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This site contains terms and definitions from many IBM software and hardware products as well as general computing terms.


An enhancement of the C language that adds features supporting object-oriented programming.

C++ language
An object-oriented high-level language that evolved from the C language. C++ takes advantage of the benefits of object-oriented technology such as code modularity, portability, and reuse.

C++ library
A system library that contains common C++ language subroutines for file access, memory allocation, and other functions.

A level of security defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) published by the United States Government. To meet C2 requirements, a system must perform discretionary access control, authentication and verification, object reuse protection, and auditing of security-relevant events.

See Click-to-Action.

C/370 common anchor area (C-CAA)
A common anchor area (CAA), specific to the C/370, in the runtime environment.

A rule induction algorithm that builds either a decision tree or a rule set. The model works by splitting the sample based on the field that provides the maximum information gain at each level. See also rule induction.


  1. See channel adapter.
  2. See certificate authority.
  3. See change accumulation.
  4. See control area.


  1. See Cluster Aware AIX.
  2. See common anchor area.

A physical medium for transmitting signals. Cables include copper conductors and optical fibers.

cable modem
A modem that provides Internet access over cable TV networks (which use fiber-optic or coaxial cables). A cable modem is generally faster than a modem that uses phone lines.

cable path
A series of cables connected in sequence.

cable segment
A section of cable between components or devices on a network. A segment may consist of a single patch cable, multiple patch cables that are connected to one another, or a combination of building cable and patch cables that are connected to one another.

Pertaining to a function or feature of a display station that allows multiple work stations to be attached to one cable path.

CA certificate
See certificate authority certificate.


  1. A buffer that contains frequently accessed instructions and data; it is used to reduce access time.
  2. Storage used to improve access times to instructions, data, or both. For example, data that resides in cache memory is normally a copy of data that resides elsewhere in slower, less expensive storage, such as on a disk or on another network node.
  3. To place a duplicate copy of a file on random access media when the server migrates a file to another storage pool in the hierarchy.
  4. To place, hide, or store frequently used information locally for quick retrieval.
  5. Memory used to improve access times to instructions, data, or both. Data that resides in cache memory is normally a copy of data that resides elsewhere in slower, less expensive storage, such as on a disk or on another network node.

cache coherency
Consistency of data in caches on multiple processors so that changing a single cache line does not create inconsistent versions of the cache line in the different caches.

cached inventory
Products that have their information, such as item attributes, inventory balance, or availability, stored in a local data cache. The consuming application, such as a web store, can access the information from the cache, reducing synchronous queries to the order management system.

cache eviction
A process by which data associated with a file is removed from the cache system. The data is removed either by using a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm when configured General Parallel File System (GPFS) hard or soft quota limits are exceeded or by issuing a command. When referenced again in the cache system, the data that is associated with the file is retrieved from the home system.

cache fast write
A storage control capability in which data is written directly to cache without using nonvolatile storage. Cache fast write is useful for temporary data or data that is readily re-created. See also DASD fast write.

cache file
A snapshot of a logical volume created by Logical Volume Snapshot Agent. Blocks are saved immediately before they are modified during the image backup and their logical extents are saved in the cache files.

cache hit

  1. A processor storage reference that is satisfied by information from a cache.
  2. An event that satisfies a read operation by retrieving data from cache instead of retrieving it from the intended storage or a lower level of cache. See also cache miss.

cache instance resource
A location where any Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application can store, distribute, and share data.

cache line

  1. The cache component that is normally loaded, stored, and interrogated during cache lookup.
  2. A record that contains relevant information about the user data that is currently in the subsystem cache memory. Examples of this information include the current state of the data and the intended location of the data on one or more disks.

cache miss

  1. A delay that occurs when the processor references data or instructions that are not already in the data cache or instruction cache.
  2. An event that satisfies a read operation by retrieving data from the intended storage or a lower level of cache because the requested data is not available in the only level or a higher level of cache. See also cache hit.

cache replication
The sharing of cache IDs, cache entries, and cache invalidations with other servers in the same replication domain.

cache set
A storage-class parameter, defined in the base configuration information, that maps a logical name to cache structure names in a coupling facility (CF).

cache structure
A coupling facility structure that stores data that can be available to all members of a Sysplex. A DB2 data sharing group uses cache structures as group buffer pools. See also group buffer pool.

cache table
In a federated system, a logical table object that is used to cache data from a data source table. A cache table comprises a nickname that identifies the data source table, one or more materialized query tables, and a schedule for replicating the data in each materialized query table.

cache timeout
The length of time that is allowed to pass before the cache is updated.

The process of storing frequently used results from a request to memory for quick retrieval, until it is time to refresh the information. The DB2 database manager provides many forms of caching, such as directory caching, package caching, file system caching, and LDAP caching.

caching I/O group
The I/O group in the system that performs the cache function for a volume.

caching proxy server
A proxy server that stores the documents that it retrieves from other servers in a local cache. The caching proxy server can then respond to subsequent requests for these documents without retrieving them from the other servers. This can improve response time.

See client acceptor daemon.

The modulated and rhythmic recurrence of an audio signal. For example, a series of beeps or a series of rings.


  1. See Client Attachment feature.
  2. See call attachment facility.

See I/O cage.

CA key
See command attention key.

See customer acceptance laboratory.

calc script
See calculation script.

calculated category
A category created based on a calculation. Calculated categories become part of the cube and can be applied to any measure.

calculated column
A column whose values are calculated from other columns, calculated columns, functions, and constants to derive new data for a model.

calculated expression
An expression that is not constant, but whose value depends upon other values. To be evaluated, a calculated expression must obtain and compute values from other sources, normally in other fields or rows.

calculated measure
A measure whose values are calculated from other measures, calculated measures, functions, and numeric constants in an arithmetic equation.

calculated member
A member of a dimension whose measure values are not stored but are calculated at run time using an expression. See also input member.

An equation within a database outline, a calculation script, or a report script that is used to determine a value for a particular member or point in a report.

calculation account
An account used for calculating rations and formulas in reports. The abbreviation for calculation account is CALC account.

calculation code
A code associated with order items, catalog entries, or catalog groups to specify how discounts, shipping charges, sales or use taxes, and shipping taxes should be calculated.

calculation framework
A flexible, generic framework provided by the WebSphere Commerce order subsystem, used to implement calculations and apply them to the applicable business objects.

calculation method
A reference task command that implement parts of calculation framework.

calculation rule
A rule that defines how a calculation will be done.

calculation scale
A set of ranges that can be used by a calculation rule. For example, for shipping charges, there can be a set of weight ranges that each correspond to a particular cost. That is, a product that weighs between 0 to 5 kg might cost $10.00 to ship, while a product weighing 5 to 10 kg might cost $15.00 to ship.

calculation script (calc script)
A text file that contains instructions for how specified data sets within a database should be calculated.

calculation specification
In RPG, a specification on which the programmer describes the processing to be done by the program.

calculation strategy
The strategy used to calculate the final score of a scorecard table.

calculation usage
A type of calculation that the calculation framework performs.


  1. A view in the Notes mail database that can be used to manage time and schedule meetings. Users can add appointments, meetings, reminders, events, and anniversaries to the Calendar view.
  2. A list of scheduling dates. Calendars are defined in the database and are mostly assigned to run cycles. Calendars can be used either to identify the dates when job streams or jobs can be run (when used with inclusive run cycles), or when they cannot be run (when used with exclusive run cycles). A calendar can also be designated for use as a non-working days calendar in a job stream. See also exclusive run cycle, holidays calendar, iCalendar, inclusive run cycle, non-working days calendar.

calendar exception
A partial or full day during which a resource does not work on a project

calendaring and scheduling
A feature available for clients using Notes that allows the user whose mail is enabled with Sametime to schedule an online meeting in Notes and send email invitations to prospective participants.

calendar schedule
A schedule that defines both the days and time that processing occurs. For example, one could use a calendar schedule to make sure that a process runs every Tuesday starting between 19:00 and 19:30 and ending between midnight and 00:30.


  1. In capacity planning, the process of refining a model so that it represents the system the user is modeling. The predicted and measured values should match as closely as possible, with no more than a 10% difference for resource utilization, and no more than a 20% difference for response times.
  2. The comparison and adjustment of an instrument to a standard of known accuracy.

calibration drift
The difference between the as left value of the previous measurement compared to the as found value of the current measurement for an asset.

calibration point
The calibration requirement for each asset function.


  1. A physical or logical connection between one or more parties in a telephone call.
  2. To start a program or procedure, usually by specifying the entry conditions and transferring control to an entry point.
  3. In Sametime, an audible message sent using a traditional phone call (POTS, PSTN). It may be IP based, or a hybrid using both IP and traditional phone.
  4. A single runtime instance of a voice application.
  5. An action state that invokes an operation on a classifier.

callable interface

  1. In query management, the Common Programming Interface (CPI) that includes the definitions of the control blocks and constants used for the interface. See also command interface.
  2. The application server to which the QMF session is currently connected. After the connection is made, this server processes all SQL statements.
  3. The name of the interface program, the definition of the arguments passed to the interface program, and the definition of the data structures passed to the interface program.

callable service

  1. Services that are provided by IMS for use by IMS exit routines. These services provide clearly defined interfaces that allow exit routines to request various functions, such as acquiring storage or finding an IMS control block.
  2. A set of documented interfaces between the z/OS operating system and higher level applications that want to access functions specified in the Single UNIX Specification and earlier standards. See also system call.
  3. A program service provided through a programming interface. See also action service.

call-accepted packet
A call supervision packet that a called data terminal equipment (DTE) transmits to indicate to the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) that it accepts the incoming call. See also call connected packet, call request packet.

call attachment facility (CAF)
A DB2 for z/OS attachment facility for application programs that run in TSO or z/OS batch. The CAF is an alternative to the DSN command processor and provides greater control over the execution environment. See also Resource Recovery Services attachment facility.

call back
To invoke a callback or upcall.


  1. In the AIX operating system, a procedure that is called if and when certain specified conditions are met.
  2. A way for one thread to notify another application thread that an event has happened.
  3. A message consumer or an event handler routine.
  4. Pertaining to a characteristic that tells a remote system whether the local system it tries to access will verify its identity.

callback function
Executable code that allows a lower-level software layer to call a function defined in a higher-level layer.

callback handler
A mechanism that uses a Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) interface to pass a security token to the web service security run time for propagation in the web service security header.

callback mechanism
A method for authentication of a voice user who is requesting a system API. This mechanism places a callback request to VoiceLogistics Pro (VLP) to verify whether the user is logged into VLP.

callback registration
The identification and registration of a callback routine.

callback routine
A procedure that is called if and when certain specified conditions are met. This is accomplished by specifying the procedure in a callback list.

call center

  1. A center that handles a large number of calls to either take orders or provide customer service.
  2. A central point at which all inbound calls are handled by a group of individuals on a controlled sequential basis. Call centers are usually a front end to a business such as airline ticketing or mail order.

call center dashboard
A user interface that provides information on how the telesales service representative, shift, or call center is performing.

call chain
A trace of all active routines and subroutines, such as the names of routines and the locations of save areas, that can be constructed from information included in a system dump.

call connected packet
In X.25 communications, a call supervision packet transmitted by a DCE to inform the calling DTE of the complete establishment of the call. See also call request packet, call-accepted packet.

call control
That set of telephony functions that includes call establishment, call transfer, and call disconnection (the program control of a telephone call).

call detail record (CDR)
In telephony, a unit of information containing data about a completed call, such as the time the call began, its duration and date, the originating extension, and the number called.

called DLS user
The data link service (DLS) user in connection mode that processes requests for connections from other DLS users. See also Data Link Service.

called NS user
A network service (NS) with which a calling NS user wants to establish a network connection.

called number
See dialed number identification service.

called party

  1. On a switched line, the location to which a connection is established.
  2. Any person, device, or system that receives a telephone call. See also caller.

called program
A program that is the object of a CALL statement combined at run time with the calling program to produce a run unit.

called routine
A program or sequence of instructions that is invoked by another program.


  1. Any person, device, or system that makes a telephone call. See also called party.
  2. A function that calls another function.
  3. The requester of a service.

caller ID
A feature that displays the phone number of the incoming caller.

call establishment
The complete sequence of events that is necessary to establish a data connection.

call forward
To send an incoming call to a different number.

call forwarding
The process of sending incoming calls to a different number.

call graph
A graph that uses lines represents the flow of data between subroutines in a program.

call hold
A feature that places callers on hold while the user does something else (or answers another call).

call home
A communication link established between a product and a service provider. The product can use this link to place a call to IBM or to another service provider when it requires service. With access to the machine, service personnel can perform service tasks, such as viewing error and problem logs or initiating trace and dump retrievals.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can receive a call, but cannot send one.

In X.25 communications, pertaining to the location or user that makes a call.

calling address
See network user address.

calling command ID
A numeric identifier for a command that calls an API function.

calling convention
A specified way for routines and subroutines to exchange data with each other.

calling DLS user
In OSI networking, the Data Link Service (DLS) user in connection mode who establishes a data link connection.

calling line identification presentation (CLIP)
An ISDN supplementary service that advises the called party of the caller's number: for example, by displaying it on a telephone display panel.

calling party
On a switched line, the location that originates a connection.

calling program
A program that calls another program.

calling thread
The task in progress in a multitasking environment.

CALL interface
A part of the external CICS interface (EXCI). The CALL interface consists of six commands that allow you to allocate and open sessions to a CICS system from non-CICS programs running under MVS; issue DPL requests on these sessions from the non-CICS programs; and close and deallocate the sessions on completion of the DPL requests.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can send or receive a call.

call level
The position of an entry (program or procedure) in the call stack. The first entry has a call level of 1. Any entry called by a level 1 entry has a call level of 2, and so on.

call level interface (CLI)
An API for database access that provides a standard set of functions to process SQL statements, XQuery expressions, and related services at run time. See also embedded SQL.

call level number
A unique number assigned by the system to each call stack entry.

call message queue
A message queue that exists for each call stack entry within a job.

call-not-accepted signal
A call control signal sent by the called data terminal equipment to indicate that it does not accept the incoming call.

The logical channel type on which the data terminal equipment (DTE) can send a call, but cannot receive one.


  1. An outbound message to request services or data from an enterprise application or web service.
  2. A kernel parameter that establishes the maximum number of scheduled activities that can be pending simultaneously.
  3. The action of bringing a computer program, a routine, or a subroutine into effect.

callout node
The connection point in a mediation request flow from which a service message is sent to a target. There must be one callout node for each target operation.

callout response node
The starting point for a mediation response flow. There must be one callout response node for each target.

callout table
A kernel table that keeps track of all sleeping processes and the channel on which each is waiting.

Software that provides basic computer-telephony integration (CTI) enablement and comprehensive CTI functionality. This includes access to, and management of, inbound and outbound telecommunications.

call profile
In telephony, a set of characteristics that may be used when establishing or manipulating a program-controlled telephone call.

call progress signal
A call control signal transmitted from the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) to the calling data terminal equipment (DTE) to indicate the progress of the establishment of a call, the reason why the connection could not be established, or any other network condition.

call redirection notification
In X.25 communications, an optional CCITT-specified facility that informs the caller that the call has been redirected to another DTE.

call request packet
A call supervision packet that a data terminal equipment (DTE) transmits to ask that a connection for a call be established throughout the network. See also call connected packet, call-accepted packet.

call request signal
During the establishment of a connection for a call, a signal that informs the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) that a data terminal equipment (DTE) has asked to make a call.

call session
The sequence of events that occurs from the time a call is initiated to the time all activities related to answering and processing the call are completed.

call stack

  1. A list of data elements that is constructed and maintained by the Java virtual machine (JVM) for a program to successfully call and return from a method.
  2. The ordered list of all programs or procedures currently started for a job. The programs and procedures can be started explicitly with the CALL instruction, or implicitly from some other event.

call stack entry
A program or procedure in the call stack.

call supervision packet
A packet used to establish or clear a call at the interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).

call thread
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a thread created by a remote procedure call (RPC) server's run time to execute remote procedures. When engaged by an RPC, a call thread temporarily forms part of the RPC thread of the call.

call transfer
A series of actions that directs a call to another telephone number.

call-triggered flow
A data flow triggered by a direct call that the collaboration receives through the Server Access Interface. An access client initiates a call-triggered flow.

call user data (CUD)
User-specified data that can be placed in an X.25 call request packet to be sent to the adjacent node.

A planned series of operations including advertisements and suggestive selling techniques, that are pursued to achieve a defined set of business objectives. In the WebSphere Commerce Accelerator, campaigns are used to coordinate and aggregate groups of campaign initiatives.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
A not-for-profit membership-based association dedicated to standards development for business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. See also CSA International.

To end a task before it is completed.

cancelability point
A specific point within the current thread that is enabled to solicit cancel requests.

cancel closedown
A closedown in which a program is abnormally terminated either because of an unexpected situation or as the result of an operator command. See also orderly closedown, quick closedown.

cancellation cleanup handler
A function that you can specify to perform an action, such as releasing resources, that occurs after the thread returns from the start routine and calls pthread_exit() or after a cancellation request is performed on the thread.

cancellation point
A function that causes a pending cancellation request to be delivered if the cancellation state is enabled and the cancellation type is deferred.

cancellation state
One of two values, which are either enabled or disabled, that describe whether cancellation requests in the current thread are acted on or held in a pending state. If the value is enabled, the cancellation request is acted on immediately and is based on the current cancellation type. If the value is disabled, the cancellation request is held in a pending state until it is enabled.

cancellation type
One of two values (deferred or asynchronous) that describe how cancellation requests in the current thread are acted on when the cancellation state is enabled. If the value is deferred, the cancellation request is held pending. If the value is asynchronous, the cancel request is acted on immediately, thus ending the thread with a status of PTHREAD_CANCELED.

An applicant profile that has been submitted in response to either a contingent staff or hybrid request.

candidate column
A column that is used as a placeholder in a mapping.

candidate endpoint
A known service endpoint that implements an interface for a particular request. The set of candidates is then filtered by the dynamic assembler to select the best endpoint out of all the candidates.

candidate list
A short list of entities that are potential matches of the incoming identity because they share certain attributes. See also attribute.

candidate term
A term in a business glossary that is being considered but that has not yet become standard or accepted. See also accepted term, standard term.

candidate threshold
The minimum score at which a particular attribute value must match between the incoming identity and an existing entity to satisfy the resolution rule. See also resolution rule.

Pertaining to the practice of conforming to known rules or procedures.

canonical address
In LANs, the IEEE 802.1 format for the transmission of medium access control (MAC) addresses for token-ring and Ethernet adapters. In canonical format, the least significant (rightmost) bit of each address byte is transmitted first. See also noncanonical address.

canonical format
A format for storing hierarchical names that displays the hierarchical attribute of each component of the name. For example, the canonical format for the name Reuben D. Smith/Ottawa/Acme/CA is: CN=Reuben D. Smith/OU=Ottawa/O=Acme/C=CA where: CN is the common name, OU is the organizational unit, O is the organization, and C is the region or country code.

canonical host name
A host name that is not an alias.

canonical mode
See line mode.

canonical processing
Processing that occurs according to a defined set of rules. Canonical processing is typically used by the shell and simple commands.

An area within a dashboard or workspace that users interact with to create, view, and manipulate content and data.

See Common Alerting Protocol.


  1. A group of functions and features that can be hidden or revealed to simplify the user interface. Capabilities can be enabled or disabled by changing preference settings, or they can be controlled through an administration interface.
  2. A function or feature that is made available by an application, tool, or product.
  3. Specific features or characteristics of a piece of software, such as the database version.

capability data
In OSI, a confirmed data transfer service provided by the session layer to transfer a limited amount of data outside of an activity. Capability data can be used by two peers to exchange information about their capability to start an activity.

capability exchange
A series of messages that pass between two CICS regions to establish if they can communicate using IP interconnectivity (IPIC). The capability exchange determines the security controls that are applied to the connection, the number of sessions to be made available, and resynchronizes any outstanding work if the connection has previously failed.

capability list
A list of associated resources and their corresponding privileges per user.

capability matrix
A data structure that represents the linguistic capabilities available within multiple language dictionaries, and allows searching for appropriate dictionaries.

capability type
A category, such as "database" or "hardware" that is used to group characteristics of a piece of software. For example, the "hardware" capability type includes characteristics such the BIOS vendor and BIOS version.

capable to promise (CTP)
Pertaining to the ability to fill and deliver an order in a specific time frame.

An electronic part that permits storage of electricity.


  1. A measure of how much volume or revenue can be handled by a specific resource.
  2. The actual number of parallel servers and workstation resources available during a specified open interval.

capacity break
In logistics, a level of shipment size at which the cost changes.

capacity ceiling
The maximum number of operations that a workstation can handle simultaneously.

capacity constraint
A rule that governs the amount of items that can be awarded to a supplier. Using a capacity constraint, business can be awarded to a preferred supplier or the volume of business for a supplier can be limited.

capacity licensing
A licensing model that licenses features with a price-per-terabyte model. Licensed features are FlashCopy, and Metro Mirror and Global Mirror, and virtualization. See also FlashCopy, Metro Mirror, virtualization.

capacity on demand (CoD)
The ability of a computing system to increase or decrease its performance capacity as needed to meet fluctuations in demand.

capacity organization
An organization definition for which all resource capacity information is consolidated.

capacity override
Override of typical capacity plans when additional capacity is required for specific date/time slot combinations to handle planned spikes in demand or shortfalls in resources.

capacity planner
A function that uses information about the system, such as a description of the system's workload, performance objectives, and configuration, to determine how the data processing needs of the system can best be met. The capacity planner then recommends, through the use of printed reports and graphs, ways to enhance performance, such as hardware upgrades, performance tuning, or system configuration changes.

capacity planning

  1. The process of scheduling the resources required to perform project work.
  2. The process of determining the hardware and software configuration required to accommodate the anticipated workload on a system.

capacity requirements planning (CRP)
The process of specifying the level of resources (facilities, equipment, and labor force size) that best supports the competitive strategy for production of the enterprise.

capacity type
A predefined value that determines the capacity units for licensing, such as online processors, configured processors, physical disks or physical memory.

Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD)
The capability to permanently activate one or more inactive processors without having to restart the server or interrupt the data flow of the business, through the purchase of a permanent processor activation. This capability adds significant value by enabling a fast and economical way to add capacity for new workloads, enabling the server to adapt to unexpected performance demands. See also activation code, application provisioning, dynamic LPAR, free pool, Hardware Management Console.


  1. See computer assisted personal interviewing.
  2. See cryptography application programming interface.

capital letter
An uppercase letter. See also simple letter.

capital lock (caps lock)
The keyboard function that invokes the uppercase of alphabetic characters, but does not change the response of numeric and other keys. This function is convenient for combining uppercase letters with numbers as in the string "M3C 1H7". Capital Lock is a toggle key.

capitals lock state
A state that, if activated, will result in the generation of the capital form of all graphic characters on the keyboard for which such a form exists. National standards or usage may determine which graphic characters are affected by this state (see ISO/IEC 9995-1).

capped partition
A logical partition in a shared processor pool whose processor use never exceeds its assigned processing capacity.

caps lock
See capital lock.

A design pattern that represents an encapsulated thread of control. It is a stereotyped class with a set of required and restricted associations and properties.

capsule role
A specification of the type of capsule that can occupy a particular position in a capsule's collaboration or structure. Capsule roles are strongly owned by the container capsule and cannot exist independently of it.


  1. A National Language Support-enabled text string in a policy expression that describes the policy.
  2. Text associated with, and describing, a table or figure.
  3. A description associated with an identifier. The caption is often used in preference to the identifier in reports to make them more comprehensible.


  1. To digitize an image into the video memory of the M-Video Capture Adapter.
  2. In SQL replication, event publishing, and Q replication, to gather changes from a source database. These changes can come from the DB2 log or journal or from source transactions in a relational database that is not a DB2 database.
  3. The process by which an acquirer receives payment from the customer's financial institution and remits the payment. A "capture" is the guarantee that the funds are available and that the transfer will take place.

Capture control server
In SQL replication, a database or subsystem that contains the Capture control tables, which store information about registered replication source tables. The Capture program runs on the Capture control server.

capture data
The business information collected by CICS for inclusion in an event.

captured UCB
A virtual window into the actual unit control block (UCB). Captured UCB resides in private storage below 16 MB. All the virtual windows on the actual UCB view the same data at the same time. Only actual UCBs above 16 MB are captured. See also actual UCB, unit control block.

capture file
A file used by a communication program to capture, or record, data being transmitted from a remote system or device.

Capture latency
In SQL replication, an approximate difference between the time that source data was changed and the time that the Capture program made the data available to the Apply program by committing the data to a CD table. Capture latency is a subset of the end-to-end latency in a replication configuration. See also Apply latency, end-to-end latency, latency, Q Apply latency, Q Capture latency.

capture point
A point in application logic or CICS system activity where an event is generated. Capture points are defined in a capture specification.

Capture program
In SQL replication, a program that reads database log or journal records to capture changes that are made to DB2 database source tables and store them in staging tables. See also Apply program, Capture trigger, Q Capture program.

Capture schema
In SQL replication, a name that identifies the control tables that are used by an instance of the Capture program.

capture specification
A capture specification provides the information that CICS will use to detect an event within an application or in the system. The capture specification can include the capture point, capture data, and predicates for filtering and is defined in the event binding file.

capture to file
To save data into a file.

Capture trigger
In SQL replication, a mechanism that captures delete, update, or insert operations that are performed on source tables other than DB2 source tables. See also Apply program, Capture program.

carbon cap
A limit on carbon emissions.

carbon copy
A process that allows a shipper to generate a copy of an outbound data exchange transaction, which is sent to other organizations.

carbon credit
A transferrable permit that allows an organization to release one ton of carbon dioxide into the environment. The implementation of carbon credits is an attempt to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that are being produced.

carbon footprint
The amount of greenhouse gas that a person or organization is responsible for producing. A smaller carbon footprint is associated with having less detrimental effect on the environment.

Carbon Responsibility Factor (CRF)
The percentage of a vehicle's carbon emissions that are attributable to the supply chain.


  1. An electronic circuit board that is plugged into a slot in a system to give it added capabilities.
  2. An item of equipment that is inserted in a shelf. A card is a predefined business object.
  3. A Wireless Markup Language (WML) document that provides user-interface and navigational settings to display content on mobile devices. See also deck.
  4. In the Map Designer, a data object. There are two types of map cards: input and output.

card carrier
A container for shelf item objects that can associate more than one card with a single slot. A card carrier is a predefined business object.

card column
The column from a punch card that was used in early computers to read information. Punch cards typically contained 80 columns of 12 rows.

card enclosure
The area in the system that contains the logic cards.

card image
A one-to-one representation of the hole patterns of a punched card; for example, a card image might be a matrix in which a one represents a punch and a zero represents the absence of a punch.


  1. For relational data sources, a numerical indication of the relationship between two query subjects, query items, or other model objects.
  2. The number of elements in a set. See also multiplicity.
  3. For OLAP data sources, the number of members in a hierarchy. The cardinality property for a hierarchy is used to assign solve orders to expressions.
  4. The number of rows in a database table or the number of elements in an array. See also associative array.
  5. In information analysis, a measure of the number of unique values in a column.

card object
An object used in the TX Programming Interface that represents an input or output card of a map in program memory.

card type
A 4-digit identifier printed on the logic card.

card verification value authorization code (CVV auth code)
A separate authorization code that might be returned in addition to a credit card authorization code when a financial institution approves a credit card transaction.

A series of jobs within a profession or across professions. The career is owned by an individual who also has the responsibility for managing it and for developing the required skills. A career is usually but not always tangible evidence of growth in skills, capability, prestige, recognition and compensation.

career path
The work an individual does. Career paths are frequently aligned with an organization (e.g., Marketing Professional Career). Career paths are divided into job categories and job categories are divided into job roles.

See Continuous Association Rule Mining Algorithm.

A revolving type of contained storage system that brings locations to the operator.

carriage control character
A character that is used to specify a write, space, or skip operation. See also control character.

carriage return (CR)

  1. The movement of the printing position or display position to the first position on the same line.
  2. A keystroke generally indicating the end of a command line.
  3. The action that indicates that printing is to be continued at the left margin of the next line. A carriage return is equivalent to the carriage return of a typewriter.

carriage return character
A character that in the output stream indicates that printing should start at the beginning of the same physical line in which the carriage-return character occurred.


  1. A transportation service provider that provides delivery and shipping services between buyers, sellers, and customers.
  2. A continuous frequency (a pulse train, or an electric or electromagnetic wave) that may be varied by a signal bearing information to be transmitted over a communication system.

carrier ID
A code that identifies a carrier organization in regions outside North America, which do not use a SCAC as an identifier. See also Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

carrier management system
A network management product that a communication common carrier provides to a customer; this product monitors and manages the telecommunication equipment that the communication common carrier provides for the customer's network.

carrier PRO number
A reference number that the carrier can assign to each shipment.

carrier sense
In a local area network, an ongoing activity of a data station to detect whether another station is transmitting.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
An arbitration protocol in which multiple stations access the network without explicit coordination, avoiding contention by checking for other signals (sensing the carrier) and deferring if a signal is already present. Should two signals collide, each station detects the collision and transmits again after a random amount of time.

carrier service capacity
The unit of measure that is maintained for a carrier service item. For example, the unit of measure could be defined as truck space for delivery items.

carrier signal
A signal with a constant frequency that can be modulated to carry a data signal.

carrier type
A method for classifying carriers as primary, secondary, or backup carriers.

See command and response token.

cart bar code
A number or bar code stuck on a cart that is used to identify a specific cart.

Cartesian product
The resulting set from performing a multiple-table query without any specified joining conditions among the tables.

A standard container with specific dimensions used in both storage and shipping of loose items.

carton flow rack
Storage rack consisting of multiple lanes of gravity fed carton flow conveyors. The lanes are replenished from the rear. The material flows through the rack and is picked from the front.

