IBM United States
Software Announcement 201-331
November 13, 2001

IBM Parallel Environment V3.2 Enhanced for AIX 5L with New Performance Analysis Tools

 ENUS201-331.PDF (88KB)

(Corrected on January 30, 2002)

In Ordering Information, under Current Licenses section, the first sentence was delete. Software Maintenance (5771-PAE - 5773-PAE) section under Existing Customers of Parallel Environment, replaced with new information.

(Corrected on December 10, 2001)

Text was added "but not for 64-bit kernel" everywhere 64-bit applications or 64-bit executables was found.

(Corrected on November 26, 2001)

Supplemental section, Direct Customer Support section -- first sentence deleted.

At a Glance

Parallel Environment V3.2 is designed to contain a rich set of functional enhancements , including:

  • New Parallel Environment Benchmarker Tools
  • Improved parallel checkpointing capabilities
  • Support for 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel
  • MPI enhancements, including additional command for starting MPI jobs, MPI-IO performance enhancements, extended collective communication, C++ and Fortran 90 support, and MPI-2 external interfaces support
  • LAPI included in program package

Additional V3.2 changes:

  • Parallel Environment now supports and requires AIX 5L V5.1.
  • The Dynamic Probe Class Library, shipped with Parallel Environment, is now an open source offering.
  • The pedb debugger has been removed ( pdbx parallel debugger is still supported).

Overview

IBM Parallel Environment for AIX® 5L Version 3, Release 2 (V3.2) is a high-function development and execution environment for parallel applications using either the IBM e(logo)server Cluster 1600, RS/6000® SP™ system, or one or more clustered IBM e(logo)server pSeries or RS/6000 servers.

Parallel Environment V3.2 Functional Enhancements

  • New Parallel Environment Benchmarker Tools — A new suite of applications and utilities that you can use to analyze the performance of programs.
  • Improved parallel checkpointing capabilities are designed to allow:
    • You to initiate a checkpoint sequence explicitly by issuing the new command poeckpt.
    • You to restart a Parallel Operating Environment (POE) job using a checkpoint file.
    • A single task in a parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI) or Low-Level Application Programming Interface (LAPI) job to initiate a checkpoint sequence.
    • A system administrator or LoadLeveler® to initiate a checkpoint sequence.
  • Support for 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel — The tools that are provided with Parallel Environment, as well as the MPI threads library, have been enhanced to support 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel on 64-bit processors.
  • MPI enhancements:
    • Additional command for starting MPI jobs
    • MPI-IO performance
    • Extended collective communication
    • C++ and Fortran 90 support
    • MPI-2 external interfaces support
Parallel Environment V3.2 Changes
  • Now supports and requires AIX 5L V5.1.
  • The Dynamic Probe Class Library (DPCL), shipped with Parallel Environment, is now an open source offering.
  • LAPI is now packaged with Parallel Environment V3.2.
  • The pedb debugger command is no longer available. The pdbx parallel debugger is still supported for debugging your parallel applications.
  • The VT trace facility has been replaced by the more robust tracing capabilities of the new Parallel Environment Benchmarker suite of tools.

Key Prerequisites

  • AIX 5L V5.1 operating system, or later
  • For Cluster 1600, including SP systems, and clusters requiring Parallel Systems Support Program (PSSP): PSSP 3.4.0, or later
  • Appropriate levels of Fortran, C or C++ compilers

Planned Availability Date

December 7, 2001

Description

Parallel Environment V3.2 Enhancements

New Parallel Environment Benchmarker Tools: This release of Parallel Environment contains a new suite of applications and utilities that you can use to analyze the performance of programs. This suite of tools is called Parallel Environment Benchmarker and contains:

  • The Performance Collection Tool designed to enable you to collect either:
    • Message Passing Interface (MPI) and user event data, or
    • Hardware and operating system profiles

    for one or more application processes. This tool is built on dynamic instrumentation technology (the Dynamic Probe Class Library (DPCL)) which enables you to make the decision on what data to collect at run time. Probes are placed in the running executable to collect just the requested information. This ability typically results in a more acceptable intrusion cost than you would have with more traditional styles of instrumentation.

