the method consists of the alternation between one, two, or three vertical bars placed on the left carrier strip between forms. In the burster-trimmer-stacker or for cut-sheet paper, the mechanism consists of offset stacking.

copy service
A data management service that extracts data described in a source data access model and inserts it into a destination data access model.

Copy Services CLI
See Copy Services command-line interface.

Copy Services client
Software that runs on each ESS cluster (or, optionally, in an external cluster) in the Copy Services server group and that performs the following functions: communicates configuration, status, and connectivity information to the Copy Services server; and performs data-copy functions on behalf of the Copy Services server. See also backup Copy Services server, primary Copy Services server.

Copy Services command-line interface (Copy Services CLI)
Software that invokes ESS Copy Services functions from the command-line interface (CLI) of hosts that are attached to the ESS. See also command-line interface.

Copy Services domain
See Copy Services server group.

Copy Services server
An ESS cluster (or, optionally, in an external cluster) designated by the copy services administrator to perform the ESS Copy Services functions. See also backup Copy Services server, primary Copy Services server.

Copy Services server group
A collection of user-designated ESS clusters participating in Copy Services functions managed by a designated, active, Copy Services server. See also backup Copy Services server, primary Copy Services server.

copy set
The set of source volumes or target volumes involved in a FlashCopy operation.

copy storage pool
A named set of volumes that contain copies of files that reside in primary storage pools. Copy storage pools are used only to back up the data that is stored in primary storage pools. A copy storage pool cannot be a destination for a backup copy group, an archive copy group, or a management class (for space-managed files). See also destination, primary storage pool, server storage, storage pool, storage pool volume.

copy subgroup
In architecture, a part of a copy group that specifies a number of identical copies of a sheet and all modifications to those copies. Modifications include the media source, medium overlays to be presented on the sheet, text suppressions, the number of pages on the sheet, and either simplex or duplex presentation.

copy table
A table used to copy period values from one account to another in the same period and for the same company.

copy target
A named set of SMS storage groups that are to be used as containers for copy pool volume copies. A copy target is an SMS construct that lets you define which storage groups are to be used as containers for volumes that are copied by using FlashCopy functions.

copy version
A point-in-time FlashCopy copy that is managed by hierarchical storage management (HSM.) Each copy pool has a version parameter that specifies the number of copy versions to be maintained on disk.

See confirmation of receipt.

See Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

CORBA Object Services Naming Directory (COS Naming Directory)
A server that supports the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI).

A single chip that houses a central processing unit (CPU) and is a component in the larger circuit design of a computer. A single chip can only contain one CPU, but a processor can contain multiple cores. See also dual-core, multi-core, processor value unit.

In AIXwindows, the top-level superclass from which all widgets and gadgets are derived. Core consists of three subclasses (Object, RectObject, and WindowObj) that collectively provide the appearance resources and behavioral resources required by all widgets and gadgets in the AIXwindows toolkit.

core attribute
A data attribute that is associated with a given item in the Global Registry.

core attribute collection
A system-defined attribute collection that groups all mandatory, primary key, or path attributes for a given specification. Core attribute collections are used in the user interface to give users access to the required fields when no view has been defined. See also attribute, attribute collection, view.

core dump
A process by which the current state of a program is preserved in a file. Core dumps are usually associated with programs that have encountered an unexpected, system-detected fault, such as a segmentation fault or a severe user error. A programmer can use the core dump to diagnose and correct the problem. See also core file.

core file
A file that preserves the state of a program, usually just before a program is terminated because of an unexpected error. See also core dump.

core group
A group of processes that is directly accessible to each other and is connected using a local area network (LAN).

core group access point
A definition of a set of servers that provides access to the core group.

core group bridge
The means by which core groups communicate.

core group member
A server included in the cluster of a core group.

core image
See storage image.

core interchange font
A uniformly spaced typographic font with specialized characters for different languages.

core partition
A Netezza disk partition that is used for storing information about how disk space is being used. Disk information includes directories, catalogs, dictionaries, and coarse indices.

A component, resource, or service that is needed in parallel with a component. In other words, the components, resources, or services listed as corequisites of a component must be installed and configured in conjunction with the component. See also requisite.

corequisite fix
A temporary solution to or a bypass of a problem that is necessary to provide a complete solution to correct a problem. The system requires that you apply the corequisite fix with the PTF that needs it. See also distribution requisite fix, prerequisite fix.

core resource
A resource that is provided by the console and is required for basic operation. See also resource type.

core warehouse
A multipartition, multiserver, highly-available data warehouse.

core warehouse database
The database that is managed by the core warehouse instance.

core warehouse hosts
The administration host, the standby administration host, all data hosts and all standby data hosts.

core warehouse instance
The database manager instance that is defined on the core warehouse hosts.

In printers, a small diameter wire (or wires, depending on the function) to which a high voltage is applied, causing ionization of the air. The ionization creates an electrical charge to perform various functions during the printing process.

corporate hierarchy
A Domino directory feature that is used to assign users to custom, hierarchical categories in the directory. 

corporate producer
An external corporation that is contracted to sell a carrier’s products.

The set of source documents that have been ingested into a IBM Watson system. This content can come from a variety of unstructured sources, such as wiki pages, industry journals, websites, forums, and more. These ingested resources are used to understand the question, determine hypotheses, find supporting evidence, and rank candidate answers. The term content is sometimes used to distinguish the source corpora from the terms data or training data, which describe assets that are used to train and test the system.

corrective action
The steps that are taken to resolve a discrepancy and return an asset to service

corrective maintenance
Maintenance that is performed after equipment has failed, been degraded, or underperformed.

corrective service diskette
A diskette provided by IBM to registered service coordinators for resolving user-identified problems with previously installed software. This diskette includes program updates designed to resolve problems.

correlated column
In SQL, a relationship between the value of one column and the value of another column.

correlated reference
A reference to a column of a table or view that is outside a subquery. See also correlated subquery.

correlated subquery
A subquery that contains a correlated reference. See also correlated reference.


  1. A statistical measure of the association between two numeric fields. Values range from -1 to +1. A correlation of 0 means that there is no relationship between the two fields.
  2. The relationship, captured in a correlation expression, that describes how an incoming event is matched with one or more monitoring context instances to which it will be delivered.
  3. In transaction monitoring, the process of tracking hierarchical relationships among transactions and associating transactions with their nested subtransactions.
  4. Data that enables a user to record document-specific correlation parameters generated during translation, by the correlation service, or by document tracking functions.
  5. A mechanism that bridges a point in a process flow between two or more process instances.
  6. A record used with business processes and state machines to allow two partners to initialize a transaction, temporarily suspend an activity, and then recognize each other again when that activity resumes.

correlation activity
See event correlation.

correlation ID
See correlation identifier.

correlation identifier

  1. A 2-byte value that specifies an identifier of an Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IPDS) command. The correlation ID is optional and is present only if bit one of the command's flag byte is 1.
  2. A field in a message that provides a means of identifying related messages. Correlation identifiers are used, for example, to match request messages with their corresponding reply message.
  3. An application-defined identifier assigned to distributions for the user's information.
  4. In DB2 for z/OS, an identifier that is associated with a specific thread. In TSO, the correlation ID is either an authorization identifier or the job name.

correlation name
An identifier that is specified and used within a single SQL statement as the exposed name for objects such as a table, view, table function reference, nested table expression, or data change table reference. Correlation names are useful in an SQL statement to allow two distinct references to the same base table and to allow an alternative name to be used to represent an object.

correlation number
A secondary key that is used with sequencing or to signify child records for a specific parent.

correlation property
Data in an event that the runtime server uses to determine which instance of a task, process, or business state machine should receive the input at run time.

correlation table
In OSI X.400, a table that records details of distributions sent and received across a gateway (such as VM/MVS bridge or X.400). A correlation table is used by a gateway to forward acknowledgments, as appropriate, after they are received.


  1. In Sterling Control Center, a feature that associates multiple milestones within a workflow.
  2. A value passed between two or more programs that allows correlation or identification of mutual resources.
  3. Information that identifies a relation among things. An example is a variable field of a response that identifies the corresponding request.

An institution to which your institution sends and from which it receives messages.

corrupted index
An index that does not correspond exactly to the data in its table.