The process by which loose items from a common order or common customer are placed in standard cartons in preparation for shipment.

carton manifest
The list of cartons in a parcel carrier shipment.

cartridge eject
For an IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Automated Tape Library 3494, IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver, or a manual tape library, the act of physically removing a tape cartridge, usually under robot control, by placing it in an output station. The software logically removes the cartridge by deleting or updating the tape volume record in the tape configuration database (TCDB). For a manual tape library, cartridge eject is the logical removal of a tape cartridge from the manual tape library by deleting or updating the tape volume record in the TCDB.

cartridge entry
For an IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Automated Tape Library 3494, IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver, or a manual tape library, the process of logically adding a tape cartridge to the library by creating or updating the tape volume record in the tape configuration database (TCDB). The cartridge entry process includes the assignment of the cartridge to the scratch or private category in the library.

cartridge loader
A feature that allows a user to place tape cartridges in a loading rack for automatic loading. Manual loading of single tape cartridges is also possible.

Cartridge System Tape
The base tape-cartridge medium used with the IBM 3480 Magnetic Tape Subsystem and IBM 3490 Magnetic Tape Subsystem.


  1. See China Association for Standards.
  2. See channel associated signaling.
  3. See Common Analysis Structure.


  1. An operation that propagates the exact same operation to all dependant objects.
  2. To connect in a series or in a succession of stages so that each stage derives from or acts upon the product of the preceding stage. For instance, network controllers might be cascaded in a succession of levels in order to concentrate many more lines than a single level permits.

cascade delete
A process by which the DB2 database manager enforces referential constraints by deleting all descendent rows of a deleted parent row.

cascaded initiator
An intermediate node in a transaction program network that uses the two-phase commit protocol.

cascaded menu
A menu that appears from, and contains choices related to, a cascading choice in another menu.

cascaded transaction
A transaction that spans nodes and is coordinated by Resource Recovery Services (RRS). cascaded multisystem transaction. A transaction that spans systems in a sysplex and is coordinated by Resource Recovery Services (RRS).

cascaded UR family
A collection of nodes consisting of a unit of recovery (UR) and its descendants.

cascading choice
A choice on a menu that, when selected, presents another menu with additional related choices.

cascading delete
The process of deleting rows from a child table when the foreign key is deleted from the parent table. When any rows are deleted from the primary key column of a table, cascading deletes, if enabled, delete identical information from any foreign-key column in a related table.

cascading menu
A submenu of related choices that is invoked when the parent item is selected.

cascading prompt
A prompt that uses values from a previous prompt to filter the values in the current prompt or pick list.

cascading replication
A replication topology in which there are multiple tiers of servers. A peer/master server replicates to a small set of read-only servers which in turn replicate to other servers. Such a topology off-loads replication work from the master servers.

cascading resource
A resource that can be taken over by more than one node. A takeover priority is assigned to each configured cluster resource group on a per-node basis. In the event of a takeover, the node with the highest priority acquires the resource group. If that node is unavailable, the node with the next-highest priority acquires the resource group, and so on.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
A language that defines a hierarchical set of style rules for controlling the rendering of HTML or XML files in browsers, viewers, or in print.

Cascading Style Sheets positioning (CSS-P)
Use of Cascading Style Sheets to position web page elements using pixel locations or locations relative to other elements.

cascading switches
Switches that are interconnected to build large fabrics.


  1. A process instance and related set of documents, properties, roles, and tasks that are used to facilitate the collaboration of people to achieve a business outcome. See also task.
  2. A container that holds a specified quantity of identical items (SKU) as packaged by a vendor. Cases are identified by license plate number and are generally put away into storage, in their original condition until picked.
  3. The basic unit of analysis. In a data set based on a simple survey, a case generally corresponds to a respondent.

See Computer Assisted Software Engineering.

case clause
In a C or C++ switch statement, a CASE label followed by any number of statements.

case code
See factory carton code.

case data
The data that is recorded for each case. In a market research survey, the case data stores the answers given by each respondent.

Case Data Model (CDM)
A model that defines access to the case data that is stored in a standard database or in a proprietary format.

case data source component (CDSC)
A data source component (DSC) that exposes case data to the Provider.

CASE expression
An expression that is selected based on the evaluation of one or more conditions.

case ID
A unique identifier for a case or carton stored in the warehouse.

case label

  1. The word case followed by a constant expression and a colon. When the selector is evaluated to the value of the constant expression, the statements following the case label are processed.
  2. In Pascal, a value or range of values that comes before a statement in a CASE statement branch. When the selector is evaluated to the value of a CASE label, the statement following the case label is processed.

case pick
The process of picking unbroken cases from bulk case storage for shipment.

case property
A property, such as a name or date, that is defined at the solution level and reused in a case type, document type, task, or step in that solution. See also case type, document type.

case sensitive
Pertaining to the ability to distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.

case-sensitive search
A search in which a result will be found for the search string only if the particular combination of uppercase and lowercase letters are exactly matched.

case status
A label that is applied to a case by the Data Collection system that indicates its current level of completion.

case type
The definition of a case. The information that a case type provides is similar to that information that a process definition or template provides for a process instance. See also case property.

case weight (CW)
In cultural sorting, the combined weight value of case, subscripting, superscripting, fractions, and other factors. For example, the lowercase letter a precedes the uppercase letter A, and middle Arabic shapes precede final Arabic shapes. See also alphanumeric weight, diacritical weight, indifferent weight, level 3, mark weight, special weight.

A delivery method by which orders are fulfilled directly from a store and paid in full at the time of transaction. Cash-and-carry transactions require no additional processing.

A service that provides customers with the ability to receive cash in addition to the goods that they purchased in a store using an alternate payment method. The total amount of the transaction, which includes the cost of the purchased goods and the amount of the cash received, is debited from the customer's account. For example, a customer might charge $37 to their credit card for a $17 item in order to get that item and $20 back from the store.

See computer assisted self-interviewing.

CA-signed certificate
A certificate that is signed using a key maintained by a certificate authority. Before issuing a certificate, the certificate authority evaluates a certificate requestor to determine that the requestor is the certificate holder referenced in the certificate.

CAS processor
See common analysis structure processor.


  1. In cut-sheet printers, a removable container for a supply of paper.
  2. A software component which supports a particular payment protocol.


  1. In programming languages, an expression that converts the value of its operand to a specified type.
  2. A database object and an operator for converting data from one data type to another. Built-in data types have built-in casts to compatible data types within database server. See also explicit cast, implicit cast, user-defined cast.

cast expression
An expression that converts or reinterprets its operand.

cast function
A function that is used to convert instances of a source data type into instances of a different target data type. In general, a cast function has the name of the target data type and has one single argument whose type is the source data type. Its return type is the target data type.

Converting a value with a given data type to a different data type or to the same data type with a different length, precision or scale. See also downcasting, upcasting.

CAS tone
See Customer Premise Equipment Alerting Signal tone.

cast operator
An operator that is used for explicit type conversions.

The process of writing changed pages from a group buffer pool to disk.

castout owner
The DB2 member that is responsible for casting out a particular page set or partition.

cast support function
A function that is used to implement an implicit or explicit cast by performing the necessary operations for conversion between two data types.

casual connection
In an APPN network, a connection between an end node and a network node with different network identifiers.


  1. A container for one or more offerings that a user can request.
  2. A container that, depending on the container type, holds processes, data, resources, organizations, or reports in the project tree.
  3. The highest level of the category hierarchy. All of the groupings that exist below the catalog are referred to as categories.
  4. A data set that contains information about other data sets.
  5. A collection of tables and views that contains descriptions of objects such as tables, views, and indexes.
  6. A repository for storing specifications for builds, reference structures, connections, and other components.
  7. A container that stores items. An item can belong to only one catalog. Each catalog must be associated with at least one hierarchy, the primary hierarchy, and can be associated with one or more secondary hierarchies. See also item.
  8. To specify the record class and file plan location when declaring a record.
  9. A directory of files and libraries, with reference to their locations.
  10. To enter information about a data set or a library into a catalog.

catalog asset store
A collection of catalog artifacts that creates a virtual catalog. See also asset store, storefront asset store.

catalog cleanup
A process that deletes entries for which volumes are no longer available; catalog cleanup also allows deletion of a catalog even though it is not empty.

catalog connector
A catalog entry, either a user catalog entry or a catalog connector entry, in the master catalog that points to a user catalog's volume (that is, it contains the volume serial number of the direct access volume that contains the user catalog).

cataloged data set
A data set that is represented in an index or hierarchy of indexes that provide the means for locating it.

cataloged procedure
A set of job control language (JCL) statements that has been placed in a library and that is retrievable by name.

catalog entry
An object in an online catalog. An entry has a name, description, list price, and other details. The entry can be as simple as a SKU; it may also be a product that is automatically broken down into its component items such as a bundle or package. See also list price.

catalog filter
A filter that controls product entitlement by dividing catalogs into subsets as defined by the business owner. Catalog filters can also be used as one of the price rules conditions when determining the prices for the set of catalog entries that a set of customers are entitled to.

Catalog Filter and Pricing tool
A Management Center feature that is used to create and manage catalog filters, price lists, and price rules.

catalog group
A collection of one or more catalog entries or catalog groups which create a navigational hierarchy for an online catalog.

catalog index
A searchable index file that is built from the item data in an order management database. This index provides fast search capability on catalog items.

catalog node
See catalog partition.

catalog organization
An organization definition for which an item master is defined.

catalog partition

  1. In a partitioned database environment, the database partition where the catalog tables for the database are stored. Each database in a partitioned database environment can have its catalog partition on a different database partition server. The catalog partition for a database is automatically created on the database partition server where the CREATE DATABASE command is run.
  2. In a partitioned database environment, the database partition where the catalog tables for the database are stored. Each database in a partitioned database environment can have its catalog partition on a different database partition server.

catalog recovery area (CRA)
An entry-sequenced data set (ESDS) that exists on each volume owned by a recoverable catalog, including the volume on which the catalog resides. The CRA contains copies of the catalog's records and can be used to recover a damaged catalog.

catalog request
One or more offerings that have been ordered by a service requester. Catalog requests are fulfilled via the activities of the Service Catalog approval workflow.

catalog rule
A rule that pertains to catalog management.

Catalog Search Interface
In z/OS, a particular application programming interface (API) that allows programs written in assembler or a high-level language to read information from a catalog.

catalog service
A service that controls placement of shards and discovers and monitors the health of containers.

catalog service domain
A highly available collection of catalog service processes.

Catalogs tool
A Management Center feature that can be used to manage catalogs, categories, catalog entries, merchandising associations, product attributes and attachments in your store.

catalog table
A table that is automatically created in the DB2 database catalog when a database is created. Catalog tables contain information about a database and its objects. See also catalog view.

catalog view

  1. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, a SYSCAT or SYSSTAT view on the catalog table.
  2. One of a set of views automatically created when a database is created. Catalog views contain information about the database and the objects in that database. Examples of information about the database are definitions of database objects and information about the authority that users have on these objects. See also catalog table.

catch block
A block associated with a try block that receives control when an exception matching its argument is thrown. See also try block.

A server that service personnel use to collect and retain status data that other machines, such as the TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server (ESS), send to it. See also catcher telephone number.

catcher telephone number
The telephone number that connects the ESS to the support-catcher server and enables the ESS to receive a trace or dump package. See also catcher, Remote Technical Assistance and Information Network.

catching message intermediate event
An intermediate event that is triggered when a specific message is received. See also intermediate event.

In a remote journal network, the process of replicating journal entries that existed in the journal receivers of the source journal before the remote journal was activated.

catch-up mount
A local mount that z/OS UNIX automatically issues to every other system's physical file system that is running sysplex-aware for that mode (read-write or read-only) when a file system mount is successful on a system in a shared file system environment.

catch-up processing
In an RSR environment, the process by which tracked log data is used to make all recoverable resources (for example, shadow databases) current with those resources on the active IMS.

catchup state
In high availability disaster recovery, a state in which the standby database might not have applied all logged operations that occurred on the primary database. In this state, the standby database retrieves and applies previously generated log data to synchronize with the primary database. There are two types of catchup states: local and remote.

categorical question
A question that has a limited number of categories with a choice of possible answers. Categorical questions can be single response or multiple response.

categorical response
A response that has a limited number of categories that represent the possible responses. Categorical responses can be single response or multiple response.

categorical variable
A variable that has a limited number of distinct values or categories, such as a variable that is based on a question that has a predefined set of answers. Categorical variables can be single response or multiple response.


  1. A logical subset of volumes in a tape library. A category can be assigned by the library manager (for example, the insert category) or by the software (such as, the private or scratch categories).
  2. A group of brands that are related by customer type, technology, capability or requirements for market success.
  3. A container used in a structure diagram to group elements based on a shared attribute or quality.
  4. The recommended security specifications needed for both the CICS transaction definitions and the corresponding RACF profiles.
  5. A set of items that are grouped according to a specific description or classification. Categories can be different levels of information within a dimension. See also member.
  6. A closed-ended response to a question or item in a shared list.
  7. A classification of an item. Hierarchies are made up of categories and items. Items in a catalog can be associated to one or more categories from the specifications of the catalog. Items can also be unassigned, which is their default state, which means they are not in any category yet. Every hierarchy has exactly one root category. Every category can have any number of additional categories within it, called sub-categories. See also container, hierarchy.
  8. A group within a system of classification whose contents share similar properties. See also category page.
  9. An optional grouping of messages that are related in some way. For example, messages that relate to a particular application might be included in a single category. See also message.
  10. A classification of elements for documentation or analyses.
  11. A property that is set on an element of the business object model (BOM) and can be applied to business classes and filtered in business rules. This property allows the user to specify whether a business class and its members are visible in a rule.
  12. A container that groups a set of related records within a file plan.
  13. A word or phrase that classifies and organizes terms in the business glossary. A category can contain other categories, and it can also contain terms. In addition, a category can reference terms that it does not contain. See also business glossary.
  14. A type class that is used to organize types in a type tree in the Type Designer. Categories organize types that have common properties.
  15. A set of catalog items in a number of different hierarchical and searchable groupings.
  16. A word, phrase, or number used to group documents in a view.
  17. One possible answer in a set of answers that are defined in the category list of a categorical or grid question.

category 1 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are never associated with a terminal: that is, they are for CICS internal use only and should not be invoked from a user terminal. For this reason, CICS does not perform any security checks when it initiates transactions in this category for its own use.

category 2 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either initiated by the terminal user or are associated with a terminal. You should restrict authorization to initiate these transactions to user IDs belonging to specific RACF groups.

category 3 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either invoked by the terminal user or associated with a terminal. All CICS users, whether they are signed on or not, require access to transactions in this category. For this reason, they are exempt from any security checks and CICS permits any terminal user to initiate these transactions. Examples of category 3 transactions are CESN and CESF, to sign on and off, respectively.

category attribute
An attribute instance on a category. The attribute is defined in the specification of the owning hierarchy or by a secondary specification associated to that category. See also attribute instance.

category bag
A container for keyed reference pairs used to aid discovery of a published web service. Each category bag includes a name and the value of a category to which the published item belongs.

category bean
A bean that logs information about content categories.

category code
A value that uniquely identifies every category within a dimension. See also member unique name.

category count
A measure that records the number of unique, non-zero and non-missing values for the categories in the dimension and level specified by the user.

category data set
A data set in which the user can specify whether x-values should be stored in memory or computed according to the indices of data points. The x-values correspond to a category number.

category distribution
The placement of categories among the columns of a category list that is displayed in more than one column or row.

category field
An additional field that is created by a buyer user to gather more information about categories and items. A category property is specific to the category for which it is created and applies only to items of that category.

category filter
A filter that is set on a business rule and removes the business element to which a category was attached from the completion menu.

category list
A list of predefined answers that are in a categorical or grid question. The respondent selects the answers to the question from this list. For example, a list of brand names is a category list.

category management
The management system for rationalizing a group of related brands, branded offerings, brand units and/or business units. Category managers need to manage the inevitable overlap between brands and units which occurs as successful brands and units expand their scope.

category manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the category hierarchy by creating, modifying, and deleting categories. The category hierarchy organizes products or services offered by the store. The category manager also manages products, expected inventory records, vendor information, inventory, and return reasons.

category organization
The organizational structure for managing groups of related brand units or business units. The organization focuses on coordinating and rationalizing activities across a portfolio of brands and with other categories.

category page
A web page in an online store that displays product categories. Category pages connect customers to child category pages or to products that belong to the selected category. See also category, child category.

category replication
The answer portion of categorical, grid, and numeric grid Looks. The category replication controls which category rows in a Look are repeated when the Look is applied to a question.

category schema
A reusable group of categories and subcategories. Assets can be organized in repositories according to their category schemas.

category set
A subset of the categories in a dimension, either from a single level or from different levels in the same dimension. See also set.

category-specific item attribute
An attribute instance that applies to an item because of the presence of that item in a given category. A secondary specification with additional attributes is applied to that category, and all items in that category gain those extra fields. See also attribute instance.

category tree

  1. See hierarchy.
  2. A hierarchy of categories. See also taxonomy.

category viewer
The portion (right pane) of the Categories diagram that shows the category hierarchy of the selected dimension and provides a mechanism for manipulating the categories.

cathode ray tube (CRT)
A vacuum tube in which a beam of electrons can be moved to draw lines or to form characters or symbols on its luminescent screen.

See computer assisted telephone interviewing.

See Controlled Access Unit.

cause code
In X.25 communications, a 1-byte code included in clear-indication and reset-indication packets that indicates the origin of the packet and the reason for sending it.

See cube adjusted weight.

See cipher block chaining.

See component-based development.

See control blocks in common.

See Class Broker for Java.

See Custom-built Product Delivery Option.


  1. See content-based retrieval.
  2. See content based routing.

See composite business service.

See computerized branch exchange.


  1. See clearing channel.
  2. See change control.

See Common Cryptographic Architecture.

See C/370 common anchor area.


  1. See command control block.
  2. See connection control block.
  3. See conversation control block.
  4. See change control board.

CC-compatible SnapShot
See concurrent copy-compatible snapshot.

See client channel definition table.

CCD table
See consistent-change-data table.


  1. See Common Connector Framework.
  2. See channel control function.


  1. See Common Console Interface.
  2. See common client interface.

See custom card identification number.

See Comité consultatif international télégraphique et téléphonique.

See common communication layer.

See change and configuration management.


  1. See Configuration Control Program.
  2. See Communication Control Program.

See channel command retry.


  1. See Common Communications Support.
  2. See console communication service.
  3. See coded character set.
  4. See common channel signaling.


  1. See coded character set identifier.
  2. See Coded Character Set Identifier.

CCSID 65534
See coded character set identifier 65534.

CCSID 65535
See coded character set identifier 65535.


  1. See coordinator control subsystem.
  2. See coordinator controller.

See closed-circuit television.

See channel command word.

See compact disc.


  1. See communications database.
  2. See conversation data block.


  1. See customization definition document.
  2. See common data set descriptor record.


  1. See Common Desktop Environment.
  2. See component descriptor editor.

See channel definition file.

See connector development kit.

See Common Data Link Interface.

See Case Data Model.

See code division multiple access.

See Commercial Data Masking Facility.

CDNM session
See cross-domain network manager session.

See Continuous Data Protection.

See cellular digital packet data.


  1. See critical design review.
  2. See call detail record.

See compact disc recordable.

See Character Data Representation Architecture.

See CD-ROM file system.

See cross-domain resource manager.

See compact-disc read-only memory.

CD-ROM file system (CDRFS)
An implementation of a read-only local file system that can be stored on CD-ROM media, write-protected CD-RW media, or DVD-ROM media.

See cross-domain resource.


  1. See control data set.
  2. See central directory server.
  3. See Cell Directory Service.
  4. See couple data set.

See CICS dynamic storage area.

See case data source component.

CDS clerk
The software that provides an interface between client applications and Cell Directory Service (CDS) servers.

CDS control program (CDSCP)
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a program that Cell Directory Service (CDS) administrators use to control CDS servers and clerks.

See CDS control program.

CDSQ serialization
A technique that serializes DFSMShsm control data sets (CDSs) with a global enqueue product, such as global resource serialization (GRS).

CDSR serialization
A technique that serializes DFSMShsm control data sets (CDSs) with volume reserves.

See connect data set to line.


  1. See common development test.
  2. See class descriptor table.

CD table
See change-data table.

See channel enablement.

See conditional end bracket.

See country extended code page.

A dump of the run-time environment for Language Environment and the member language libraries. Sections of the dump are selectively included, depending on options specified on the dump invocation. This is not a dump of the full address space, but a dump of storage and control blocks that Language Environment and its members control.

See Common Event Infrastructure.

CEI event
An event generated over the Common Event Infrastructure (CEI) and logged in a CEI data store.

The smallest integer that is greater than the floating-point number under consideration. For example, the ceiling of 3.5 is 4.

ceiling price
The cut-off value entered by the supplier for a bid in forward auction.

ceiling rate
The maximum price allowed for a product or a service.

CEI target
An application server or server cluster where the Common Event Infrastructure (CEI) server is enabled.

See Command Execution Language.


  1. In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a medium access control (MAC) protocol data unit (PDU) of fixed size.
  2. The rectangular juncture of a horizontal row and a vertical column. Examples include the cells of an electronic spreadsheet and the cells utilized by an XmRowColumn widget in an AIXwindows graphic interface.
  3. One or more processes that each host runtime components. Each has one or more named core groups.
  4. In a multidimensional clustering table, a unique combination of dimension values. Physically, a cell is made up of blocks of pages whose records all share the same values for each dimension column.
  5. In mobile computing, an area of radio coverage that is ttransmitted from a base station. See also base station, radio.
  6. A logical grouping of users, computers, data, and other resources that share either a common purpose or a common level of trust.
  7. A group of managed processes that are federated to the same deployment manager and can include high-availability core groups.
  8. In a WebSphere Application Server distributed network, an arbitrary, logical grouping of one or more notes that are managed together.
  9. A single cartridge location within an Automated Tape Library Dataserver (ATLDS). See also rack number, slot.

Cell B.E. processor
See Cell Broadband Engine processor.

Cell Broadband Engine processor (Cell B.E. processor)
A single-chip multiprocessor consisting of one or more PowerPC Processor Elements (PPEs) and one or more (typically eight) Synergistic Processor Elements (SPEs). It is used for distributed processing and media-rich applications. See also PowerPC Processor Element, Synergistic Processor Element.

Cell Directory Service (CDS)
A Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) component that manages a database of information about the resources within a cell. See also Global Directory Service.

cell phone
A portable telephone that operates on a cellular radio network instead of a traditional wired network over a fiber optic network or the Internet. See also mobile phone.

cell-relative name
See local name.

cell-scoped binding
A binding scope where the binding is not specific to, and not associated with any node or server. This type of name binding is created under the persistent root context of a cell.

cell security
The access control level assigned to a single cell in a cube.

cell tower
See base station.

cellular digital packet data (CDPD)
A standard for transmitting data over a cellular network that places the data in digital electronic envelopes and sends it at high speed through underused radio channels or during pauses in cellular phone conversations. See also packet switching.

Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA)
A trade group that represents cellular, PCS, and enhanced specialized mobile radio carriers.

cell UUID
A Universally Unique Identifier for a cell that is based on the unique system ID of the workstation and a time stamp.

Pertaining to a thermometric scale at which water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at 0 degrees in standard atmospheric pressure.

See Central Europe, Middle East, and Africa.

center cell
The only cell in a star topology with the ability to make autonomic decisions.

Center for the Information of Industry data format (CII data format)
Data format that provides the Japanese syntax definition for EDI messages within Sterling B2B Integrator.

center of competency (COC)

central data warehouse
The component of Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse that contains the cleansed historical data. Data in the central data warehouse is derived from operational data, although operational data is not stored directly in the central data warehouse.

central data warehouse ETL
In Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse, the extract, transform, and load (ETL) process that reads the data from the operational data stores of the application that collects it (for example, a log file, a Tivoli Inventory repository, or a Tivoli Enterprise Console database), verifies the data, makes the data conform to the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse schema, and places the data into the central data warehouse. See also data mart ETL.

central directory
A repository for storing resource location information centrally registered by network nodes or cached as the result of network searches.

central directory architecture
Directory architecture in a Domino domain in which some servers store configuration directories and use primary Domino Directories on remote servers for lookups.

central directory server (CDS)
A network node that provides a repository for information on network resource locations. It also reduces the number of network searches by providing a focal point for queries and broadcast searches, and by storing the results of network searches to avoid later broadcasts for the same information.

central electronic complex
See central processor complex.

Central Europe, Middle East, and Africa (CEMA)
For organizational, legal, or administrative purposes, the region comprising Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Hungary, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, and IBM Middle East. See also Northeast Europe.

central institution
An organization that performs clearing, netting, or settlement for a financial community. Typically, but not necessarily, a national or central bank.

centralized control
A type of control in which in which all the primary station functions of the data link are centralized in one data station. See also independent control.

centralized directory service
In OSI, a method of organizing directory services so that one node provides directory service for other nodes. OSI Communications Subsystem supports only centralized directory service.

centralized installation manager
A component that remotely installs and uninstalls product and maintenance packages in server environments.

centralized processing
In CICS, processing in which the application is processed on a central processor, which users access using a terminal.

centrally managed service
A pureScale service that is fully managed by IBM Systems Director.

Central Message Store (CMS)
A mailbox system that processes documents and controls services such as messaging, archiving and queuing.

central office (CO)
A telephone switching system that connects customer-premise business and subscriber lines to other customer lines or trunks, both locally or remotely. A central office is located on the edge of the telephone service provider's network, rather than on a customer's premises.

central processing unit (CPU)
See processor.

central processor (CP)
The part of the computer that contains the sequencing and processing facilities for instruction execution, initial program load, and other machine operations.

central processor complex (CPC)
A physical collection of hardware that consists of main storage, one or more central processors, timers, and channels.

central registry
A server's database that logs requests for licenses, upgrades for licenses, and journals all license activity in a tamper-proof auditable file. The central registry is a component of the License Use Management network topology.

central resource registration
A process in which an APPN network node sends information about itself and its client end nodes to a central directory server.

central scheduler
A function that permits an administrator to schedule client operations and administrative commands. The operations can be scheduled to occur periodically or on a specific date. See also administrative command schedule, client schedule.

central service
In MERVA, a service that uses resources that either require serialization of access, or are only available in the MERVA nucleus.

central site
In a network of systems, the system licensed to receive program temporary fixes (PTFs) and distribution media from IBM. This system is also used to provide problem handling support to other systems in a network. In a distributed data processing network, the central site is usually defined as the focal point in a communications network for alerts, application design, and remote system management tasks such as problem management.

central site control facility (CSCF)
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, NetView for VM, and NetView for VSE, a function that allows a network operator to run the test facilities of the IBM 3172 Nways Interconnect Controller and the IBM 3174 Establishment Controller remotely from the NetView console.

central storage
Storage that is an integral part of the processor unit. Central storage includes both main storage and the hardware system area. UNIX-experienced users refer to central storage as memory.

central system
A single system that handles all of the communications to an endpoint system.

See complex event processing.


  1. See Commission of European Post and Telegraph.
  2. See Conference Europeenne des Administrations des Postes et Telecommunications.

See CERT Coordination Center.

CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC)
A major reporting center for Internet security problems. Staff members provide technical advice and coordinate responses to security compromises, identify trends in intruder activity, work with other security experts to identify solutions to security problems, and disseminate information to the broad community. The CERT/CC also analyzes product vulnerabilities, publishes technical documents, and presents training courses.

In computer security, a digital document that binds a public key to the identity of the certificate owner, thereby enabling the certificate owner to be authenticated. A certificate is issued by a certificate authority and is digitally signed by that authority. See also certificate authority, certificate signing request, SSL server authentication.

certificate authority (CA)

  1. A component that issues certificates to each computer on which components are installed.
  2. A trusted third-party organization or company that issues the digital certificates. The certificate authority typically verifies the identity of the individuals who are granted the unique certificate. See also certificate, Globus certificate service, SSL server authentication.

certificate authority certificate (CA certificate)

  1. A digital certificate that is issued by a certificate authority. The CA verifies trusted certificates for trusted roots.
  2. In computer security, a digital document that identifies an organization that issues certificates. See also digital certificate.

certificate chain
A path that traces certificates from a branch in the hierarchy to the primary CA certificate.

certificate filter
A filter that defines a set of similar distinguished name certificate attributes for a group of certificates in an X.509 source user registry.

certificate name filter
A general resource profile that maps multiple user IDs to a digital certificate in order to simplify administration of certificates, conserve storage space in the RACF database, maintain accountability, or maintain access control granularity.

certificate revocation list (CRL)
A list of certificates that have been revoked before their scheduled expiration date. Certificate revocation lists are maintained by the certificate authority and used, during a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) handshake to ensure that the certificates involved have not been revoked.

certificate set
A set of primary and secondary certificates that can be associated to a participant connection.

certificate signing request (CSR)
An electronic message that an organization sends to a certificate authority (CA) in order to obtain a certificate. The request includes a public key and is signed with a private key; the CA returns the certificate after signing with its own private key. See also certificate, keystore.

certificate store

  1. The Windows name for a key repository.
  2. A collection of certificates.

A process that creates special signed messages called certificates, which state that a particular public key is associated with a particular user or server name.

certifier ID
A file that generates an electronic "stamp" that indicates a trust relationship. It is analogous to the device used to stamp passports--it verifies that a person is trusted by that stamping authority.

See connection event sequence.


  1. See cluster caching facility.
  2. See coupling facility.

CF cache structure
See coupling facility cache structure.

See combined function IOP.

CF key
See command function key.

CF lock structure
See coupling facility lock structure.

See Configuration File Manager.

CF message
Confirmed message. When a sending MERVA Link system is informed of the successful delivery of a message to the receiving application, it routes the delivered application messages as CF messages, that is, messages of class CF, to an ACK wait queue or to a complete message queue.

See coupling facility resource management.

CFRM policy
See coupling facility resource management policy.

See continuous-forms stacker.

A WebSphere MQ object used to describe the queue manager's use of a Coupling Facility list structure

See coded graphic character set global identifier.

See Common Gateway Interface.

CGI program
See CGI script.

CGI script
A computer program that runs on a web server and uses the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) to perform tasks that are not usually done by a web server (for example, database access and form processing).

See Computer Graphics Metafile.

See compound growth rate.

See character generator utility.

See Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm.


