IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager V4.1 new architecture enhances flexibility, scalability, performance, and ease of use

IBM United States Software Announcement 207-345
December 11, 2007

 

 ENUS207345.PDF (70KB)

 

Table of contents  Document options  
TOC link At a glance TOC link Publications
TOC link Overview TOC link Technical information
TOC link Key prerequisites TOC link Software Services
TOC link Planned availability dates TOC link Ordering information
TOC link Description TOC link Terms and conditions
TOC link Availability of national languages TOC link Prices
TOC link Education support TOC link Order now
TOC link Offering Information  
 
Printable version Printable version

(Corrected on January 2, 2008)

Electronic delivery has resumed effective December 20, 2007.

(Corrected on December 17, 2007)

Electronic delivery has been temporarily delayed.
 

At a glance

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager V4.1 works to protect critical information and network availability for you and your customers by helping you:

  • Centralize security operations across discrete organizations, technologies, and processes through a new user interface
  • Align security operations with IT operations and business priorities to help maximize business and service uptime
  • Address compliance reporting requirements and corporate risk management policies
  • Minimize the time it takes to recognize and resolve security incidents

For ordering, contact:

Your IBM representative, an IBM Business Partner, or IBM Americas Call Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: YE001).
 
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Overview

IBM Tivoli® Security Operations Manager (TSOM) is a security information and event management platform that can help you meet your security operations challenges. Designed to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and visibility of security operations and information risk management, TSOM software centralizes and stores security data from across the technology infrastructure to help you:

  • Automate log aggregation, correlation, and analysis
  • Recognize, investigate, and respond to security incidents automatically
  • Streamline incident tracking, handling, and resolution
  • Enable monitoring and enforcement of policy
  • Provide reporting to document your compliance efforts

TSOM V4.1 delivers new and improved capabilities to more efficiently handle IT security incidents:

  • Simplified and streamlined configuration and administration — usability enhancements to reduce the time and effort for deployments and administration via a simplified, centralized device interface, and new event source auto-configuration feature
  • Improved event filtering and correlation engine infrastructure providing greater flexibility, capabilities, and performance
  • Enhanced security operations Dashboard user interface, with greater customization and new security knowledgebase facility
  • Expanded incident ticketing and case management
  • Enhanced host investigation tooling for incident identification and resolution
  • Expanded and updated platform support including DB2®, AIX®, and full globalization and internationalization support
  • Integrates with Tivoli Compliance Insight Manager to provide a comprehensive solution for security information and event management (SIEM)

The following functions are no longer available in TSOM V4.1:

  • The Remedy Integration Module that allowed one way forwarding of tickets to the BMC Remedy Help Desk System.
  • SourceFire API support.
  • High Availability function for the Central Management Server (CMS).
  • MySQL support as an internal database repository. It has been replaced by IBM DB2 Enterprise Edition, which is included.

 
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Key prerequisites

Refer to the Hardware requirements and Software requirements sections.


 
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Planned availability dates
  • December 14, 2007: Electronic software delivery
  • January 11, 2008: Media and documentation

 
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Description

Security breaches can have serious, measurable consequences: lost revenue, downtime, damage to reputation, damage to IT assets, theft of proprietary or customer information, cleanup and restoration costs, and potential litigation costs. To help reduce these risks, security organizations want the capability to identify attacks quickly, and react swiftly.

Tivoli Security Operations Manager (TSOM) automates many of the repetitive, time-and-expertise-intensive activities required for effective security operations. The result is a more efficient and cost-effective approach to security operations.

Centralize log aggregation in multivendor environments

To detect attacks, malware, potentially dangerous misconfigurations, and internal misuse, a security team must analyze large amounts of event data from throughout the security infrastructure including:

  • Intrusion detection and protection systems
  • Firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs)
  • Networking infrastructure products
  • Antivirus and malicious code protection products
  • Servers, desktops, applications, and other security products

Additionally, relevant information should be obtained from IT or operations infrastructure servers and hosts. The volume of data and number of disparate machines in a typical network usually makes manual analysis of security data very difficult. Automating the process of aggregating events from disparate devices and systems into one central location is essential so the data can be correlated to facilitate incident response and reporting. Centralization and automatic aggregation of data is also critical for addressing compliance reporting requirements where historical analysis of stored log data may be necessary.

TSOM software provides a platform on which your organization can automatically aggregate host logs, security events, asset data, and vulnerability data. You select how much data you want the software to draw in — and from which sources — and TSOM software gathers the data using standard and native protocols such as Extensible Markup Language (XML), syslog, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), CheckPoint OPSEC, Cisco SDEE, and many more. It can also use its own low-impact, universal agent to collect information. TSOM software can collect event and log data from hundreds of different devices and support can be added for custom devices and internal applications.

Improve incident detection by correlating across devices

Drawing on information from across the infrastructure, TSOM can help you detect attacks, misuse, and anomalous activity. The software analyzes and prioritizes event data using complementary correlation techniques:

  • Statistical correlation — identifies anomalies by performing advanced analysis of events and hosts.
  • Rule-based correlation — monitors for known attacks and more proactively manage policy violations before they become incidents.

These correlation techniques can be built into a set of TSOM V4.1 stateful rules, which provide a decision tree like logic that enables true Boolean evaluations of event data. State tables allow the rules engine to track the state of an event, and expose this information to other rules in the system. TSOM V4.1 stateful rules allows for true business logic to be applied to the security data event flow.

Additionally, TSOM software can use your business priorities to weigh the importance of assets during the correlation process in order to prioritize security activities. When security analysts use the console, they can see information that has been prioritized in alignment with your goals and policy, instead of an endless list of security events.