  1. See configuration object set.
  2. See class of service.
  3. See common operations services.

A starter store enhancement that enables two shoppers to explore a store, view products, and chat about products. Coshopping provides real-time synchronization of the web browsers of two users to create a single collaborative shopping session controlled by a single user.

COS Naming Directory
See CORBA Object Services Naming Directory.


  1. The estimated total resource usage that is necessary to run the access plan for a statement (or the elements of a statement). Cost is derived from a combination of processor cost (in number of instructions) and I/O cost (in numbers of seeks and page transfers).
  2. The sum of the labor and non-labor capital outlay that is required to perform a project.
  3. A number that is used as a weighting mechanism to differentiate one resource from another where a smaller value is always preferred.

cost allocation
The proportionate allocation of the invoice amount to various departments based on the cost allocation method defined in the application.

cost category
A category into which DB2 for z/OS places cost estimates for SQL statements at the time the statement is bound. The cost category is externalized in the COST_CATEGORY column of the DSN_STATEMNT_TABLE when a statement is explained.

cost center
An organizational element that contributes to the cost of a project.

cost code
A code that is associated with every dollar amount, such as budget, commitments, and forecast. Cost codes are hierarchical in nature.

cost factor
A parameter used to calculate the cost of inventory. Cost factors represent value modifiers that are an additional function or component from a base cost to give a new unit cost. Examples of cost factors include insurance, freight, material handling, and packaging.

cost function
A function in the simplex algorithm that associates a price or cost with a variable as variables move into or out of the basis. See also pseudocost.

cost object
A business entity such as a project, department, or service linked to orders to track expenditures of the department or organization.

cost performance index (CPI)
The ratio of cost efficiency or value earned per unit actual cost. A number less than one indicates that the project is spending more money than budgeted.

cost saving
The amount saved by executing the audit rule on an invoice. The amount saved is the difference between the actual invoice amount and the billed invoice amount.

cost variance (CV)
The difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity.

cost variance at completion (CVAC)
See variance at completion.

The process of combining the lines of two or more existing contracts that are about to expire into a single renewal quote contract, calculated on a prorated basis, or according to customization.

cotermination quote contract
The single renewal quote contract that results from a cotermination. It has relationships to all related contracts including an original contract.


  1. An aggregate function which returns the number of rows of a query or some part of a query.
  2. A measure that indicates the number of transactions that comprise a spend.
  3. An inventory control activity done to physically count and compare the physical quantity of an item in a warehouse location to the system quantity.
  4. The number of cases that satisfy the row and column conditions for each cell. If the table is weighted, the counts are also weighted.


  1. A specialized metric used to keep track of the number of occurrences or the duration of a specific situation or event. For example, you can use a counter to track the number of times that a task is started within a process, where that task is contained in a loop.
  2. A representation of information that is cumulative up until the sample is taken. The counter counts values that increase, such as the number of deadlocks. Counters are reset when an instance or a database is stopped and restarted. See also gauge.
  3. In the X.25 API, a variable that is increased by one when a packet arrives and is decreased by one when a packet is received; it can be used to notify the application program of incoming packets.
  4. A data item used for storing numbers or number representations in a manner that permits these numbers to be increased or decreased by the value of another number or to be set to an arbitrary value.
  5. A binary string that is used by some block cipher modes in an exclusive-OR (XOR) operation. It is incremented and then applied in the encryption or decryption of each block of data. For a given key, a counter should never be repeated.
  6. A register or storage location used to accumulate the number of occurrences of an event.

counter identifier
In the X.25 API, the name of a counter.

counterpart SAN
A non-redundant portion of a redundant storage area network (SAN). A counterpart SAN provides all the connectivity of the redundant SAN but without the redundancy. Each counterpart SAN provides an alternate path for each SAN-attached device. See also redundant SAN.

counter value
A displayed monetary amount converted from the shopping currency into a different currency.

count field
The first field of a count-key-data (CKD) record. This field contains eight bytes: the first four bytes identify the track address, which includes the cylinder and head that are associated with the track; the fifth byte identifies the record on the track; the sixth byte identifies the length of the record's key field; the last two bytes identify the length of the record's data field.

count key data

  1. An ESA/390 architecture for a direct access storage device (DASD) logical device that specifies the format of and access mechanisms for the logical data units on the device. The logical data unit is a track that can contain one or more records, each consisting of a count field, an optional key field, and an optional data field. See also custom volume.
  2. An architecture for a direct access storage device (DASD) device or logical device that specifies the access mechanisms for the logical data units on the device through a specific set of supported channel commands. Extensions to the CKD command set form the basis of Extended CKD.
  3. A data recording format that uses self-defining record formats in which each record on a volume is represented by up to three fields: a count field identifying the record and specifying its format, an optional key field that can be used to identify the data area contents, and an optional data field that typically contains the user data. See also data record, storage architecture type.

count-key-data device (CKD)
A disk storage device for storing data in the format: count field normally followed by a key field followed by the actual data of a record. The count field contains, in addition to other information, the address of the record in the format: CCHHR (where CC is the two-digit cylinder number, HH is the two-digit head number, and R is the record number) and the length of the data. The key field contains the record's key (search argument).

count-key-data record (CKD record)
See data record.

count-key-data storage
See S/390 storage.

count login
An administration module that shows how many users are logged in to a COPLINK node.

count monitor
An occurrence-based monitor that tracks specific occurrences. The monitor runs its action when the number of occurrences exceeds a threshold.

count request
A request for a count of inventory.

country code

  1. From the ISO standard, a 2-character abbreviation for a country, for example "CN" for China and "BE" for Belgium. Country codes and language codes together form the basis for local names. See also language code.
  2. In X.25 communications, the 3-digit number that precedes the national terminal number in the network user address for public networks.

country extended code page (CECP)
A single-byte EBCDIC code page in the IBM corporate registry that contains the 190 characters found in character set 00697. While each CECP contains the same set of characters (allowing for conversion of data without loss), the code point allocation of the characters is not identical. For example, all CECPs contain the character backwards slash, however in code page 500 it is located at code point x'E0' and in code page 280 it is located at code point x'48'.

country ID
See country identifier.

country identifier (country ID)
The 2-character representation for the country associated with an object. For example, documents and user profiles can have a country associated with them.

country/region code
See territory code.

count sheet
A data entry form used in batched counting tasks. A count sheet is used to enter the counts and later reconciled on the system.

count zone
A specific area set up to help manage cycle counting activities. Generally, cycle counters are assigned all of the counting responsibilities of a zone.

couple data set (CDS)
A data set that contains information related to a sysplex, its systems, cross-system coupling facility (XCF) groups, and their members. See also sysplex couple data set.

coupled extended remote copy (CXRC)
In z/OS or S/390 environments, a technique that supports synchronous copy operations in large environments that have an expanded number of primary-storage controls and direct access storage device (DASD) volumes; this number is in excess of those supported by a single data-mover configuration. Installations can have configurations consisting of thousands of volumes in multiple extended remote copy (XRC) sessions; coordination among the sessions ensures that all volumes will be recovered to a consistent time. CXRC greatly expands upon the ability of XRC to provide remote disaster-recovery protection across a sysplex.

A device that connects a modem to a telephone network.


  1. Two volumes that are paired for a remote mirroring purpose.
  2. A process that adds an already existing EDI to another node within the network.
  3. The dependency that components have on one another.

coupling facility (CF)
A special logical partition that provides high-speed caching, list processing, and locking functions in a sysplex.

coupling facility cache structure (CF cache structure)
The hardware that provides a data cache.

coupling facility channel
A high-bandwidth fiber-optic channel that provides the high-speed connectivity required for data sharing between a coupling facility and the central processor complexes (CPCs) directly attached to it.

coupling facility lock structure (CF lock structure)
The hardware that supports sysplex-wide locking.

coupling facility resource management (CFRM)
A component of z/OS that provides the services to manage coupling facility resources in a Parallel Sysplex. This management includes the enforcement of CFRM policies to ensure that the coupling facility and structure requirements are satisfied.

coupling facility resource management policy (CFRM policy)
The allocation rules for a coupling facility structure that are declared by a z/OS administrator.

coupling service
A function of the cross-system coupling facility (XCF) that transfers data and status information among the members of a group that reside in one or more of the MVS systems in a sysplex.