  1. The name of a channel framework connection that contains an endpoint definition.
  2. A group of request units delimited by begin-chain and end-chain. Responses are always single-unit chains.
  3. In DFU, a way to change from one display format to another after the user signals that the first display format was completed.
  4. A group of logically linked records that are transferred over a communications line.
  5. In RPG, an operation code that reads input records identified by specified relative record numbers or keys.
  6. A set of enclosures that are attached to provide redundant access to the drives inside the enclosures. Each control enclosure can have one or more chains.

chain assembly
In CICS intercommunication, a grouping of one or more request units to satisfy a single request. Instead of an input request being satisfied by one RU at a time until the chain is complete, the whole chain is assembled and sent to the CICS application satisfying just one request. This ensures that the integrity of the whole chain is known before it is presented to the application program.

chained order
An order that must finish its fulfillment process before its parent order can be considered fulfilled. An order is chained when a parent order must communicate some portion of the order fulfillment execution to a third party.

chain erase
The process of erasing a snapshot chain.


  1. A method of storing records in which each record belongs to a list or group of records and has a linking field for tracing the chain.
  2. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a mode of interaction optionally used by a directory system agent (DSA) that cannot perform an operation by itself. The DSA chains by invoking the operation in another DSA and then relaying the outcome to the original requester.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
An authentication protocol that protects against eavesdropping by encrypting the user name and password. See also Password Authentication Protocol.

challenge-response authentication
An authentication method that requires users to respond to a prompt by providing information to verify their identity when they log in to the system. For example, when users forget their password, they are prompted (challenged) with a question to which they must provide an answer (response) in order to either receive a new password or receive a hint for specifying the correct password. See also knowledge-based authentication.

chameleon schema
A schema that inherits a target namespace from a schema that includes the chameleon schema.

change accumulation

  1. The process of merging log data sets and reducing the information they contain to the minimum required to perform recovery on a particular database or group of databases.
  2. The process of creating a compacted version of one or more IMS log data sets by eliminating records not related to recovery, and by merging multiple changes to a single segment into a single change.

change aggregate table
In SQL replication, a type of replication target table that contains data aggregations that are based on the contents of a CD table. See also base aggregate table.

change and configuration management (CCM)
A systematic approach to establish and maintain the consistent performance of a system or product throughout its lifecycle, and to effectively manage changes in that product or system.

change authority
An object authority that allows a user to perform all operations on the object except those limited to the owner or controlled by object existence authority, object management authority, object alter authority, and object reference authority. The user can add, change, and delete entries in an object, or read the contents of an entry in the object. Change authority combines object operational authority and all the data authorities.

change bar

  1. A character used in the left margin to indicate that a document line is changed.
  2. An indicator that displays when an object was last changed.

change basis version
The version of the server partition that changes were made against.

change-capture replication
The process of capturing changes that are made to a replication source table and applying them to a replication target table. See also full refresh.

change control (CC)
The use of change management commands for the installation or removal of software or data.

change control administrator
A person responsible for software distribution and change control activities.

change control board (CCB)
A group of individuals on a project team that ensures that every change request is properly considered and that any work required is authorized and coordinated.

change control client
A workstation that (a) receives software and data files from its change control server and (b) installs and removes software and data files as instructed by its change control server. See also change control single node.

change control domain
A change control server and its change control clients.

change control server
A system that controls and tracks the distribution of software and data files to other workstations. See also change control single node.

change control single node
A workstation that controls, tracks, installs, and removes software and data files for itself. A CC single node can also prepare software for distribution. See also change control client, change control server.

change-data table (CD table)
In SQL replication, a replication table on the Capture control server that contains changed data for a replication source table. See also synchpoint.

change-direction protocol
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which the sending logical unit (LU) stops sending normal-flow requests, signals this fact to the receiving LU using the change-direction indicator (in the request header of the last request of the last chain), and prepares to receive requests.

changed subfile record
A subfile record into which the work station user has entered data, or a subfile record for which a write or change operation was issued with the DDS keyword SFLNXTCHG or DSPATR(MDT) in effect.

change history
The list of audit entries recorded for a resource.

change implementation schedule
A view in change management that shows the start and end dates for changes to selected configuration items in the environment, the RFC that defines the change, and other details.

change listener
In Java, a listener that is notified when an object is changed in any way.

change log

  1. For directory shadowing, a record of changes made to directory entries, departments, and locations for the purpose of sending only the updates and not the entire directory to collecting systems.
  2. The area of the checkpoint data set that contains the specific control blocks changed by the last member of the multi-access spool configuration to own the checkpoint data set.

change-managed relationship
A relationship between two artifacts. A change to either artifact affects the relationship. See also suspect relationship state.

change management

  1. The process of planning (for example, scheduling) and controlling (for example, distributing, installing, and tracking) software changes over a network.
  2. The process of controlling and tracking modifications to artifacts. See also scope management.
  3. The process of planning for and executing changes to configuration items in the information technology environment. The primary objective of change management is to enable beneficial changes to be made with minimum disruption to services.

change manager
The deployment management component that decomposes aggregated installable unit (IUs) and coordinates the change management operations across the hosting environments. See also aggregated installable unit, hosting environment.

change number of sessions (CNOS)
An internal transaction program that regulates the number of parallel sessions between the partner LUs with specific characteristics.

change order
An update to a purchase order that is already approved or printed and that changes information such as quantity or vendor.

Change Project
A project that is implemented on a staging or a testing environment before being implemented on a production environment to mitigate and minimize operational errors.

change proposal system
A system that allows users to review modules and suggest changes to them.

change record
A recorded instance that is created with each write action to the repository. The change record contains metadata about all repository changes (such as who was responsible for a commit action) and can be used as a version history view of the repository.

Change Request
A small, independent unit of work of which each Change Project is divided.

change request (CRQ)

  1. In System Manager, an instance of a change request description that has been submitted to run or is running. A change request is uniquely identified by the change request name and a sequence number.
  2. A request from a stakeholder to change an artifact or process. See also defect, enhancement request.
  3. A request to change some aspect of the project, project plan, activity definition, or document.

change request description (CRQD)
An i5/OS object that describes a change to be made to the computing environment. The object, which is maintained only at the central site system or systems, consists of a list of activities that describe the steps needed to make the change.

change set

  1. A cohesive unit consisting of a number of related changes that need to be made together.
  2. A group of related changes to files, folders, or symbolic links in a workspace or stream.
  3. A list of versions of elements that are associated with a Unified Change Management (UCM) activity.

change table
A table that is used to change company codes, account codes, extended dimension codes, or to merge accounts or dimensions.

change volume
A volume that is used in Global Mirror that holds earlier consistent revisions of data when changes are made.

change window
A period of time defined for one or more configuration items, which specifies when the CIs can be taken out of service for changes to be made, with minimal impact on services.

change window conflict
A condition that occurs when implementation tasks have been scheduled for a CI outside its change window.


  1. In mainframe computing, the part of a channel subsystem that manages a single I/O interface between a channel subsystem and a set of control units.
  2. A WebSphere MQ object that defines a communication link between two queue managers (message channel) or between a client and a queue manager (MQI channel). See also message channel, MQI channel, queue manager.
  3. The means of distribution of a company's products. Examples are e-commerce and physical stores.
  4. A link along which signals can be sent, such as the channel that handles the transfer of data between processor storage and local peripheral equipment. See also trunk.
  5. A specialized web application within a portal to which a user can subscribe.
  6. A communication path through a chain to an endpoint.

channel action
A business function that can be issued on a channel. Channel actions are role specific and an authorization policy makes it possible to control which role can perform which action in a channel.

channel adapter (CA)
A communication controller hardware unit that is used to attach the communication controller to a host channel.

channel application
An application that is used to place an order in a store or online call center of a retail business.

channel associated signaling (CAS)
A method of communicating telephony supervisory or line signaling (on-hook and off-hook) and address signaling on T1 and E1 digital links. See also common channel signaling.


  1. Pertaining to the attachment of devices directly by input/output channels to a host processor.
  2. Pertaining to devices attached to a controlling unit by cables, rather than by telecommunication lines. See also link-attached.

channel-attachment major node

  1. A major node that may include minor nodes that are resources (host processors, NCPs, line groups, lines, SNA physical units and logical units, cluster controllers, and terminals) attached through a communication adapter.
  2. A major node that includes an NCP that is channel-attached to a data host.

channel bank
A device that converts an analog line signal to a digital trunk signal.

channel callback
A mechanism that ensures that the channel connection is established to the correct machine. In a channel callback, a sender channel calls back the original requester channel using the sender's definition.

channel code
A number from 1 to 12 that identifies a position in a forms-control buffer or a page definition.

channel command retry (CCR)
In mainframe computing, the protocol used between a channel and a control unit that enables the control unit to request that the channel reissue the current command.

channel command word (CCW)
In zSeries systems, an 8-byte command issued to the channel subsystem by a central processor and operating asynchronously with the issuing processor.

channel control function (CCF)
A program to move messages from a transmission queue to a communication link, and from a communication link to a local queue, together with an operator panel interface to allow the setup and control of channels.

channel counter
A counting device that identifies how many pages have been successfully received.

channel definition file (CDF)
A file containing communication channel definitions that associate transmission queues with communication links.

channel enablement (CE)
Offering, solution or program related activities that enable IBM sellers in all channels to communicate effectively with customers, to build a robust pipeline and to close profitable deals in a short time frame.

channel event
An event reporting conditions detected during channel operations, such as when a channel instance is started or stopped. Channel events are generated on the queue managers at both ends of the channel.

channel exit program
A user-written program that is called from one of a defined number of places in the processing sequence of a message channel agent (MCA).

channel expense target
Target level for per-unit distribution costs by channel. May be in a geography, or by channel by geography, for distribution of a group of offerings.

channel framework
A common model for connection management, thread usage, channel management, and message access within an application server.

channel group
A group of channels defined for a particular MERVA Liquidity Manager installation. The channels in a group need not all use the same currency.

channel ID
An identification number that is passed back from a multiplexed device to the file system as a result of calling the device driver multiplex (ddmpx) entry point.

channel initiator
A component of WebSphere MQ distributed queuing that monitors the initiation queue and starts the sender channel when triggering criteria are met.

channel interface
The circuitry in a storage control that attaches storage paths to a host channel.

channel link
A System/390 I/O channel-to-control-unit interface that has an SNA network address. A channel link can be a subarea link, a peripheral link, a LEN link, or an APPN link. See also subarea link.

channel listener
A component of WebSphere MQ distributed queuing that monitors the network for a startup request and then starts the receiving channel.

channel management
Coordination of channels to ensure optimal financial results for a brand within a target market.

channel manager
A defined role in WebSphere Commerce that manages the channel hub, as well as the distributors and resellers associated with that hub, including creating and importing distributor and reseller contracts.

channel mix
The set of channels (IBM and non-IBM) that will handle a particular brand and/or offering.

channel number

  1. A number that identifies the path by which data is transferred between a particular input or output device and the processor of the computer.
  2. The identifying number assigned to a licensed channel on the T1 or E1 trunk that connects DirectTalk to the switch, channel bank, or channel service unit.

channel partner
A commercial organization that provides resources to buyers for specific steps in the sales cycle process.

channel path

  1. In mainframe computing, the interconnection between a channel and its associated control units.
  2. A single interface attaching one or more control units.

channel plan
A plan that describes the channels that are appropriate for selling the brand. The plan should consider the promise of value, price point, image and target market for the brand. It should also include volume, revenue and cost per channel.

channel process (CHP)

  1. The AIX process that executes the logic of the state table; each active caller session has one active channel process.
  2. In WebSphere Voice Server, the system process that manages call flow.

channel program
A sequence of one or more channel command words (CCWs) issued to one device.

channel ready
Pertaining to an offering that is easily incorporated into the channels identified in the go-to-market plan.

channel segment

  1. A market segment based on the types of channels through which a customer buys.
  2. A set of channels that have been grouped according to characteristics that are relevant to the goals of an individual or organization.

channel service unit (CSU)

  1. An American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) unit that is part of the AT&T nonswitched digital data system.
  2. A device used to connect a digital phone line to a multiplexer, a channel bank, or directly to another device producing a digital signal. A CSU performs certain line-conditioning and equalization functions, and responds to loopback commands sent from the central office (CO). See also data service unit.

channel station
In certain printers, a page-counting device that counts the number of pages queued for printing.

channel strategy
The overall plan of action for a channel to achieve a stated goal.

channel subsystem (CSS)
A collection of subchannels that directs the flow of information between I/O devices and main storage, relieves the processor of communication tasks, and performs path management functions.

channel-subsystem image
In mainframe computing, the logical functions that a system requires to perform the function of a channel subsystem. With ESCON multiple image facility (EMIF), one channel-subsystem image exists in the channel subsystem for each logical partition (LPAR). Each image appears to be an independent channel-subsystem program, but all images share a common set of hardware facilities.

channel switch
The rerouting of an outgoing and not yet scheduled message to another clearing channel.

channel-to-channel (CTC)
Pertaining to the physical connection or the interaction of two devices.

channel-to-channel adapter (CTC adapter)
A device for connecting two channels on the same processor or on different processors.

chaotic relaxation
An iterative relaxation method that uses a combination of the Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi-Seidel methods. The array of discrete values is divided into subregions that can be operated on in parallel. The subregion boundaries are calculated using the Jacobi-Seidel method, while the subregion interiors are calculated using the Gauss-Seidel method. See also Gauss-Seidel.

See Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.

See Clearing House Automated Payment System.

CHAP secret
In the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), a secret passphrase that is used to authenticate a storage system to iSCSI-attached hosts.

The Euro-denominated RTGS payment system operated by the CHAPS Clearing Company Ltd. and comprising a network, central message handling software, elements of members' interfaces to the network, and the Bank of England's central interface.


  1. In a computer system, a member of a set of elements that is used for the representation, organization, or control of data. See also glyph.
  2. A sequence of one or more bytes representing a single graphic symbol or control code.
  3. Any symbol that can be entered on a keyboard, printed, or displayed. For example, letters, numbers, and punctuation marks are all characters.

character array
A named list or table of character data.

character-based interface
A computer interface that shows only characters and no graphics on the screen.

character box
The area that completely contains the character pattern.

character cell

  1. The maximum physical boundary of a single character. For example on the IBM 3800 Printing Subsystem, a cell is made up of 24 rows with total height of 4.23 mm and 18 bit positions having a total width of 2.54 mm.
  2. The physical width and height in pels of a font.
  3. In the GDDM function, the imaginary box whose boundaries govern the size, orientation, and spacing of individual characters to be displayed on a work station.
  4. As defined in ISO/IEC 10646, the place within a row at which an individual graphic character may be allocated.

character class
A named set of characters sharing an attribute associated with the name of the class. The classes and the characters that they contain are dependent on the value of the LC_CTYPE category in the current locale.

character code
In System i Access, an ASCII or EBCDIC value assigned to the symbols or functions that are used by a computer.

See unformatted.

character concatenated expression
A concatenated expression that consists of one or more character columns, string literals, or substrings of character columns.

character constant

  1. The actual character value (a symbol, quantity, or constant) in a source program that is itself data, instead of a reference to a field that contains the data. See also numeric constant.
  2. In the C language, a character or an escape sequence enclosed in quotation marks.

character conversion
The process of changing data from one character coding representation to another.

character conversion table
A table that converts one or more characters to alternative characters using hexadecimal encoding for the character sets. The character sets are defined in code pages.

character data

  1. Data in the form of letters and special characters, such as punctuation marks.
  2. Data that has an associated coding representation that defines how to interpret each specific pattern of bits that are grouped into one or more bytes.

Character Data Representation Architecture (CDRA)
An IBM architecture that defines a set of identifiers, resources, services, and conventions to achieve consistent representation, processing, and interchange of graphic character data in heterogeneous environments.

character data representation identifier
A tag that is used to achieve data integrity. The Character Data Representation Architecture specifies that you should tag all character data as it flows through the system. You can tag using a short-form or a long-form identifier. A coded character set identifier (CCSID) is an example of a character data representation identifier.

character device
A device that handles data one character at a time.

character display
A display that uses a character generator to display predefined character boxes of images (characters) on the screen. This kind of display cannot address the screen any less than one character box at a time.

character encoding

  1. A character set consisting of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses. Encoding facilitates the storage and transmission of text through telecommunication networks.
  2. The mapping from a character (a letter of the alphabet) to a numeric value in a character code set. For example, the ASCII character code set encodes the letter "A" as 65, while the EBCIDIC character set encodes this letter as 43. The character code set contains encodings for all characters in one or more language alphabets.

character entity reference
A character string of the form &#xdddd or &#dddd, where dddd is the hexadecimal or decimal equivalent of the Unicode code point of a character. For example, &#x003E and &#0062 are both character entity references to the > (greater-than) sign.

character expression
A character constant, a simple character variable, an element of a character array, a character-valued function reference, a substring reference, or a sequence of the above separated by the concatenation operator and parentheses.

character field
An area that is reserved for information that can contain any of the characters in the character set. See also numeric field.

character format
In REXX, a format that is used in the REXX conversion functions to indicate that data is in a textual form as opposed to machine-readable form.

character generator

  1. In word processing, the way to generate visual characters and symbols for coded data.
  2. In computer graphics, a function that converts the coded representation of a graphic character into the shape of the character for display or print.

character generator utility (CGU)
A function of the Application Development ToolSet feature that is used to define and maintain user-defined double-byte characters and related sort information.

character graphic
The visual representation of a character, defined by toned or untoned picture elements. See also graphic character, graphic character.

character grid
In Business Graphics Utility, an invisible network of uniformly spaced horizontal and vertical lines covering the chart area. Used by the Business Graphics Utility to determine the physical dimensions of the chart and the placement of the data on it.

character grid unit
In Business Graphics Utility, the distance between two adjacent horizontal or vertical lines on a character grid.

character group
Any number of character graphics and character properties.

character ID
See character identifier.

character identifier (character ID)

  1. The standard identifier for a character, regardless of its style. For example, all uppercase A's have the same character identifier.
  2. On a system, a 4-byte binary value. The value is a concatenation of the graphic character set global identifier followed by the code page global identifier. For example, the character identifier for German (feature 2929) is 00697 00273.

character image
See glyph.

character increment
The distance from the character reference point to the character escapement point. Character increment is the sum of the A-space, B-space, and C-space. Usually the distance between the current print position and the next print position.

A user-defined trait or property that is associated with an identity that is not commonly expressed as a name, number, address, or email. This attribute allows users to extend the product by defining customizable entity attributes that are meaningful to their data sources. See also attribute, identity.

characteristic type
A specific classification of a characteristic. Examples of characteristic types include gender and date of birth, but additional characteristic types can be defined.

character large object (CLOB)

  1. A data type whose value is a sequence of characters (single byte, multibyte, or both) that can range in size from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte. In general, the CLOB data type is used whenever a character string might exceed the limits of the VARCHAR data type. See also large object.
  2. A character string that contains single-byte characters with an associated code page.

character literal
A literal that represents character data.

character normalization
A process in which the variant forms of a character, such as capitalization and diacritical marks, are reduced to a common form.

character operator
A symbol representing an operation to be performed on character data, such as concatenation (joining the data or fields) in the control language (CL).

character position
On a display, the location of a character.

character printer
A device that prints a single character at a time. See also line printer.

character rotation
The alignment of a character with respect to its character baseline, measured in degrees in a clockwise direction. See also orientation.

character set

  1. A defined set of characters with no coded representation assumed that can be recognized by a configured hardware or software system. A character set can be defined by alphabet, language, script, or any combination of these items.
  2. A set of binary codes that represent specific text characters.

character set identifier 65534
The character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that a CCSID value for data at this level of processing is not relevant. When CCSID 65534 ( FFFE ) is associated with data, a CCSID value for the data should be obtained from the tagged fields of elements that are at a lower level in the defined hierarchy. For example, a file has CCSIDs tagged for each individual field it contains. If the file is tagged with CCSID 65534, processing is based on the CCSIDs assigned to each individual field instead of the CCSID assigned to the file.

character set identifier 65535
The character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that data associated with the CCSID should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data.

character shape
The visual representation of a graphic character.

character special file
An interface file that provides access to an input or output device, which uses character I/0 instead of block I/0. See also block special file.

characters per inch (cpi)
The number of characters printed horizontally within an inch across a page.

characters per second (cps)
The number of characters that a device can print in one second.

character string

  1. A contiguous sequence of characters terminated by and including the first null byte.
  2. A contiguous sequence of characters that are treated as a unit.
  3. A sequence of bytes that represents bit data, single-byte characters, or a mixture of single-byte and multibyte characters.

character string delimiter
A character that is used to identify the beginning and the end of a character string.

character substring
A contiguous portion of a character string.

character times
In CCP, the maximum number of times that the temporary text delay character can (a) be sent to a terminal before the operation stops; or (b) be sent between the end of a receive operation and the beginning of a transmit operation.

character translation
In international character support, the dd command and various conversion subroutines that translate between extended characters and ASCII escape strings to preserve unique character information.

character type
A data type that consists of alphanumeric characters.

character variable

  1. In the C language, a data object having a value that can be changed while a program is running and having a data type that is a signed or unsigned character.
  2. Character data with a valuethat is assigned or changed while the program is running.

charge and allowance code
An industry-standard identifier that the shipper assigns to each accessorial.

A financial penalty that is assigned to a vendor for violations to compliance rules and other criteria.

charge-back account
An account used for tracking computing resource usage by business departments or projects. Examples of charge-back accounts are "Marketing Department" or "Summer catalog project."

charge code
An accounting code that is used to register and categorize costs against project budgets.

charge feature
An optional feature for either software or hardware for which there is a charge.

charge in
To return a physical record to its home location.

charge out
To check out and track a physical record.

charge sequence
The sequence in which Sterling Selling and Fulfillment Foundation creates authorization or charge requests. For example, the charge sequence might specify that gift certificates are to be used before a credit card is charged.

charging requesting service
In X.25 communication, an optional facility that specifies that charging information (segment count data, monetary unit data, or call duration data) is required.

A picture defined in terms of graphics primitives and graphics attributes.

chart area
In the GDDM function, the part of the picture space in which a business chart is to be drawn.

chart format
In Business Graphics Utility, an object containing chart characteristics, such as the chart type, chart heading, legend position, and so on. The chart format does not include the data values to be plotted. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CHTFMT.

chart layout
In Business Graphics Utility, the arrangement of the various parts in the chart area and surrounding margins.

chart of accounts (COA)
A detailed listing of all the accounts used by a company.

chart series
A selection of a category of data that will be represented by a chart in a report. A chart can have multiple chart series to represent multiple types of data.

In SNA, a command used by the host system to determine when the secondary logical unit has finished processing all previously sent response units.

The metal frame in which various electronic components are mounted.

chassis detect-and-deploy profile
A profile that IBM Director automatically applies to all new BladeCenter chassis when they are discovered. The profile settings include management module name, network protocols, and static IP addresses. If Remote Deployment Manager (RDM) is installed on the management server, the chassis detect-and-deploy profile also can include deployment policies.

The sending of typed messages between online participants. See also instant message.

chat script
In remote communication, a list of expect-send sequences that a modem uses to establish a communication link with another modem.

chat transcript
A record of the typed messages between participants in a chat meeting.

cheat sheet
An interface that guides users through the wizards and steps required to perform a complex task, and that links to relevant sections of the online help.

The process of determining whether a component is appropriate or meets the necessary requirements. For example, an environment check verifies that the target systems contain the appropriate operating systems and software for an operation.

check box
A square box with associated text that represents a choice. When a user selects the choice, the check box is filled to indicate that the choice is selected. The user can clear the check box by selecting the choice again, thereby deselecting the choice.

CHECK clause
In SQL, an extension to the SQL CREATE TABLE and SQL ALTER TABLE statements that specifies a table check constraint.

check condition
A restricted form of search condition used in check constraints.

check constraint
A user-defined constraint that specifies the values that specific columns of a base table can contain. See also constraint.

check digit

  1. A check key consisting of a single digit.
  2. The far right number of a self-check field that is used to verify the accuracy of the field.

checked-out version
A copy of a file that corresponds to a version of an element. See also version.

The action that creates a new version of an element on any branch of its version tree.

check in

  1. To replace an inactive document, project WBS element, scope element, requirement or resource record (with its modifications) to its repository directory so that others can view it or modify it.
  2. To upload the language of a checked out draft authored/received contract or amendment contract into the application.
  3. In certain software configuration management (SCM) systems, to copy files back into the repository after changing them.
  4. To save local changes in a change set that is part of a repository workspace. A checked-in change set can later be shared with a team by delivering the change set.

checkin screen
The screen identifying the host screen that should be active for a connection to be considered ready to be returned to the connection pool. If the application is not on the screen specified by the checkin screen, the connection will be discarded or recycled in attempt to return the connection to the host screen specified by the checkin screen. The checkin screen is only meaningful if connection pooling is specified for a connection.

check integrity
The condition that exists when each row in a table conforms to the check constraints that are defined on that table.

check out

  1. To remove an active document, project WBS element, scope element, requirement or resource record from its repository directory in order to modify it. Only one individual may check out the same element at a time.
  2. To download the language of a draft authored/received contract or amendment contract from the application to modify it.
  3. In certain software configuration management (SCM) systems, to copy the latest revision of a file from the repository so that it can be modified. See also reservation version status.

check pending

  1. In DB2 for z/OS, a state into which a table can be put where only limited activity is allowed on the table and constraints are not checked when the table is updated. See also set integrity pending.
  2. A state that occurs when data for a constraint cannot be verified as valid. A constraint could be either a referential constraint or a check constraint.


  1. A place in a program at which a check is made, or at which a recording of data is made to allow the program to be restarted in case of interruption.
  2. A point at which the database manager records internal status information in the log; the recovery process uses this information if the subsystem abnormally terminates.

checkpoint data set
A local data set that contains Common Queue Server (CQS) system checkpoint information about a group of shared queues.

The periodic copying of processing information to the checkpoint data set. Checkpointing ensures that information about in-storage job and output queues is not lost in the event of a hardware or software error.

checkpoint reconfiguration
A process that allows a user to dynamically redefine checkpoint data-set specification for the JES multi-access spool (MAS) configuration.

checkpoint reconfiguration dialog
An interactive form of a JES2 checkpoint reconfiguration that directs the reconfiguration process with replies to a series of WTOR messages.

checkpoint restart
The process of resuming a job at a checkpoint within the job step that caused abnormal termination. The restart can be automatic or deferred. A deferred restart requires that the job be resubmitted. See also automatic restart, deferred restart, step restart.

checkpoint/restart facility
A facility for restarting execution of a program at some point other than at the beginning, after the program was terminated due to a program or system failure. A restart can begin at a checkpoint or from the beginning of a job step, and uses checkpoint records to reinitialize the system.

checkpoint size
In OSI X.400, the maximum amount of data (in units of 1024 bytes) that can be sent between two minor synchronization points. The checkpoint size is used by the X.400 reliable transfer server.

check point snapshot
A snapshot, created at the end of a snapshot chain, that contains all changes from the last incremental delta block.

checkpoint write
Any write to the checkpoint data set. A checkpoint write is a primary, intermediate, or final write that updates a checkpoint data set.

A severe error inside a processor core that causes a processor core to stop all processing activities.


  1. The sum of a group of data that is associated with a group of data and that is used for error detection.
  2. On a diskette, data written in a section for error detection purposes.

checksum protection

  1. In TCP/IP, the sum of a group of data associated with the group and used for error checking purposes.
  2. A function that protects data stored in an auxiliary storage pool from being lost because of the failure of a single disk. When checksum protection is in effect and a disk failure occurs, the system automatically reconstructs the data when the system program is loaded after the device is repaired. See also device parity protection, mirrored protection.

checksum set
Units of auxiliary storage defined in groups to provide a way for the system to recover data if a disk failure occurs when checksum protection is in effect.

chicken role
In agile development, the peripheral participants in scrum development. This includes the product manager, testers, customers, customer advocates, and other stakeholders. See also pig role, scrum.

Chief Information Officer (CIO)


  1. A node that is subordinate to another node in a tree structure. Only the root node is not a child.
  2. Pertaining to a secured resource, either a file or library, that uses the user list of a parent resource. See also parent.
  3. In a generalization relationship, the specialization of another element, the parent. See also parent.
  4. In a hierarchy or auto-level hierarchy, a member that has at least one parent.

child activity
An activity that is launched during the processing of another activity, which becomes the parent activity. See also parent activity.

child business object
A business object that is contained or referenced by another business object. When the full child business object is part of its parent hierarchy, the child is contained by the parent. See also array attribute, foreign key attribute, single-cardinality attribute.

child category
A category that is subordinate to another category in a hierarchy. See also category page, parent category.

child class
A class that inherits instance methods, attributes, and instance variables directly from the parent class (also known as the base class or superclass), or indirectly from an ancestor class.

child component
Optional second or lower level of a hierarchical item type. Each child component is directly associated with the level above it.

child device
A device that is connected to a parent device.

child document
A document that inherits its values from another document (the parent document).

child enclave
The nested enclave created as a result of certain commands being issued from a parent enclave. See also nested enclave, parent enclave.

child expression
A list of columns in a child table that relate to corresponding columns in a parent table. See also parent expression.

child item
An item that is a part of an item with variations and has the same set of attributes as the item with variations, with minor distinct differences.

child lock
In explicit hierarchical locking, a lock that is held on a table, a page, a row, or a large object. Each child lock has a parent lock. See also parent lock.

child node
A node within the scope of another node. See also parent node.

child order
For subscriptions or recurring orders, the subordinate to the parent order. For example, a parent order is the subscription to the magazine itself, while the child order is one of the monthly issues.

child organizational entity
One or more further levels of organizational entities that exist beneath the parent organizational entity.

child process
A process that is created by a parent process and that shares the resources of the parent process to carry out a request.

child resource
A secured resource, either a file or library, that uses the user list of a parent resource. A child resource can have only one parent resource.

child resource group
A resource group that depends on certain application services that a parent resource group provides. A child resource group is acquired on any node in the cluster only after the parent resource group has been activated. See also dependent resource groups, parent resource group.

child segment
In a database, any segment that is dependent on another segment above it (its parent) in the hierarchy.

child table
A table that has a referential constraint to a column in a different table; the referenced table is called a parent table. See also parent table.

child UR
A unit of recovery (UR) cascaded from a parent UR in a cascaded transaction.

child widget
In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, a widget that is managed by another widget, the parent. For example, Composite widgets typically manage the Primitive children widgets attached to them.

child window
A window that appears within the border of its parent window (either a primary window or another child window). When the parent window is resized, moved, or destroyed, the child window also is resized, moved, or destroyed. However, the child window can be moved or resized independently from the parent window, within the boundaries of the parent window.

child work item
A work item created for each participant in a multi-participant step and for each route taken simultaneously from an AND-split step.