Reduce migration time through integrated incident investigation and response

TSOM software integrates its investigation and response tools tightly to help you reduce the time it takes to handle attacks, misconfigurations, and misuse. The software also facilitates the escalation and tracking process. Investigative features include:

  • Integrated one-click investigation tools
  • Automated responses to block threats and close the loop
  • Geographic tracking of suspicious activity
  • Security-oriented ticketing system

Improve efficiency through operational integration

TSOM integrates with Tivoli Compliance Insight Manager (TCIM), which provides the ability for customers to leverage TSOM's correlation and network security policy monitoring capabilities and integrate with TCIM's user and compliance focused reporting. TSOM can feed the results of its level correlation to TCIM for audit and compliance reporting, and TCIM can send policy violation alerts to TSOM for situational awareness for security operations.

TSOM software addresses operational inefficiencies, experienced by siloed IT organizations, by facilitating the flow of incident management data between security, network, and systems management operations teams. For example, TSOM integrates closely with enterprise network and system management products, including event managers and dashboards, as well as IBM Tivoli Enterprise™ Console and IBM Tivoli Netcool/OMNIbus. You can leverage these integrations to help:

  • Support business and service assurance requirements
  • Correlate security insights with information from the broader operations environment
  • Further facilitate incident remediation

TSOM software also integrates with IBM Tivoli Identity Manager and IBM Tivoli Access Manager for e-business to provide monitoring and oversight for customers' identity and access policies — helping you to enforce policies, and more quickly detect and address potential misuse attempts.

Deepen understanding of security trends through comprehensive reporting

The on-the-fly data mining, historical reporting, self-auditing, and tracking capabilities in TSOM software provide critical components for understanding security trends. What's more, these reports help IT communicate relevant security information to other audiences, such as management and audit teams.

Features include:

  • Standard and customizable report templates
  • An automated report scheduler
  • HTML, PDF, and XML exporting of graphs and charts
  • Self-auditing and tracking of security activities

TSOM software draws on information stored in a security event database to deliver on demand historical reporting and trending.

Select from multiple deployment options to suit your environment

TSOM software features a modular architecture that can adapt to and grow with your organization's security infrastructure. The event aggregation module that collects and normalizes data, the central management server that performs advanced analysis and correlation, and the database that stores historical information are distributed components, each on their own system. The installation can be expanded by adding additional event aggregation modules.

An organization might deploy multiple event aggregation modules throughout the organization to support higher volumes of event information or facilitate geographic distribution of system resources. For example, one customer might deploy 12 event aggregation modules for each of its geographically dispersed locations enabling the company to distribute data collection and processing activities.

Similarly, widely dispersed event aggregation modules can send data to a single central management server, or an organization can use multiple servers to maximize availability. If one server is unavailable to an event aggregation module, it can forward the event to a secondary central management server.

Improve your operational efficiency through a design focused on consumability

From the initial install procedures to daily maintenance, TSOM software delivers easier-to-use interfaces and procedures to help minimize the time and training required to obtain value from the solution. The user interface improvements to the simple and centralized device configuration reduce the burden of installing and configuring a large number of device sources. High performance algorithms can more quickly correlate and filter a large number of security events. Finally, for problem resolution and reporting TSOM software leverages expertise in security deployments through the use of a security knowledgebase, and common best practices for compliance reporting, enhancing security governance of the complete IT installation.

Provide a platform for offering managed security services

In addition to serving as the critical IT security platform for enterprises and carriers, TSOM software can also act as a strong, proven foundation for a managed security services business. The same deployment options that make TSOM software scalable and stable for organizations can help managed security service providers meet the needs of their highly distributed managed services environment.

When used by managed security service providers, TSOM software helps:

  • Reduce operational costs by offering a high degree of operational automation
  • Optimize time to value, thanks to speedier implementation and immediate, out-of-the-box capabilities
  • Demonstrate service levels and value to customers through comprehensive reporting capabilities

TSOM components

In order to install TSOM software, it is important to understand the TSOM architecture and a few major components:

  • Central Management System (CMS)
  • Event Aggregation Module (EAM)

CMS is the hub that coordinates all aspects of the TSOM system, bringing together event datastreams from all of the EAMs deployed in the network. It is here that the event data is correlated and analyzed. Event correlation and threat determination require a combination of embedded logic and configurable rules to correlate events, while determining the threat level of each event. CMS maintains a running subset of the correlated event data for real-time display, while directing the correlated event datastream to the achiever for continuous storage. Both real-time and historic data is used in presenting relevant information through the user interface and reporting module.

EAM gathers event data from the various network security devices. EAM then normalizes, filters, and transmits that data to the CMS. EAM is configurable to gather data from many, if not all of the currently deployed security devices deployed in the enterprise network. This data is gathered using conduits designed to communicate with each security device using the device's native protocol, such as syslog, SNMP, OPSEC, or by ASCII or XML log files. By communicating in the device's native protocol, configuration of EAM and the devices providing the raw data is minimized. The stream of event data coming from multiple deployed devices is then normalized to provide a common event format. This normalization process creates a common language that can be used by the TSOM system in filtering, correlating, and presenting of the data. It is the first step in creating relevant information from raw data.

Migration

IBM Tivoli Risk Manager customers, who purchased Risk Manager software before January 9, 2007, and who are current on maintenance, are entitled to obtain TSOM software as a replacement for Tivoli Risk Manager. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for details.

National language support

TSOM software offers a choice of 10 supported languages to help match your operations in their native environment.

Accessibility by people with disabilities

A U.S. Section 508 Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) can be requested via the IBM Web site

IPLA and Subscription and Support considerations

IPLA licenses can be transferred from one machine to another within, but not limited to an enterprise. You may aggregate the capacity for all the processors the product is operated on to achieve a more economic price. This will result in a single Proof of Entitlement (PoE). It is your responsibility to manage the distribution of Value Units within the limits of the entitlement of the product license.

Subscription and Support must cover the same capacity as the product license entitlement. Subscription and Support will be available in the country in which the agreement is made.
 
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Availability of national languages

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager is enabled for worldwide availability on the dates shown below.