A ticket or document that can be exchanged for a financial discount on a product.

courier server
In the DCE Distributed Time Service, a local server that requests a time value from a randomly selected global server. The time value returned is used to synchronize a local access network (LAN) with all other parts of the network.

course developer
An organization or individual who creates information, educational, or entertainment content for the Internet, CD-ROMs, or other software-based products.

court code
An identification number that is assigned to a court of jurisdiction.

court docket details
An agenda for a court.


  1. The range of a received radio signal and its boundary. The coverage area of a cellular device is limited by the range of the radio network relative to its base station. The coverage area of a satellite phone is the entire earth because the radio signal is transmitted by satellites. See also base station.
  2. The network area covered by the service provider.

covered database
A database or area in an RSR environment that is tracked by a tracking subsystem. Recovery information is not maintained by the tracking subsystem for databases or areas that are not covered.

cover sheet
A page on which the user can view and edit the summary and custom properties of a chart.

Cox regression algorithm
An algorithm that produces a survival function that predicts the probability that the event of interest has occurred at a given time for given values of the predictor variables.


  1. See control point.
  2. See constraint programming.
  3. See central processor.
  4. See control program.

See collection point block.


  1. See central processor complex.
  2. See current processor capacity.
  3. See cluster processor complex.

CP capabilities
The level of network services provided by the control point (CP) in an APPN end node or network node. CP capabilities information is exchanged during the activation of CP-CP sessions between two nodes. A node's CP capabilities are encoded in the CP capabilities (X'12C1') GDS variable.

CPCB operation code
See control point control block operation code.

CP-CP session
In SNA, one of the parallel sessions between two control points, using LU 6.2 protocols and a mode name of CPSVCMG, on which network services requests and replies are exchanged. Each CP of a given pair has one contention-winner session and one contention-loser session with the other.

CP-CP session-capable connection
A link over which a node permits CP-CP sessions to be established.


  1. See customer premises equipment.
  2. See collection processing engine.


  1. See command prefix facility.
  2. See command prefix.

See collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment.

See consumer packaged goods.

See code page global identifier.


  1. See Common Programming Interface.
  2. See cost performance index.

See characters per inch.

See Common Programming Interface for Communications.

CPI-C driven application program
An application program that uses CPI for Communications calls to receive an incoming message and to send a reply.


  1. See continuously powered main storage.
  2. See collection processing manager.

See control point management services.

See control point management services unit.

See command processing program.

See command processor parameter list.

See cluster profile record.

CP receive session
A CP-CP session that is also a contention-loser session. On this session, directory services in a CP receives a Locate search or registration request from a partner CP.

See characters per second.

See compressed-pattern storage.

CP send session
A CP-CP session that is also a contention-winner session. On this session, directory services in a CP sends a Locate search or registration request to a partner CP.

See control point server.

CP-SVR pipe
A pair of LU 6.2 sessions, between the control points in dependent-LU-requester (DLUR) and dependent-LU-server (DLUS) nodes, that carry the flows of SSCP services, which are encapsulated in APPN formats.

See central processing unit.

CPU entitlement
The percentage of CPU resources on a host or LPAR that the WLM dispatcher considers a service class to be entitled to use based on its CPU shares attributes.

CPU limit
The maximum percentage of CPU resources that can be consumed by work executing in a specified service class, regardless of relinquished CPU resources becoming available. This percentage is allocated to each LPAR or physical host where the DB2 database manager is running.

CPU time

  1. The amount of time a program is running in the CPU or is being serviced by the operating system. Does not include time associated with the program's I/O or time in which other processes preempt the program's use of the CPU.
  2. The processor time used by a job. See also duration.

See commercial processing workload.

See compatible query mode.

See Common Queue Server.


  1. See carriage return.
  2. See change request.

See catalog recovery area.

Someone, usually with malicious intent, who tries to circumvent or subvert system protection mechanisms. See also hacker.

The part of a telephone that holds the handset or receiver.

A work activity performed by a labor, for example, "plumbing."

A heuristic capable of generating a starting point for an algorithm.

crash recovery
The process of bringing a database back to a consistent and usable state after a failure. See also rollforward recovery, version recovery.

To search for information across various web pages on the Internet or on an intranet. See also crawler.

A software program that retrieves documents from data sources and gathers information that can be used to create search indexes. See also crawl.

crawl space
A set of sources that match specified patterns, such as database names, file system paths, domain names, IP addresses, and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), that a crawler reads from to retrieve items for indexing.


  1. See cyclic redundancy check.
  2. See command recognition character.

See conditional restart control record.

create access list
A list that restricts a form, so that only specified users can create documents using the form.

create data
The data necessary to convert code to machine instructions.

create date

  1. In DFSMSrmm, the date that a data set is written to tape.
  2. The date that a data set was read if it was created before DFSMSrmm was in use. The create date is updated each time a data set is replaced and not extended.
  3. The date that volumes and other resources are defined to DFSMSrmm or the date specified on the command as the create date.

created region
A CICS region that is defined in the platform environment specifically for use in a platform. See also adopted region, adopted region type, created region type.

created region type
A container for CICS regions that are defined for use in a platform, enabling the regions to be managed as a unit in the platform. See also adopted region, adopted region type, created region.

created temporary table
A table whose definition is persistent and shared between sessions but whose data is deleted when the session in which the table was instantiated ends. The data in the table is available only within the session in which the table was instantiated. The table is defined by using the SQL statement CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE. See also base table, declared temporary table, temporary table.

create link pack area (CLPA)
An option that is used during initial program load to initialize the link pack pageable area.

create method
In enterprise beans, a method defined in the home interface and invoked by a client to create an enterprise bean. (Sun)

creation date
The system date when an object is created.

creation factory
A URI that is used to create new resources by using HTTP POST.

creation time
The total time that an asset owner takes to create an asset, measured in hours, days, months, or years.

creation time stamp (CTS)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), an attribute of all Cell Directory Service clearinghouses, directories, soft links, child pointers, and object entries that contains a unique value reflecting the date and time the name was created.

creator ID
See creator identifier.

creator identifier (creator ID)
A unique 4-character identifier for an organization, product, or file format.


  1. In the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) framework, a subject class that owns security-related attributes. These attributes can contain information used to authenticate the subject to new services.
  2. A set of information that grants a user or process certain access rights.
  3. Information acquired during authentication that describes a user, group associations, or other security-related identity attributes, and that is used to perform services such as authorization, auditing, or delegation. For example, a user ID and password are credentials that allow access to network and system resources. See also shared access.
  4. A declaration of authorization or other security attributes of a subject that is typically validated and signed by a trusted third party. See also authentication, principal.
  5. A course, certificate, or regulatory license that is required by either the insurance carrier or a government regulator to sell an insurance product.

credential mapper
The component of Web Express Logon that handles requests for host credentials, which have been previously authenticated by a network security layer. See also network security layer.

credential pool
A group of credentials with similar access privileges. The pool can be defined as a service group or a set of service groups.

credential prediction
A method of hijacking or impersonating a website user by guessing the unique value that identifies a particular session or user.

credential token
A discrete data object, created from a credential, that can be used to gain access rights.

credential vault
A configured repository that stores credentials for shared access management.

A numeric rating between 0-10 that is used to determine the integrity of an event or an offense. Credibility increases as multiple sources report the same event or offense.

In Fibre Channel technology, the number of receive buffers allocated to a transmitting node port (N_port), node loop port (NL_port), or fabric port (F_port). The credit is the maximum number of outstanding frames that can be transmitted by that N_port, NL_port, or F_port without causing a buffer overrun condition at the receiver.

credit card
A method of payment for goods or services where the buyer pays a lender incremental payments until the debt is paid in full.

See Consortium for Research and Education Network.


  1. One or more workers with the appropriate skills and tools to perform the work required to resolve work order.
  2. A collection of resources that work together to perform a specific type of work. For example, an OHLINE crew might consist of 3 people and a bucket truck (a tool) that work together to build or repair overhead electrical power lines.

crew type
A template that identifies the crafts, qualifications, and tools that are required to perform the work.

See Carbon Responsibility Factor.

See cluster resource group.

See cluster resource group manager.

See cluster-ready hardware server.

crime type
A uniform crime reporting code established by the FBI that is assigned to a case.