China Association for Standards (CAS)
The national standards-setting organization in The Peoples' Republic of China.

Chinese numeral
One of the Chinese characters that represent numbers. For example, the Chinese characters for 1, 2, and 3 are written with one, two, and three horizontal brush strokes, respectively. See also Arabic numeral, Hindi numeral, number, Roman numeral.

See Contract Handling International System.

A test statistic used to indicate the probability that two fields are unrelated, in which case any differences between observed and expected frequencies are the result of chance alone. If this probability is very small (typically less than 5%) the relationship between the two fields is said to be significant.

Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm (CHAID)
A decision tree algorithm that uses chi-square statistics to identify optimal splits. Unlike the C & R tree and QUEST nodes, CHAID can generate nonbinary trees, meaning that some splits have more than two branches. See also decision tree algorithm, regression tree algorithm.

An option in a pop-up window or menu used to influence the operation of the system.

choice activity
One of three types of complex BPML activities. A choice activity is used to make decisions in the business process model and runs only one of the child activities it contains. The choice activity makes it possible to model branch processing.

choice list
A list of predefined property values. A choice list presents a list of valid choices, such as a list of states or zip codes.

choice point
A point that is set automatically by CP Optimizer as it executes a goal during the search for a solution. At the choice point, the engine records the current state of constraints, variables, and domains, along with other goals not yet executed. If execution of the goal leads to failure, CP Optimizer backtracks to the choice point, restores the state recorded, and tries one of the stored goals.

choice type
A group type with a subclass equal to choice that is used to define a selection from a set of components. A choice type defines a choice group, which is valid when the data matches one of the components in the choice group.

Cholesky factoring
A technique that is used to factor a matrix into the product of a lower triangular matrix and its conjugate transpose.

A short line segment whose end points lie on a circle. Chords are a means for producing a circular image from straight lines.

An object that executes one or more processes at a user-defined frequency.


  1. An agreed upon sequence of business events that is allowed by a seller for each transaction.
  2. An ordered sequence of message exchanges between two or more participants. In a choreography there is no central controller, responsible entity, or observer of the process.

See channel process.

chracter set
A list of characters (letters, numbers, and symbols such as #, $, and &) that are recognized by computer hardware and software.

See Simplified Chinese.

See Traditional Chinese.

See Compact Hypertext Markup Language.


  1. A data storage location. For example, a raw disk device or a cooked file.
  2. A group of archived business processes.

chute dedication
In a warehouse, the exclusive assignment of a dock door or chute to a particular carrier.


  1. See callable interface.
  2. See continuous integration.
  3. See configuration item.
  4. See control interval.

See condition information block.


  1. See circuit identification code.
  2. See concurrent image copy.

An IBM licensed program that provides online transaction-processing services and management for business applications.

CICS attachment facility
A facility that provides a multithread connection to a DB2 database to allow applications that run in the CICS environment to execute DB2 commands.

See business transaction services.

CICS bundle
A set of XML files that defines or references the resources for a component of an application or a whole application, or another artifact relating to applications, such as a policy. A CICS bundle is installed in a CICS region. Multiple CICS bundles can be referenced by a management bundle. See also bundle, management bundle.

CICS-deployed JAR file
A deployed JAR file that has been produced specifically for the CICS EJB server and stored in the hierarchical file system.

CICS dynamic storage area (CDSA)
A storage area allocated from CICS-key storage below the 16 MB line. The CDSA is used for all non-reentrant CICS-key RMODE(24) programs, all CICS-key task-lifetime storage in 24-bit storage, and CICS control blocks that reside in 24-bit storage.

CICS EJB server
One or more CICS regions that support enterprise beans. A logical CICS EJB server typically consists of multiple (cloned) CICS listener regions and multiple (cloned) CICS AORs. The listener regions and AORs may be combined into listener/AORs.

CICS group
An i5/OS library containing the CICS resource definition for CICS tables.

Storage protection key in which CICS is given control (key 8) when CICS storage protection is used. This key is for CICS code and control blocks. CICS-key storage can be accessed and modified by CICS. Application programs in user-key cannot modify CICS-key storage, but they can read it. CICS-key storage is obtained in MVS key-8 storage. See also user-key storage.

CICS-maintained data table
A type of CICS data table, for which CICS automatically maintains consistency between the table and its source data set. All changes to the data table are reflected in the source data set and all changes to the source data set are reflected in the data table.

CICS monitoring facility
The CICS component responsible for monitoring and producing task-related statistics information, such as task CPU usage and waits for I/O request units on an individual task basis. Reporting is divided into classes.

A set of CICS systems that are managed and manipulated as if they were a single entity. A CICSplex can be managed by CICSPlex SM. See also multiregion operation.

CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS)
A CICSPlex SM component that is responsible for managing CICSplexes. A CMAS provides the single-system image for a CICSplex by serving as the interface to other CICSplexes and external programs. There must be at least one CMAS in each MVS image on which you are running CICSPlex SM. A single CMAS can manage CICS systems within one or more CICSplexes.

CICS primary connection region
The web owning region (WOR) of the Multi-Region Option (MRO) connected regions in a CICS test environment. This is the region in which the CICS resource definition server for Application Deployment Manager runs.

CICS region
An instance of CICS Transaction Server that runs in its own z/OS address space.

CICS region user ID
The user ID assigned to a CICS region at CICS initialization. It is specified either in the RACF started procedures table when CICS is started as a started task, or on the USER parameter of the JOB statement when CICS is started as a job.

CICS run unit
A set of statically bound, dynamically bound, or both, modules that can be loaded by a CICS loader.

CICS segment
The portion of a RACF profile containing data for CICS.

CICS system

  1. In CICSPlex SM topology, a definition referring to a CICS system that is to be managed by CICSPlex SM.
  2. The entire collection of hardware and software required by CICS.

CICS system definition data set (CSD)
A VSAM KSDS cluster that contains a resource definition record for every record defined to CICS using resource definition online (RDO).

CICS system group

  1. A set of CICS systems within a CICSplex that can be managed as a single entity.
  2. In CICSPlex SM topology, the user-defined name, description, and content information for a CICS system group. A CICS system group can be made up of CICS systems or other CICS system groups.
  3. In CICS business transaction services (BTS), a BTS set, that is the set of CICS regions across which BTS processes and activities may execute.

CICS Transaction Affinities Utility
A utility designed to detect potential causes of inter-transaction affinity and transaction-system affinity for those users planning to use dynamic transaction routing.

CICS-value data area (CVDA)
An argument to which CICS has assigned a specific and limited set of meaningful values. When a CVDA is specified in an EXEC CICS command, CICS converts the CVDA value name to the corresponding numeric representation.

CICS VSAM Recovery
An IBM product that recovers lost or damaged Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data.

CICS-WebSphere MQ API crossing exit
An exit that intercepts WebSphere MQ calls as they are being run, for monitoring, testing, maintenance, or security purposes.


  1. See communication identifier.
  2. See connection identifier.

See control interval definition field.

CID methodology
An IBM-specified way to install and configure products on, or remove products from, remote workstations and hosts. Response files and redirected installation and configuration may be used by a CID-enabled product to eliminate or reduce user interaction with the CID-enabled product. See also response file.

See Classless Inter-Domain Routing.


  1. See common interchange file.
  2. See customer installable feature.

See Common Internet File System.

CII data format
See Center for the Information of Industry data format.

See Common Information Model.

CIM agent
The code that consists of common building blocks that can be used instead of proprietary software or device-specific programming interfaces to manage devices that are compliant with the Common Information Model (CIM).

CIM object manager (CIMOM)
The common conceptual framework for data management that receives, validates, and authenticates the CIM requests from the client application. It then directs the requests to the appropriate component or service provider.

See CIM object manager.

See Common INET.

C interface
The interface that is defined at a level that depends on the variant of C standardized by ANSI.

See Chief Information Officer.


  1. See commit in progress.
  2. See customized installation package.

A cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt data that is unreadable until converted into plain data with a predefined key.

cipher block chaining (CBC)
A method of reducing repetitive patterns in ciphertext by performing an exclusive-OR operation on each 8-byte block of data with the previously encrypted 8-byte block before it is encrypted.

The combination of encryption algorithm and hash function applied to an SSL message after authentication completes.

cipher specifications
Specifications that indicate the data encryption algorithm and key size to use for secure connections.

cipher suite
The combination of authentication, key exchange algorithm, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cipher specification used for the secure exchange of data.

Data that is encrypted. Ciphertext is unreadable until it is converted into plaintext (decrypted) with a key. See also cleartext.


  1. One or more conductors through which an electric current can flow. See also link, packet switching.
  2. In fibre-channel technology, an established communication path between two ports, which consists of two virtual circuits capable of transmitting in opposite directions. See also link.

circuit breaker
A switch that automatically interrupts an electric circuit because of an abnormal condition.

circuit identification code (CIC)
A 12-bit number that identifies a trunk and channel on which a call is carried.

circuit-switched data transmission service
A service that uses circuit switching to establish and maintain a connection before data can be transferred between data terminal equipment (DTE). See also packet-switched data transmission service.

circuit switching
A process that, on demand, connects two or more data terminal equipment (DTEs) and permits the exclusive use of a data circuit between them until the connection is released. See also message switching, packet switching.

circular file
A type of file that appends data until full; subsequent incoming data overwrites the data starting at the beginning of the file.

circular log
A database log in which records are overwritten if they are no longer needed by an active database. See also archive log.

circular logging
In WebSphere MQ on UNIX and Linux systems and WebSphere MQ for Windows, the process of keeping all restart data in a ring of log files. See also linear logging.

circular reference
A series of objects where the last object refers to the first object, which can cause the series of references to be unusable.

circular traceability relationship
A relationship between a requirement and itself, or an indirect relationship that leads back to a previously traced-from node. Traceability relationships cannot have circular references.

See complex instruction set computer.

Pertaining to improved government operations and services that are centered around a citizen's needs and preferences, and offer better public service processes.


  1. See container installable unit.
  2. See common interchange unit.
  3. See Customer Initiated Upgrade.


  1. See count key data.
  2. See count-key-data device.


  1. See Command Language.
  2. See control language.


  1. A request for reimbursement, replacement, or repair for an item or an asset that is under warranty.
  2. A notification to DB2 for z/OS that an object is being accessed. A claim prevents a drain from occurring until the claim is released, which usually occurs at a commit point. See also drain, logical claim.

claim class
A type of object access that can be defined by one of the following characteristics: cursor stability (CS), repeatable read (RR), or write.

C language
A language used to develop application programs in compact, efficient code that can be run on different types of computers with minimal change.


  1. In RACF, a collection of defined entities (users, groups, and resources) with similar characteristics.
  2. A grouping of projects that has global properties. The properties are used to manage completed jobs, typically deleting them periodically or starting another job that performs specific cleanup tasks.
  3. In object-oriented design or programming, a model or template that can be used to create objects with a common definition and common properties, operations, and behavior. An object is an instance of a class.
  4. An object that contains specifications, such as priority, maximum processing time, and maximum storage, to control the run-time environment of a job. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CLS.
  5. A collection of processes (and their associated threads) that have a single set of resource limitation values and target shares applied to them.
  6. A description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and semantics. A class can use a set of interfaces to specify collections of operations that it provides to its environment. See also interface, object.
  7. The set of all members of a type of object, such as all contracts, term definitions, organizations, and so on.
  8. In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a category into which objects are placed based on their purpose and internal structure.
  9. The syntactic category for a group of related values. A value can be assigned to different classes in different contexts or scenarios. See also classification, classification, pattern, value.
  10. The definition of an object within a specific hierarchy. A class can have properties and methods and can serve as the target of an association.
  11. In C++, a user-defined data type. A class data type can contain both data representations (data members) and functions (member functions).
  12. A section of a module. A class can represent program text, that is, the instructions and data that are loaded into virtual storage during execution. Other classes, such as an external symbol dictionary (ESD) and a relocation dictionary (RLD), are required for binding and loading the program.
  13. An attribute that is related to a transaction code and a message region that is used to determine scheduling. See also message class, region class.
  14. A basic unit of the classification hierarchy used in the Type Designer. There are three classes: item, group, and category.

class 0
See transport class 0.

class 1
Service that provides a dedicated connection between two ports (also called connection-oriented service), with notification of delivery or nondelivery.

class 1 terminal
A terminal for which the alternate IMS pre-opens backup sessions for the primary sessions that the active IMS opens; VTAM/NCP switches sessions from primary to backup at takeover.

class 2

  1. Connectionless service between ports with notification of delivery or nondelivery.
  2. See transport class 2.

class 2 terminal
A terminal for which IMS in the alternate reestablishes service at takeover.

class 3
In fibre-channel technology, connectionless service between ports without notification of delivery. Other than notification, the transmission and routing of class 3 frames is identical to that of class 2 frames.

class 3 terminal
A terminal that communicates with XRF IMS but whose sessions are not automatically reestablished at takeover.

class 4
See transport class 4.

class A network
In Internet communications, a network in which the high-order (most significant) bit of the IP address is set to 0 and the host ID occupies the three low-order octets.

class assignment rule
A rule that determines which values within a set of process attributes result in a process being assigned to a particular class (superclass or subclass within a superclass).

class attribute
A value in a class object that controls the processing of routing steps in a job. These values include the run priority, time slice, eligibility for purge, default wait time, maximum processing unit time, and maximum temporary storage parameters.

class authority (CLAUTH)
An attribute that allows a user to define RACF profiles in a class defined in the class descriptor table. A user can have class authority to zero or more classes. See also authority.

class binding signature
A hexadecimal value that contains the class signature (obtained from the signature bank) and the inheritance level. The class binding signature is added to the Interface Definition Language (IDL) source file by the signature emitter.

class B network
In Internet communications, a network in which the two high-order (most significant and next-to-most significant) bits of the IP address are set to 1 and 0, respectively, and the host ID occupies the two low-order octets.

Class Broker for Java (CBJ)
A Java tool that allows Java applications to run on a host system that does not have a graphical user interface (GUI). Because the IBM Developer Kit for Java Remote Abstract Window Toolkit is not recommended for complex graphics or highly interactive operations, CBJ for high-performance GUI services can be used.

class C network
In Internet communications, a network in which the two high-order (most significant and next-to-most significant) bits of the IP address are both set to 1 and the next high-order bit is set to 0. The host ID occupies the low-order octet.

class condition
In COBOL, a condition that specifies the character content of a data item as all alphabetic or all numeric.

class descriptor table (CDT)
A table containing a definition of general resource classes. The CDT contains the classes supplied by IBM and the installation-defined classes.

class diagram
A diagram that shows a collection of declarative (static) model elements, such as classes, types, and their contents and relationships. See also object diagram.

class F
Connectionless service for inter-switch control traffic, which provides notification of delivery or nondelivery between two expansion ports (E_ports).

class file
A compiled Java source file.

class hierarchy
The relationships between classes that share a single inheritance.

classic command
A supported non-IMSplex command. A classic command generally requires a leading slash, for example, /DBRECOVERY.

classic row compression
Data row compression that is provided by static, table-level compression dictionaries. See also adaptive compression.

class identifier (CLSID)
A Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) that identifies a COM component. Each COM component has its CLSID in the Registry so that it can be loaded by other applications.


  1. The process of grouping values into specific classes. See also class.
  2. A process for automatically acquiring document properties from the document content or another source.
  3. The system that defines classes and the relationships among those classes. See also class.

classification and regression tree algorithm
A decision tree algorithm that uses recursive partitioning to split the training records into segments by minimizing the impurity at each step. See also Quick, Unbiased, Efficient Statistical Tree algorithm.

classification hierarchy
The hierarchy of a type tree in the Type Designer. The deeper the subtype, the more specific the data characteristics are. See also compositional hierarchy.

classification mechanism
A set of class assignment rules that determine the classes to which processes are assigned.

classification purpose
The determination of how an item classification is used. For example, one classification may be used for receiving preference and another may be used for procurement purposes.

classification rule
A rule used by the workload manager component of z/OS to assign a service class.

classification scheme
See file plan.

classification value
A value within the classification hierarchy that can be associated to an item attribute.

Pertaining to a record that has special access restrictions in addition to normal record security.


  1. A specialized attribute used for grouping and color-coding process elements.
  2. A mechanism that describes behavioral and structural features. Classifiers include interfaces, classes, data types, and components.
  3. In QoS, a control function that selects packets according to the content within the packet headers.

class inheritance
A feature that allows a subclass to inherit all of the properties of a superclass, which is its parent in a class hierarchy.

class key
One of the C++ keywords: class, struct, and union.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
A method for adding class C Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. The addresses are given to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) for use by their customers. CIDR addresses reduce the size of routing tables and make more IP addresses available within organizations.

class library
In object-oriented programming, a collection of prewritten classes or coded templates, any of which can be specified and used by a programmer when developing an application.

class loader
Part of the Java virtual machine (JVM) that is responsible for finding and loading class files. A class loader affects the packaging of applications and the runtime behavior of packaged applications deployed on application servers.

class manager
A context service that handles a business model. The class manager makes business object classes available to the whole application and allows them to be used by all of the components.

class mask
A network mask that is derived solely on the basis of the network class of an Internet Protocol (IP) address.

class method

  1. A method that creates class instances.
  2. In Java, a method that is called without referring to a particular object. Class methods affect the class as a whole, not a particular instance of the class. See also instance method.

class name

  1. A unique identifier of a class type that becomes a reserved word within its scope.
  2. In the X Window System, the name of a class of resources, widgets, or clients. Resource and widget class names are typically defined in the programming libraries used to create the client.

In COBOL, a user-defined word defined in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph of the Environment Division that assigns a name to the proposition, for which a truth value can be defined, to verify that the content of a data item consists exclusively of those characters listed in the definition of the class-name.

class object
An object that identifies the run attributes of a job. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CLS.

class of service

  1. In fibre-channel technology, a specified set of delivery characteristics and attributes for frame delivery.
  2. A set of characteristics (such as route security, transmission priority, and bandwidth) used to construct a route between session partners. The class of service is derived from a mode name specified by the initiator of a session.
  3. A set of link and node characteristics, associated with a session or a set of sessions, that determine the route that is selected for the sessions through an APPN network.
  4. A VTAM term for a list of routes through a network, arranged in an order of preference for their use.

class-of-service database
A database that is maintained independently by each network node, and optionally by APPN end nodes. The database contains one entry per class-of-service name. Each database entry contains: (a) A definition of the acceptable values for transmission group (TG) and node characteristics for routes described by that class-of-service name and the weight function to be used to compute the weights of nodes and TGs that meet the acceptable values; (b)The transmission priority to be used for traffic that flows on routes described by that class-of-service name.

class-of-service description
A system object created for Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) support that provides the information required to assign relative priority to the transmission groups and intermediate routing nodes for an APPN session. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *COSD.

class path
A list of directories and JAR files that contain resource files or Java classes that a program can load dynamically at run time.

class-responsibility collaborators
A technique in object-oriented development to define what objects should do in the system (their responsibilities), and identify other objects (the collaborators) that are involved in fulfilling these responsibilities.

class scope
The scope of C++ class members. See also namespace scope.

class signature
A hexadecimal value obtained from a server and placed in a signature bank on the workstation. The signature bank uniquely identifies an Interface Definition Language (IDL) interface. Class signatures are added to the IDL source file by the signature emitter.

class statistics
Statistical information that includes information such as the number of instances of the class in the application, the CPU time spent in that class, the number of calls made to the class, and so on.

class style
A combination of formatting characteristics, such as font, font size, and border, that the user names and stores as a set.

class template
A blueprint describing how a set of related C++ classes can be constructed.

class template declaration
A class template declaration introduces the name of a class template and specifies its template parameter list. A class template declaration may optionally include a class template definition.

class template definition
A definition that describes various characteristics of the class types that are its specializations. These characteristics include the names and types of data members of specializations, the signatures and definitions of member functions, accessibility of members, and base classes. See also base class.

class tier
In AIX Workload management, the value that specifies which class is most important. If no tier value is used, all classes are equally important.

class transition
A change in an object's management class or storage class when an event occurs that brings about a change in an object's service level or management criteria. Class transition occurs during a storage management cycle.


  1. A set of consecutive character strings that specify a characteristic of an entry. There are three types of clauses: data, environment, and file.
  2. The fundamental grouping of REXX syntax. A clause is composed of zero or more blanks, a sequence of tokens, zero or more blanks, and the semicolon delimiter.
  3. In SQL, a distinct part of a statement in the language structure, such as a SELECT clause or a WHERE clause.
  4. A building block of the contract language that may contain legal language or line data.

clause instance
An occurrence of a clause in a contract where the term values are specific to the contract and the language of the clause may be modified to suit the current contract.

clause template
A template that contains the standard language of a clause and includes the legal language, terms, and other properties. See also template.

clause type
A defined clause category for purposes of information and search.

clause visibility feature
A feature which, if enabled, displays only those clauses in the contract language view for which read permission is granted.

See class authority.

See Common Link Access to Workstation.

See communication line block.

See Common Locale Data Repository.


  1. To transform the data extracted from operational systems to make it usable by a data warehouse.
  2. To ensure that all values in a data set are consistent and correctly recorded.

clean up
To remove or delete obsolete repository data.

In SNA products, a network services request, sent by a system services control point (SSCP) to a logical unit (LU), that causes a particular LU-LU session with that LU to be ended immediately without requiring the participation of either the other LU or its SSCP.

cleanup interval
The length of time to wait before removing obsolete data.

cleanup period
The time period during which a database record that has reached its final state or condition is to remain in the database. After the cleanup period expires for such a record, database cleanup causes the record to be deleted from the database.

cleanup procedure
A procedure that instructs the system to attempt to remove software products that were partially installed and to revert to the previous version of the product. If the system successfully reverts to the previous version, it becomes the currently active version; otherwise, the software product is marked as broken.

In X.25 communication, to reject a call (if it has not yet been accepted) or end a call.

The control and positioning of plant equipment for providing protection for personnel and equipment during work on plant devices.

ClearCase administrators group
A Windows domain group whose members have superuser access to ClearCase objects.

ClearCase registry
A network service that allows programs to access versioned object bases (VOBs) and views by name instead of network path.

clear cause
See cause code.

clear-confirmation packet
In X.25 communication, a packet transmitted by the DTE to inform the DCE that a call has been cleared.

clear data
See plain text.

clear diagnostic
See diagnostic code.

clear indication packet
In X.25 communications, a call supervision packet that a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) transmits to inform a data terminal equipment (DTE) that a call has been cleared.

clearing channel (CC)
A payment system in a settlement bank that originates, schedules, disperses, and accounts for payments. Examples are CHAPS-Euro, Euro1, and RTGSplus. Each clearing channel has a corresponding S.W.I.F.T. service code.

In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a collection of directory replicas on one Cell Directory Service (CDS) server. A clearinghouse takes the form of a database file. See also control access.

Clearing House Automated Payment System (CHAPS)
A same-day, guaranteed value payment system operated by the CHAPS Clearing Company Ltd.

clearing system
See clearing channel.

clear key encryption
Any type of encryption key not protected by encryption under another key.

clear message
A message displayed by DirectTalk to tell the operator that a red or yellow error message has been cleared.

clear request packet
A call supervision packet transmitted by a data terminal equipment (DTE) to ask that a call be cleared.

clear session
A session in which only clear data is transmitted or received. See also cryptographic session, selective cryptographic session.

A string of characters sent over a network in readable form. It might be encoded for the purposes of compression, but it can easily be decoded. See also ciphertext.

The primary command-line interface to ClearCase and ClearCase LT version-control and configuration management software.

clear to send (CTS)
In data communication, a signal raised by data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) when it is ready to accept data, usually in response to request to send (RTS) being raised. See also request to send.

clear user data
In X.25 communications, data optionally included in the clear-request packet by the user application.

See Common Language for Expression Manipulation.

clerical record
A record for which the matching process cannot definitively determine if the record is a duplicate record or a nonmatched record or if the record is a matched record or a nonmatched record. See also duplicate record, matched record, nonmatched record.


  1. In the DCE Cell Directory Service (CDS), a software component that receives CDS requests from a client application, ascertains an appropriate CDS server to process the requests, and returns the results of the requests to the client application.
  2. In the DCE Distributed Time Service (DTS), a software component that synchronizes the clock for its client system by requesting time values from servers, computing a new time from the values, and supplying the computed time to client applications.


  1. See call level interface.
  2. See command-line interface.

C library
A system library that contains common C language subroutines for file access, string operations, character operations, memory allocation, and other functions.

To press and release a mouse button without moving the pointer off the choice.

In web advertising, the sequence of clicks or pages requested as a visitor explores a website.

Clickstream Engine
The Macromedia LikeMinds Personalization Server component that accesses transaction information and generates recommendations based on users' shopping behavior as they navigate a website. WebSphere Commerce generates events based on shopping behavior, including viewing a product detail page and adding items to a shopping cart or wish list. These events are forwarded to the Clickstream Engine.

A marketing tool that reports the number of times a customer clicks on the displayed content to find out more information about the subject.

clickthrough rate
In web advertising, the number of clicks on an ad on an HTML page as a percentage of the number of times that the ad was downloaded with a page. See also impression.

Click-to-Action (C2A)
A method for implementing cooperative portlets, whereby users can click an icon on a source portlet to transfer data to one or more target portlets. See also cooperative portlets, wire.


  1. A person or organization that receives a deliverable or work product. See also interprocess communication.
  2. A runtime component that provides access to queuing services on a server for local user applications. The queues used by the applications reside on the server. See also WebSphere MQ fully managed .NET client, WebSphere MQ Java client, WebSphere MQ MQI client.
  3. A software program or computer that requests services from a server. See also host, server.
  4. A classifier that requests a service from another classifier. See also association.

client acceptor
An HTTP service that serves the Java applet for the web client to web browsers. On Windows systems, the client acceptor is installed and run as a service. On AIX, UNIX, and Linux systems, the client acceptor is run as a daemon.

client acceptor daemon (CAD)
See client acceptor.

client API
The interface used by client applications to invoke services in CICS using the facilities of the Client daemon. See also external call interface, external security interface.

client application

  1. A user application, written in a supported programming language other than Java, that communicates directly with the Client daemon.
  2. A storage management program that initiates Common Information Model (CIM) requests to the CIM agent for the device.
  3. An application written with the Content Manager APIs to customize a user interface.
  4. An application written with object-oriented or Internet APIs to access content servers from Information Integrator for Content.
  5. An application, running on a workstation and linked to a client, that gives the application access to queuing services on a server.
  6. An application that users the services of the database services by direct connection or via application servers. See also client/server architecture.

Client Application for Windows
A complete object management system provided with Content Manager and written with Content Manager APIs. It supports document and folder creation, storage, and presentation, processing, and access control.

client application thread
In DCE remote procedure call (RPC), a thread executing client application code that makes one or more RPCs.

Client Attachment feature (CAF)
An option that supports the attachment of clients to z/OS.

client authentication
The process by which a client's identity is verified.

client certificate
A certificate that is presented by the client to a server prior to forming an active connection.

client channel definition table (CCDT)
A file that contains one or more client-connection channel definitions.

client-connection channel type
The type of MQI channel definition associated with a WebSphere MQ client. See also server-connection channel type.

client context
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the state within a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) server generated by a set of remote procedures and maintained across a series of calls for a particular client.

Client daemon
A daemon that manages network connections to CICS servers. It processes ECI, EPI, and ESI requests, sending and receiving the appropriate flows from the CICS server to satisfy the application requests. The Client daemon (process cclclnt) exists only on distributed platforms.

client domain
The set of drives, file systems, or volumes that the user selects to back up or archive data, using the backup-archive client. See also domain.

client end node
An end node for which the network node provides network services.

client group
A group of clients that specify the volumes that are backed up. Client groups can also include SQL and Exchange databases for backup, even if they span across multiple disk volumes.

client initialization file
A file containing configuration information used to inform the CICS Client of the CICS servers it can connect to, and the communication protocols to be used.

Client Input Output Sockets (CLIO/S)
A set of commands and APIs that can be used for high-speed communication and to access tape devices on a network of AIX workstations and MVS mainframes.

client locale
The locale that a client application uses to perform read and write operations on the client computer. See also locale, server locale.

client logical partition
A logical partition that uses the I/O resources of another logical partition, for example, a logical partition that uses the resources of a Virtual I/O Server logical partition.

client message
A message from a client application that is to be sent by means of a network to its destination, or a message that is routed to a client application to acknowledge the receipt of a client message by a network.

client node

  1. A file server or workstation on which the backup-archive client program has been installed, and which has been registered to the server.
  2. In a single system image (SSI), a WebSphere Voice Response system that handles interactions with callers. A client node must have a telephony connection. It does not store application or voice data; it gets data from the server node of the SSI.

client node session
A session in which a client node communicates with a server to perform backup, restore, archive, retrieve, migrate, or recall requests.

client option set
A group of options that are defined on the server and used on client nodes in conjunction with client options files.

client options file
An editable file that identifies the server and communication method, and provides the configuration for backup, archive, hierarchical storage management, and scheduling.

client pattern
A method to determine which clients to monitor, and how to group them for reporting.

client-polling scheduling mode
A method of operation in which the client queries the server for work. See also server-prompted scheduling mode.

client process
A process that requests services from a server process. See also server process.

client program

  1. A program that uses a C++ class.
  2. In dynamic routing the application program, running in the requesting region, that issues a remote link request.
  3. In the client/server model, the front-end transaction.

client project for RuleApps
A predefined project for Eclipse that contains a class to execute a rule set within a RuleApp.

client proxy
An object on the client side of a network connection that provides a remote procedure call interface to a service on the server side.

client reroute
A method that allows a client application, upon the loss of communication with a database server and the predefinition of an alternative server, to continue working with the original database server or the alternative server with only minimal interruption of the work.

client schedule
A database record that describes the planned processing of a client operation during a specific time period. The client operation can be a backup, archive, restore, or retrieve operation, a client operating system command, or a macro. See also administrative command schedule, central scheduler, schedule.