Product description  Language               GA date
 
Security Operations  Multilingual (French,  January 11, 2008
 Manager V4.1.0       Korean, Chinese --
                      Simplified, Spanish,
                      Portuguese-Brazilian,
                      German, Japanese,
                      Chinese --
                      Traditional, English,
                      Italian)

Trademarks

 
Tivoli Enterprise is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Tivoli, AIX, and DB2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

 
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Education support

Comprehensive education for IBM Tivoli® products is offered through Worldwide Tivoli Education Delivery Services. A wide range of training options are available, including classes led by instructors, learning on demand, on-site training, and blended learning solutions.

For additional information, visit

For information on IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager, visit

Search on IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager.
 
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Offering Information

Product information is available via the Offering Information Web site

Also, visit the Passport Advantage® Web site


 
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Publications

The following TSOM V4.1 English publications may be downloaded at general availability from

  • Quick Start Guide (GC23-6098-00)
  • Administration Guide (SC23-6100-00)
  • Installation Guide (GC23-6099)
  • User Guide (SC23-6301-00)
  • Problem Determination Guide (GC23-8850-00)

The following translated publications can be ordered from the IBM Publications Center 60 days after general availability:

IBM Tivoli Security     GC23-6099-00    Brazilian
 Operations Manager                      Portuguese, French,
 Installation Guide                      German, Italian,
                                         Japanese, Korean,
                                         Spanish
 
IBM Tivoli Security     SC23-6306-00    Brazilian
 Operations Manager                      Portuguese, French,
 User Guide                              German, Italian,
                                         Japanese, Korean,
                                         Spanish
 
IBM Tivoli Security     SC23-6100-00    French, German,
 Operations Manager                      Italian, Japanese,
 Administration Guide                    Korean, Spanish
 
IBM Tivoli Security     GC23-6098-00    Brazilian
 Operations Manager                      Portuguese,
 Quick Start Guide                       Simplified Chinese,
                                         French, German,
                                         Italian, Korean,
                                         Spanish
 
IBM Tivoli Security     GC23-8850-00    French, Italian,
 Operations Manager                      Korean
 Problem Determination
 Guide

 
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Technical information

Specified operating environment

Hardware requirements

Minimum system requirements for Central Management Server (CMS):

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux™ ES 4.5 platform with:
    • Dual Intel® Pentium® IV, 3.0 GHz, or greater CPU
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 120 GB, or larger hard drive
  • Sun Solaris 10 platform with:
    • SunFire V445 Dual 1.5 GHz, or greater UltraSparc
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 146 GB, or larger hard drive
  • IBM AIX 5L™ V5.3 platform with:
    • IBM System p5™ 510 or 525 Dual 1.5 GHz, or greater
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 146 GB, or larger hard drive

Minimum system requirements for database server:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 4.5 platform with:
    • Quad Intel Pentium IV, 3.0 GHz, or greater CPU
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 120 GB, or larger hard drive (note that storage requirements are highly dependent on overall system event rate and archival and reporting objectives)
  • Sun Solaris 10 platform with:
    • SunFire V445 Quad 1.5 GHz, or greater UltraSparc
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 146 GB, or larger hard drive (note that storage requirements are highly dependent on overall system event rate and archival and reporting objectives)
  • IBM AIX 5L V5.3 platform with:
    • IBM System p5 510 or 525 Quad 1.5 GHz, or greater
    • 8 GB, or more RAM
    • 146 GB, or larger hard drive (note that storage requirements are highly dependent on overall system event rate and archival and reporting objectives)

Minimum system requirements for Event Aggregation Module (EAM):

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 4.5 platform with:
    • Pentium IV, 3.0 GHz, or greater CPU
    • 4 GB, or more RAM
    • 36 GB, or larger hard drive
  • Sun Solaris 10 platform with:
    • SunFire V225 Dual 1.5 GHz, or greater UltraSparc
    • 4 GB, or more RAM
    • 73 GB, or larger hard drive
  • IBM AIX 5L V5.3 platform with:
    • System p5 510 or 525 1.5 GHz, or greater
    • 4 GB, or more RAM
    • 76 GB, or larger hard drive

Software requirements

Supported platforms:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 4.5
  • Sun Solaris 10
  • AIX 5L V5.3

Supported browsers for client:

  • Microsoft® Internet Explorer 6.x, or later
  • Mozilla Firefox 1.7, or later
  • Sun Java™ 1.5, or later
  • IBM Java 5 JRE, or later (included)

Supported databases:

  • DB2® Enterprise Server Edition V9.1 (included)
  • Oracle Enterprise Edition 10g

Migration

Current IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager customers, who are current on Software Maintenance, are entitled to upgrade to IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager V4.1 without paying additional license fees. IBM Tivoli Risk Manager customers, who acquired Risk Manager before January 9, 2007 and who are current on Software Maintenance, are entitled to acquire IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager software as a replacement for IBM Tivoli Risk Manager without paying additional license fees. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for details.

Planning information

Software Maintenance is included with licenses purchased through Passport Advantage and Passport Advantage Express. Product upgrades and technical support are provided by the Software Maintenance offering as described in the Agreements. Product upgrades provide the latest versions and releases to entitled software and technical support provides voice and electronic access to IBM support organizations, worldwide.

IBM includes one year of Software Maintenance with each program license acquired. The initial period of Software Maintenance can be extended by the purchase of a renewal option, if available.

Packaging

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager is distributed with:

  • International Program License Agreement (Z125-3301)
  • License Information document
  • CD-ROMs

Security, auditability, and control

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager uses the security and auditability features of the operating system software.

The customer is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.
 
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Software Services

IBM Software Services has the breadth, depth, and reach to manage your services needs. You can leverage the deep technical skills of our lab-based, software services team and the business consulting, project management, and infrastructure expertise of our IBM Global Services team. Also, we extend our IBM Software Services reach through IBM Business Partners to provide an unmatched portfolio of capabilities. Together, we provide the global reach, intellectual capital, industry insight, and technology leadership to support any critical business need.