  1. A statement or a question against which an evaluator analyzes the strategic importance of a supplier.
  2. A standard on which a judgment or decision may be based.

critical answer
An answer consequence type for a question that is marked as crucial and that requires a mandatory "Yes".

critical design review (CDR)
A review performed by the System Engineer (SE) during Develop Phase.

critical infrastructure
Any structure, building, or area that is deemed critical to the government or to the general population. Examples of critical infrastructure are gas pipelines, medical facilities, and military bases.

A rating, assigned by the user, which represents the potential vulnerability of an asset to a malicious exploit. The criticality rating contributes to the overall risk score of an asset.

critical path

  1. A series of activities that determines the earliest completion of a project; the critical path changes as activities or tasks are completed ahead or behind the original schedule estimates.
  2. The processing path that takes the longest time to complete of all parallel paths in a process instance, where each path considered begins at a start node or an input to the process and ends at a terminate node.

critical path method
A technique that is used to identify and predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities has the least amount of scheduling flexibility.

critical ratio
A relationship of the time scheduled to complete a task to the time available to perform it. Critical ratios are used to measure how closely a task is adhering to its schedule.

critical resource
The system resource whose speed and/or size limits the speed with which a particular workload can be processed.

critical result
The result that is derived when an assessment value is outside the defined tolerance threshold. It is indicative of a serious risk.

critical section
A portion of shared data to which simultaneous access by multiple threads or applications must be prevented.

See certificate revocation list.

See customer relationship management.

A command that is used to schedule a job or process.

cron calendar
A calendar of predefined date algorithms that is used by the scheduling service of WebSphere Application Server to determine when a task should run.

cron table
A table that is used to schedule application programs and processes.

cron task
A task that is set to run automatically at an appointed time.

In image processing and in multimedia applications, to cut off or trim.

cross-application performance reliability stress test (XPRS test)
Provides performance and stress test baseline certification for identified NOTES and WEB applications to be deployed on IBM platforms.

cross-cell communication
The process of information sharing and request routing between cells.

cross-cell environment
A production environment in which one or more servers in one cell can receive events from another server or set of servers in another cell.

A certificate in the Notes Personal Address Book or Domino Directory that indicates trust in an Internet certificate or trust in a certificate from a foreign Domino domain.

A compiler that produces executable files that run on a platform other than the one on which the compiler is installed.

cross-cutting concern
A software concern (synchronization, logging, memory allocation, and so forth) that is external and orthogonal to the problem that a software component is designed to address.

cross-dimensional formula
A formula that references members from more than one dimension.

cross-dock facility
A stopping point during the delivery. When orders are unloaded and loaded at a cross-dock facility, the freight is not taken into the inventory. The shipper manages all legs of the shipment. See also pool point.

Eliminating the storage process by moving items directly from the receiving dock to the shipping dock or forward pick areas.

Pertaining to control or resources involving more than one domain. See also same-domain.

cross-domain analysis
A data analysis that identifies the overlap of data values between two columns of data.

cross-domain key

  1. In SNA, a pair of cryptographic keys that are used by a system services control point (SSCP) during the initiation of cross-domain LU-LU sessions that use session-level cryptography. The keys are used to encipher the session cryptography key that is sent to another SSCP and to decipher the session cryptography key that is received from the other SSCP.
  2. In Cryptographic Support, a type of key-encrypting key used to encrypt a data-encrypting key that is being sent across a data line or being stored in a file.

cross-domain key table
In Cryptographic Support, a table in the system-supplied physical file QACRKTBL in library QUSRSYS used to store all key-encrypting keys other than the host master key and its variants. Each record of the file contains the name of the key, its use, and its value. The three types of uses are sending, receiving, and personal identification numbers (PINs).

cross-domain link

  1. A link physically connecting two domains.
  2. A subarea link connecting two subareas that are in different domains.

cross-domain network manager session (CDNM session)
A session between two network managers in separate domains.

cross-domain resource (CDRSC)
A representation for a logical unit that is owned by another domain and is referenced by a symbolic name, which can be qualified by a network identifier.

cross-domain resource manager (CDRM)
In VTAM, the function in the system services control point (SSCP) that controls initiation and termination of cross-domain sessions.

Features, changes, or other characteristics that affect more than one DFSMS element.

Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining
A process model for data mining that identifies six phases in the lifecycle of a data mining project: business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modeling, evaluation, and deployment.

cross join
See Cartesian product.

cross key

cross-memory linkage
In a z/OS environment, a method for invoking a program in a different address space. The invocation is synchronous with respect to the caller.

cross-memory mode
A synchronous method of communication between address spaces.

cross-memory resource-owning task (CMRO task)
A job step in an address space that owns the cross-memory resources. The CMRO task is the top, or first, job step task in the address space.

In SNA, pertaining to control or resources involving more than one network.

cross-network session
An LU-LU or SSCP-SSCP session whose path traverses more than one SNA network.

cross-organizational transformation
A program or project that benefits from input provided by other involved business units and which provides return information back to them. The components of the program/project may be developed and managed by one or more organizations.

The change from the barrier algorithm to the primal or dual simplex algorithm.

crossover domain
A domain that returns a value from a field in one application to a field in another application.

crossover field
An application field that links to other fields, allowing a user to link data between certain applications.

cross-project traceability
A feature that establishes traceability relationships between requirements that reside in different projects. See also external project, external traceability.

A pointer to a preferred term (see reference) or to additional information (see also reference).

cross-reference listing
The part of the compiler listing that tells where files, fields, and indicators are defined, referred to, and changed in a program.

cross-reference organization
The organization responsible for defining or maintaining items in multiple catalogs that are supported (referenced) through a single mechanism, such as a Global Trade Item Number (GTIN).

cross-reference table
A table that is created in Partner Editor and is used to convert the user's values to a trading partner's values during outbound processing, or a partner's values to the user's values during inbound processing.

A product recommendation that is related or complementary to the currently displayed or selected product. See also accessory, up-sell.

cross-sell association
An association category to an item, so that all the items in a category are associated to the item as cross-sell items.

Encouraging customers to buy products from other departments or categories, beyond the initial offering.

cross-server migration
The process of migrating an existing product installation to a new version by installing the product on a new server, transferring data to the new installation, and converting the data to the new version.

cross-server query
See distributed query.

cross-site mirroring (XSM)
A function of i5/OS High Available Switchable Resources, Option 41, that provides geographic mirroring and the services to switch over or automatically cause a failover to a secondary copy, potentially at another location, in the event of an outage at the primary location.

cross-site scripting (XSS)
An attack technique that forces a website to echo client-supplied data, which execute in a user’s web browser.

cross sold product
A product that was purchased with one or more other products in a single order.

cross street
An intersecting street at a described location that is used as a location reference point.

cross-system coupling facility (XCF)
A component of z/OS that provides functions to support cooperation between authorized programs running within a sysplex.

cross-system extended services (XES)
A set of z/OS services with which multiple instances of an application or subsystem, running on different systems in a sysplex environment, can implement high-performance, high-availability data sharing by using a coupling facility.

cross-system restart
A process during which automatic restart management restarts elements on another eligible system in the sysplex when a system fails.

See cross tabulation.

cross-table analysis
A data analysis that combines foreign key analysis and cross-domain analysis. Foreign keys reference primary keys that are already defined or identified during primary key analysis.

cross tabulation (crosstab)
A statistical technique used to display the relationships between two or more variables in a table.

A technique for testing how well a model generalizes in the absence of a holdout test sample. Cross-validation divides the training data into a number of subsets, and then builds the same number of models, with each subset held out in turn. Each of those models is tested on the holdout sample, and the average accuracy of the models on those holdout samples is used to estimate the accuracy of the model when applied to new data. See also overfitting.

cross-volume consistency
A consistency group property that guarantees consistency between volumes when an application issues dependent write operations that span multiple volumes.


  1. See configuration report program.
  2. See capacity requirements planning.

See change request.

See change request description.

See configuration report server.

See cathode ray tube.

See customer-replaceable unit.

The process of compressing a problem to make it manageable at intermediate steps in an algorithm. See also uncrush.

In Cryptographic Support, a specialist in solving cryptographic problems.