  • A set of Unified Trace Environment (UTE) utilities for converting one or more AIX trace files (as output by the Performance Collection Tool) into UTE interval files. Additional UTE utilities are designed to enable you to:
    • Generate statistics tables from UTE interval files.
    • Convert UTE interval files into a single SLOG file. You can analyze a SLOG file using Jumpshot (a public domain tool developed by Argonne National Laboratory).
  • The Profile Visualization Tool for viewing hardware and operating system profiles collected by the Performance Collection Tool.

Improved Parallel Checkpointing Capabilities: This release of Parallel Environment is designed to include more flexible parallel checkpoint/restart capabilities. In previous releases, only Parallel Operating Environment (POE)/MPI applications submitted under LoadLeveler in batch mode could be checkpointed, with significant limitations. What's more, a checkpoint sequence could be initiated only by all tasks in the parallel MPI program. In this release, Parallel Environment's checkpointing capabilities have been extended to allow:

  • A user to initiate a checkpoint sequence explicitly by issuing the new command poeckpt. Another new command, poerestart, enables a user to restart a POE job using a checkpoint file.
  • A single task in a parallel MPI or Low-Level Application Programming Interface (LAPI) job to initiate a checkpoint sequence. It is no longer necessary for all tasks in the job to call checkpointing functions.
  • A system administrator or LoadLeveler to initiate a checkpoint sequence.
  • Threads and shared libraries.

Also, many significant limitations of the checkpointing capabilities have been removed, and the checkpointing compiler scripts (mpcc_chkpt, for example) are no longer used.

MPI Enhancements: With this release, Parallel Environment MPI is designed to provide all of the functions in the MPI standard, except for the functionality defined in "Process Creation and Management" chapter of MPI-2.

Additional Command for Starting MPI Jobs

While you can continue to use the poe command to start MPI jobs, this release of Parallel Environment is designed to provide support for the mpiexec command described in the MPI-2 standard. This command is not meant to replace the poe command. Instead, it is provided as a portable way to start MPI programs, and should prove helpful for applications that target multiple implementations of MPI.

Support for 64-bit Applications, but not for 64-bit Kernel

Certain architectures that Parallel Environment supports, such as POWER3 SMP High Node, POWER3 SMP Thin Node, POWER3 Wide Node, and POWER4 nodes, can run applications using a 64-bit address space. Accordingly, the tools that are provided with Parallel Environment, as well as the MPI threads library, have been enhanced to support 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel on 64-bit processors.

MPI-IO Performance Enhancements

To improve the performance of IBM's implementation of MPI-IO, a variety of optimizations have been made to this release of Parallel Environment. For example, two new POE environment variable/command-line flag pairs and one new file hint have been added. The two new POE environment variable/command-line flag pairs are the:

  • MP_IO_BUFFER_SIZE environment variable (-io_buffer_size flag), which enables you to set the default size of buffers used by I/O agents
  • MP_IO_ERRLOG environment variable (-io_errlog flag), which enables you to log errors that occurred at the file system level throughout the MPI-IO application run

The new file hint, IBM_sparse_access, enables you to specify whether the file access requests from participating tasks are sparse or dense.

Extended Collective Communications

This release provides the MPI_IN_PLACE and intercommunicator semantic that MPI-2 has added to a number of MPI 1.1 collective communication subroutines. The new subroutines, MPI_ALLTOALLW and MPI_EXSCAN, are also provided. The nonblocking collective subroutines, which have a prefix of MPE_I, are not enhanced.

C++ and Fortran 90 Support

This release provides the C++ bindings described by MPI-2. C++ programmers can now use Parallel Environment MPI more naturally, as they no longer need to use the C bindings. The nonblocking collective subroutines, which have a prefix of MPE_I, are not enhanced for C++. Fortran 90 programs can now use the MPI module in place of mpif.h.

MPI-2 External Interfaces Support

With this release, Parallel Environment now provides full support of MPI-2 external interfaces in the MPI threads library. This support enables you to layer additional functionality on top of MPI with an interface that is similar to MPI's.

Miscellaneous MPI-2 Enhancements

Some of the functions included in the "Miscellany" chapter of MPI-2 were provided in prior releases of Parallel Environment. This release provides the rest of these miscellaneous functions.