To learn more about IBM Software Services or to contact a Software Services sales specialist, visit

To locate an IBM Business Partner, visit:

IBM Tivoli Enhanced Value-Based Pricing terminology

IBM Tivoli Enhanced Value-Based Pricing: IBM Tivoli software products are priced using IBM Tivoli's Enhanced Value-Based Pricing. The Enhanced Value-Based Pricing system is based upon the IBM Tivoli Environment-Managed Licensing Model, which uses a managed-environment approach — whereby the applicable license fees are based on what is managed rather than the number and type of product components installed.

For example, all servers monitored with IBM Tivoli's monitoring product (IBM Tivoli Monitoring) require entitlements sufficient for those servers. Other Tivoli products may manage clients, client devices, agents, network nodes, users, or other items, and are licensed and priced accordingly.

Unlike typical systems management licensing models that require entitlements of specific software components to specific systems, the IBM Tivoli Environment-Managed Licensing Model provides the customer flexibility to deploy its IBM Tivoli software products within its environment in a manner that can address and respond to the customer's evolving architecture. That is, as the architecture of a customer's environment changes, the customer's implementation of IBM Tivoli software can be altered, as needed, without affecting the customer's license requirements (as long as the customer does not exceed its entitlements to the software).

Under Enhanced Value-Based Pricing, licensing and pricing of server-oriented applications are determined based upon the server's use in the customer's environment. Typically, such applications are licensed and priced in a manner that corresponds to each installed and activated processor of the server managed by the IBM Tivoli application to help correlate the license fees to value while offering a simple solution.

Where a server is physically partitioned, this approach is modified. This partitioning technique is the approach used with systems that have either multiple cards or multiple frames, each of which can be configured independently. For servers capable of physical partitioning (for example, IBM System p™ Scalable POWERparallel® Systems servers, Sun Ultra servers, and HP Superdome servers), an entitlement is required for each processor in the physical partition being managed by the Tivoli application. For example, assume that a server has 24 processors installed in aggregate. If this server is not partitioned, entitlements are required for all 24 processors. If, however, it is physically partitioned into three partitions, each containing eight processors, and Tivoli products were managing only one of the three partitions, then entitlements would be required for the eight processors on the physical partition managed by the IBM Tivoli application.

For servers with virtual or logical partitions, entitlements are required for all installed and activated processors on the server. For each IBM Tivoli application managing a clustered environment, licensing is based on the cumulative number of installed and activated processors on each server in the cluster. Where the cluster includes physically partitioned servers, the considerations described above concerning physically partitioned servers apply as well.

Enhanced Value-Based Pricing recognizes the convergence of RISC and UNIX®, and Microsoft Windows® and Intel technologies, in order to simplify your licensing requirements, and to provide a smoother, more scalable model. Pricing and licensing does not differentiate between non-System z™ server platforms or operating systems. For some products, this platform neutrality extends to System z and other host servers as well.

IBM Tivoli Enhanced Value-Based Pricing terminology definitions

Applications and databases instances

A license entitlement is required for each instance of the application being connected. Applications and databases refer to the programs instances running on a server operating system, which provide a source of security events and logs. Examples of applications include, but are not limited to SAP, Siebel, and Exchange. Examples of databases include, but are not limited to DB2, Oracle, and Sybase.

Client device or client

A client device is a computer system that requests the execution of a set of commands, procedures, or applications from another computer system that is typically referred to as a server. Multiple client devices may share access to a common server. A client device generally has some processing capability or is programmable to allow a user to do work. Examples include, but are not limited to, notebook computers, desktop computers, desk side computers, technical workstations, appliances, personal digital assistants, automated teller machines, point-of-sale terminals, tills and cash registers, and kiosks.

Install

An install is a copy or instance of the main managing program in the enterprise.

Instance

An instance is the occurrence of something in the enterprise. For example, if you have acquired an application instance authorization for an application, you are permitted to deploy and run one copy of the licensed application on one machine or LPAR. Another example would be if you have acquired an operating system instance authorization for an operating system, you are permitted to deploy and run one copy of the licensed operating system on one machine or LPAR.

Network node

Network nodes include routers, switches, hubs, and bridges that contain a network management agent. A single network node may contain any number of interfaces or ports.

Network security device

Network security device is any network-based security appliance or server, running network security-based software, that provides a source of security events or logs. Examples include, but are not limited to firewalls, application firewalls, intrusion detection systems, intrusion protection systems, virtual private networks (VPNs), threat protection products (antivirus gateways), content filtering (Web, e-mail), identity and access management, directory servers, network anomaly behavior products, and multifunction security appliances.

Resource Value Unit

A resource is the measurement for program license entitlements which is based upon the quantity of the specific designated measurement used for a given program. A Resource Value Unit is a pricing charge metric of IBM Tivoli's Enhanced Value-Based Pricing, which uses a managed-environment approach whereby the applicable license fee is based on what is managed. Whenever the designated measurement is a resource, not all resources require the same number of Resource Value Units. Resource Value Unit schedules are located in the Pricing examples section.

Server

A server is a computer system that executes requested procedures, commands, or applications to one or more user or client devices over a network. A PoE must be obtained for each server on which the program, or a component of the program, is run or which the program manages. Where blade technology is employed, each blade is considered a separate server.

Standby or backup systems

For programs running or resident on backup machines, IBM defines three types of situations: cold, warm, and hot. In the cold and warm situations, a separate entitlement for the copy on the backup machine is normally not required and typically no additional charge applies. In a hot backup situation, you need to acquire another license or entitlements sufficient for that server. All programs running in backup mode must be solely under your control, even if they are running at another enterprise's location.

As a practice, the following are definitions and allowable actions concerning the copy of the program used for backup purposes:

Cold: A copy of the program may reside, for backup purposes, on a machine as long as the program is not started. There is no additional charge for this copy.

Warm: A copy of the program may reside for backup purposes on a machine and is started, but is idling, and is not doing any work of any kind. There is no additional charge for this copy.

Hot: A copy of the program may reside for backup purposes on a machine, is started, and is doing work. The customer must acquire a license or entitlements for this copy and there will generally be an additional charge.