Pertaining to transformation of data to conceal meaning. See also decipher, encipher.

cryptographic adapter
An expansion board that provides a comprehensive set of cryptographic functions for the network security processor and the workstation in the TSS family of products.

cryptographic algorithm
A set of rules that specify the mathematical steps required to encrypt and decrypt data.

cryptographic application programming interface (CAPI)
An application programming interface that provides services to enable developers to secure applications using cryptography. It is a set of dynamically-linked libraries that provides an abstraction layer which isolates programmers from the code used to encrypt the data.

Cryptographic Coprocessor
In iSeries, a hardware module that can be added to a system to provide enhanced cryptographic processing capabilities.

cryptographic key
A parameter that determines a cryptographic transformation between plaintext and ciphertext.

Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP)
A feature of the i5/OS operating system that provides APIs. The CCA Cryptographic Service Provider enables a user to run functions on the 4758 Coprocessor.

cryptographic session
In SNA products, an LU-LU session in which a function management data (FMD) request can be enciphered before it is transmitted, and then deciphered after it is received. See also clear session, required cryptographic session, selective cryptographic session.

Cryptographic Support
The IBM licensed program that provides support for the encryption and decryption of data, according to the Data Encryption Algorithm, and for the management of cryptographic keys and personal identification numbers (PINs).

cryptographic token
A logical view of a hardware device that performs cryptographic functions and stores cryptographic keys, certificates, and user data.


  1. The transformation of data to conceal its information content and to prevent its unauthorized use or undetected modification.
  2. A method for protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable format, called ciphertext. Only users who possess a secret key can decipher (or decrypt) the message into plaintext.

cryptography verification request
A request unit that is sent by the primary logical unit (PLU) to the secondary logical unit (SLU) as part of cryptographic session establishment. The request unit allows the SLU to verify that the PLU is using the correct session cryptography key and initialization vector (IV).

See cursor stability.


  1. See common storage area.
  2. See Canadian Standards Association.
  3. See common service area.
  4. See common system area.

CSA International
A leading provider of product testing and certification services for products sold in the U.S., Canada and around the world. See also Canadian Standards Association.

See central site control facility.

See CICS system definition data set.

See control section.

C shell
A command line processor for UNIX that provides interactive features such as job control and command history.

See consolidated software inventory.

See constant special item ID list.

CSI MasterFormat
A standard that is used in North America for organizing information about commercial and institutional building projects.

See Common Service Layer.

CSL client
See Common Service Layer client.


  1. See communications storage manager.
  2. See Cluster Systems Management.
  3. See client state manager.

See Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

CSM database
A repository of cluster, node, and node group information that is created and used by Cluster Systems Management (CSM).

CSM-only installation
The process of installing only Cluster Systems Management (CSM) on the nodes, as opposed to a full installation, which involves installing both CSM and the operating system on the nodes.

See Card Serial Number.

See Computer Science Network.

See combined sewer overflow.


  1. See communication scanner processor.
  2. See Cryptographic Service Provider.
  3. See cloud service provider.


  1. In font design, the distance in pels, measured in the inline (print) direction, between the toned pel furthest from the character reference point and the escapement point.
  2. In architecture, the distance from the most positive character coordinate system X-axis value of a character shape to the character's escapement point. C-space can be positive, zero, or negative.


  1. See customer service representative.
  2. See certificate signing request.


  1. See channel subsystem.
  2. See Cascading Style Sheets.
  3. See combined sewer system.
  4. See connectivity subsystem.

See Cascading Style Sheets positioning.


  1. See channel service unit.
  2. See customer setup.

CSV file
A text file that contains comma-separated values. A CSV file is commonly used to exchange files between database systems and applications that use different formats.

See channel status word.


  1. See cursor table.
  2. See configuration object type.

See channel-to-channel.

CTC adapter
See channel-to-channel adapter.

See clustered trivial database.

See computer-telephony integration.

See complex text language.

See controller description.


  1. See capable to promise.
  2. See common tooling platform.

See component trace.


  1. See common transport semantics.
  2. See clear to send.
  3. See creation time stamp.


  1. See compatible unit.
  2. See control unit.

See Common User Access.


  1. A multidimensional representation of data needed for online analytical processing, multidimensional reporting, or multidimensional planning applications. See also D-cube.
  2. See multidimensional array.

cube adjusted weight (CAW)
A weight measurement for items that have low weight with respect to the space they occupy.

cube group
A set of similar cubes where each cube group relates to a single level in one dimension of the model. Each member of the group is targeted at one of the categories in the level.

cube object
The object in a model that corresponds to a cube. The cube object specifies how to build the cube and how to reflect the status once the cube has been built.

cube server
A high-performance, scalable cubing engine that is designed to support queries from many users against many different OLAP cubes.

cubic measurement
The volume calculation used to determine the amount of space required to store or ship material as well as the amount of space that can be accommodated by storage units or shipping modes. Used in capacity planning.

See call user data.

See closed user group.

See control-unit initiated reconfiguration.

In GL, the process whereby a primitive that is smaller than the minimum size specified in the command is not rendered: no further commands in the primitive are interpreted.

cultural sort
Sorting of words or strings as a unit, rather than as individual characters. Cultural (or lexical) sort is the type used to order words in dictionaries, glossaries, indexes, and so on. See also sorting.

cumulative backup

  1. A type of backup that includes the changes since the most recent full backup. The cumulative backup consolidates and replaces all previous differential backups.
  2. The process of copying only data sets that have changed since the last backup of any type. See also full backup, incremental backup.

cumulative function
A function that is used to model a quantity that varies over time and whose value depends on other decision variables of the problem. For example, a given capacity or physical resource can be modeled with a cumul function, and the cumulated contribution of intervals (activities) on the resource is represented by a function of time. cumulFunction is a CP keyword but is accepted as a CPLEX identifier.

cumulative mapping
A form of BMS output mapping in which data stream generation is delayed until a SEND PAGE command is received or a page overflow occurs.

cumulative PTF package
Media containing the program temporary fixes (PTFs) for i5/OS that have been accumulated from the start of the current release. PTFs requiring special handling are not included in a cumulative PTF package.

cumulative service tape
A tape that is sent with a new function order and that contains all current PTFs for that function.

cumulative time
The time that a method spends on the execution stack, including both time spent in the method itself and in other methods that it calls.

See Capacity Upgrade on Demand.

To select, collect, preserve, and maintain content relevant to a specific topic. Curation establishes, maintains, and adds value to data; it transforms data into trusted information and knowledge.

In printers, to dry ink sufficiently for minimum transfer of the ink to any parts of the printer it contacts.

A command line tool for retrieving and posting files using URL syntax.

For an Ada-language compilation unit, the state where none of that unit's supporters has been recompiled since the unit itself was compiled. This implies that all of the supporters exist, since the Ada language requires this in order for the program to be compiled. Currency implies that all supporters of a unit were compiled in the correct order, as defined by Ada language rules.

currency conversion

  1. A process used to configure conversion rates between the currencies used by organizations in their respective locales.
  2. A factor that converts monetary values in a database from one country's monetary system into another without altering the original data.

currency definition
Mechanism used to define a monetary symbol and indicate Euro currency membership and expiration date, if applicable.

currency format
An alpha-numeric unique code of a currency.

currency partition
A dimension type that separates local currency members for a base currency defined in an application. A currency partition also identifies currency types such as actual, budget, and forecast.

currency record
Information that is used in reporting components to display data in different currencies.

currency sign
In COBOL, the character $.

currency symbol

  1. In COBOL, the character defined by the CURRENCY SIGN clause in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph. If no CURRENCY SIGN clause is present in a COBOL source program, the currency symbol is identical to the currency sign.
  2. A character such as the dollar sign ($) used to identify monetary values.

currency table
A table of information about currencies that the user maintains in Transformer or loads from an external data source.

currency time
The time at which a user reads news items. The news command considers only the items posted after this time to be current for the user.

current backup version
In DFSMShsm, a backup copy of the data set that was created on a date after the data set was last updated.

current baseline print coordinate (bc)
In IPDS architecture, the baseline coordinate corresponding to the current print position on a logical page. The current baseline print coordinate is a coordinate in an I,B coordinate system.

current character position
The two-dimensional screen coordinates where the next character string or pixel read/write operation will occur.

current charge
In an advanced order, the set of charges a customer incurs for order items that can be shipped at once. See also total charge.

current color
The color that is employed to color all subsequent drawing primitives. All drawing primitives are drawn with this color until it is changed.