Pertaining to the model of interaction in distributed data processing in which a program on one computer sends a request to a program on another computer and awaits a response. The requesting program is called a client; the answering program is called a server. See also distributed application.

client/server architecture
A hardware and software design that allows the user interface and database server to reside on separate nodes or platforms on a single computer or over a network. See also client application, server-processing locale, three-tier client/server architecture model, two-tier client/server architecture model.

client/server connection statement
An SQL statement that can connect to a database. These statements include CONNECT, DISCONNECT, and SET CONNECTION.

Pertaining to an operation that is performed on the client application and not on the server.

client state manager

  1. A station that consists of a control unit (a cluster controller) and the terminals attached to it.
  2. A component of the client kernel that provides protocol support for the client.

client stub
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the surrogate code for a remote procedure call (RPC) interface that is linked with and called by the client application code. In addition to general operations such as marshaling data, a client stub calls the RPC runtime library to perform remote procedure calls and, optionally, to manage bindings.

client system-options file
A file, used on AIX, UNIX, or Linux system clients, containing a set of processing options that identify the servers to be contacted for services. This file also specifies communication methods and options for backup, archive, hierarchical storage management, and scheduling. See also client user-options file.

client tier
The client programs and consoles that are used for development, administration, and other tasks for the InfoSphere Information Server suite and product modules and the computers where they are installed.

client time
The time that it takes to process and display a web page in a browser.

client type detection
A process in which a servlet determines the markup language type required by a client and calls the appropriate JavaServer Pages file.

client user-options file
A file that contains the set of processing options that the clients on the system use. The set can include options that determine the server that the client contacts, and options that affect backup operations, archive operations, hierarchical storage management operations, and scheduled operations. This file is also called the dsm.opt file. For AIX, UNIX, or Linux systems, see also client system-options file. See also client system-options file.

client workstation
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, a workstation that depends on a server workstation to provide it with views and status information. A client workstation receives status information from the server workstation over an LU 6.2 session.

See Client Input Output Sockets.

See calling line identification presentation.

In computer graphics, to remove those parts of a display image that lie outside of a given boundary.

An area of computer memory, or storage, that temporarily holds data. Data in the clipboard is available to other applications.


  1. In the GDDM function, the process of cutting off the image at the border of the display but allowing the coordinates of the lines to extend beyond.
  2. In computer graphics, removing those parts of display elements that lie outside of a given boundary.

clipping plane
In GL, primitive space that is mapped to normalized device coordinates before clipping occurs. The clipping planes x=+/-w; y=+/-w; or z=+/-w correspond to the left, right, top, bottom, near, and far planes bounding the viewing frustum.

clipping region
The image defined by the bitmap or rectangles used to restrict output to a particular region of a window.

See command list.

A word that syntactically functions separately but is phonetically connected to another word. A clitic can be written as connected or separate from the word it is bound to. Common examples of clitics include the last part of a contraction in English 'wouldn't' or 'you're'.

The process by which a complex word or expression is formed by attaching a clitic to another word. A common example of cliticization includes attaching a clitic to a verb, for example: "je t'aime" in French.

See clock.

See Collaborative Lifecycle Management.

CL module
See control language module.


  1. See Connectionless Network Protocol.
  2. See connectionless-mode network protocol.

See connectionless-mode network service.

CLNS path
In OSI, a path used when the connectionless-mode network service is used. Each CLNS path names data terminal equipment (DTE) to be used for outbound communication.

CLNS path maintenance
In OSI, an option of whether or not to maintain a CLNS path to an adjacent node permanently (until OSI Communications Subsystem is restarted), or release the path when no active CLNS connection uses it. These connections include both network management and directory service connections and connections between customer programs.

CLNS path set
In OSI, a path set used when the connectionless-mode network service is used.

cloak option
A customization option that restricts access to selected information in the cube. The cloak option removes a category and its descendants from a dimension, but summarizes the values in the ancestor categories.

See character large object.

To delete a project and all of its associated jobs from the database.

clock (CLK)

  1. A device that generates periodic signals used for synchronization.
  2. In data communication, equipment that provides a time base used in a transmission system to control the timing of certain functions, such as sampling, and to control the duration of signal elements.

clock event
A special system event that is used to initiate a system-generated event.


  1. In communications, a method of controlling the number of data bits sent on a communications line in a specified time.
  2. In binary synchronous communication, the use of clock pulses to control synchronization of data and control characters.

clock time
The elapsed time in real time. Clock time differs from CPU time as thread switches and process context switches introduce uncertainty in performance calculation; clock time does not account for this execution behavior.


  1. To preserve the characteristics of the original but personalize instance-specific data. The result is a new instance of an entity (for example, of a virtual disk, a virtual computer system, or an operating system) rather than a backup of the original.
  2. An operation that enables an administrator to replicate profiles. This capability simplifies the task of creating multiple profiles with similar properties.
  3. An identical copy of the latest approved version of a component, with a new unique component ID.
  4. A copy of an application, created so that it can be customized while the original is retained.
  5. To prepare a reference computer and create a system profile ready for deployment. See also unattended setup.
  6. A copy of a volume on a server at a particular point in time. The contents of the copy can be customized while the contents of the original volume are preserved.
  7. An identical copy of the data and configuration of a server at a particular point in time.

clone device
A STREAMS device that returns an unused major or minor device when initially opened, rather than requiring the minor device to be specified by name in the open call.

cloned IMSplex
A group of IMSs in a sysplex that share databases, queues, or both, and have identical resource definitions.

clone object
An object that is associated with a clone table, including the clone table itself and check constraints, indexes, and BEFORE triggers on the clone table.

clone table
A table that is structurally identical to a base table. The base and clone table each have separate underlying VSAM data sets, which are identified by their data set instance numbers. See also base table.


  1. To end an activity and remove that window from the display.
  2. To end processing by ending the connection between the file and a program.

closed application
An application that requires exclusive use of certain statements on certain DB2 objects, so that the objects are managed solely through the external interface of that application.

closed-circuit television (CCTV)
The use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

The process of ending an operation of a system or a subsystem, following a defined procedure.

closed registration
A registration process in which only an administrator can register workstations as client nodes with the server. See also open registration.

closed system
A system whose characteristics comply with proprietary standards and that therefore cannot readily be connected to other systems.

closed user group (CUG)
In data communication, a group of users who can communicate with other users in the group, but not with users outside the group. A data terminal equipment (DTE) may belong to more than one closed user group. See also bilateral closed user group.

closed user group with outgoing access
A closed user group that has a user-assigned facility which enables a user to communicate with other users. These users include: users of a data network transmission service and users who have a data terminal equipment that is connected to any other switched network with available interworking facilities.

closed workstation
A workstation that is unavailable to process work for a specific time, day, or period.

closing version
A reporting version that contains the reported values for a given period, plus one or more journal types.

closure line
In the GDDM function, a line added by the system to enclose an area being filled with a pattern, in instances when the routines that precede the GSENDA routine fail to form an enclosed area.


  1. See cloud computing.
  2. A network that delivers requested virtual resources as a service.

cloud application
An application that is extended to be accessible through the Internet. Cloud applications use large data centers and powerful servers that host web applications and web services.

cloud client
Software or hardware that is designed to deliver cloud services, or that relies on cloud computing to operate.

cloud computing (cloud)
A computing platform where users can have access to applications or computing resources, as services, from anywhere through their connected devices. A simplified user interface and application programming interface (API) makes the infrastructure supporting such services transparent to users.

cloud group
A collection of hypervisors from a single vendor.

cloud image (image)
An information technology (IT) resource that can be provisioned for use on a cloud.

cloud infrastructure
See infrastructure as a service.

cloud instance
A piece of software or other information technology (IT) resource running on a cloud. Cloud instances are software instances created from cloud images.

cloud-oriented architecture (COA)
The design and optimization of architecture for use in cloud computing environments.

cloud portability
The ability to move applications and services across public or private cloud computing environments, or from different cloud providers.

cloud provider
An organization that provides cloud computing resources.

cloud request
A description of resources to be provided by a cloud. Typically, a cloud request consists of a list of cloud images to be provided by the cloud and information about how those cloud instances are to be configured.

cloud storage

  1. A storage resource provided by a cloud, or the storage of data on virtual public or private servers in the cloud.
  2. A network of virtual servers that store data, usually hosted by third parties.


  1. See current line pointer.
  2. See communication line processor.
  3. See container load plan.
  4. See command line processor.

See create link pack area.

CL procedure
See control language procedure.

CL program
See control language program.

See common language runtime.

See Continuous Linked Settlement.

See class identifier.

See control logical unit.

See cluster-receiver channel.

See cluster-sender channel.


  1. In SNA, a group of stations that consist of a controller (cluster controller) and the workstations attached to it.
  2. See clustered system.
  3. In WebSphere MQ, a group of two or more queue managers on one or more computers, providing automatic interconnection, and allowing queues to be advertised among them for load balancing and redundancy.
  4. A group of two or more Domino servers that provides users with constant access to data, balances the workload among servers, improves server performance, and maintains performance when the size of an enterprise increases.
  5. Two or more connected copies of Sterling B2B Integrator that share a database.
  6. A group of computers and other resources that operate together as a single system. See also clustered system, GPFS cluster.
  7. A group of application servers that collaborate for the purposes of workload balancing and failover.
  8. A data set defined to VSAM. A cluster can be a key-sequenced data set, an entry-sequenced data set, or a relative record data set.
  9. A collection of complete systems that work together to provide a single, unified computing capability.
  10. A group of servers connected by a network and configured in such a way that if the primary server fails, a secondary server takes over.
  11. In Storwize® V7000, a pair of nodes that provides a single configuration and service interface.
  12. A set of independent systems or logical partitions (called nodes) that are organized into a network for the purpose of sharing resources and communicating with each other.
  13. In IBM System Storage DS8000, a partition capable of performing all DS8000 series functions. With two clusters in the DS8000 storage unit, any operational cluster can take over the processing of a failing cluster.
  14. In Microsoft Cluster Server, a group of computers, connected together and configured in such a way that, if one fails, MSCS performs a failover, transferring the state data of applications from the failing computer to another computer in the cluster and reinitiating their operation there.
  15. A group of appliances in which one appliance acts as the central appliance, and the other appliances act as its clients.
  16. A set of nodes that must be placed close together by a layout algorithm.
  17. A loosely coupled collection of independent systems (or nodes) organized into a network for the purpose of sharing resources and communicating with each other. See also GPFS cluster.

Cluster Aware AIX (CAA)
A technology that builds clustering capabilities into the AIX operating system. This built-in clustering support provides commands and programming APIs to create a cluster from a group of AIX instances. CAA provides kernel-based heartbeat, monitoring, and event infrastructure.

cluster caching facility (CF)
A subsystem, typically on a dedicated computer or LPAR, that assists in global locking and group buffer pool management for a DB2 pureScale instance on Linux and AIX operating systems. See also preferred primary cluster caching facility, primary cluster caching facility, secondary cluster caching facility.

cluster configuration
A user definition of all cluster components. Component information is stored in the ODM. Components include cluster name and ID, and information about member nodes, network interface, and network modules. See also dynamic automatic reconfiguration.

cluster configuration data
The configuration data that is stored on the cluster configuration servers.

cluster configuration database
See Object Data Manager.

cluster controller
A device that can control the input/output operations of more than one device connected to it.

cluster domain
A virtual collection of physical elements such as computer systems and logical elements such as software instances that can provide services to a client as a single unit. See also cluster domain node.

cluster domain node
A physical element such as a computer system or a logical element such as a software instance in a cluster domain. See also cluster domain, management server domain, peer domain.

clustered hash table
A mechanism to enable the replicating and sharing of data between cluster nodes.

clustered index
An index whose sequence of key values closely corresponds to the sequence of rows stored in a table. The degree of correspondence is measured by statistics that are used by the optimizer.

clustered system
A collection of nodes that are placed in pairs (I/O groups) for redundancy, which provide a single management interface. See also cluster, GPFS cluster, system.

clustered trivial database (CTDB)
A cluster implementation of the trivial database (TDB) used by Samba and other projects to store temporary data.

cluster entry
A catalog entry that contains the following information about a key-sequenced or entry-sequenced Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) cluster: ownership, cluster attributes, and the cluster's passwords and protection attributes. A key-sequenced cluster entry points to both a data entry and an index entry; an entry-sequenced cluster entry points to a data entry only. See also alternate-index entry.

cluster environment

  1. A topology in which an application server is defined over several machines or CPUs. See also horizontal clustering, vertical clustering.
  2. See cluster configuration.

cluster event
A change in a cluster's composition that the cluster manager recognizes and can respond to. See also node down, node up.

Cluster feature
A feature that provides four cable connections and allows up to four work stations to be attached to a 5251 Model 12 Display Station.

cluster hardware
Hardware that is included in the cluster, such as disks and disk devices, processors, network interfaces, and networks.


  1. The ability to group independent systems to work together as a single system.
  2. The process of grouping records together based on similarity. Similar records are labeled according to their group, so there is no predefined target field for the model to predict.

clustering block index
See dimension block index.

clustering index
An index that determines how rows are physically ordered (clustered) in a table space. If a clustering index on a partitioned table is not a partitioning index, the rows are ordered in cluster sequence within each data partition instead of spanning the partitions.

cluster interconnect netname
The IP address or host name of the interconnect used for high-speed communication between members, or between members and cluster caching facilities, in a DB2 instance.

cluster joining
The process whereby additional nodes join an existing cluster when they can communicate with another active clustered node and can validate the node name and version compatibility.

cluster log
A log that maintains a history of routine activities and error conditions that are generated by all metadata servers in the cluster.

cluster manager

  1. A software daemon that runs on every node in the cluster and is responsible for responding to failures and coordinating recovery actions.
  2. The node that monitors node status using disk leases, detects failures, drives recovery, and selects file system managers. The cluster manager is the node with the lowest node number among the quorum nodes that are operating at a particular time.

cluster member
An identically configured copy of an object, such as an application server. Cluster members can be used for workload management purposes, for example, to support horizontal scaling and vertical scaling.

cluster membership list
A set of cluster nodes that have been configured for a cluster.

cluster name
A user-defined ASCII text string that uniquely identifies a cluster in a system.

cluster node
A system that is a member of a cluster. See also local node, remote node, system.

cluster processor complex (CPC)
The unit within a cluster that provides the management function for the ESS. It consists of cluster processors, cluster memory, and related logic.

An IBM designation that defines certain high-availability requirements that are applied to a software product either by itself or in combination with other software products. A solution that satisfies the technical criteria of these requirements can be validated with IBM and licensed to be marketed with IBM's ClusterProven trademark.

cluster queue
A local queue that is hosted by a cluster queue manager, and defined as a target for messages being put from an application connected to any queue manager within the cluster. All applications retrieving messages must be locally connected.

cluster queue manager
A queue manager that is a member of a cluster. A queue manager can be a member of more than one cluster.

cluster-ready hardware server (CRHS)
A software component that provides management subsystem communication and methods for discovering components within a management subsystem.

cluster-receiver channel (CLUSRCVR)
A channel on which a cluster queue manager can receive messages from other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information from the repository queue managers.

cluster resource
Any part of the system that is available across multiple cluster nodes. The two types of system resources that can be resilient are the following: Objects that are kept up to date by using replication. A resilient application and its associated IP address, which can be switched.

cluster resource group (CRG)
A collection of related cluster resources that defines actions to be taken during a switchover or failover operation of the access point of resilient resources. The group describes a recovery domain and supplies the name of the cluster resource group exit program that manages the movement of an access point.

cluster resource group manager (CRGM)
A highly available client application that uses the integrated cluster resource services to configure, define, monitor, and administer a cluster of systems.

cluster resource service
An i5/OS system service function that supports cluster implementations.

cluster-root container
A special container that is the root of the global file system.

cluster-sender channel (CLUSSDR)
A channel on which a cluster queue manager can send messages to other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information to the repository queue managers.

cluster service
A Windows (TM) service that manages the cluster specific activities and is installed on each node of the cluster. The components of the Cluster service provide high availability, easy management and enhanced scalability for Windows.

cluster services
The high availability services, such as the cluster manager and other services running on the nodes, that monitor the cluster resources. The resources and data maintained on the cluster for access by clients and their applications are cluster services.

cluster snapshot
An ASCII file containing a record of the data that defines a particular cluster configuration. Applying a cluster snapshot can save and restore a particular cluster configuration.

cluster storage subsystem
A group of clusters where each cluster consists of one or more logical partitions that have a shared storage pool.

Cluster Systems Management (CSM)
Systems management software that is designed to scale to large-size clusters.

cluster takeover
The process of the DB2 product taking over the ownership of a user-managed GPFS cluster.

cluster topic
An administrative topic that is defined on a cluster queue manager and made available to other queue managers in the cluster.

cluster transmission queue
A transmission queue that holds all messages from a queue manager destined for another queue manager that is in the same cluster. The queue is called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.TRANSMIT.QUEUE.

cluster VLAN
The virtual LAN that connects nodes to each other and to the management server through an Ethernet connection. Installation and administration tasks are done on the cluster VLAN.

See color lookup table.

CL variable
See control language variable.


  1. See conversion mode.
  2. See Content Manager.
  3. See configuration management.


  1. See conversion mode*.
  2. See conversion mode.

See CICSPlex SM address space.

CMAS link
A communications link between one CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) and another CMAS or a remote managed application system (remote MAS). CMAS links are defined when CICSPlex SM is configured.

See comarketing center.


  1. See Common Messaging Call.
  2. See communication management configuration.

See Configuration Management Database.

See compiled message flow.

See control message interface.

See Common Management Information Protocol.

CMIP services
The VTAM implementation of the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), which provides a common set of program services for application programmers to use in writing CMIP application programs. These services include controlling associations, converting basic encoding rules (BER) syntax, and validating protocols.

See common management information service.

CM item
See configuration-managed item.


  1. See common management model.
  2. See common MPTN manager.

See complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

See Common Management Information Protocol over TCP/IP.

See container-managed persistence.

See Common Manageability Programming Interface.

See SPX Component Model Reference Architecture.

See New Business Partner Customer.

CMRO task
See cross-memory resource-owning task.

See Commercial Mobile Radio Services spectrum.


  1. See Conversational Monitor System.
  2. See Central Message Store.
  3. See configuration management system.
  4. See content management system.

CMS extended parameter list
A type of parameter list available in the CMS environment consisting of a string composed exactly as the user typed it at the terminal. There is no tokenization performed on the string.

CMS tokenized parameter list
A type of parameter list available in the CMS environment consisting of 8-byte tokens, which are folded to uppercase and end with a double word of FF.

See Co-Marketing Tool.

See Complimentary Marketing Terms Attachment for State Contracts.

See communication network management.

See communication network management interface.

See composite network node.

See change number of sessions.

See communication name table.


  1. See configuration object.
  2. See central office.


  1. See cloud-oriented architecture.
  2. See chart of accounts.

A user interface that can be created to collect input that is required for an underlying service.

COA report
See confirm-on-arrival report.

Pertaining to viewing a group of objects from an abstract or high level. See also fine-grained.

The concept of VTAM's writing PIUs to NCP and reading PIUs from NCP with a single channel program. The values coded for the DELAY keywords on the VTAM PCCU definition statement and the NCP LINE definition statement affect the degree of coattailing. A user can increase the probability of VTAM's writing and reading PIUs with a single channel program by adjusting these DELAY keywords. An increase in the degree of coattailing improves channel efficiency but may increase response time.

coaxial cable
A cable consisting of one conductor, usually a small copper wire, within and insulated from another conductor of larger diameter, usually copper tubing or copper braid.

See Common Business Oriented Language.

COBOL character
Any of the 51 characters of the COBOL character set.

COBOL reserved-word file
In EGL, a user-defined text file that contains reserved words other than EGL reserved words. If an EGL variable name matches a reserved word, EGL aliases the variable name at generation time, as reflected in the generated output.

COBOL run unit
A COBOL-specific term that defines the scope of language semantics. A COBOL run unit is equivalent to a Language Environment enclave.

COBOL word
In COBOL, a character string of not more than 30 characters that forms a user-defined word, a system-name, or a reserved word.

A collection of individual modules that are packaged into a single load module in order to reduce the time that would otherwise be needed to load the individual load modules.

The interaction of multiple users sharing information about their individual web interactions. With this interaction users can share a view of the same web page simultaneously and share further interactions with the web page they are jointly viewing.

See center of competency.

See capacity on demand.


  1. See confirm on delivery.
  2. See confirmation of delivery.


  1. A representation of a condition, such as an error code.
  2. A system of bit patterns to which a specific graphic or a control meaning has been assigned.
  3. A set of instructions for a computer.
  4. A number that uniquely identifies a catalog entry in the WebSphere Commerce system. A product code is used as the prefix for creating individual SKU codes.
  5. To write instructions for the computer; to program.

code assist
See content assist.

Works together with the code attribute in the APPLET tag to give a complete specification of where to find the main applet class file: code specifies the name of the file, and codebase specifies the URL of the directory containing the file.(Sun)


  1. A technology that compresses and decompresses data for the purpose of reducing the bandwidth required to send streaming data.
  2. A program that can encode and decode a digital data stream or signal. In mobile computing, there are separate codecs for multimedia processing and voice processing.

code churn
A report that shows the volume of changes in a project over time.

coded character
A control or graphic character with its assigned code point.

coded character set (CCS)
A set of unambiguous rules that establishes a character set and the one-to-one relationships between the characters of the set and their coded representations. See also invariant character set.

Coded Character Set Identifier (CCSID)
A 16-bit number that includes a specific set of encoding scheme identifiers, character set identifiers, code page identifiers, and other information that uniquely identifies the coded graphic-character representation.

coded character set identifier (CCSID)
A 16-bit number that includes a specific set of encoding scheme identifiers, character set identifiers, code page identifiers, and other information that uniquely identifies the coded graphic-character representation. See also binary string.

coded character set identifier 65534 (CCSID 65534)
The coded character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that a CCSID value for data at this level of processing is not relevant. When CCSID 65534 (X'FFFE') is associated with data, a CCSID value for the data should be obtained from the tagged fields of elements that are at a lower level in the defined hierarchy. For example, a file has CCSIDs that are tagged for each individual field it contains. If the field is tagged with CCSID 65534, processing is based on the CCSIDs assigned to each individual field instead of the CCSID assigned to the file.

coded character set identifier 65535 (CCSID 65535)
An identifier that is used to show that the associated data should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data. CCSID 65535 ( FFFF ) cannot be represented in long form. Data that is associated with CCSID 65535 should be interpreted as actual representation is unknown as defined in Character Data Representation Architecture-Level 2, IBM Registry. You cannot convert data that is associated with CCSID 65535 from one CCSID to another. The coded character set identifier (CCSID) that is used to show that data associated with the CCSID should not be processed as coded-graphic-character data.

coded font
In AFP support, a font file that associates a code page and a font character set. For double-byte fonts, a coded font associates multiple pairs of code pages and font character sets.

coded font local identifier
A 1-byte identifier that the Map Coded Font structured field assigns to each coded font it selects. The identifier is then specified in the text-control sequence that precedes the string of text to be printed with the particular font. See also local identifier.

coded font section
A font character set and code page pair. A single-byte coded font consists of only one coded font section; a double-byte coded font can consist of more than one.

coded graphic character
A graphic character that has been assigned one or more code points within a code page.

coded graphic character set global identifier (CGCSGID)
A 4-byte binary or a 10-digit decimal identifier consisting of the concatenation of a GCSGID and a CPGID. The CGCSGID identifies the code point assignments in the code page for a specific graphic character set, from among all the graphic characters that are assigned in the code page.

coded graphic character-set ID
A 10-digit identifier (two 5-digit identifiers separated by a space) that is the combination of a graphic character-set ID and a code-page ID. See also code page ID.

code division multiple access (CDMA)

  1. A form of multiplexing where the transmitter encodes the signal using a pseudo-random sequence, which the receiver also knows and can use to decode the received signal. Each different random sequence corresponds to a different communication channel.
  2. The term that is generally used to reference a type of 2G cellular network (standardized by IS-95). See also 2G, Global System for Mobile Communications, IS-95.

coded overlay
An overlay loaded in a printer in a coded format, rather than as a raster pattern. See also raster pattern overlay.

code element
A code construct in source or binary code. This term is often used as the antipode of model element.

code element set
The result of applying rules that map a numeric code value to each element of a character set. An element of a character set may be related to more than one numeric code value but the reverse is not true. However, for state-dependent encodings the relationship between numeric code values to elements of a character set may be further controlled by state information. The character set may contain fewer elements than the total number of possible numeric code values; that is, some code values may be unassigned. X/Open.

code fragment
In Process Designer, the specification of an action through WebSphere business integration API methods or other Java code. A developer can add or customize default code fragments. Process Designer embeds each code fragment in the code it generates to produce a whole program. See also action, action node.

code generation
The process of initially generating code from model information or subsequently updating code with model changes. Code changes might be overwritten by changes in the model. See also round-trip engineering.

code generation cycle
The set of supported or expected actions that are performed in response to a single code generation (forward engineering) invocation gesture.

code generator
The part of the compiler that physically generates the object code.

code group
In a computer security code system, an apparently meaningless sequence of letters, digits, or both, that represents a plaintext element, which may be a word, phrase, or sentence.

code injection
A technique that introduces new code into an application. Code injection can be used by an attacker to introduce code into a computer program to change the course of execution.

code list

  1. A table, supplied by Data Interchange Services or defined by the user, that contains all acceptable values for a single data field.
  2. One or many dynamic pairs of code values that contains sender code and receiver code. Each code pair has one description and up to four additional codes relating to the pair.

code list table
A repository for lists of codes that can further define fields.

code load
In System Manager, the type of product load that contains all of the product code that does not require translation to other languages, such as the code for displays, menus, and messages. However, if a product is never going to be translated, the code may contain all the product code.

code model
Any specifically designated model that is bound to a domain other than analysis.

code page

  1. A specification of code points from a defined encoding structure for each graphic character in a set or in a collection of graphic character sets. Within a code page, a code point can have only one specific meaning. See also invariant character set.
  2. An ordered set of up to 256 predefined display symbols. The first 32 code points of each code page are reserved for control codes and are the same for all code pages, leaving up to 224 distinct display symbols per page.
  3. A particular assignment of code points to graphic characters. Within a given code page, a code point can have only one specific meaning. A code page also identifies how undefined code points are handled. See also code point.

code page global identifier (CPGID)
A 5-digit decimal or 2-byte binary identifier that is assigned to a code page. The range of values is 00001 to 65534 (X'0001' to X'FFFE').

code page ID
A 5-digit registered identifier used to specify a particular assignment of code points to graphic characters. The code-page ID is the second part of the QCHRID system value or the CHRID parameter value. See also coded graphic character-set ID.

code point

  1. For SNA alerts, a 1-or 2-byte hexadecimal code that designates a particular piece of text to be displayed at the focal point.
  2. An identifier in an alert description that represents a short unit of text. The code point is replaced with the text by an alert display program.
  3. A unique bit pattern that represents a character in a code page. See also code page.
  4. In QoS, pertaining to a specific value in the Differentiated Services field of a data packet that signals to a network the behavior that is assigned to that packet.

code project
A project in a Visual Studio solution. One or more projects are contained in one solution. Most projects represent the collection of files that are used to build a component. A specific programming language is often used to code all project items throughout a project. It is possible to have multiple-language projects in VS.NET. Note that, you cannot use multiple languages within one project item. See also solution.

code respect
In programming, a feature that preserves the order of elements in the original code structure during code generation.

code server
A system that provides a code service for other computers on a network.

code set

  1. A set of unambiguous rules that establish a character set and the one-to-one relationship between each character of the set and its bit representation.
  2. See code page.

code synchronization
A feature that enables merging of model and code changes. See also round-trip engineering.

code template
A textual definition of the operation body code that is used when generating source code for a model element. This allows the source code to be reused and shared throughout a project or across projects. A code template consists of source code and embedded script logic, very much like an HTML page.

code unit
The fundamental binary width in a computer architecture that is used for representing character data, such as 7 bits, 8 bits, 16 bits, or 32 bits. Depending on the character encoding form that is used, each code point in a coded character set (CCS) can be represented by one or more code units.

The process by which the responses to open-ended questions are sorted into categories.

coding variable
A categorical variable that stores the responses to an open-ended question after they have been sorted into categories.

COD report
See confirm-on-delivery report.


  1. The ability of two or more different versions of WebSphere MQ to function on the same computer.
  2. During migration, the state during which two releases exist in the same data sharing group.
  3. The state during which two QMF releases exist in the same database.
  4. The ability of two or more entities to function in the same system or network.

cognitive car
A car that has the technology to predict vehicle malfunctions before they happen, divert drivers to less congested routes, and help reduce traffic accidents.

coherency check
Verification that the current state of an object satisfies the programmer-defined invariant properties of its class.

Pertaining to an object in which all data values satisfy the invariant properties. If any invariant property is not satisfied, the object is not coherent.

coherent cache
Cache that maintains integrity so that all clients see the same data.

The union of components of the same kind that depend on one another. See also coupling.

See IBM Contracts OnLine.

A typesetter postprocessor that buffers typeset output so that printers and workstations that do not support backscrolling can print.

cold backup
For programs that are resident on backup systems, a configuration in which a copy of the program is installed for backup purposes, but has not been started. See also hot backup, warm backup.

cold project
A project that contains only a work breakdown structure and schedule that are imported from another project-scheduling tool.

cold queue
A Common Queue Server (CQS) private queue type that contains in-doubt data objects for a client that had a cold start or a CQS that had a cold start.

cold standby
A recovery method in which backup servers with installed applications are in place and in a stopped state.

cold start

  1. The start of a database management system without preprocessing before-images or after-images.
  2. The starting of IMS when it is initialized for the first time or when some error condition prevents a warm or emergency restart. See also emergency restart, normal restart.
  3. A method of starting CICS where all local resources are refreshed, but information relating to remote systems and resource managers is preserved.
  4. The process of starting a system or program using an initial program load procedure.
  5. A process in which the system is initialized. All jobs that were active or in the job queue at the time of the cold start are removed from the system. See also warm start.
  6. A process by which DB2 restarts without processing any log records. See also warm start.
  7. The process of starting an existing data replication configuration without regard for prior replication activity, causing reinitialization of all subscriptions.