Doing work includes, for example, production, development, program maintenance, and testing. It also could include other activities such as mirroring of transactions, updating of files, synchronization of programs, data, or other resources (for example, active linking with another machine, program, database, or other resource, and so on), or any activity or configurations that would allow an active hot switch or other synchronized switch over between programs, databases, or other resources to occur.

In the case of a program or system configuration that is designed to support a high availability environment by using various techniques (for example, duplexing, mirroring of files or transactions, maintaining a heartbeat, active linking with another machine, program, database, or other resource), the program is considered to be doing work in the hot situation and a license or entitlement must be purchased.

Value Units

A Value Unit is a pricing charge metric for program license entitlements which is based upon the quantity of a specific designated measurement used for a given program. Each program has a designated measurement. The most commonly used designated measurements are processor cores and MSUs. However, for select programs, there are other designated measurements such as servers, users, client devices, and messages. The number of Value Unit entitlements required for a specific implementation of the given program must be obtained from a conversion table associated with the program. Customers must obtain a PoE for the appropriate number of Value Unit entitlements for their implementation. The Value Unit entitlements of a given program cannot be exchanged, interchanged, or aggregated with Value Unit entitlements of another program. Whenever the designated measurement is a processor core, not all processors require the same number of Value Unit entitlements. To determine the number of Value Unit entitlements required, refer to the processor Value Unit conversion table on the Passport Advantage Web site

Product Web sites

A complete list of IBM Tivoli products is available at Web site

Licensing Web site

IBM Tivoli product licensing documents are available at Web site

Passport Advantage: Through the Passport Advantage Agreement, you may receive discounted pricing based on the total volume of eligible products, across all IBM brands, acquired worldwide. The volume is measured by determining the total Passport Advantage points value of the applicable acquisitions. Passport Advantage points are only used for calculating the entitled Passport Advantage discount.

To determine the required Tivoli product configuration under Passport Advantage, the Tivoli Enhanced Value-Based Pricing Model applies. Your environment is evaluated on a per-product basis.

Use the following two-step process to determine the total Passport Advantage points value:

  1. Analyze your environment to determine the number of Tivoli Management Points or other charge unit for a product. The quantity of each product's part numbers to be ordered is determined by that analysis.
  2. Order the Passport Advantage part numbers. A Passport Advantage point value, which is the same worldwide for a specific part number regardless of where the order is placed, is assigned to each Tivoli product part number. The Passport Advantage point value for the applicable part number, multiplied by the quantity for that part number, will determine the Passport Advantage points for that Tivoli product part number. The sum of these Passport Advantage points determines the Passport Advantage point value of the applicable Tivoli product authorizations, which then may be aggregated with the point value of other applicable Passport Advantage product acquisitions to determine the total Passport Advantage points value.

The discounted pricing available through Passport Advantage is expressed in the form of Suggested Volume Prices (SVPs), which vary depending on the SVP level. Each SVP level is assigned a minimum total Passport Advantage point value, which must be achieved, in order to qualify for that SVP level.

Media packs and documentation packs do not carry Passport Advantage points and are not eligible for SVP discounting.

For additional information on Passport Advantage, refer to the following Web site

The following Passport Advantage part number categories may be orderable:

  • License and Software Maintenance 12 Months — this is the product authorization with maintenance to the first anniversary date.
  • Annual Software Maintenance Renewal — this is the maintenance renewal for one anniversary that applies when you renew the existing coverage period prior to the anniversary date at which it expires.
  • Software Maintenance Reinstatement 12 Months — this is when you have allowed the Software Maintenance to expire, and later wish to reinstate your Software Maintenance.
  • Media packs — these are the physical media, such as CD-ROMs, that deliver the product's code.

Pricing examples: The pricing for Tivoli Security Operations Manager (TSOM) is based on Resource Value Units. There are six chargeable license components that may apply in any given installation. Application and Database licensing are now included in TSOM V4.1. There are two license volume discount schedules. The following table illustrates the six licenses and the volume discount that applies to that license.

                                                  Volume
                                                  discount
Price metric                                      schedule
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager installs       Schedule 2
Client devices                                    Schedule 1
Network nodes                                     Schedule 1
Network security devices                          Schedule 1
Server instances                                  Schedule 1
Applications and databases instances              Schedule 2

The two volume discount schedules are as follows:

Schedule 1

Tier          Number of resources          RVUs per resource
 
1             0-10                         1.00
2             11-100                       0.90
3             101-250                      0.75
4             251-500                      0.60
5             501-5,000                    0.45
6             5,001-25,000                 0.30
7             Greater than 25,000          0.15

Schedule 2

Tier          Number of resources          RVUs per resource
 
1             0-2                          1.00
2             3-5                          0.90
3             6-10                         0.80
4             11-20                        0.70
5             21-35                        0.60
6             36-50                        0.45
7             Greater than 50              0.30

The pricing for TSOM software follows the IBM Enhanced Value-Based model with an additional volume-based discount schedule for each of its components, including the TSOM Install and the adaptor components for each type of resource, device or end point monitored by the customer using TSOM (each a device).

TSOM infrastructure, correlation capabilities, security policy rules, incident management functions, user interfaces and reporting capabilities are included in the TSOM Install pricing model. TSOM Install core components include Central Management Servers (CMSs), Event Aggregation Modules (EAMs), security dashboards, reporting, and report designer application. Any number of TSOM Install core components can be copied and installed, as needed, to handle scalability and performance when monitoring devices using TSOM.

For each TSOM Install, customers must also acquire adaptor components for each device based on the applicable device category: network security devices; servers instances; network nodes; application and database instances; and desktop clients. The number of chargeable adaptor components is based on the number of original, unique sources of event and log inputs in each device category represented in the customer's inventory. There are no additional charges based on how data is collected by TSOM, whether via a centralized management server, API, agent, or agentless technology. All of the data collection options that TSOM supports (including XML, Syslog, SNMP, JDBC, text file, OPSEC, and Cisco IDS) are included and do not affect pricing.