current connect group
In RACF, during a terminal session or batch job, the group with which a user is associated for access checking purposes. On MVS, if a user does not specify the current connect group on the LOGON command or batch JOB statement, the current connect group is the user's default group. On CICS, users cannot specify a group other than their default group. If list-of-groups processing is in effect, users are associated with all the groups to which they are connected. See also default group.

current customization definition
A customization definition that describes an instance for which the corresponding resources have already been deployed and are running.

current data
Data within a host structure that is current with (that is, identical to) the data within the base table.

current directory
See working directory.

current drawing attribute
In architecture, an attribute used at the present time to direct a drawing process. See also default drawing attribute.

current drawing control
In architecture, a drawing control used at the present time to direct a drawing process. See also default drawing control.

current file

  1. In the make command, the file that the make command is working with at a given moment. The make command replaces the $* macro with the name of the current file.
  2. The file being edited. If multiple windows are in use, the current file is the file containing the cursor.

current files library
The files library to search for database files to be used by the System/36 environment for the current job.

current folder
In CDE, the currently opened folder in an active File Manager view.

current form
In query management, the form being applied against the data to produce the report being displayed or printed.

current heap
In Pascal, the area of storage where dynamic variables allocated by calls to NEW reside. Other heaps can exist at the same time, but only one is current.

current host
See local host.

current inline coordinate
See current inline presentation coordinate.

current inline presentation coordinate
The inline presentation position at the present time. This inline presentation position is the summation of the increments of all inline controls since the inline coordinate was established in the presentation space. An inline presentation position is established in a presentation space either as part of the initialization procedures for processing an object or by an Absolute Move Inline control sequence.

current inline print coordinate
In IPDS architecture, the inline coordinate corresponding to the current print position on a logical page. The current inline print coordinate is a coordinate in an I,B coordinate system.

current interrupted job
When a job is interrupted by pressing the Attn key, another job can be started from a command line. This job can also be interrupted by pressing the Attn key again. The current interrupted job is the most recently interrupted. The job name for the current interrupted job is displayed at the top of the Inquiry Options menu.

current inventory
Items currently available for shipment from a node.

current left margin
In DCF, the left limit of a column that is in effect for formatting.

current library
The library that is specified to be the first user library searched for objects requested by a user. The name for the current library can be specified on the Sign-On display or in a user profile. When you specify an object name (such as the name of a file or program) on a command, but do not specify a library name, the system searches the libraries in the system part of the library list, then searches the current library before searching the user part of the library list. The current library is also the library that the system uses when you create a new object, if you do not specify a library name.

current line
The line on which the cursor is located.

current line pointer (CLP)
In systems with time sharing, a pointer that indicates the display line on which operations are being performed.

current list
A list name, specified with a resource definition online command, that is "remembered" until another list name is used.

current logical page
In architecture, the logical page presentation space that is currently being used to process the data within a page object or an overlay object.

currently committed
A state that increases the concurrency of read-only data access by allowing the committed version of a row to be processed when a lock is encountered instead of requiring the query to wait for the lock to be released. See also optimistic locking, pessimistic locking.

current mode
In the GDDM function, the characteristics of the controlling session. For example, when a color is defined, everything the program draws uses that color until the color is changed.

current object
The application server to which the QMF session is currently connected. After the connection is made, this server processes all SQL statements.

current owner
In Contributor, the person who is editing or last opened an e.List item for edit.

current page
An open console page that is fully visible at a given moment or in focus. This is in contrast to other open pages that are in the background.

current path
See SQL path.

current plan
A detailed plan of system activity that covers a period of at least 1 minute, and not more than 21 days. A current plan typically covers 1 or 2 days.

current position

  1. In computer graphics, the position, in user coordinates, that becomes the starting point for the next graphics routine, if that routine does not explicitly specify a starting point.
  2. In architecture, the position identified by the current presentation space coordinates; for example, the coordinate position reached after the execution of a drawing order. See also given position.
  3. In an IMS database, the place immediately preceding the segment occurrence that IMS retrieves if the user immediately issues an unqualified retrieval call.

current print position

  1. The point on the page where the printer is currently logically positioned; the position were the next pel will be printed if no move text controls are executed. When the character is placed on the page, the character reference point coincides with the current print position. See also character reference point.
  2. The picture element that defines the character reference point or the upper-left corner of an image.

current processor capacity (CPC)
The amount of processor capacity (in units of 1/100 of a physical processor) that is assigned to a logical partition.

current record

  1. The record pointed to by the current line pointer.
  2. In COBOL, the record that is available in the record area associated with the file.

current record pointer
In COBOL, a method of identifying a record that is used in the sequential processing of the next record.

current release
The latest available release of the system that replaced the Licensed Internal Code, operating system, or both.

current row
The most recently retrieved row of the active set of a query.

current security label
The security label that RACF uses in RACF authorization checking if the SECLABEL class is active.

current selection
A highlighted text block or element.

current session
In CDE, the session saved by Session Manager when you log off. At the next login, unless you specify otherwise, this session automatically opens, enabling work to continue where you left off. See also home session.

current SQL ID
In DB2 for z/OS, an identifier that, at a single point in time, holds the privileges that are exercised when certain dynamic SQL statements run. The current SQL ID can be a primary authorization ID or a secondary authorization ID.

current state
In DB2 for i5/OS, the state of a connection when it is the one used for SQL statements that are executed. See also dormant state.

current status rebuild
The second phase of restart processing during which the status of the subsystem is reconstructed from information on the log.

current version
The latest checked-in version in the version series of a document. Only the current version can be checked out or promoted.

current volume pointer
In COBOL, a conceptual entity that points to the current volume of a sequential file.

current window
The window to which the system directs the output from graphics routines.

current working directory
See working directory.

curriculum architect
A member of an education team who drives the delivery of educational offerings.

cursive script
A script whose adjacent characters might touch or be connected to each other. For example, Arabic script is cursive.


  1. A movable symbol on a display, often a blinking or solid block of light, that identifies a choice to select, indicates where user interaction with the keyboard will appear, or indicates a position of interest on the display surface.
  2. In SQL, an identifier associated with a group of rows or with a collection.
  3. During a HALDB online reorganization, a marker in a database partition that separates the copied database records from the records that have not been copied. The cursor indicates the progress of the reorganization through the HALDB partition.
  4. A named control structure used by an application program to point to and select a row of data from a set. See also asensitive cursor, cursor sensitivity, dynamic cursor, insensitive cursor, parameterized cursor, sensitive cursor, static cursor.
  5. A reference to an element at a specific position in a data structure.
  6. A displayed symbol that acts as a marker to help the user locate a point in text, in a system command, or in storage. Cursors mark file position and access information in distributed data management (DDM) architecture.

cursor-active status
For high availability large database (HALDB) online reorganization, the status in the recovery control data set (RECON data set) that alerts Database Recovery Control (DBRC) that an online reorganization has started.

cursor blocking
See blocking.

cursor column indicator
In System z LPEX Editor, a visual indicator of the column in which the cursor is currently located.

cursor function
A user-defined routine that returns one or more rows of data and therefore requires a cursor to execute. See also function cursor, noncursor function.

cursor manipulation statement
An SQL statement that controls cursors; specifically, the CLOSE, DECLARE, FETCH, FLUSH, OPEN, and PUT statements.

cursor movement key
A key that a user presses to move the cursor on the screen.

cursor operation record
A record that contains instructions for the translator on moving through the result set returned by a query to a new record. Each operation record is associated with a single SQL statement record that returns a result set. The translator performs cursor operations as it encounters them while processing the map.

cursor sensitivity
The degree to which database updates made by the same application process or another application process are incorporated in the data returned by FETCH statements for a cursor after the database updates. See also asensitive cursor, cursor, insensitive cursor, sensitive cursor.

cursor stability (CS)

  1. An isolation level under which a query in a transaction is prevented from reading any changes made to rows by statements in other transactions until the changes have been committed. A transaction using CS with an updatable cursor prevents statements in other transactions from changing and possibly reading a row until the cursor has moved from that row. See also isolation level, read stability, repeatable read, uncommitted read.
  2. An isolation level that locks any row accessed by a transaction of an application while the cursor is positioned on the row. The lock remains in effect until the next row is fetched or the transaction is terminated. If any data is changed in a row, the lock is held until the change is committed to the database.

cursor table (CT)
The internal representation of a cursor.

cursor variable
A global variable, local variable, or parameter of a cursor data type.

curve fitting
See smoothness of curve.