  1. A WebSphere business integration system component that contains business logic describing a distributed business process. Collaborations are used to coordinate and extend the business processes of disparate enterprise software products and to facilitate meaningful data exchange between them. Collaborations use business objects to exchange and manipulate data. See also business logic.
  2. A conceptual collection or grouping of model elements, classifiers, or primitive types that are unified in accomplishing some objective within the context of the collaboration.
  3. A diagram that shows the exchange of messages between two or more participants in a BPMN model.
  4. The ability to connect customers, employees, or business partners to the people and processes in a business or organization, in order to facilitate improved decision-making. Collaboration involves two or more individuals with complementary skills interacting together to resolve a business problem.

collaboration area
A runtime instance of a workflow for a specific hierarchy or catalog. A collaboration area provides a staging area where entries from that container can be modified without affecting the original entry. These changes can be copied back to the original or discarded when the entry completes the workflow. Each collaboration area must be associated with a workflow (but not vice versa). See also container, workflow.

collaboration diagram
See communication diagram.

collaboration meeting
One of the pre-defined Sametime meetings that can be selected when scheduling a meeting. A collaboration meeting is a small, very interactive meeting in which all participants have data permission. If computer audio is being used, anyone can talk at any time.

collaboration object
An object created from a collaboration template that is executable after it is configured and bound. Each collaboration object is configured for a specific business environment to integrate specific applications or software products. See also binding, collaboration template.

collaboration-object group
An executable set of collaboration objects bound together to represent a combined business process. See also event isolation.

collaboration property
A configuration option that, with the full set of such options, enables an administrator to customize the business processing behavior of a specific collaboration object. Collaboration properties are set in System Manager. See also property.

collaboration template
The logic and framework of a collaboration that provides the definition of its actions. A collaboration template consists of Java code, which Process Designer generates and the developer can customize. The template consists of scenarios, which specify sets of actions. A collaboration template is not executable; it is a Java class used to instantiate executable collaboration objects. See also action, collaboration object.

collaborative components
UI-neutral API methods and tag libraries that allow developers to add collaborative functionality to their portlets.

collaborative filtering
Personalization technology that calculates the similarity between users based on the behaviors of a number of other people and uses that information to make recommendations for the current user.

Collaborative Lifecycle Management (CLM)
The integration of products on Jazz technology to connect the work of analysts with development and test teams. These integrations provide a common approach to artifact linking, dashboards, security, and user interface frameworks.

collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
A concept that allows working together across the supply chain, using a set of process and technology models that are: open, yet allow secure communications; flexible across the industry; extensible to all supply chain processes; supportive of a broad set of requirements.

collaborative unit
The configuration of the part of a deployment environment that delivers required behavior to an application module. For example, a messaging collaborative unit includes the host of the messaging engine and deployment targets of the application module, and provides messaging support to the application module.

To compact a hierarchical view so that only higher levels or organization are displayed.

collapsed data node
A parent data node that hides its child nodes. See also expanded data node.

collapsed subprocess
A subprocess that hides its flow details. The collapsed subprocess object has a marker that distinguishes it as a subprocess, rather than a task. The marker is a small square with a plus sign inside.


  1. To combine and arrange in order.
  2. To determine the sorting order of strings of characters.

Promotional and other supporting materials for the brand and its offerings, such as brochures.

collating element

  1. One or more characters that match a sequence in a regular expression.
  2. The smallest entity used to determine the logical ordering of strings. A collating element consists of either a single character, or two or more characters collating as a single entity. The value of the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale determines the current set of collating elements. See also collating sequence.

collating sequence

  1. The sequence in which the characters are ordered for the purpose of sorting, merging, comparing, and processing indexed data sequentially.
  2. An ordering assigned to a set of items, such that any two sets in that assigned order can be collated.
  3. A specified arrangement used in sequencing. See also collating element.
  4. The relative ordering of collating elements as determined by the setting of the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale. The character order, as defined for the LC_COLLATE category in the current locale, defines the relative order of all collating elements, such that each element occupies a unique position in the order.


  1. The logical ordering of characters and strings according to defined rules.
  2. The separation of storage types into general categories (i.e. pallet, case, and single unit) that require very different means of handling.

collation order
The logical order that character-string values in a database are sorted and indexed by. The ordering is either based on the order of the code set or a locale-specific order.

collation table
A table that provides an ordered character set and character equivalence classes used by functions.

A device that combines and arranges pages in order.

collect - credited to customer payment method
A payment method in which the consignee pays for the freight charges and is reimbursed by the shipper.


  1. A group of objects with a similar set of management rules.
  2. A logical container for storing archived documents, as well as the retention and access policies that specify how the documents are managed. Each collection is represented by a separate file system. See also file archive collection, System Storage Archive Manager collection.
  3. In Ada language, the entire set of objects created by evaluation of allocators for an access type.
  4. An instance of a collection data type; a group of elements of the same data type stored in a SET, MULTISET, or LIST data type.
  5. A group of packages that have the same qualifier.
  6. A group of objects that typically have similar performance, availability, backup, retention, and class transition characteristics. A collection is used to catalog a large number of objects which, if cataloged separately, could require an extremely large catalog.
  7. Data obtained by a collector that represents the system status at a given point in time. Collections are timestamped and stored in a management collection object. See also schema.
  8. An abstract class without any ordering, element properties, or key properties.
  9. The process of monitoring and storing application performance data, aggregating it to a time interval, and saving it into data files on the endpoint.
  10. A set of data sources and options for crawling, parsing, indexing, and searching those data sources.
  11. In a Tivoli environment, a container that provides a single view of related resources.

collection certificate store
A collection of intermediate certificates or certificate revocation lists (CRL) that are used by a certificate path to build up a certificate chain for validation.

Collection Class Library
A complete set of abstract data structure such as trees, stacks, queues, and linked lists.

collection cursor
A database cursor that has an IBM Informix ESQL/C collection variable associated with it and provides access to the individual elements of a column whose data type is a collection data type.

collection data type
A complex data type whose instances are groups of elements of the same data type, which can be any opaque data type, distinct data type, built-in data type, collection data type, or row data type. See also complex data type.

collection-derived table
In Informix, a table that can be mapped to a transient table, and its elements can be mapped to rows of the transient table.

collection page
A type of page in the administrative console that displays a collection list of administrative objects. From this type of page, you can typically select objects to act on or to display other pages for.

collection point block (CPB)
In the NetView Performance Monitor (NPM), a control block used to coordinate the collection of network and session data.

collection processing engine (CPE)
An engine that performs collection processing through the combination of a collection reader, an optional CAS Initializer, an analysis engine, and one or more CAS Consumers.

collection processing manager (CPM)
A module in the framework that manages the execution of collection processing, routing CASs from the collection reader to an analysis engine, and then to the CAS Consumers. The CPM provides feedback such as performance statistics and error reporting, and may implement features such as parallelization.

collection reader
A component that reads documents from a source, such as a file system or database, and returns each document as a CAS that may be processed by analysis engines.

Collection Services
A System i Navigator tool that collects performance data independent of the system monitors in System i Navigator. This function is intended for subsequent analysis by performance personnel either by writing queries against the collected data or by reviewing reports produced by the Performance Tools for i5/OS licensed program.

collection subquery
A collection subquery enables users to construct a collection expression from a subquery expression.

collection variable
An IBM Informix ESQL/C host variable or SPL variable that holds an entire collection and provides access, through a collection cursor, to the individual elements of the collection.


  1. A set of WebSphere DataPower XC10 appliances that are grouped together for scalability and management purposes.
  2. A set of Liberty servers in one management domain that has at least one server with the collective-controller feature enabled.

collective communication
A communication operation that involves more than two processes or tasks. Broadcasts and reductions are examples of collective communication operations. All tasks in a communicator must participate.

collective controller
A centralized administrative control point where operations such as MBean routing, file transfer, and cluster management in a collective are performed. A core role of the collective controller is to receive information from the members within the collective so that the data can be retrieved readily without having to invoke an operation on each individual member.


  1. In an AIX PowerSC environment, an AIX logical partition or a virtual machine that has VTPM enabled and has the OpenPTS.collector fileset installed.
  2. An object that determines what information is collected from, or assigned to, server resources. The information is specified through properties in the collector. The collector, assigned to a server, serves as a specification for the server's manifest.
  3. A generic name for a program that at regular intervals collects data about the status of the system.

collector system
For directory shadowing, a system that receives initial or changed Enterprise Address Book (EAB) data from a supplier system in a network. See also supplier system.

collect payment method
A payment method in which the consignee pays for the freight charges.

Pertaining to segments in a hyperedge that have the same angle. Colinear segments should not be connected.


  1. In X.25 communication, a condition that occurs when data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) simultaneously transmit packets (for instance, a clear request packet and a clear indication packet) over the same logical channel. The types of collision are clear collision, call collision, or reset collision.
  2. An unwanted condition that results from concurrent transmissions on a channel, causing the transmissions to be unintelligible.

collision arbiter
A plug-in that specifies how to handle change collisions in map entries.

collision avoidance
In carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), the process of sending a jam signal and waiting for a variable time before transmitting data. The process is designed to avoid two or more simultaneous transmissions.

collision detect
In Performance Tools, a counter that counts the total number of times the terminal equipment (TE) detected that the frames it transmitted were damaged by another TE trying to use the same bus.

collision detection
In carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD), a signal indicating that two or more stations are transmitting simultaneously.

collocated join
The result of two tables being joined under one of two conditions. The first condition is where the tables are located in a single-partition database partition group in the same database partition. The second condition is where the tables are in the same database partition group, the number of partitioning columns is the same, the columns are partition compatible, both tables use the same partitioning function, and pairs of the corresponding partitioning key columns participate in the equijoin predicates. See also partition-compatible join.

The process of keeping all data belonging to a single-client file space, a single client node, or a group of client nodes on a minimal number of sequential-access volumes within a storage pool. Collocation can reduce the number of volumes that must be accessed when a large amount of data must be restored. See also anti-collocation, distribution preference.

collocation frequency
A statistic that indicates the likelihood of certain words occurring together in text.

collocation group
A user-defined group of client nodes whose data is stored on a minimal number of volumes through the process of collocation.

colon format
A format into which data files can be organized. Each data record consists of one line in the colon file, and data fields in each data record are separated by colons.

In Sterling Order Management and Sterling Configure, Price, Quote, a set of database shards required to provide complete sharding functionality.

colony address space
An address space in which a physical file system (PFS) can be initialized. The address space can be viewed as a logical extension to the kernel address space.

colony prefix
See primary key prefix.

In computer systems, a color is usually represented by a triplet called RGB (red, green, and blue) signals. Most computer monitors require RGB signals to drive the 3-colored phosphors of a color monitor.

color and paint blinking
A periodical change in the color or paint of a graphic object.

color cell
In Enhanced X-Windows, an entry in a color map that consists of three values based on red, green, and blue intensities. The values are 16-bit, unsigned numbers. Zero represents the minimum intensity. The values are scaled by the server to match the particular display in use.

color display
A display device capable of displaying more than two colors and the shades produced by combinations of two colors, as opposed to a monochrome display.

color lookup table (CLUT)
See color map.

color map

  1. A set of color cells. A pixel value indexes the color map to produce RGB-intensities. A color map consists of a set of entries defining color values that, when associated with a window, is used to display the contents of the window.
  2. A lookup table in which each index is associated with a red, green, and blue value.

color mapping file
File CICSCOL.INI used by the CICS Transaction Gateway to customize the 3270 screen color attributes on client workstations.

color mapping table
An architected MO:DCA object that is used to map color values specified in a source color space to color values specified in a target color space. This object is loaded into printers that support the color mapping table.

color palette

  1. A set of colors that can be displayed on the display at one time. This can be standard set used for all images or a set that can be customized for each image.
  2. See color map.
  3. In Business Graphics Utility, the range of colors defined by hue, lightness, and saturation to be used when a chart is displayed on a graphics-capable display.

color ramp
A progression of colors in a color map. Most color ramps are smooth and have only a small number, if any, of discontinuities. For instance, if the full set of colors of the rainbow were loaded into the color map, that would constitute a color ramp.

color selection
The ability to specify a color other than black to print data in more than one color. Some printers support selection of several colors, depending upon the color of ribbon installed in the printer. Other printers support the selection of black or "color of media," which can cause white lettering on a background that has been shaded black, for example.

color table
See color map.


  1. In a relational database, a field defined for a given record or row.
  2. The vertical component of a database table. A column has a name and a particular data type (for example, character, decimal, or integer).
  3. A subdivision of a band, such as baseline or actual.
  4. A character position within a print line or on a display. The positions are numbered consecutively from 1, starting at the leftmost character position and extending to the rightmost position.

column analysis
A data quality process that describes the condition of data at the field level.

column data
The data in a column of a relational database table or view. The type of the data can be any data type supported by the database manager.

column dimension
See page display.

column distribution value
See data distribution.

column expression
An expression that includes a column name and optionally uses column subscripts to define a column substring.

column function
See aggregate function.

column heading
Text appearing near the top of a column of data for the purpose of identifying or titling the data in the column.

column inch
A unit of measure for printed text. One column inch is the amount of text contained in an inch of type depth, one column wide.

column-major order
A way of storing array elements such that the leftmost subscript varies most rapidly as memory-adjacent elements are accessed.

column map
A map that defines the specifications for mapping columns of compatible data between source and destination tables.

column option
In a federated system, a parameter of the CREATE NICKNAME and ALTER NICKNAME statements that describes the values in certain columns of the data source object that a nickname references. This information is added to the global catalog and used by the query optimizer to develop better access plans.

column position
A unit of horizontal measure related to characters in a line. It is assumed that each character in a character set has an intrinsic column width independent of any output device. Each printable character in the portable character set has a column width of one. The standard utilities, when used as described in this document set, assume that all characters have integral column widths. The column width of a character is not necessarily related to the internal representation of the character (numbers of bits or bytes). The column position of a character in a line is defined as one plus the sum of the column widths of the preceding characters in the line. Column positions are numbered starting from 1. X/Open.

column separator
A symbol on each side of a position of a field on a display. This symbol does not occupy a position on the display.

column token
A level attribute that has certain properties, irrespective of the reference structure level. For example, the level attribute that provides the identifier for each row of data is represented by the $ID column token.

column wrapping
The formatting of values in a report so that the values occupy several lines within a column. Column wrapping is often used when a column contains a value with a length that exceeds the column width.


  1. See Component Object Model.
  2. See computer output microfilm.

comarketing center (cmc)

Co-Marketing Tool (CMT)

In a magnetic disk unit, an assembly of access arms that moves as a unit.

combination box
A control that combines the capabilities of an entry field and a list box. The list box contains choices that a user can select from to complete the entry field.

combination coupon
A coupon that is used to make price adjustments.

combination pricing rule
A pricing rule that changes the price of an item based on the combination of items being ordered. For example, an organization can create a pricing rule under which, for every home theatre system a customer buys, the customer gets a free DVD player.

A single character that can separate two selectors.

A mathematical science about countable elements. Typical results of combinatorics are formulas to compute how often certain combinations of distinguishable objects occur. The results from combinatorics are often used to analyze the run time (speed) of an algorithm.

combined alert
In the NetView program, an alert that includes both a nongeneric alert and a generic alert in one network management vector transport.

combined code page
See mixed code page.

combined condition
In COBOL, a condition that is the result of connecting two or more conditions with the AND or the OR logical operator.

combined file
In RPG, a data file that is used as both an input file and an output file. The fields are not necessarily the same in the input and output records.

combined function IOP (CFIOP)
A type of IOP that can connect to a variety of different input/output adapters to support disk units, a console, and communications hardware. It contains some multifunction IOP (MFIOP) capabilities as well as Ethernet and token-ring controllers. This processor does not contain server processor functions. See also multifunction IOP.

combined search
A query that combines one or more of the following types of searches: parametric, text, or image.

combined sewer overflow (CSO)
A discharge of untreated waste water from a combined sewer system at a point prior to the headworks of a publicly owned treatment works. CSOs generally occur during wet weather (rainfall or snowmelt). During periods of wet weather, these systems become overloaded, bypass treatment works, and discharge directly to receiving waters.

combined sewer system (CSS)
A waste water collection system which conveys sanitary waste waters (domestic, commercial and industrial waste waters) and stormwater through a single pipe to a publicly owned treatment works for treatment prior to discharge to surface waters.

combined station
In high-level data link control (HDLC), the part of a data station that supports the combined control functions of the data link, generates commands and responses for transmission, and interprets received commands and responses.

COM component
A binary file, such as .dll, .ocx, and some .exe files, that supports the COM standard for providing objects. COM components contain code for one or more class factories, COM classes, registry-entry mechanisms, loading code, and so on.

COM device
See microfilm device.

come from checking
An SNA LU 6.2 security option that defines a list of authorization identifiers that are allowed to connect to DB2 for z/OS from a partner LU.

COM interops
A component that provides a bridge between COM components and the .NET Framework.

Comitato Elettrotechnico Italiano
The Italian standards organization responsible for signaling protocols.

Comité consultatif international télégraphique et téléphonique (CCITT)
See International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.


  1. A unique pattern (either binary 1100000 or binary 0011111) used in 8B/10B encoding to specify character alignment within a data stream. See also K28.5.
  2. In REXX, a token that represents the continuation character, a separator of arguments in an argument list, or a separator in a parsing template.

comma-delimited file
A file whose records contain fields that are separated by a comma.

comma expression
An expression that contains two operands separated by a comma. Although the compiler evaluates both operands, the value of the right operand is the value of the expression. If the left operand produces a value, the compiler discards this value.


  1. In SDLC, a frame transmitted by a primary station. Asynchronous balanced mode stations send both commands and responses. See also response.
  2. A request to perform an operation or run a program. When parameters, arguments, flags, or other operands are associated with a command, the resulting character string is a single command.
  3. In SNA, any field set in the transmission header (TH), request header (RH), or request unit (RU) that states an action or that starts a protocol. See also data traffic reset state.
  4. A request from a terminal or automated operator for the performance of an operation or service, or for the execution of a particular program. See also response.
  5. In data communication, an instruction represented in the control files of a frame and transmitted by a primary or combined station. It causes the addressed station to run a data link control function.
  6. A statement used to initiate an action or start a service. A command consists of the command name abbreviation, and its parameters and flags if applicable.

command alias
An abbreviation of a long command line or a new name for a command. [OSF]

command and response token (CART)
An 8-byte token that is added to write-to-operator (WTO) commands; it enables the response WTO to be associated with the command that invoked it.

command area
An area of a display screen in which the user enters commands.

command attention key (CA key)
In DDS, a keyboard key that can be specified with the CA keyword to request the function specified by the keyword. Data is not returned to the system. See also command function key.

command authorization
The process of authorizing a network operator to use various commands. See also NetView command authorization table, Resource Access Control Facility, System Authorization Facility.

command bag
In the MQAI, a type of bag that is created for administering WebSphere MQ objects, but cannot change the order of data items or create lists within a message.

command bean

  1. A proxy that can invoke a single operation using an execute() method.
  2. A bean that contains the programming logic to handle a particular request.

command buffer
A temporary storage area where commands are stored before being carried out.

Command Center
A component of the Control Center for IMS that is used to issue IMSplex commands from both a workstation or multiple IMS systems.

command code
The portion of the segment search argument that enables an application program to access a database segment based on some variation in either the call function, the segment qualification, or the setting of parentage.

command control block (CCB)
In the IBM Token-Ring Network, a specifically formatted block of information provided from the application program to the adapter support software to request an operation.

command definition
An object that contains the definition of a command (including the command name, parameter descriptions, and validity-checking information) and identifies the program that performs the function requested by the command. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CMD.

command definition statement
A source statement that defines keywords and parameter values, qualified names, elements in a list, parameter requirements and interrelationships, and prompt text for a command. Command definition statements are used to create a CL command.

command direction
An RRSF function that allows a user to issue a command from one user ID and direct that command to run in the RACF address space on the same system or on a different RRSF node, using the same or a different user ID. See also automatic command direction, directed command.

command entry field
In Common User Access (CUA) architecture, an entry field in which a user types commands.

command event
A notification that an MQSC or PCF command has run successfully.

Command Execution Language (CEL)
The language used to create commands that work across cluster nodes. C-SPOC commands use CEL.

command execution manager
The service that manages remote command execution through a function in the policies.

command facility
In Tivoli NetView for OS/390, the component that is a base for command processors that can monitor, control, and automate network operations.

command file

  1. A system file that contains one or more statements or commands.
  2. In PC operating systems, a file with a file name extension of .CMD that functions like a batch file in DOS.
  3. In RJE, a remote job input stream that can contain host system commands and job control language (JCL), data, and RJE control statements (READFILE or EOF). See also data file.

command frame
A link-level frame or packet that is serviced as a command and (in most cases) expects a response.

command function key (CF key)
In DDS, a keyboard key that can be specified with the CF keyword to request the function specified by the keyword. Data is returned to the system. See also command attention key.

command history
An automatic listing of previously issued commands.

command indicator
In the NetView Graphic Monitor Facility, a numeric identifier that is assigned to a network resource by its controlling resource manager. Each resource manager is assigned a range of values that can be defined.

command interface
An interface for running QMF commands. The QMF commands can only be issued from within an active QMF session. See also callable interface.

command interpreter
See command language interpreter.

command key indicator
In RPG, an indicator defined to correspond with the function keys to tell the program when one of the function keys is pressed.

Command Language (CL)
In WebSphere MQ for iSeries, a language that can be used to issue commands, either at the command line or by writing a CL program.

command language interpreter
A program that reads commands and changes them into computer instructions.

command language translator
A batch program (part of CICS program preparation utilities) that prepares a source application program that includes EXEC CICS or EXEC DLI commands. The translator program translates the EXEC commands into CALL statements in the language of the application program. The translator output can be compiled or assembled in the usual way.

command length
In query management, one of the arguments passed to the language-specific interface programs that specifies the length of the query command to be run.

Pertaining to an operation that is performed for a specific command in a program. For example, a Monitor Message (MONMSG) command that immediately follows a specific command in a CL program is a command-level MONMSG command. See also program level.

command-level interface
See application programming interface.

command-level interpreter
A transaction that enables CICS commands to be entered, syntax-checked, and executed interactively at a 3270 screen. It provides a reference to the syntax of the whole of the CICS command-level application programming and system programming interface.

command line
The blank line on a display where commands, option numbers, or selections can be entered.

command-line argument
A part of a command line, delimited by white space. Arguments are used to specify detailed behavior to a program. They are usually either command line options selecting variations in program operation, or path names of files to be processed.

command-line client
A component used to run selected Tivoli Workload Scheduler master domain manager commands from any workstation where it is installed. The command-line client does not need to be installed on the master domain manager and is a selectable option for installation on other nodes in the network. See also master domain manager.

command-line interface (CLI)
A computer interface in which the input and output are text based. See also Copy Services command-line interface.

command line manager
The service that manages the command-line interface.

command line processor (CLP)
A text-based interface for entering SQL and XQuery statements and database manager commands.

command list

  1. A list of commands and statements designed to perform a specific function for the user.
  2. A language for performing TSO tasks.

command master
In an IMSplex, the IMS that Operations Manager (OM) designates to process a command when a command is issued through the OM API. Commands are routed to all IMS systems that are registered for the command and, if the command requires only one IMS to process it, the command master processes the command.

command mode
A state of a system or device in which the user can enter commands.

command name
The first term in a command, a verb, which specifies the action to be performed and is usually followed by operands.

command prefix (CPF)

  1. In WebSphere MQ for z/OS, a character string that identifies the queue manager to which WebSphere MQ for z/OS commands are directed, and from which WebSphere MQ for z/OS operator messages are received.
  2. A 1-character to 8-character command identifier. The command prefix distinguishes the command as belonging to an application or subsystem rather than to z/OS.

command prefix facility (CPF)
An z/OS facility that provides a registry for command prefixes. CPF ensures that two or more subsystems do not have the same or overlapping command prefixes for operator commands.

command procedure
In the NetView for z/OS, a command list or a command processor that is written in a high-level language or a pipeline.

command processing client
An entity that can process commands or perform other work as directed by an Operations Manager (OM). In an IMSplex, an IMS control region is a command processing client.

command processing program (CPP)
A program that processes a command. This program performs some validity checking and processes the command so that the requested function is performed.

command processor
A module designed to perform a specific function for the user. Users can write command processors in assembler language or in a high-level language. Command processors are started as commands.

command processor parameter list (CPPL)
A list that contains addresses required by the command processor.

command programming language
A facility with which a user can program by combining commands rather than by writing statements in a conventional programming language.

command prompt
A displayed character (or string of characters) that indicates that a user may enter a command to be processed.

command recognition character (CRC)

  1. In MVS, a character that denotes an operator command.
  2. A character that permits a z/OS console operator or an IMS subsystem user to route DB2 commands to specific DB2 for z/OS subsystems.

command scope
The breadth of the impact of a command in a data sharing group. In a data sharing environment, a command can have a group scope or a member scope.

command security
A form of security checking that can be specified for the PERFORM, COLLECT, DISCARD, INQUIRE, and SET commands. Command security operates in addition to any transaction security or resource security specified for a transaction. For example if a terminal invokes a transaction that the user is authorized to use, and the transaction issues a command that the user is not authorized to use, the command fails with the NOTAUTH condition.

command server
The WebSphere MQ component that reads commands from the system-command input queue, verifies them, and passes valid commands to the command processor.

command significant status
The command status that is associated with a resource, for example, the status of STOP, TRACE, and MFSTEST commands. If a resource structure is defined, the recovery of command significant status is always maintained globally by the Resource Manager (RM) in the resource structure. See also end-user significant status.

command string

  1. A request to perform an operation, along with the operands that provide all instructions needed for running the operation.
  2. In query management, a character string that contains a query command.

command substitution
In UNIX-based operating systems, a shell feature that makes it possible to use the output from one command as an argument to another command.

command synonym
The verb or verb/object portion of a site-defined command. After command synonyms are defined and activated in the QMF profile, users can enter the synonyms on the QMF command line as they do with regular QMF commands.

command synonym table
A table that stores one site-defined command in each row. A set of command synonyms is assigned to a user by storing the name of this table in the user's profile.

command thread
A thread which is reserved by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for commands issued to DB2 using the DSNC transaction. See also entry thread, pool thread.

command word
The name of the 16-bit units used for storing graphic primitive strings. The first command word determines the primitive type and sets the length of the string.

See communication area.

See communications data set.


  1. An annotation attached to an artifact, element, or a collection of elements. See also constraint.
  2. Text that is included within a contract for communication with other users.
  3. Explanatory text in a program or file that is not translated by the compiler.

Any additional information attached to Contributor cells, tabs, or e.List items, including both user annotations and attached files.

In COBOL, an entry in the Identification Division of the source program that may be any combination of characters from the character set of the computer. The comment-entry is written in area B on one or more lines. Comment-entries serve only as documentation and are not translated by the compiler.

comment line
In COBOL, a source program line represented by an asterisk (*) in the indicator area of the line and any characters from the computer's character set in area A and area B of that line. The comment line serves only for documentation in a program.

commercial address
The street address as defined by the freight carrier for commercial sites.

Commercial Data Masking Facility (CDMF)
An encryption function that uses a 40-bit key with the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm.

commercial invoice
A list of the pertinent information about a shipment, such as shipper, consignee, third party (if present), the goods being shipped, their cost and value for customs (and for the transaction), and so on.

Commercial Mobile Radio Services spectrum (CMRS)
An organization that provides cellular, PCs, mobile radio, paging, and other wireless services.

commercial processing workload (CPW)
An application that is run on System i models and processors to determine processor performance. The CPW workload is representative of commercial applications, particularly those that do significant database processing in conjunction with journaling and commitment control.

Commission of European Post and Telegraph (CEPT)
A European standards-setting organization replaced by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). See also European Telecommunications Standards Institute.


  1. To move managed assets from a task group in a workspace to the production-ready data on the authoring server. See also authoring server, production-ready data, quick publish, task group, workspace, workspace task group approver.
  2. To apply all the changes made during the current unit of recovery (UR) or unit of work (UOW). After the operation is complete, a new UR or UOW can begin.
  3. To transfer to a specific version of the software product. When committing, the saved files from all previous versions are removed from the system, thereby making it impossible to return to a previous version without reinstallation. Committing does not change the currently active version of the software product. See also reject.
  4. To end a unit of work by releasing locks so that the database changes made by that unit of work can be perceived by other processes. This operation makes the data changes permanent. See also atomic, recoverable data set.
  5. To make a document immutable.

commit coordinator
See sync point manager.

commit cycle
The sequence of changes made between commitment boundaries.

commit cycle identifier
The journal sequence number associated with the start commitment operation that is used to identify the journal entries in a particular commit cycle.

commit identifier
The information that associates the commit operation with a specific set of committable resource changes. The commit ID is placed in the notify object if a system or routing step failure occurs, or if uncommitted changes exist when a routing step ends normally. The commit ID contains information (supplied on the commit statement) about the last successful transaction (group of changes that appear as a single change); for example, the transfer of funds from savings to a checking account.

commit in progress (CIP)
The commit in progress logical unit of work (LUW) state indicates that all the resources associated with this logical unit of work have been prepared after a unanimous vote to commit. The protected resource managers are in the process of committing.

commitment boundary

  1. A point at which there are no changes to a database file pending within a job. See also roll back.
  2. In a commitment controlled environment, any time there are no outstanding changes for a committable resource existing within a job.

commitment control

  1. A means of grouping committable resource operations to allow either the processing of a group of committable resource changes as a single unit through the Commit command, or the removing of a group of committable resource changes as a single unit through the Rollback command.
  2. A way of grouping file operations that allows the processing of a group of database changes as a unit or the removal of a group of database changes as a unit. See also roll back.

commitment definition
Information used by the system to maintain the commitment control environment throughout a routing step and, in the case of a system failure, throughout an IPL (initial program load). This information is obtained from the Start Commitment Control (STRCMTCTL) command, which establishes the commitment control environment, and the file open information in a routing step. The commitment definition has a scope either to the job or to a particular activation group within the job.

commit operation

  1. An operation that saves a file to permanent storage.
  2. A change management operation that causes all the updates prepared in the preparation phase to take effect. See also transactional mode.

commit phase
The second phase in a XA process. If all participants acknowledge that they are prepared to commit, the transaction manager issues the commit request. If any participant is not prepared to commit, the transaction manager issues a back-out request to all participants.

commit point
A point in time when data is considered to be consistent. See also synchronization point.

commit processing
The processing that IMS performs at a commit point.

committable resource
A local or remote i5/OS object that can be placed under commitment control.

committable update
An operation that results in a change to an object such that the object is under commitment control.

committed change
A change that is not backed out in the event of a failure. Changes made by a logical unit of work (LUW) are committed when the sync point at the end of the LUW is complete.

committed copy counter
A counting device that identifies the number of copies of a page that have been committed to printing but have not been counted by the committed page counter.

committed date
A date on which the supplier agrees to send the shipment to the buyer after a purchase order (PO) is placed.

committed page counter
A counting device that identifies the number of pages that have been committed to printing and have been removed from the page buffer.

committed read
In Informix, an isolation level under which a query in a transaction can read only rows that are committed at the moment when the query is requested. The user cannot view rows that were changed as a part of a currently uncommitted transaction. Committed read is available through a database server and set with the SET ISOLATION statement. It is the default level of isolation for databases that are not ANSI compliant. See also read committed, uncommitted read.