To provide some clarification of monitored device categories listed above, and which products apply to them, review the pricing examples and details below. Also there are a few pricing instances that may not be clear from the definitions provided above. For example client represents sources of logs that come from end clients (personal firewall, antivirus) and the applicable license fee is based on the number of unique endpoints, independent of how TSOM software collects the information. Server instance represents a unique instance of native operating system logs, of which a physical hardware server may have several, if running virtualization software. Host-based intrusion protection and security products for servers, such as IBM ISS Proventia Server, Cisco Security Agent, or Tripwire are counted as network nodes when calculating the applicable license fees. Following are some examples with more detail.

Pricing Scenario 1

Transaction 1

In phase 1, a customer wants to purchase TSOM software to set up a Security Operations Center (SOC) for a division that is opening a new electronic commerce portal. The customer's initial deployment goal is to consolidate information from the customer's perimeter security products and Internet-facing servers. The customer's initial deployment will focus on:

  • 1 TSOM installation.
  • No clients.
  • 100 network infrastructure products and server intrusion protection agents (network nodes).
  • In addition, the customer will be monitoring 50 server's operating systems.
  • 15 firewalls, 10 intrusion protection appliances, and 5 additional network security products (total of 30 network security devices).

Transaction 1 table reflecting quantities to order

                                  Quantity in    Resource
Price metric        Schedule      environment    Value Units
 
TSOM install        Schedule 2      1             1
 licenses
Client licenses     Schedule 1      0             0
Network node        Schedule 1    100            91
 licenses
Server instance     Schedule 1     50            46
 licenses
Network             Schedule 1     30            28
 security device
 licenses

Transaction 2

In phase 2, the customer wants to add:

  • 1,200 desktop clients collecting desktop antivirus events from McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator
  • 60 more server's operating systems
  • 3 databases
  • 115 more network infrastructure products
  • 35 more network security products, including firewalls, VPNs, and identity management servers

Total additional quantities to order are:

 
                                                New      Resource
                                                required Value
                                       Previous Resource Unit
                     Previous New      Resource Value    quantity
Price                quantity quantity Value    Unit     to
metric    Schedule   totals   totals   Units    totals   order
 
TSOM      Schedule     1          1     1         1        0
 Install   2
 licenses
Client    Schedule     0      1,200     0       669      669
 licenses  1
Network   Schedule   100        215    91       178       87
 node      1
 licenses
Server    Schedule    50        110    46        99       53
 instance  1
 licenses
Network   Schedule    30         65    28        60       32
 security  1
 device
 licenses
APP and   Schedule     0          3     0         3        3
 DB        2
 instance
 Licenses

For Scenario 1, the final quantities in the customer's environment are reflected in the table below.

Scenario 1 quantities in the customer environment

                               New quantities   New Resource
                               in the           Value Unit
Price metric                   environment      quantities
 
TSOM install licenses              1              1
Client licenses                1,200            669
Network node licenses            215            178
Server instance licenses         110             99
APP and DB instance licenses       3              3
Network security                  65             60
 device licenses

Pricing Scenario 2

A federal government agency wants to purchase a TSOM installation for three divisions to set up independent SOC for each. Each division wants control of its own management system, security correlation rules, and operations, and will be set up and staffed independently. Division A is going to start by monitoring 200 network security devices and 300 network nodes only; Division B will start with 100 network security devices, 200 network nodes, 500 desktop clients, and 1,000 servers; Division C will be covering 200 network security devices, 2,000 servers, 12 databases, 2 applications, 10,000 clients, and 3,000 network nodes.

Summary of Agency's chargeable components

Monitored
resource          Division A      Division B      Division C
 
TSOM installs       1                 1                1
Clients             0               500           10,000
Network nodes     300               200            3,000
Servers             0             1,000            2,000
 Instances
Network           200               100              200
 security
 devices
Applications        0                 0               14
 and DBs
 Instances

Scenario 2 table reflecting total quantities to order

                                                   Resource
                                   Quantity        Value
                                   in the          Units to
Price metric        Schedule       environment     order
 
TSOM install        Schedule 2          3              3
 
 licenses
Client licenses     Schedule 1     10,500          4,029
Network node        Schedule 1      3,500          1,704
 licenses
Server              Schedule 1      3,000          1,479
 Instances
 licenses
Network             Schedule 1        500            354
 security device
 licenses
Applications        Schedule 2         14             12
 and DBs
 Instances

Additional TSOM pricing details, interpretations, and examples

The license fee charged is dependent upon the number of unique resources monitored regardless of how the data from them is collected. Events or logs may be collected individually from each resource or from a central management server (like ISS SiteProtector, McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator, and Juniper NSM). The license fee is based on the number of original event sources, independent of the collection implementation. Examples of customer environments and interpretations on quantifying resources are listed below.

Example A: A customer is collecting Check Point Firewall-1 event logs from 25 firewalls through one Check Point Provider-1 management console connection via an OPSEC API. This counts as 25 network security devices for calculating Resource Value Units. The fact that TSOM software collects the data via a single OPSEC connection is an implementation detail that doesn't affect the applicable license fee.

Example B: A customer is collecting Windows Event Logs from 200 servers. These logs have all been forwarded to a single Windows Domain Server for collection by TSOM software. For TSOM software licensing, this counts as 200 server instances.

Example C: A customer is collecting Windows operating system event logs, Tivoli Security Compliance Manager alerts, and SAP application logs all from 10 critical servers. This counts as 10 servers, 10 applications, and 10 network security devices under TSOM software licensing.

Example D: A customer is collecting events from 10,000 client systems running Proventia desktop, via a single SiteProtector system. The same 10,000 client systems are running McAfee antivirus, and want to collect these logs via a single McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator server. This counts as 10,000 clients under TSOM licensing.

Example E: A federal government agency acquires TSOM for use in two divisions to set up independent SOC for each division. Each division wants control of its own TSOM Install in order to control its unique security correlation rules and security operation customizations. Division A will start by monitoring 200 network security devices and 300 network nodes only. Division B will start by monitoring 100 network security devices, 200 network nodes, 500 desktop clients, and 1,000 servers.