See control interval update sequence number.

custom action

  1. An action for a file or project that is created using the Menu Manager preferences pages and is displayed on pop-up menus.
  2. In JSP programming, an action described in a portable manner by a tag library descriptor and a collection of Java classes and imported into a JSP page by a taglib directive. (Sun)
  3. An action on a business object that runs code for specific state transitions. This action can be a Java class method or an EJB name.
  4. A Java or non-Java process definition that a user can define as a part of a health policy action plan or elasticity operation.

custom adapter
An adapter that is created by users or consultants and is not shipped with Sterling B2B Integrator. Custom adapters can integrate custom applications and legacy systems with Sterling B2B Integrator.

custom agent
A user-specific or user-defined process that performs an action on behalf of a user or other program without user intervention or on a regular schedule, and reports the results back to the user or program.

custom attribute

  1. User-defined characteristics of an asset, for example: support contact and confidential.
  2. A user-defined property for an asset that further describes assets of that type. For example, a custom attribute for database tables might be "Expected maximum row count." The custom attribute would be available for every database table, and might contain different values for different database tables.

Custom-built Product Delivery Option (CBPDO)
A software delivery package consisting of uninstalled products and unintegrated service. Installation requires the use of SMP/E. CBPDO is one of the two entitled methods for installing z/OS; the other method is ServerPac.

custom card identification number (CCIN)
A unique alphanumeric number that is assigned many individual hardware parts or assemblies.

custom configuration
A selected combination of products tailored by a vendor to the needs of one or more users. Each custom configuration is identified by unique serial number, which is incorporated into the custom configuration.

custom dashboard
A dashboard that is created by the user from widgets and various data sources to meet specific requirements. It is not supplied with the application. See also fixed dashboard.

custom domain
The customized portion of the URL selected by the user to direct requests to the application. A custom domain makes up part of the route. A custom domain can be a shared domain, a shared subdomain, or a shared domain and host. See also domain, host, route, subdomain.


  1. A group or organization that is associated with one or more applications. A customer can be an external organization that accesses a data center or an internal department within a company.
  2. A user of an online store.

customer acceptance laboratory (CAL)
An environment set up to run with a perspective purchaser's sample data to ensure favorable performance.

customer account
Credit that is assigned to a customer by the corresponding enterprise.

customer analytics
A business process and a set of related technologies that help organizations analyze customer behavior, identity, and sentiment to make business decisions.

customer appeasement
The process of satisfying customers when they are displeased with any service provided.

customer assignment
The assignment of pricing entities such as price lists, pricing rules, and coupons to customers so that the prices of items and pricing adjustments are applied to those customers.

customer base
The primary market for a product or store.

customer churn
The proportion of contractual customers or subscribers who leave a supplier during a given time period. Churn rate is a possible indicator of customer dissatisfaction, cheaper and/or better offers from the competition, more successful sales and/or marketing by the competition, or reasons having to do with the customer life cycle. Churn rate can be thought of as the inverse of retention rate.

customer compliance
The tasks that must be performed to comply with a specific customer's needs, such as placing special labels on cartons that are shipped to a particular customer.

Customer Console
A user interface to a server.

customer engagement
The sum total of a customer's experiences with a company, brand, or other customers.

customer entitlement
An entitlement, defined by an enterprise, that defines the items that a customer can buy.

customer experience
A specific campaign (set of interactions) that a customer has with a company, brand, or other customers.

customer-facing store
An online site where users may obtain information regarding products and conduct business transactions regarding these products. WebSphere Commerce supports the following customer-facing stores: hub store, direct sales store, and extended site store.

customer grade
A grade that is assigned to a customer, based on the customer's rating within the organization. For example, a customer may be assigned a grade of A, indicating that the customer is an excellent customer, or B, indicating that the customer is an average customer. These grades determine how approval rules for quotes can be applied.

customer group
A type of member group consisting of a collection of customers who have been grouped by a site administrator because they share similar shopping patterns or characteristics. See also site administrator.

customer impact event (CIE)
An event that causes a customer to lose access to data, causes a customer to lose data, or causes an installation or repair to exceed the expected length of time.

customer installable feature (CIF)
An assembly or part that a customer can replace.

customer lifetime value (CLV)
A metric that can be used to predict the value of a complete future relationship with a customer.

customer-managed use control
A level of password use control in which the customer manages compliance with the terms of the software product acquisition. See also password use control level, vendor-managed use control.

customer order
A list of items being purchased by a customer. The customer order contains customer data, ship-to information, bill-to information, delivery dates, and line items that list SKUs being purchased.

customer pick
The process where a customer visits a store to pick up a product that has been previously ordered.

Customer Premise Equipment Alerting Signal tone (CAS tone)
In ADSI, this tone is sent to the ADSI telephone to switch the phone to data mode.

customer premises equipment (CPE)
Telephony equipment which is on the premises of a business or domestic customer of the telephone company. An example is a private branch exchange (PBX).

customer profile
A collection of attributes that collectively describe a typical customer.

customer relationship management (CRM)
One of two major corporate business processes (with Integrated Product Development) within IBM. CRM defines standards for responding to customers, particularly in the delivery of services engagements.

customer-replaceable unit (CRU)
An assembly or part that a customer can replace.

custom error page
A feature of most web server software that allows the user to replace default error messages with messages that are custom designed for the application.

customer segment
All information about the customer that is held by the seller. This can include basic demographics, order history, or operational data such as the user ID and shipping address. Customer segments are dynamic; marketing managers define the criteria for including a customer in a customer segment. Customer segments can be the targets of campaigns.

customer service optimization
The practice of improving customer service operations, which is often measured by first call resolution rates, average call time, customer satisfaction with service, and other factors.

customer service representative (CSR)

  1. A person who processes customer purchases, orders, returns, inquiries, and store registration.
  2. A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages customer inquiries. The customer service representative also processes customer registration, orders, and returns. See also customer service supervisor, script.
  3. An IBM employee who assists a customer with aspects of service configuration.

customer service supervisor
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that has access to all customer service tasks. The customer service supervisor manages customer inquiries (such as customer registration, orders, returns, and auctions) and has authority to complete tasks that cannot be accessed by a customer service representative, such as approving system-denied returns records, and contacting customers regarding payment exceptions (such as credit card authorization failures). See also customer service representative.

customer session data
Information gathered from customers during the time they visit an online store.

customer setup (CSU)
The unpacking, setup, and checkout of machines by customer personnel, according to a sequence of instructions provided by the manufacturers, without the use of tools or the assistance of trained service personnel.

customer type
An identifying type for a customer, such as a business customer or a consumer customer.

customer value
The relative worth, utility or importance of a given requirement or solution to customers.

customer vertical
The sector to which a customer belongs, such as educational institutions or government.

custom event
An event that is customized by a buyer or a seller to monitor the lifecycle events of a purchase order that is not preconfigured in the solution.

custom field
A field in a user or group profile that can be used to store installation data, and for which the installation can customize the keyword name and attributes.

custom finder
See finder method.

custom Greex rule

  1. An advanced XML condition that supplements the set of defined functions that are provided in the Greex library and are used to evaluate conditions on input data.
  2. An advanced XML condition that is configurable to meet specific validation scenarios.

custom group
A group that is used to organize report objects in a report according to their purpose or content. All other report objects are filtered out if they are not assigned to the custom group.


  1. The modification of a portal page or portlet by a user. WebSphere Portal enables a user to customize a portal page by modifying the page layout and by selecting which portlets will display per device. See also personalization.
  2. The process of describing optional changes to defaults of a software program that is already installed on the system and configured so that it can be used. See also configuration.
  3. The ability to change how objects on a personal computer look and work. For example, a user can tailor what objects are in a work area by creating, moving, or copying objects to the work area.
  4. The process of designing a data processing installation or network to meet the requirements of particular users. Activities can include installing additional products, taking advantage of new software features and functions, and enabling or disabling optional features.

customization definition document (CDD)
An XML document that describes the layout of an instance (that is, its organizational units (OUs) and servers, and which service bundles are assigned to each server-OU combination). The Customization Definition Program (CDP) uses a CDD to determine which deployment data to produce for an instance.

customization definition report
A report that describes the servers, organizational units (OUs), and services of an instance, and how they are distributed within the instance.

customization mode
One of two modes in which the IBM Watson system can be run. The system can be run in customization mode when the annotators, services, and components that make up the system are being adapted for a new domain or data set. See also production mode.