The process by which goods and services that were once unique offerings become more generic in the marketplace. Commoditization occurs when the goods or services can be produced on a larger scale by more companies.

A procurement entity representing a product or service that can be purchased and tracked throughout its lifecycle in the procurement process.

commodity phase
The phase of the offering life cycle where the market is mature and customers are generally less willing to take risks, slower to adopt technology and are interested in an offering that has an established track record.

common agent
An agent that provides shared infrastructure for management applications. The common agent is self-monitoring and self-starting, and provides remote deployment capability, shared machine resources, secure connectivity, and a single entry point. See also agent, subagent.

Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)
A simple but general format for exchanging all-hazard emergency alerts and public warnings over all kinds of networks.

In information analysis, a measure of the number of matching values in a set of paired columns.

Common Analysis Structure (CAS)
A structure that stores the content and metadata of a document, and all analysis results that are produced by a text analysis engine. All data exchange during document analysis is handled by using the common analysis structure. See also annotation, common analysis structure consumer, common analysis structure initializer, common analysis structure processor, Java common analysis structure, text analysis engine, XML common analysis structure.

common analysis structure consumer
A consumer that does the final processing on the analysis results that are stored in the common analysis structure. For example, a consumer indexes the contents of the common analysis structure in a search engine or it populates a relational database with specific analysis results. See also Common Analysis Structure.

common analysis structure initializer
A component that populates a Common Analysis Structure from a raw document. For example, if the document is HTML, a CAS Initializer might store a detagged version of the document in the CAS and also create inline annotations derived from the tags. See also Common Analysis Structure.

common analysis structure processor (CAS processor)
A component that takes a common analysis structure as input and returns a CAS as output. See also Common Analysis Structure.

common anchor area (CAA)
Dynamically acquired storage that represents a z/OS thread. This area acts as a central communications area for the program, holding control blocks and addresses of various storage and error-handling routines, and control blocks.

common area

  1. A control section used to reserve a virtual storage area to which other modules can refer.
  2. In a web page that is based on a page template, the fixed region of the page.

Common Base Event
A specification based on XML that defines a mechanism for managing events, such as logging, tracing, management, and business events, in business enterprise applications. See also situation.

common block
In FORTRAN, a storage area that can be referred to by a calling program and one or more subprograms.

Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
A high-level programming language that is used primarily for commercial data processing.

common channel signaling (CCS)
A method of communicating telephony information and line signaling events (for example, call setup and call clearing) on a dedicated signaling channel. See also channel associated signaling.

common client interface (CCI)
A standard interface that allows developers to communicate with enterprise information systems (EISs) through specific resource adapters, using a generic programming style. The generic CCI classes define the environment in which a J2EE component can send and receive data from an EIS.

common code
A value that enables a user to choose from options rather than having to enter data manually.

common communication layer (CCL)
The communication infrastructure that unites the various components, such as controller, parser, crawler, and index server, of WebSphere Information Integrator OmniFind Edition.

Common Communications Support (CCS)
The Systems Application Architecture (SAA) component that defines architectures and protocols that interconnect systems and devices in an SAA environment and allow data to be interchanged among them.

common component
A component that is intended to be used in more than one product. See also assembly, component, feature, offering, serviceable software asset.

Common Connector Framework (CCF)
A product offering interface and class definitions that provide a consistent means of interacting with enterprise resources (for example, CICS and Encina transactions) from any Java execution environment.

Common Console Interface (CCI)
The interface definition that enables console components to run either in a previously installed console or in a web console, such as the Integrated Solutions Console (ISC).

Common Criteria
A framework for independent assessment, analysis, and testing of IT products to a set of security requirements.

Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA)
IBM software that enables a consistent approach to cryptography on major IBM computing platforms. It supports application software that is written in a variety of programming languages. Application software can call on CCA services to perform a broad range of cryptographic functions, including DES and RSA encryption.

Common Data Link Interface (CDLI)
The device drivers that interface with kernel services to provide support for sockets and STREAMS interfaces.

Common Data Model
A logical data model that defines the standard representation of resources and how those resources are associated to each other. The Common Data Model uses influences from various standards bodies in the industry and serves as a best practice conglomeration of all standards.

common data set descriptor record (CDD)
The record that precedes a user's data set on a DFSMShsm-owned volume and that is used to return the data set to the user's format.

Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
A graphical user interface running on UNIX.

common development test (CDT)
A development and test environment for GNA/GWA applications, designed and built in accordance with customer requirements and GWA and GNA standards.

common domain
In information analysis, the set of columns that share overlapping and potentially redundant values.

common error bucket
An additional error status element (ESE) generated for each terminal error block (TEB), if fewer ESEs than the maximum number of error types recognized by the CICS terminal abnormal condition program are specified when the terminal error program (TEP) tables are generated.

Common Event Infrastructure (CEI)
The implementation of a set of APIs and infrastructure for the creation, transmission, persistence, and distribution of business, system, and network Common Base Events. See also event emitter, event server.

common filter service
A subcomponent of DFSMSdfp common services that compares data items with filter keys, and then indicates which data items match the keys and how many matches have been found.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
An Internet standard for defining scripts that pass information from a web server to an application program, through an HTTP request, and vice versa.

A physical file system layer for the address families AF_INET and AF_INET6 that multiplexes sockets across several other physical file systems or transports.

Common Information Model (CIM)
An implementation-neutral, object-oriented schema for describing network management or systems management information. The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) develops and maintains CIM specifications. See also common management model.

common interchange file (CIF)
A file that contains one ImagePlus Interchange Architecture (IPIA) data stream.

common interchange unit (CIU)
The independent unit of transfer for a common interchange file (CIF). It is the part of the CIF that identifies the relationship to the receiving database. A CIF can contain multiple CIUs.

Common Internet File System (CIFS)

  1. A protocol that enables collaboration on the Internet by defining a remote file-access protocol that is compatible with the way applications already share data on local disks and network file servers. See also Server Message Block 2.0, Server Message Block.
  2. A protocol that manages shared, remote file access for applications to files, printers, serial ports, and so on over a TCP/IP network.

common key
In COBOL, the key fields that are common to all record formats in the file starting with the first key field (the most significant) and ending with the last key field (the least significant).

Common Language for Expression Manipulation (CLEM)
A powerful language for analyzing and manipulating the data that flows along SPSS Modeler streams. A subset of the CLEM language can be used when scripting in the user interface, allowing many of the same data manipulations to be automated.

common language runtime (CLR)
The runtime interpreter for all .NET Framework applications. See also .NET Framework.

Common Link Access to Workstation (CLAW)

  1. A continuously executing program designed to minimize host interrupts while maximizing channel utilization.
  2. The architecture that defines the channel commands used between the host and the channel attachment adapter.

Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
A standard repository of locale data. This data is used for such tasks as formatting dates, times, time zones, numbers, and currency values and sorting text.

Common Manageability Programming Interface (CMPI)
A common C-based interface that is between the CIM server and provider. The provider that is implemented with CMPI can run with the CIM server.

Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP)
In OSI, the management protocol (ISO 9596-2) that supports the common management information service.

Common Management Information Protocol over TCP/IP (CMOT)
An Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) specification for the use of CMIP over a TCP/IP protocol stack.

common management information service (CMIS)
In OSI, the set of services defined by ISO 9595. The common management information service is used by agent processes and managing processes to communicate.

common management model (CMM)
A model that describes how to represent IT entities as managed resources and services. See also Common Information Model.

common message log
A log that contains messages from several Infoprint Server components, including Print Interface, NetSpool, and IP PrintWay extended mode. Infoprint Central and the aoplogu command can display messages in the common message log.

Common Messaging Call (CMC)
An application programming interface (API) defined by the X.400 API Association.

common MPTN manager (CMM)
The component of the MPTN architecture that provides services independent of any transport protocol. Examples include registering transport users with the MPTN address-mapper component, selecting a transport provider, and establishing MPTN connections.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
An architecture and a specification for distributed object-oriented computing that separates client and server programs with a formal interface definition. See also Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.

common operations services (COS)
The portion of SNA management services that pertains to the major vectors for limited remote operations control.

Common Platform Storage Subsystems
A strategy and family of storage products based on common hardware parts.

common program
In COBOL, a program that, despite being directly contained within another program, can be called from any program directly or indirectly contained in that other program.

Common Programming Interface (CPI)
In Systems Application Architecture (SAA), a set of software interfaces, conventions, languages, and protocols that provide a framework for writing applications with cross-system consistency.

Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C)
A call-level interface that provides a consistent application programming interface (API) for applications that use program-to-program communications. CPI-C uses LU 6.2 architecture to create a set of interprogram services that can establish and end a conversation, send and receive data, exchange control information, and notify a partner program of errors.

Common Queue Server (CQS)
The address space that manages the shared queues for its clients (IMS).

common section
See common area.

Common Secure Interoperability Version 2
An authentication protocol developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) that supports interoperability, authentication delegation and privileges.

common service
A function available to applications on a variety of operating system platforms, accessible through any supported programming language. A common service can include support for character classification, collation, case conversion, data formatting, and so on.

common service area (CSA)
In a z/OS operating system, a part of the common area that contains data areas that can be addressed by all address spaces but is protected during its use by the key of the requester.

Common Service Layer (CSL)
A collection of IMS manager address spaces that provide the infrastructure that is needed for systems management tasks. The CSL address spaces include Open Database Manager (ODBM), Operations Manager (OM), Resource Manager (RM), and Structured Call Interface (SCI). The CSL is built on the Base Primitive Environment (BPE) layer.

Common Service Layer client (CSL client)
A z/OS address space that uses the services that are provided by the Common Service Layer (CSL). The IMS control region is an example of a CSL client.

Common Services
A component of CICSPlex SM that provides commonly requested services (such as GETMAIN, FREEMAIN, POST, and WAIT processing) to other CICSPlex SM components.

common storage area (CSA)
A shared region of memory.

common symmetric key (CSK)
An encryption key that allows for multiple entities with public keys to share secret information.

Common System Administration
A core capability of the IBM Autonomic Computing Initiative that addresses the need to reduce the complexity of computer operations.

common system area

  1. In MVS, an area that contains system control programs and control blocks.
  2. A major CICS storage control block that contains areas and data required for the operation of CICS.

common table expression
An expression that defines a result table with a name (a qualified SQL identifier). The expression can be specified as a table name in any FROM clause in the fullselect that follows the WITH clause.

common transport semantics (CTS)
The layer of the Networking Blueprint above the transport layer that makes the services of transport providers available to the transport user.

common-use form
A paper size commonly used throughout the world.

Common User Access (CUA)
The Systems Application Architecture (SAA) specification for a user interface.

Common User Access architecture
Guidelines for the dialog between a human and a workstation or terminal.

common user ID
See common user identification.

common user identification (common user ID)
In System i Access, the user identification of a System i Access user that is used by the router when establishing a communications connection with a host system if a user ID is not specified in either the CONFIG.PCS file or in an alternative configuration file. The router uses this common user ID when connecting the personal computer to each additional host system. See also user identification.

common VTOC access facility (CVAF)
A set of macros that enables programs to access data in the volume table of contents (VTOC) and the VTOC index.

common widget
A widget provided by IBM that is not associated with a particular product. See also widget.

common work area (CWA)

  1. An area within the CSA that can be used by application programs for user data that needs to be accessed by any task in the system. See also transaction work area.
  2. A work area that can be accessed by any transaction in the CICS system.

An association between an actor class and a use case class, indicating that their instances interact. The direction of the association indicates the initiator of the communication (Unified Process convention).

The process of sending or receiving data between two points of a network.

communication adapter

  1. An optional hardware feature, available on certain processors, that permits communications facilities to be attached to the processors.
  2. A device that allows network communication.

communication area (COMMAREA)
A CICS area that is used to pass data between tasks that communicate with a given terminal. The area can also be used to pass data between programs within a task.

communication attached
In PSF, pertaining to a device that is SNA-attached and that uses a communication controller. See also attached processor, local attached.

communication buffer exit library
A dynamically loaded, shared library that interacts with the DB2 communication layer and has access to the contents of the unencrypted communication buffers that are received at the server from clients and sent from the server to clients.

communication call
A conversation statement that transaction programs can issue to communicate through the LU 6.2 protocol boundary. The specific calls that a transaction program can issue are determined by the program's current conversation state.

communication control character
See transmission control character.

Communication Controller
A controller that regulates the exchange of data between Gentran Server for Windows and its organizations (value-added networks (VANs) or trading partners). Through the Gentran Server for Windows file interface, the communication controller can support leased or dialed connections, as well as interaction with third-party communications packages. To be a communications controller, a machine must be capable of sending and receiving files via a modem or other communications device. In a single workstation system, all three controllers (communications controller, process controller, and the Gentran Server for Windows Primary System Controller) all reside on the same machine.

communication controller

  1. A controller that regulates the exchange of data between Gentran Server for Windows and its organizations (value-added networks (VANs) or trading partners). Through the Gentran Server for Windows file interface, the communication controller can support leased or dialed connections, as well as interaction with third-party communications packages. To be a communications controller, a machine must be capable of sending and receiving files via a modem or other communications device. In a single workstation system, all three controllers (communications controller, process controller, and the Gentran Server for Windows Primary System Controller) all reside on the same machine.
  2. A device that directs the transmission of data over the data links of a network; its operation may be controlled by a program executed in a processor to which the controller is connected or it may be controlled by a program executed within the device. (T)
  3. A type of communication control unit whose operations are controlled by one or more programs stored and executed in the unit. It manages the details of line control and the routing of data through a network. See also transmission control unit.

Communication Control Program (CCP)
A portion of the network control program communication interrupt control program (CICP) that initiates and ends I/O line operations, handles first-level line error recovery and recording, and administers commands issued by background programs.

communication control unit
A communication device that controls transmission of data over lines in a network.

communication device
The device entry that identifies a network interface.

communication diagram
In UML, an interaction diagram that shows the structure of interactions and messages that pass between lifelines, which can be used to explore the dynamic behavior of a system. See also object diagram, sequence diagram.

communication endpoint
In X.25, the local communication channel between a Data Link Service (DLS) user and a DLS provider.

communication group
A grouping of systems that are associated with a given transport mechanism.

communication identifier (CID)
In VTAM, a key for locating the control blocks that represent a session. The key is created during session establishment and deleted when the session ends.

communication interface
The relationship between a network interface and the associated IP label or address, function, and other parameters necessary for the application. See also network interface.

communication line block (CLB)
An IMS control block that represents a VTAM node or a BTAM line. Each VTAM node or BTAM line has a single CLB.

communication line processor (CLP)
In a communication controller, the processor that manages telecommunication lines.

communication management configuration (CMC)
In VTAM, a technique for configuring a network that allows for the consolidation of many network management functions for the entire network in a single host processor.

communication management configuration host node
The type 5 host processor in a communication management configuration that does all network-control functions in the network except for controlling devices that are channel-attached to data hosts. See also data host node.

communication management host
See communication management configuration host node.

communication method
The method by which a client and server exchange information. See also Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

communication name table (CNT)
An IMS control block that represents a logical terminal.

communication network management (CNM)
The process of designing, installing, operating, and managing the distribution of information and control among users of communication systems.

communication network management application program
A VTAM application program that issues and receives formatted management service request units for physical units. The NetView program is an example of a CNM application program.

communication network management interface (CNMI)
An interface that the access method provides to an application program for handling data and commands that are associated with communication systems management. CNM data and commands are handled across this interface.

communication network management processor
A program that manages one of the functions of a communications system. A CNM processor is executed under control of the NetView program.

communication path

  1. The IP label or address or a fully qualified domain name that can be used to communicate with the remote node. The communication path allows the cluster configuration to be discovered from a single node.
  2. In UML modeling, a type of association that occurs between nodes in deployment diagrams to show how the nodes communicate.

communication port

  1. On a personal computer, a serial port to which a stand-alone modem can be attached.
  2. An access point for data entry or exit to or from a communication device such as a workstation.

communication protocol
A set of defined interfaces that permit computers to communicate with each other.

communication resource manager
A resource manager that coordinates a two-phase commit across multiple nodes in a distributed transaction. These nodes may be on the same system or multiple systems.

communications adapter
An adapter that performs activities that control the transmission of business process data between Sterling B2B Integrator and external applications.

communications area
In query management, a control block used to communicate between the system code supporting the Common Programming Interface (CPI) and the application program using the CPI.

communication scanner processor (CSP)
A processor in the 3725 Communication Controller that contains a microprocessor with a control code. The code controls transmission of data over links attached to the CSP.

communications channel
An electrical path that facilitates transmission of information from one location to another.

communications configuration
The physical placement of communications controllers, the attachment of communications lines, and so forth; and the configuration descriptions that describe the physical configuration to the system and describe how the configuration will be used by the system.

communications controller
The I/O processor card in the card enclosure.

communications database (CDB)
A set of tables in the DB2 for z/OS catalog that is used to establish conversations with remote database management systems.

communications data format
In RJE, the output data received from the host system is left the same as it was received (either compressed, or data cut off at the end, or both).

communications data set (COMMDS)
The primary means of communication among systems governed by a single storage management subsystem (SMS) configuration. The COMMDS is a linear data set (LDS) that contains the name of the active control data set (ACDS) and current usage statistics for each system-managed volume, which helps balance space among systems running SMS. See also active control data set, control data set, source control data set.

communication section
Part of the task control area (TCA) that is used by CICS and by user-written application programs for communication between the application program and CICS management and service programs.

communications enabled application
A software application that uses an IP network and communications technology to accomplish business objectives. Enterprise applications can be communications enabled with web telephony components and collaborative web services that allow users to dynamically interact through shared browser sessions over a secure network.

communications gateway
Software or a computer running software that enables two different computers to communicate.

communications infrastructure
In the AIX operating system, a framework of communication that consists of a postmaster, an object registration service, a startup file, communication protocols, and application programming interfaces.

communications job
A batch job that is started by a program start request from a remote system.

communications line

  1. The physical link (such as a wire or a telephone circuit) that connects one or more work stations to a communications controller, or connects one controller to another. See also data link protocol.
  2. The line over which data communications take place; for example, a telephone line.

communications link
See data link.

communications manager
A function that manages the use of the system's communication facilities.

communications protocol
In networking, a set of standards defining how computers are to exchange information.

communications security
A system option that requires the identity of a remote location to be verified before that location can run programs on your system.

Communications Server
IBM SecureWay Software that supports (a) the development and use of application programs across two or more connected systems or workstations, (b) multiple concurrent connections that use a wide range of protocols, and (c) several application programming interfaces (APIs) that may be called concurrently and that are designed for client/server and distributed application programs.

communications session
Everything sent and received to/from one telephone number in one continuous period of connection. This could include sending two or three interchange envelopes to a network, each for a different trading partner.

communications side information
In CPI Communications, an object that contains initialization parameters, such as the name of the partner program with which a program can establish a conversation and the name of the logical unit (LU) at the partner program's node, which CPI Communications requires to establish a conversation. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *CSI.

communications software
Software that enables a computer to connect with another computer and to exchange information. Communications software can maintain settings for the connection, coordinate transmission of data and messages, as well as other tasks relating to the connection between the computer systems.

communications storage manager (CSM)
In VTAM, a buffer management technology that reduces performance overhead resulting from the movement of large amounts of data. CSM enables authorized host application programs to put data in buffers that can be addressed and accessed by other authorized host application programs without any need to copy the data.

communications type
A method for application programs to communicate on a local system, or between a local system and a remote system using the intersystem communications function (ICF). Examples of these communications methods include (a) asynchronous communications, (b) binary synchronous communications (BSC), (c) intrasystem communications, or (d) Systems Network Architecture (SNA), such as advanced program-to-program communications (APPC) and SNA upline facility (SNUF).

Communications Utilities
The IBM licensed program that contains the VM/MVS bridge and the remote job entry function. Communications Utilities provides a method of exchanging mail or files and submitting or receiving jobs between connected systems.

communication timeout
The intentional ending of an incomplete task after waiting a specified amount of time.

A Message Passing Interface (MPI) object that describes the communication context and an associated group of processes.


  1. A web trading group that enables buyers and sellers to conduct business. Partners receive invitations from the sponsor to join their community. See also partner.
  2. In SNMP, the relationship between an agent and one or more managers. The community describes which SNMP manager requests the SNMP agent should honor.
  3. In the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), an administrative relationship between entities.
  4. A repository area where an assigned group of users can work together.
  5. A collection or grouping of trading partners for the purpose of achieving a common goal.

community administrator
A person who manages users in and across communities.

community manager
See internal partner.

community name
The part of an SNMP message that represents a password-like name and that is used to authenticate the SNMP message.

community operator
The service provider who has a restricted set of typical day-to-day administrative responsibilities for the hub.

Community Services
In Sametime, services provided for awareness and text-based conversation. Pertains primarily to the server, as in community services on the Sametime server.

Combining mathematical elements or having elements that combine in a way that the result is independent of the order in which they are processed. For example, such that a + b = b + a and a x b = b x a.

commutator function
A Boolean function whose arguments are the reverse of, and evaluates to the same result as another Boolean function. Commutator functions might execute quicker depending on the nature of the query.

See IBM Competitive Intelligence.


  1. To compress a database, in order to reclaim space freed by the deletion of documents and attachments.
  2. To replace repetitive bits in a file or folder with control bits so that the file or folder takes up less space when saved.

compact disc (CD)
An optical disc that stores digital data.

compact-disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
High-capacity read-only memory in the form of an optically read compact disc.

compact disc recordable (CD-R)
A device that can write data to compact disc recordable (CD-R) discs. A CD-R then can be read like CD-ROM media.

compact drawing
A drawing that is stored as one file so that its information can be merged with the information of other drawings.

Compact Hypertext Markup Language (cHTML)
A format for publishing hypertext information on wireless devices.

See compression.

The data model and content for a particular business unit or enterprise that can be used to manage, link, and synchronize product information both internally and externally. See also data model.

compare session
In version control software, the forum in which differences between contributors are displayed.

comparison operator

  1. A built-in function that is used to compare two values. The comparison operators are ==, !=, <, >, <= and >=. See also operator.
  2. In SQL, a symbol used in comparison expressions to specify a relationship between two values. Comparison operators are = (equal to), <> (not equal to), < (less than), > (greater than), <= (less than or equal to), and >= (greater than or equal to).
  3. In REXX, an operator that compares two terms and returns the value 1 if the result of the comparison is true, or 0 if it is not true.
  4. A built-in function that is used to compare two values and is based on the selected term data type.

comparison rule
A component of a reconciliation task that is used to compare attributes of linked objects from two data sets. See also link rule, reconciliation task, task filter.

The ability of a device or system to work with another device or system without modification.

compatibility font
An AFP font designed to emulate the uniformly spaced and fixed-pitch fonts used with line printers.

compatibility mode

  1. A mode of operation in which a device can simulate the function of another device or model. The device will function like a different device of the same type, ignoring some or all of the additional features that the device might possess. Compatibility mode permits a migration between devices with minimal impact on programs that have device dependencies. See also 32-name mode, page mode.
  2. See conversion mode.
  3. A mode of processing in which the IEAIPSxx and IEAICSxx parmlib members determine system resource management.

compatibility mode*
See conversion mode*.

compatibility mode aggregate
A Virtual Storage Access Method linear data set (VSAM LDS) that contains a single read-write zFS file system.

Pertaining to the ability of a device or program to work with another device or program.

compatible data types
Two different data types that can be cast to one another in the database. See also implicit cast.

compatible offerings
Offerings that have identical sets of base offering components such as resource type and measurement source. The corresponding offering components in each compatible offering can have different sets of metrics.

compatible schedule
A schedule that has the states needed by the breach values in the offering components for an offering.

compatible server
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), a server that offers the requested Remote Procedure Call (RPC) interface and RPC object and that is accessible over a valid combination of network and transport protocols.

compatible unit (CU)
A construction template that defines labor, materials, services, and tools resources that are required to perform construction work, such as installing a utility pole. Compatible units are used as the basis for estimating the costs and resource requirements that are associated with construction work orders.


  1. The means by which operations in a process that have successfully completed can be undone if an error occurs, to return the system to a consistent state.
  2. On a federated system, the ability to process a portion of an SQL statement that is not supported by a data source. See also pushdown, query optimizer.
  3. In MPTN architecture, the action of making up for differences in functions that are requested by the transport user and those provided by the transport provider.
  4. The action that a collaboration takes during rollback of a transaction to undo a previously executed service call. Such an action semantically negates the action taken by a corresponding step in the service call, which has already been executed. For example, the compensation step for a Create action might involve deleting the object just created. See also isolation checking, minimum transaction level, transactional collaboration.

compensation flow
Flow that defines the set of activities that are performed while the transaction is being rolled back to compensate for activities that were performed during the normal flow of the process. A compensation flow can also be called from a compensate end or intermediate event.

compensation service
The operation that is performed to compensate for a successful operation when a process generates a fault (which is not handled within the process).

A work-related role or field that is used to identify resources, for example, Manager, Programmer, Network Technician.

competitive advantage
The distinct way in which a business entity is positioned in the market to obtain leadership over competitors, providing the ability to maintain sustained levels of profitability above the industry average.

competitive assessment
A technique that is used in determining the competitive positioning of a company or of its offerings and solutions within a given segment.

competitive association
An association between similar items from different manufacturers. For example, if a store sells a basketball shoe made by Company X, the store might also offer buyers a similar basketball shoe made by Company Y.

competitive trade-up
A license for a program that replaces a qualifying non-IBM program that is obtained for a reduced charge. See also IBM trade-up.

A retailer who is identified when price matching an item, and who may be offering the item at a lower price than that offered by the corresponding enterprise.

competitor assessment
An evaluation of direct and substitute competitors (to the brand) for market, financial, and customer factors.


  1. In Ada language, the translation of an Ada source program into an executable object module.
  2. Translation of a source program (such as RPG or COBOL specifications) into a program in machine language. In Integrated Language Environment (ILE) languages, compilation translates source statements into modules, which then can be bound into programs or service programs.

compilation host
In a cross-compilation environment, the machine on which compilation takes place. See also execution host.

compilation time
See compile time.

compilation unit
A portion of a computer program sufficiently complete to be compiled correctly.


  1. To translate all or part of a program expressed in a high-level language into a computer program expressed in an intermediate language, an assembly language, or a machine language.
  2. In Integrated Language Environment (ILE) languages, to translate source statements into modules that then can be bound into programs or service programs.

compiled grammar file
A grammar in binary format, built by the WebSphere Voice Server grammar development tools.

compiled map
A source map that has been compiled to provide instructions for translating from one format to another in a way that can be interpreted by the translator.

compiled map component
An Integration Flow Designer object that references an executable map in compiled file format.

compiled message flow (cmf)
A message flow that has been compiled to prepare it for deployment to the broker. A cmf file is sent to the broker within a bar file.

compiled program
In the original program model (OPM), the set of machine-language instructions that is the output from the compilation of a source program. The actual processing of data is done by the machine-language program. The system-recognized identifier for the object type is *PGM.

compiled SQL PL
SQL procedure language statements that are compiled into sections within a package. See also inline SQL PL.

A program that translates a source program into an executable program (an object program).

compiler-directing statement

  1. A statement that controls what the compiler does rather than what the compiled program does.
  2. In COBOL, a statement, beginning with a compiler-directing verb, that causes the compiler to take a specific action during compilation. The compiler-directing statements are the COPY, ENTER, REPLACE, and USE statements.
  3. In RPG, an instruction that controls a compilation listing or causes records to be inserted. The four compiler directives are /TITLE, /EJECT, /SPACE, and /COPY.

compiler directive
A statement that controls what the compiler does rather than what the user program does.

compiler listing
A printout that is produced by compiling a program or creating a file and that optionally includes, for example, a line-by-line list of the high-level language source, a cross-reference list, diagnostic information; and for programs, the description of the externally described files.

compiler optimization
A change that the compiler makes to code at compile time to make it more efficient.

compiler option
A keyword that can be specified to control certain aspects of compilation. Compiler options can control the nature of the load module generated by the compiler, the types of printed output to be produced, the efficient use of the compiler, and the destination of error messages.

compile time
The time period during which a computer program is being compiled into an executable program.

compile-time array
In RPG, an array that is compiled with the source program and becomes a permanent part of the program. See also preruntime array, runtime array.

compile-time option
A keyword that can be specified to control certain aspects of compilation. Compiler options can control the nature of the load module generated by the compiler, the types of printed output to be produced, the efficient use of the compiler, the destination of error messages, and other things.

compile-time table
In RPG, a table that is built into the source program and that becomes a permanent part of the compiled program. See also runtime table.


  1. The value that can be added to the number to equal a given value.
  2. In Cryptographic Support, a binary value that, in an exclusive-OR operation with a given binary value of the same length, produces a binary value of all ones.

complementary item
An item that a customer might want to buy with another item.

complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
A technology that combines the electrical properties of n-type semiconductors and p-type semiconductors.