Division A will buy:

  • An entitlement for a single TSOM Install
  • Entitlements for 200 network security devices
  • Entitlements for 300 network nodes

Division B will buy:

  • An entitlement for a single TSOM Install
  • Entitlements for 100 network security devices
  • Entitlements for 200 network nodes
  • Entitlements for 500 desktop clients
  • Entitlements for 1,000 servers

Later, Division B seeks to expand its TSOM Install to handle performance in monitoring its devices. Division B can achieve performance improvements by installing two more CMS components and five more EAM components. Division B also seeks to monitor 200 additional network security devices.

Division B will have to buy:

  • Entitlements for 200 additional network security devices

Division B will not have to acquire additional TSOM Install entitlements because it can add the additional CMS and EAM components using the original TSOM Install.
 
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Ordering information

This product is only available via Passport Advantage. It is not available as shrinkwrap.

Product information

                               Product           Product
Licensed function title        group             category
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager             Security          Security
 Install                                          Operations
                                                  Manager
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager for         Security          Security
 Applications and                                 Operations
 Databases                                        Manager
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager             Security          Security
 for Client Devices                               Operations
                                                  Manager
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager             Security          Security
 for Network Nodes                                Operations
                                                  Manager
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager for         Security          Security
 Network Security                                 Operations
 Devices                                          Manager
 
Tivoli Security                Tivoli            IBM Tivoli
 Operations Manager             Security          Security
 for Servers                                      Operations
                                                  Manager

                                    PID       Charge unit
Program name                        number    description
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 Install                                       Unit
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 for Applications and Databases                Unit
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 for Client Devices                            Unit
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 for Network Nodes                             Unit
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 for Network Security Devices                  Unit
Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  Resource Value
 for Servers                                   Unit

Charge metrics definitions

Refer to IBM Tivoli Enhanced Value-Based Pricing terminology section in this announcement.

Passport Advantage customer: Media pack entitlement details

Customers with active maintenance or subscription for the products listed are entitled to receive the corresponding media pack.

Security Operations Manager V4.1.0

Entitled maintenance                                   Part
offerings description      Media packs description     number
 
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 Install Resource VU        Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
                            Pack, Multilingual
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 for Apps/DBs Resource VU   Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
                            Pack, Multilingual
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 for Client Devices         Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
 Resource VU                Pack, Multilingual
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 for Network Nodes          Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
 Resource VU                Pack, Multilingual
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 for Network Sec Devices    Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
 Resource VU                Pack, Multilingual
Tivoli Security Ops Mgr    Tivoli Security Operations  BJ0LTML
 for Servers Resource VU    Manager V4.1.0 CD Media
                            Pack, Multilingual

New licensees: Orders for new licenses will be accepted now.

Shipment will begin on the planned availability date.

Basic license

Ordering information for Passport Advantage: Passport Advantage allows you to have a common anniversary date for Software Maintenance renewals, which can simplify management and budgeting for eligible new versions and releases (and related technical support) for your covered products. The anniversary date, established at the start of your Passport Advantage Agreement, will remain unchanged while your Passport Advantage Agreement remains in effect. New software purchases will initially include twelve full months of maintenance coverage. Maintenance in the second year (the first year of renewal) can be prorated to be coterminous with your common anniversary date. Thereafter, all software maintenance will renew at the common anniversary date and include twelve full months of maintenance.

Refer to the IBM International Passport Advantage Agreement and to the IBM Software Maintenance Handbook for specific terms relating to, and a more complete description of, technical support provided through Software Maintenance.

The quantity to be specified for the Passport Advantage part numbers in the following table is per product install plus per number of monitored resources by type. There are four categories of monitored resources. They are network security devices, servers, network nodes, and clients. To order for Passport Advantage, specify the desired part number and quantity.

Passport Advantage program licenses

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager

                                                     Part
Part description                                     number
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager Install
TSOM Install Resource Value Unit                     D61U4LL
 License and SW Maint 12 Mos
TSOM Install Resource Value Unit                     E046WLL
 SW Maint Annual Renew
TSOM Install Resource Value Unit                     D61U5LL
 SW Maint Reinstate
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager for Servers
TSOM Resource Value Unit SW                          D61UFLL
 Maintenance Reinstate 12 Mos
TSOM Servers Resource Value Unit                     D61UELL
 License and SW Maint 12 Mos
TSOM Servers Resource Value Unit                     E0471LL
 SW Maint Annual Renew
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager
 for Network Security Devices
TSOM Network Security Devices Resource               D61TULL
 Value Unit Lic and SW Maint 12 Mos
TSOM Network Security Devices Resource               E046RLL
 Value Unit SW Maint Annual Renew
TSOM Network Security Devices Resource               D61TXLL
 Value Unit SW Maint Reinstate 12 Mos
 
Tivoli Security Operations
 Manager for Network Nodes
TSOM Network Nodes Resource Value                    D61TVLL
 Unit Lic and SW Maint 12 Mos
TSOM Network Nodes Resource Value                    E046SLL
 Unit SW Maint Annual Renew
TSOM Network Nodes Resource Value                    D61TYLL
 Unit SW Maint Reinstate 12 Mos
 
Tivoli Security Operations
 Manager for Client Devices
TSOM Client Devices Resource Value                   D61U2LL
 Unit License and SW Maint 12 Mos
TSOM Client Devices Resource                         E046VLL
 Value Unit SW Maint Annual Renew
TSOM Client Devices Resource Value                   D61U3LL
 Unit SW Maint Reinstate 12 Mos
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager
 for Applications and Databases
TSOM Apps and DBs Resource Value                     E046ULL
 Unit SW Maint Annual Renew
TSOM Apps and DBs Resource Value                     D61U1LL
 Unit SW Maint Reinstate 12 Mos
TSOM Apps and Dbs Resource Value                     D61U0LL
 Unit License and SW Maint 12 Mos

To order a media pack for Passport Advantage, specify the part number in the desired quantity from the following table:

                                                     Part
Description                                          number
 
Tivoli Security Operations Manager                   BJ0LTML
 V4.1.0 CD Media Pack, Multilingual

IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager is also available via Web download from Passport Advantage.
 