  1. To describe optional preferences or changes to defaults in a software program that is already installed and configured.
  2. To describe to the system the devices, programs, users, and user defaults for a particular data processing system or network.

customized database
An entity within the Object Data Manager (ODM) that contains configuration data for defined or available devices in the system.

Customized Devices Object Class
A representation within the Object Data Manager (ODM) of each device instance as distinguished by a unique logical name. The Customized Devices Object Class contains basic information about the device such as device status and how to access the information contained in other object classes.

customized installation package (CIP)
A customized installation image that can include one or more maintenance packages, a configuration archive file from a stand-alone server profile, one or more enterprise archive files, scripts, and other files that help customize the resulting installation.

A Java class (implementing the java.beans.Customizer interface) that is associated with a bean to provide a richer user interface for the properties of that bean.

custom mail file template
A Notes mail template that is used to apply a customized design to the mail file.

custom node
A virtual image part that provides an unconfigured node for a pattern that has a deployment manager or a control node as its base.

custom object
A generic business object that can be stored in a folder. A custom object cannot have versions, lifecycles, or content.

custom operator
An operator written in the Streams Processing Language (SPL). See also operator, primitive operator.

custom profile
A profile that describes an empty node, which becomes operational, as a managed node, when federated into a network deployment cell.

custom property

  1. A property that consists of a name and value and applies to an organization, product, or contract for informational and search purposes.
  2. A user-defined property, as opposed to a system-defined property. The user can assign custom properties to a class. See also property.

custom relationship
An association between two or more data entities as provided by the user.

custom resource
A resource that is created by a console administrator and can be customized and deleted. See also resource type.

custom screen record
A runtime view of the screen that allows access to available screen fields.

custom server
A C language or C++ language program that provides data manipulation and local or remote data stream, database, or other services beyond those provided by the state table interface. Custom servers provide an interface between DirectTalk and business applications, functions, or other processes to give callers access to business information and voice processing functions such as speech recognition. See also 3270 server.

custom service
A configurable service that defines a hook that runs when the server starts and shuts down when the server stops.

custom set
In Analysis Studio, a named object which can include filter rules, calculations, and sort rules. Custom sets can define a set of members that is different from any set originally defined in the cube model. See also predefined set, set.

custom table
An object on the Guardium system that relates one or more attributes from uploaded tables together.

custom tag
An extension to the JavaServer Pages (JSP) language that performs a specialized task. Custom tags are typically distributed in the form of a tag library, which also contains the Java classes that implement the tags.

custom text analysis engine
A text analysis engine that is created using the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) SDK and can be added to the set of standard enterprise search text analysis engines. See also analysis engine, enterprise search base annotator.

custom tool
A type of script that is used to create customized applications, user interfaces, and updates the menu structure of the user interface.

custom user
A user type that has the same permissions of a standard user plus the ability to create projects, archive data, partition data, create groups, create users, or manage the database.

custom user registry
A customer-implemented user registry that implements the UserRegistry Java interface. This registry type can support virtually any kind of accounts repository from a relational database and can provide flexibility in adapting product security to various environments.

custom view
A view that uses actions such as summarize, cloak, exclude, and apex to limit access to information in a cube to members of a given user class. User class views are replaced by custom views associated with the users, groups, or roles in a configured namespace.

custom volume
A volume in count-key-data (CKD) format that is not a standard volume, which means that it does not necessarily present the same number of cylinders and capacity to its assigned logical control unit as provided by one of the standard S/390 volume types. See also count key data, interleave, standard volume.

Custom Wire Format (CWF)
The physical representation of a message in the MRM domain that is composed of a number of fixed format data structures or elements, which are not separated by delimiter characters.


  1. In multimedia applications, the process of instantly replacing a picture from one source with a picture from another. This is the most common form of editing scene to scene.
  2. A way of eliminating part of the search space without losing any feasible or optimal solutions.
  3. The severed part of a perforation. Cuts are separated by ties.
  4. An action that identifies a page, object, or picture that is to be deleted or moved to another place in the same or different document or file

cut and paste
A type of dictionary gloss used to restore the lemma form the surface form by cutting and pasting new characters.

cut-down model
A customized copy of the master model definition that has been cut down to include only the specific elements required for a particular e.List item.

cut form
A single form not connected to other forms. The form may have an original and one or more copies. Cut forms are fed separately into a printer. See also continuous forms.

CUT mode
See control unit terminal mode.

A threshold that specifies how the scored record pairs are categorized as matched, nonmatched, or clerical records based on the weight generated by the matching process.

cutoff workflow
A workflow that is launched by the cutoff event. It ensures that the records manager reviews the entity after the cutoff trigger and approves the cutoff date.

A part of a form that has been eliminated or perforated for subsequent removal, for example, corner cuts and binder holes.

The point of change from a development CICS system to a production CICS system, or between different releases of CICS.

cut-sheet media
In architecture, unconnected sheets. See also continuous-form media.

cut-sheet paper
Paper that is cut into uniform-size sheets before being loaded into the printer. See also continuous forms.

cut-sheet printer
A printer that requires cut-sheet paper. See also continuous-forms printer.

In fibre-channel technology, a switching technique that allows a routing decision to be made and acted upon as soon as the destination address of a frame is received. See also route.

cut-through channel
A channel of voice data which has been passed through echo cancellation algorithms. The channel provides echo-cancelled voice data which can then be used by the engine in a recognition attempt.

cut-to-tie ratio
The ratio of the length of the cut and the length of the tie in the perforations between continuous forms.

See cost variance.

See cost variance at completion.

See common VTOC access facility.

See CICS-value data area.

See Concurrent Versions System.

CVS repository
A storage space where a Concurrent Versions System (CVS) stores file version information.

See Common Vulnerability Scoring System.

See communication vector table.

CVV auth code
See card verification value authorization code.

See case weight.

See common work area.

An NCP threshold of buffer availability, below which the NCP will accept only high-priority path information units (PIUs).

See Custom Wire Format.

See common warehouse metamodel.

See hundredweight.

See coupled extended remote copy.

A color model used by the printing industry based on mixing cyan, magenta, and yellow. See also cyan/magenta/yellow/black.

A color model used by the printing industry based on mixing cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. CMYK is an enhancement of the cyan/magenta/yellow (CMY) model, created after printers discovered they could obtain a darker black using special black colorants rather than by combining cyan, magenta, and yellow alone. See also cyan/magenta/yellow.

The protection of online information from attack or unauthorized use.


  1. To end a management collection object that is currently in use and to open a new object for storing future collections. This process prevents collection objects from becoming too large.
  2. A set of tables that can be ordered so that each table is a descendent of the one before it, and the first table is a descendent of the last table. A self-referencing table is a cycle with a single member. See also referential cycle.

cycle count
The process of counting items in storage and reconciling the actual count (resolving count variances) to system inventory records.

cycle start date
In DFSMShsm, the date a backup cycle, dump cycle, or migration cleanup cycle is started.

cycle time

  1. The time required for a process instance in a process simulation run to finish processing its inputs. Cycle time includes idle time when an activity in the process is waiting for a resource to become available.
  2. The minimum time interval between starts of successive read/write cycles of a storage device.
  3. The time elapsed during one cycle of the processor. Cycle time varies from one type of processor to another.

cyclic array
An array whose elements are organized as a linked chain.

cyclic interval
The number of days in a cyclic period.

cyclic period
A period that represents a constant number of days. There are two types of cyclic periods: Work-days-only cyclic period, where only the work days are counted when calculating the number of days in the period and All-days cyclic period, where all days are counted.

cyclic redundancy check (CRC)

  1. A system of error checking performed at both the sending and receiving station after a block-check character has been accumulated.
  2. A redundancy check in which the check key is generated by a cyclic algorithm


  1. On a magnetic disk or in an assembly of disks, the set of all tracks that can be accessed by all the magnetic heads of a comb in a given position, without repositioning the access mechanism.
  2. A unit of storage on a count-key-data (CKD) device with a fixed number of tracks.

See Complete Zip Auditing and Rating.