  1. A table attribute that indicates that the table contains a row for every primary key value of interest. As a result, a complete source table can be used to perform a refresh of a target table.
  2. A property of a search algorithm such that, when it returns failure in a search, it has proved that no solution exists satisfying the constraints that governed the search, and when it returns success, it is capable of finding all the possible solutions satisfying the constraints of the problem.

complete CCD table
In data replication, a CCD table that initially contains all of the rows from the replication source table or view and any predicates from the source table or view. See also noncomplete CCD table.

complete class name
The complete qualification of a nested C++ class name including all enclosing class names and namespaces.

completed change set
A change set that can no longer be changed. Change sets can be shared with others only after they are marked as a completed change set.

complete lifecycle server
A server that the user can create and manage within the administrative console.

complete overwrite installation
An installation method that completely overwrites an existing version of BOS that is installed on a system.

complete packet sequence
Either an individual X.25 data packet or a sequence of packets with the more-data bit (M-bit) set to 1 and the delivery-confirmation bit (D-bit) set to 0, followed by a further data packet with the M-bit set to 0 and the D-bit set as required.

complete recovery
The CICS VSAM Recovery (CICSVR) function that consists of forward recovery followed by backout, if needed. In complete recovery, CICSVR restores a DFSMShsm or DFSMSdss backup.

complete type name
The name of a type that represents its hierarchical structure within a type tree, which includes the names of all the types in the path from the root type down.

Complete Zip Auditing and Rating (CZAR)
A rating used as a basis for pricing the shipping of products by carriers.

completion code

  1. An indicator that reflects the status of a task set at the time of its completion.
  2. A message the storage system sends as a result of running a command-line interface (CLI) command.
  3. A return code indicating how a message queue interface (MQI) call has ended.
  4. In Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS, a system code that indicates how the processing of an operation ended at a workstation. See also error code.

completion message
A message that tells the operator when work is successfully ended.


  1. In data processing or software engineering, pertaining to an application that may have many components, such as a graphic user interface, a client-server architecture, an engine, a database connection, an output device, input facilities, and so forth.
  2. The maximum set of hardware and software resources that support one or more images of a single operating system.

complex activity
A step in a business process that provides direction for how the next step should be executed. There are three kinds of complex activities: sequence (serial), choice (conditional), and all (parallel).

Complex Analysis
A core capability of the IBM Autonomic Computing Initiative that addresses the need for complex algorithms that implement intelligent, autonomic behavior.

complex change
A single operation that impacts one or more ontologies and spans multiple repository versions. Examples of a complex change are ontology content pack (OCP) imports and ontology deletions.

complex condition
In COBOL, a condition in which one or more logical operators (AND, OR or NOT) act on one or more conditions. Complex conditions include negated simple conditions, combined conditions, and negated combined conditions. See also simple condition.

complex constant
In FORTRAN, an ordered pair of real or integer constants separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. The first constant of the ordered pair represents the real part of a complex number; the second represents the imaginary part.

complex data type
A data type that is built from a combination of other data types by using an SQL type constructor and whose components can be accessed through SQL statements. See also collection data type, data type, row data type.

complex element
A named structure that contains simple elements within the message. Complex elements can contain other complex elements, and can also contain groups. The content of a complex element is defined by a complex type. See also element, simple element.

complex event processing (CEP)

  1. The processing of events that have rules that rely on the data and timing of more than one event.
  2. A set of tools that processes event transactions and generates event alerts based on configured business rules.

complex flat file
A file that has hierarchical structure, especially mainframe data structures and XML files.

complex formula
A formula that contains query tokens, association tokens, or both.

complex instruction set computer (CISC)
A computer that uses the traditional processor architecture to process instructions. See also reduced instruction set computer.

A measurement of how many more computing resources the solution of a problem requires as the problem grows in number of variables. Complexity is expressed in notation known informally as Big O notation or more formally as Omega notation.

complexity attribute
An attribute that enables the selection of another attribute by which work items are sized. This attribute is used in release plans to compute the progress of each plan.

Complex Mathematics Library
A C++ class library that provides the facilities to manipulate complex numbers and perform standard mathematical operations on them.

complex number
A number consisting of an ordered pair of real numbers, expressible in the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers and i squared equals minus one.

complex qualification
A WHERE clause in a query that uses two or more logical operators on the same column as where the R-tree index is defined.

complex scorecard
A collection of multiple scorecards within one rule flow. The rule flow is used to identify the dependency, the flow and the order in which the score from each of the scorecards will be included in the overall score.

complex text language (CTL)
A language that has the properties of a simple text language but also additional characteristics of bidirectionality, automatic character shaping, or combining sequences. They use typically small character sets. Combining sequences include characters combined to form new characters, and characters combined with tone marks. In languages that are written in a bidirectional manner, the native words are written from right to left (as in Hebrew and Arabic), while numbers and borrowed words are written from left to right. Arabic and similar scripts use cursive writing and require automatic shaping of characters for rendering. See also ideographic language, simple text language.

complex type

  1. A type that contains elements and can include attributes. See also simple type.
  2. In Enterprise Service Tools, a structure within a message. A complex type contains elements, attributes, and groups organized into a hierarchy.
  3. In Fortran, a data type that represents values of complex numbers. A value is expressed as an ordered pair of real data items separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. The first item represents the real part of the complex number, and the second item represents the imaginary part.

complex word
A word formed by combining a root word with affixes, for example: the prefix 'un-' and the suffix '-ful' attach to the root word 'faith', which creates the complex word 'unfaithful'.

complex word processing
In lexical analysis, the process in which algorithmic processing is used to determine the boundaries of words. In the case of Indo-European languages, the LanguageWare algorithm uses constraints in order to determine optimal boundaries. For Chinese, LanguageWare uses statistical processing - word frequencies and collocation frequencies. For Japanese LanguageWare uses a combination of statistical and grammatical processing.


  1. The state of an implementation that fully meets each and every requirement of the standards specification. Specifically, each transaction, action, or data element produced by the implementation must be valid as defined by the standard.
  2. A state of being in accordance with established software and security specifications on target computers, or the process of becoming so.

compliance check
A group of settings used to determine whether a computer or group of computers is compliant or not. There are two types of compliance checks: software and security.

compliance report
A report that shows the number of available systems that specified installation activities can be performed on, and the percentages of the states of the installation activities.

compliance rule
A rule that is set and enforced by a buyer for a supplier to follow.

compliance service
A service that allows the buyer to customize products for their customers. For example, a compliance service might be configured for an item so that the item is shipped to the buyer with the buyer's brand label.

compliance type
In i5/OS licensed management, the value that determines the action the product must take when the authorized usage limit is reached or exceeded. The warning compliance type indicates users are never denied access to a product. The operation action compliance type means that new users are denied access to the product once the usage limit is reached, but users that are currently using the product still have access.

compliant state
The state of conforming to the defined rules of compliance.

Complimentary Marketing Terms Attachment for State Contracts (CMTASC)


  1. In Eclipse, one or more plug-ins that work together to deliver a discrete set of functions.
  2. In UML modeling, a model element that represents an autonomous, replaceable part of a system.
  3. A connection, build, reference dimension, reference structure, template, JobStream, user-defined function, metadata dimension, or metadata collection in a catalog.
  4. In VisualAge RPG, a functional grouping of classes and related files within a product.
  5. A named, cataloged collection of stored records, such as the data component or index component of a key-sequenced file or alternate index. A component contains no named subsets.
  6. A software item that is part of a software product, and might be separately identified, but is not individually licensed.
  7. A ClearCase object that is used to group a set of related directory and file elements within a Unified Change Management (UCM) project. Typically, the elements that make up a component are developed, integrated, and released together. A project must contain at least one component, and it can contain multiple components. Projects can share components.
  8. A visual element of a host screen, such as a command line, function key, or selection list. HATS applications transform host components into widgets.
  9. An entity about which measurements are collected for reporting purposes. Sample components include a specific network storage device; the web address http://www.ibm.com; and a person with whom one has a customer relationship. Each component type in the data model has a set of metrics and attributes that apply to all components of that type.
  10. A part of a structured type or value, such as an array element or a record field.
  11. A grouping of related artifacts in a stream or repository workspace. A component can contain any number of folders and files.
  12. A common component or an assembly. See also assembly, common component.
  13. A set of modules that performs a major function within a system.
  14. A reusable object or program that performs a specific function and works with other components and applications.
  15. A part of a specified source that generates an audit message (such as the Gentran Server for Windows Unattended program).

component association
In the IBM Director Rack Manager task, a function that can make a managed system or device rack-mountable when the inventory collection feature of IBM Director does not recognize the managed system or device. The function associates the system or device with a predefined component.

component-based development (CBD)
The creation and deployment of software-intensive systems assembled from components as well as the development and harvesting of such components.

component data element
A simple data element that belongs to a composite data element. Component data elements are also called subelements.

component descriptor editor (CDE)
A tool that allows the user to edit UIMA descriptors.

component diagram
In UML modeling, a diagram that shows the physical structure of a system.

component directory
In z/OS, the root directory of the component runtime environment.

component dump table
A structure used by kernel components to identify data structures that should be collected by the kernel dump program.

component element
An entity in a component where a breakpoint can be set, such as an activity or Java snippet in a business process, or a mediation primitive or node in a mediation flow.

component framework
In the Reusable Asset Specification (RAS), a collaboration in which all the components are specified with type models; some of them may come with their own implementations. To use the framework, plug in components that fulfill the specifications.

component instance

  1. A UML model element that represents an actual entity in a system.
  2. A running component that can be running in parallel with other instances of the same component.

A re-engineering and transformation of the SWG development model. This transformation is a key part of the IBM On Demand strategy. Its fundamental goals are to make our software business more responsive to customer demands, and to improve development efficiency and effectiveness. Specifically, software componentization is the movement of IBM software development from a monolithic, product-oriented development model to one based on the concept of software offerings composed from the sharing of reusable software components. See also consumability.

componentization facet
A characteristic of software componentization that impacts the various aspects of IBM's software business. The SPX reference architecture takes an inherently evolutionary, iterative, and incremental approach to defining software component characteristics, with each reference architecture release focusing on one or more componentization facets.

To re-engineer a product into reusable software components.

component model

  1. An architecture and an API that allows developers to define reusable segments of code that can be combined to create a program.
  2. A software development model that provides for consistent packaging of software components; the ability to upgrade part of a system as it is executing; the ability to control, monitor, and deploy software across global networks; and the ability to locate and implement services on a global scale. When developed according to the component model, components have interfaces that are rigorously implemented, are packaged into JAR files, and have dynamic execution environments.

Component Object Model (COM)
A software architecture from DEC and Microsoft, allowing interoperation between ObjectBroker and OLE (Object Linking and Embedding). Microsoft later evolved COM into DCOM.

component package
A utility that allows the import and export of components between catalogs. See also multi-developer support.

component PDSE
In a z/OS environment, a PDSE that contains jobs to define resources to DB2, WebSphere MQ, and the WebSphere Message Broker started task. See also partitioned data set.

component product
A product (child) that is part of a bundle (parent) that can consist of many components.

component project
One of the individual projects in a program; may consist of multiple projects within the same organization.

component queue
A queue holding work items that can be completed by an external entity that interacts with the workflow. See also queue.

component rule
An expression about one or more components, which is defined in the Type Designer. A component rule is used for validating data and specifies what must be true for the data that is defined by that component to be valid.

component set
In NetDA/2, a set of nodes, transmission groups (TGs), or both.

component set expression
In NetDA/2, a user specification that defines a set of components (nodes and transmission groups).

component store archive
A starter store archive for a component of a composite store archive. Component store archives are available for each business model. See also composite store archive.

component system
A pattern that contains other reusable solutions. A component system has extension points and parameters to fill and complete.

component test
An automated test of one or more components of an enterprise application, which may include Java classes, EJB beans, or web services. See also abstract test, test pattern.

component trace (CTRACE)
A service that provides a way for z/OS components to collect problem data about events.

component tracing
A facility provided by CICS to track transactions through CICS components and user programs.

component tree
In JavaServer Faces, a view that is used to build and maintain state and events for a page.

composed page
See composed-text page.

composed text
Text that has been formatted and that contains text-control information to direct the presentation of the text.

composed-text data
Data that has been composed into pages. Text formatting programs such as DCF can produce composed text data, which consists entirely of AFP structured fields.

composed-text data file
A file containing text data and text-control information that determines the format, placement, and appearance of the data to be printed.

composed-text page
In Advanced Function Presentation, a page that can be printed only on an all-points-addressable output medium. It can contain composed text and raster images.

composed-text print data set
A print data set consisting entirely of structured fields.

In Java, a class used to map a single complex bean field to multiple database columns. Composition is needed for complex fields that are themselves objects with fields and behavior.


  1. A class that is related to one or more classes by a composition relationship.
  2. A Service Component Architecture (SCA) element that contains components, services, references, and wires that connect them.
  3. A group of related data elements used in EDI transactions.

composite application
An application representing an open architecture in which components of the applications can be developed by IBM or by independent software vendors.

composite bar chart
In the GDDM function, a bar chart in which multiple vertical axis values for the same horizontal axis value are stacked one on top of another. See also floating bar chart, multiple bar chart.

composite bar graph
In Performance Tools, a bar graph in which multiple vertical axis values for the same horizontal axis value are stacked one on top of another. See also floating bar graph.

composite bean
A bean that is composed of other beans. A composite bean can contain visual beans, nonvisual beans, or both.

composite block index
An index that contains only dimension key columns and is used to maintain the clustering of data during insert and update activity in a multidimensional clustering (MDC) or insert time clustering (ITC) table. See also dimension block index.

composite business policy
A runtime aggregation of business policies based on context, content and contract of a service request.

composite business service (CBS)
A collection of business services that work together, along with the existing applications of a client, to provide a specific business solution.

composite catalog entry
A collection of catalog entries that breaks down to its separate components when ordered. See also dynamic kit.

composite column
A column that contains data that corresponds to similar data stored in two or more columns in another table.

composite data element
A data element that contains two or more component data elements or subelements. Composites are defined by the EDI standards that use them (EDIFACT, TRADACOMS, and certain ANSI X12 standards).

composite data type
See row data type.

composite difference
In a compare or merge session, an aggregate of several individual but related changes.

composite event
A "high-level" event, typically formed from the combination of two or more atomic events. However, composite events can be "empty" - that is, they may contain no sub-events. See also atomic event, user-defined event.

composite expression
In Q Language, a large expression that has been created from a series of smaller expressions. See also arithmetic operator.

composite graphic
A complex graphic object that is made up of several graphic objects, which can be either simple graphic objects or other composite graphic objects.

composite identity relationship
An identity relationship that relates two business objects through a composite key. The composite key consists of a unique key from a parent business object and a key, which is not unique, from a child business object.

composite index
An index constructed on two or more columns of a table. The order imposed by the composite index varies least frequently on the first-named column and most frequently on the last-named column.

composite key

  1. An ordered set of key columns of the same table.
  2. A key for a file or record format that is composed of more than one key field.

composite LEN node
A type 5 node and its subordinate type 4 nodes that support LEN protocols and appear to an attached APPN or LEN node as a single LEN node.

composite library
The host's virtual view of the Peer-to-Peer Virtual Tape Server (PtP VTS) subsystem. In general, host communication with a library will occur at the composite level with the virtual volumes and drives being defined to the composite library.

composite model
A large model that contains several smaller models.

composite network
In MPTN architecture, a single-protocol transport network made up of multiple individual networks running the same transport protocol, each with its own unique net ID.

composite network node (CNN)
A type 5 node and its subordinate type 4 nodes that support APPN network node protocols and appear to an attached APPN or LEN node as a single network node.

composite object
An object that contains other objects. For example a document object that contains not only text, but also graphics, audio, image, and video objects, each of which can be manipulated separately as an individual object.

composite part
In VisualAge RPG, a collection of controls selected by the user on the GUI designer tool suite and then placed in the parts palette.

composite project
A container holding projects or composite projects, or both. Composite projects are used to organize the projects associated with the software application.

composite service
In service-oriented architecture, a unit of work accomplished by an interaction between computing devices.

composite state

  1. A state that consists of either concurrent substates or sequential substates. See also disjoint substate.
  2. In a business state machine, an aggregate of one or more states that is used to decompose a complex state machine diagram into a simple hierarchy of state machines.

composite store archive
A compressed file that contains the organization structure, predefined user roles, and necessary access control policies to create the appropriate store environment, plus a working starter store or site. Each of the parts that make up the composite store archive are also available as separate store archives. See also component store archive, store archive.

composite type
A data type modeled using structural features instead of verbatim, language-specific text.

compositional hierarchy
A hierarchy in which the composition of the data is reflected in the structure of the group type in the group window. See also classification hierarchy.

composition relationship
In UML modeling, an aggregation relationship that specifies that the lifetime of the part classifier depends on the lifetime of the whole classifier. See also aggregation relationship.

Composition Services
The component of the WebSphere Commerce messaging system that provides a formatted output for messages using JSP templates.

composition unit
A unit that represents a configured asset and enables the asset contents to interact with other assets in the application.

A number of related questions, grouped for presentation purposes, that share a category list.

compound activity
An activity that has detail that is defined as a flow of other activities. A compound activity is a branch (or trunk) in the tree-structure hierarchy of process activities. Graphically, a compound activity is a process or subprocess.

compound command processor
A series of commands that appear to run as a single command. The commands can have interactions with tasks in the same domain or in other domains.

compound condition
In COBOL, a statement that tests two or more relational expressions. The result can be true or false.

compound document
A collection of files that are used together to create a group of linked documents.

compound element
An item in the source or target document that contains child items, such as EDI Segments and EDI composite data elements, ROD records and ROD structures in record oriented data, and XML elements.

compound growth rate (CGR)
Compound growth rate.

compound key
In a relational database, a key that consists of two or more attributes in a relation.

compound license
In License Use Management, a type of license that allows a system administrator to generate license passwords for a given number of licenses. Such a license is valuable when an administrator needs a certain number of licenses, but does not yet know what machines or who will use them.

compound Look
A compound that describes how questions, that are to be presented as a compound question, are to appear.

compound password
A password from which it is possible to extract multiple simple passwords, each representing one or more licenses. See also password, simple password.

compound SQL statement
A block of SQL statements that is executed in a single call to the application server.

compound string
A type of string designed to simplify foreign language support by allowing text to be displayed without hard-coding the language-dependent attributes (character set, text, and direction).

compound symbol
In REXX, a symbol that permits the substitution of variables within its name, when referred to. A compound symbol contains at least one period and at least two other characters. It cannot start with a digit or a period, and if there is only one period in the compound symbol, it cannot be the last character. The compound symbol begins with a stem (that part of the symbol up to and including the first period). The stem is followed by the tail (the parts of the name, delimited by periods, that are constant symbols, simple symbols, or null). Compound symbols allow the construction of arrays, associative tables, lists, and so on.

compound variable
In REXX, a symbol that contains at least one period, one character before the period, and one character after the period. A compound variable cannot start with a digit or period.

compound word
A morphologically complex word constructed out of two or more word formation elements, such as 'snowboard' and 'post office'. See also multiword expression, solid compound.

comprehensive command authority
In DFSMShsm, the level of permission that lets a user issue the ABACKUP command for all aggregate groups.


  1. To hide objects within a data hierarchy. A plus sign is used in a compressed section to indicate that objects are hidden.
  2. To reduce the size of a set of data, such as a file, to save space or transmission time. See also compressed format.

compressed ARC digitized raster graphics format
A map format for scanned maps that are published by the U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA).

compressed audio
A method of digitally encoding and decoding several seconds of voice quality audio per single videodisc frame. This increases the storage capability to several hours of audio per videodisc. Sometimes referred to as still frame audio or sound over still.

compressed bitmap
An indexing method that identifies records through a fragment identifier and a record identifier.

compressed format
A type of extended-format data set. In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), individual records are put in a compressed-format data set; in the sequential access method (SAM), individual records or blocks are put in a compressed-format data set. See also compress, extended format.

compressed-format data set
A type of extended-format data set created in a data format that supports record-level or block-level compression.

compressed listing
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a graphical representation of the listing of the program currently being debugged. See also compressed source.

compressed output
See compression.

compressed-pattern storage (CPS)
In certain printers, storage that holds the extended (double-byte) fonts.

compressed source
In CoOperative Development Environment/400, a graphical representation of the source of the program currently being debugged. See also compressed listing.

compressed video
Video resulting from the process of digitally encoding and decoding a video image or segment using a variety of computer techniques to reduce the amount of data required to represent the content accurately.


  1. In SNA, the replacement of a string of up to 64 characters by an encoded control byte to reduce the length of the data stream sent to the LU-LU session partner. See also string control byte.
  2. The act of hiding child items of a selected object when the outline view is selected.
  3. A function that removes repetitive characters, spaces, strings of characters, or binary data from the data being processed and replaces characters with control characters. Compression reduces the amount of storage space that is required for data.

compression dictionary
The dictionary that is referred to during the process of compression and decompression. In DB2 for z/OS, this dictionary is created from the data in a table space or table space partition. In DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, this dictionary is created from data in each table partition, data in each table in a database partition, or XML data stored in the XML storage object of a table. A compression dictionary is specific to the table space, table space partition, table, or XML storage object from which it was created. See also automatic dictionary creation.

computational memory
The set of all virtual-memory pages in real memory that are part of working-storage or program-text segments.

The property of a transaction whereby the elapsed time for its execution is governed by its computational content rather than by its need to do input/output.

computed attribute

  1. An attribute type that is specific to the pricing administration.
  2. An attribute value that is derived from the value of other attributes. For example, given a start and a finish date, it is possible to calculate a duration.

computed constructor
A constructor that creates element, attribute, document, text, processing-instruction, or comment nodes in which the content of the node is based on enclosed expressions. See also constructor, direct constructor.

computed field
On a form, a field whose value is determined by a formula that the application designer writes.

computed time
In the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE), the resulting time after a Distributed Time Service (DTS) clock synchronization. Computed time is the value that the clerk or server process computes according to the values it receives from several servers.

compute node

  1. A Blue Gene core node on which user applications run.
  2. A processing node in a parallel processing environment that handles elements of the job logic. Any processing node that is not a conductor node is a compute node. See also processing node.
  3. An independent server that contains one or more microprocessors, memory, storage, and network controllers and runs its own operating system and applications.

computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)
An interviewing method in which an interviewer, equipped with a computer to record the respondent's answers, meets face-to-face with the respondent.

computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI)
An interviewing method in which respondents use computers to record their answers to questionnaires.

Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE)
A set of tools or programs to help develop complex applications.

computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)
An interviewing method in which an interviewer, equipped with a computer to record the respondent's answers, interviews the respondent by telephone.

computer graphics
The use of a computer to produce visual representations of data, such as charts and multi-dimensional drawings by means of dots, lines, and curves.

Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)
A device-independent graphics file format used for storing object-oriented graphics.

computer group
A group of related computers. An administrator can create computer groups to organize systems into meaningful categories, and to facilitate deployment of patches to multiple computers.

computer instruction
An instruction that can be recognized by the processing unit of the computer for which it is designed. See also computer language.

computerized branch exchange (CBX)

  1. An exchange in which a central node acts as a high-speed switch to establish direct connections between pairs of attached nodes.
  2. A computer-driven, digital communications controller providing telephone communication between internal stations and external networks.

computer language
A language that can be used directly by a computer without intermediate processing. See also computer instruction.

In COBOL, a system-name that identifies the computer on which the program is to be compiled or run.

computer output microfilm (COM)
The hardware controller that manages the microfilm print engine and processes the functions unique to COM.

Computer Science Network (CSNET)
A large computer network, mostly in the United States but with international connections. CSNET sites include universities, research labs, and some commercial companies. CSNET has merged with the Because It's Time Network (BITNET) to form the Consortium for Research and Education Network (CREN).

computer-telephony integration (CTI)
The use of a general-purpose computer to issue commands to a telephone switch to transfer calls and provide other services. Typically, CTI is used in call centers.

computer template
A template that defines the compliant state for installed software and software configuration on the system.

computer word
See fullword.

computer workstation
A workstation that performs z/OS processing of jobs and started-task operations and that usually reports status to Tivoli Workload Scheduler for z/OS automatically.

computing system catalog
In DFSMShsm, the master catalog and any associated user catalogs used as sources during the audit process.

computing system RPQ
A customer request for a price quotation on alterations or additions to the functional capabilities of a computing system, hardware product, or device. The RPQ can be used in conjunction with programming RPQs to solve unique data processing problems. See also programming request for price quotation.

COM setup data
Data that enables the PSF user to designate unique microfilm printing functions for AFP print jobs. The parameter values, structure, syntax, and semantics are defined by the COM manufacturer, not by IBM-controlled architectures.


  1. To link together.
  2. To join two character strings.

concatenated data set
A group of logically connected data sets that are treated as one data set for the duration of a job step.

concatenated expression
An expression that combines column values or combines a column value with another value, using a concatenation operator.

concatenated field
Two or more fields that are combined to make one field in a logical file.

concatenated key
The key that is constructed to access a particular segment. A concatenated key consists of the key fields, including that of the root segment and successive children, down to the accessed segment.

The process of joining two characters or strings to form one string.

concatenation bit
In distributed transaction processing, high order bit of the first byte of the header of a GDS record.

concatenation operator

  1. The symbol used to join two character data items. The concatenation operator is often represented as two vertical bars (||).
  2. In REXX, an operator used to combine two strings into one by adding the second string to the right end of the first string. The concatenation operators for REXX are a double vertical bar (which concatenates without a blank) and the blank (which concatenates with a blank).


  1. In data transmission, a functional unit that permits a common transmission medium to serve more data sources than there are channels currently available within the transmission medium.
  2. An FDDI node that has additional parts beyond those required for its own attachment to a FDDI network. These additional parts (type M) are for attaching other FDDI nodes (type S) in a tree topology. Primarily, a concentrator is used to allow more than two single attachment stations (SAS) to communicate. It can also connect multiple SAS to a dual attachment station (DAS) ring.
  3. Any device that combines incoming messages into a single message (concentration) or extracts individual messages from the data sent in a single transmission sequence (deconcentration).

A class of entities that are represented by general metadata definitions rather than physical document standards.

concept extraction
A text analysis function that identifies significant vocabulary items, such as people, places, or products, in text documents and produces a list of those items. See also theme extraction.

concept phase
Business transformation operations process (BTOP) phase in which the PDT understands requirements and develops concepts, confirms need and ability to develop a solution, develops initial project proposal including templates, determines funds for next phase.

conceptual architecture
The most abstract form of specialization of an architecture, favoring coverage over precision, and specifying a finite set of types for components and for relationships in the system.

concrete class

  1. In DCE X/Open Object Management, an OM class that permits instances.
  2. A class that can be directly instantiated. See also abstract class.
  3. A class defining objects that can be created.
  4. A class that is not abstract.

concrete factory
In object-oriented programming, a class that is used to create instances of another class. A concrete factory isolates the creation of objects of a particular class into one place so that new functions can be provided without widespread code changes.

concrete portlet
A logical representation of a portlet object distinguished by a unique configuration parameter (PortletSettings).

concrete type
A type that can be instantiated and is derived from an abstract type.

The shared use of resources by multiple interactive users or application processes at the same time. See also lost update.

concurrency control
The management of contention for data resources.


  1. Pertaining to the shared use of resources by multiple interactive users or application programs at the same time.
  2. Pertaining to the occurrence of two or more activities within a given interval of time. Concurrent processes can alternately use shared common resources.

concurrent access
Simultaneous access to a shared volume group or a raw disk by two or more nodes. In this configuration, all the nodes defined for concurrent access to a shared volume group are owners of the shared resources associated with the volume group or raw disk.

concurrent access volume group
A volume group that can be accessed by more than one host system simultaneously.

concurrent addition
The addition of hardware to a hardware unit while it is operational.

concurrent capable volume group
A volume group that can be varied on in either nonconcurrent or concurrent access mode in a cluster environment.

concurrent cold repair
Repair to hardware that is electrically isolated from the running system. The hardware that is isolated has no resources that are being used by the system when the repair is started.

concurrent connection limit
In OSI, the maximum number of concurrent connections allowed for a given OSI Communications Subsystem node.

concurrent copy

  1. A function that increases the accessibility of data by creating a consistent copy of the data concurrent with regular processing.
  2. A function of the DFSMSdss component that is used to back up any collection of data at a point in time with minimum down time for the database or application that uses the collection of data.

concurrent copy-compatible snapshot (CC-compatible SnapShot)
See virtual concurrent copy.

concurrent hot repair
Repair to hardware that is electrically connected to the system. The hardware being repaired might have resources that are being used by the system when the repair is started.

concurrent image copy (CIC)
A batch utility program that is used to make a copy of OSAM data sets and VSAM entry-sequenced database data sets (DBDSs), whether or not IMS is running and the database is online.

concurrent installation of Licensed Internal Code
The process of installing Licensed Internal Code in a device while the device is in use.

concurrent license
A type of license, administered by the network license server, that can be used by different users from any node that is connected to a network license server. Concurrent licenses enable as many users to use a particular software product concurrently as there are licenses. See also concurrent offline license.

concurrent login
A login that occurs simultaneously with other logins. See also login.

concurrent maintenance
Service or maintenance that is performed on a hardware unit in the system while the system is fully or partially operational.

concurrent media maintenance
Service performed on a disk drive module (DDM) without losing access to the data.

concurrent offline license
A type of license that allows authorized users to reserve a concurrent license for a certain number of days and to use it on a portable computer that is disconnected from the network. See also concurrent license.

concurrent repair
Repair to hardware in a hardware unit while it is operational.

concurrent resource group
A resource group that attempts to become activated on all the nodes in the node list with no priority among the owner nodes. If one node fails, the other nodes continue to offer the service. See also nonconcurrent resource group, resource group, resource group policies.

concurrent server
A server that can handle many connections at the same time. It can accept new connection requests while still processing the transactions started by previous requests. See also iterative server.

concurrent-use license
A license that limits the number of users that can be connected to a resource concurrently.

Concurrent Versions System (CVS)
An open-source, network-transparent version control system.

concurrent virtual shared disk
A virtual shared disk that can be accessed at the same time by more than one server.

In SQL replication, a table attribute that indicates that the table contains current data rather than a history of changes to the data. A condensed table includes no more than one row for each primary key value in the table. As a result, a condensed table can be used to supply current information for a refresh.