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Terms and conditions

The information provided in this announcement letter is for reference and convenience purposes only. The terms and conditions that govern any transaction with IBM are contained in the applicable contract documents such as the IBM International Program License Agreement, IBM International Passport Advantage Agreement, and the IBM Agreement for Acquisition of Software Maintenance.

Licensing: IBM International Program License Agreement including the License Information document and PoE govern your use of the program. PoEs are required for all authorized use.

Part number products only, offered outside of Passport Advantage, where applicable, are license only and do not include Software Maintenance.

This software license includes Software Maintenance, previously referred to as Software Subscription and Technical Support.

License Information form number

                                        Program
Program name                            number    Form number
 
IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager  5724-R05  P-RZHG-76QNEJ

The program's License Information will be available for review on the IBM Software License Agreement Web site

Limited warranty applies: Yes

Warranty: IBM warrants that when the program is used in the specified operating environment, it will conform to its specifications. The warranty applies only to the unmodified portion of the program. IBM does not warrant uninterrupted or error-free operation of the program or that IBM will correct all program defects. You are responsible for the results obtained from the use of the program.

IBM provides you with access to IBM databases containing information on known program defects, defect corrections, restrictions, and bypasses at no additional charge. Consult the IBM Software Support Guide for further information at

IBM will maintain this information for at least one year after the original licensee acquires the program (warranty period).

Program technical support: Technical support of a program product will be available for a minimum of three years from the general availability date, as long as your Software Maintenance is in effect. This technical support allows you to obtain assistance (via telephone or electronic means) from IBM for product-specific, task-oriented questions regarding the installation and operation of the program product. Software Maintenance also provides you with access to updates, releases, and versions of the program. You will be notified, via announcement letter, of discontinuance of support with 12 months' notice. If you require additional technical support from IBM, including an extension of support beyond the discontinuance date, contact your IBM representative or IBM Business Partner. This extension may be available for a fee.

Money-back guarantee: If for any reason you are dissatisfied with the program and you are the original licensee, you may obtain a refund of the amount you paid for it, if within 30 days of your invoice date you return the program and its PoE to the party from whom you obtained it. If you downloaded the program, you may contact the party from whom you acquired it for instructions on how to obtain the refund. For programs acquired under the IBM International Passport Advantage Agreement, this term applies only to your first acquisition of the program.

Authorization for use on home/portable computer: The program may be stored on the primary machine and another machine, provided that the program is not in active use on both machines at the same time. You may not copy and use this program on another computer without paying additional license fees.

Product name
 
IBM Tivoli Security Operations Manager         No

Usage restriction: Yes

For additional information, refer to the License Information Document that is available on the IBM Software License Agreement Web site

International Passport Agreement

Passport Advantage applies: Yes, and through the Passport Advantage Web site at

This product is only available via Passport Advantage. It is not available as shrinkwrap.

Agreement for Acquisition of Software Maintenance: The following agreement applies for maintenance and does not require customer signatures:


    IBM Agreement for Acquisition of Software Maintenance (Z125-6011)

Software Maintenance applies: Yes. Software Maintenance is included with licenses purchased through Passport Advantage and Passport Advantage Express. Product upgrades and technical support are provided by the Software Maintenance offering as described in the Agreements. Product upgrades provide the latest versions and releases to entitled software and technical support provides voice and electronic access to IBM support organizations, worldwide.

IBM includes one year of Software Maintenance with each program license acquired. The initial period of Software Maintenance can be extended by the purchase of a renewal option, if available.

While your Software Maintenance is in effect, IBM provides you assistance for your routine, short duration installation and usage (how-to) questions, and code-related questions. IBM provides assistance via telephone and, if available, electronic access, to your information systems (IS) technical support personnel during the normal business hours (published prime shift hours) of your IBM support center. (This assistance is not available to your end users.) IBM provides Severity 1 assistance 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For additional details, consult your IBM Software Support Guide at

Software Maintenance does not include assistance for the design and development of applications, your use of programs in other than their specified operating environment, or failures caused by products for which IBM is not responsible under the applicable agreements.

For additional information about the International Passport Advantage Agreement and the IBM International Passport Advantage Express Agreement, visit the Passport Advantage Web site at

Volume orders (IVO): No

System i™ Software Maintenance applies: No

Educational allowance available: Not applicable.
 
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Prices

Information on charges is available at Web site

In the Electronic tools category, select the option for "Purchase/upgrade tools".

Passport Advantage

For Passport Advantage information and charges, contact your IBM representative or authorized IBM Business Partner. Additional information is also available at

Business Partner information

If you are an IBM Business Partner — Distributor for Workstation Software acquiring products from IBM, you may link to Passport Advantage Online for resellers where you can obtain Business Partner pricing information. An IBM ID and password are required.


 
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Order now

To order, contact the Americas Call Centers, your local IBM representative, or your IBM Business Partner.

To identify your local IBM representative or IBM Business Partner, call 800-IBM-4YOU (426-4968).

 Phone:      800-IBM-CALL (426-2255)
 Fax:        800-2IBM-FAX (242-6329)
 Internet:   callserv@ca.ibm.com
 Mail:       IBM Teleweb Customer Support
             ibm.com Sales Execution Center, Americas North
             3500 Steeles Ave. East, Tower 3/4
             Markham, Ontario
             Canada
             L3R 2Z1
 
 Reference:  YE001

The Americas Call Centers, our national direct marketing organization, can add your name to the mailing list for catalogs of IBM products.

Note: Shipments will begin after the planned availability date.

Trademarks

 
AIX 5L, System p5, System p, System z, and System i are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Tivoli, Passport Advantage, DB2, POWERparallel, and PartnerWorld are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation.
 
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
 
Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 
UNIX is a registered trademark of the Open Company in the United States and other countries.
 
Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries or both.
 
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

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