LAPI Now Packaged with Parallel Environment: The LAPI, previously packaged only with Parallel Systems Support Program (PSSP), is now also shipped with Parallel Environment, for use on stand-alone RS/6000 workstations, where fileset ssp.css is not installed. For RS/6000 SP installations, LAPI will continue to be installed from PSSP as part of ssp.css.

The LAPI library provided with Parallel Environment supports the LAPI shared memory execution model only. This model is meant for applications that execute on the same node, to take advantage of the efficient shared memory protocol, rather than the SP switch adapter.

The following are enhancements to LAPI shared memory execution model:

  • There is a new generic version of the LAPI_Amsend function without restrictions on the types of buffers used.
  • There are multiple completion handler threads for better exploitation of large SMP systems.
  • LAPI now has 64-bit support.
  • Shared memory support has been added. This provides the ability to run LAPI programs without a switch when running on only one SMP machine (LAPI_USE_SHM=only).

Dynamic Probe Class Library (DPCL) Now an Open Source Offering: The DPCL is no longer a part of the IBM Parallel Environment for AIX licensed program, but it is still shipped with Parallel Environment for convenience. Instead, DPCL is now available as an open source offering that supports Parallel Environment. For more information on the DPCL open source project, visit:

Removal of pedb Debugger Support: Parallel Environment V3.2 no longer includes the pedb parallel debugger. As a result, the pedb command is no longer available. The pdbx parallel debugger, however, is still supported; use it instead of pedb to debug your parallel applications.

Removal of Visualization Trace (VT) Trace Collection Support: Parallel Environment V3.2 no longer supports the parallel trace collection facility formerly used by the Parallel Environment VT (which was removed from Parallel Environment in R3.1). Because the usefulness of examining these traces independent of VT is limited, the VT trace facility has been replaced by the more robust tracing capabilities of the new Parallel Environment Benchmarker suite of tools.

Commands No Longer Supported: Beginning with this release, Parallel Environment no longer supports the following commands (Checkpointing is automatically available using the standard scripts):

  • mpcc_chkpt
  • mpCC_chkpt
  • mpxlf_chkpt
  • mpxlf90_chkpt
  • mpxlf95_chkpt
  • pedb

Accessibility by People with Disabilities

For Software Offerings

The following features support use by people with disabilities:

  • Operation by keyboard alone

Euro Currency

This program is not impacted by euro currency.

Product Positioning

Parallel Environment is a must for IBM e(logo)server Cluster 1600, including SP, customers who develop, debug, analyze, tune, and execute parallel C/C++ and Fortran applications that use the industry-standard MPI.

Parallel Environment is IBM's strategic high-function development and execution environment for parallel applications using either the pSeries or RS/6000 servers or SP systems. Parallel Environment is designed to exploit SMP nodes as well as threaded applications and the MPI message passing API, and is now available on AIX 5L. Parallel Environment V3.2 is also supported on the new pSeries p690 in Switch-less stand-alone mode.

Parallel Environment V3.2 tool and MPI Threads libraries now support 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel

Trademarks

 
pSeries is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
 
SP and the e-business logo are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
AIX, RS/6000, and LoadLeveler are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

Product Description

The Parallel Environment for AIX® 5L program product is a complete environment designed for developing and executing parallel Fortran, C, or C++ programs. Parallel Environment consists of components and tools for developing, executing, debugging, profiling, and tuning parallel programs.

The Parallel Environment is a distributed memory message passing system. It runs on the IBM e(logo)server pSeries, IBM e(logo)server Cluster 1600, or RS/6000® platform using the AIX 5L V5.1 operating system. Specifically, you can use the Parallel Environment to execute parallel programs on:

  • Any configuration of the RS/6000 SP™ as described in the IBM Parallel System Support Programs for AIX: Installation and Migration Guide on:

    Essentially, an SP system is a collection of RS/6000 processors grouped into a number of frames.

  • Cluster 1600 with PSSP 3.4 on each element in the cluster.

  • A networked cluster of pSeries or RS/6000 processors, including a single processor or a single server.

  • A mixed IBM system. In a mixed IBM system, additional pSeries or RS/6000 processors supplement the processors of an SP system.

  • The new pSeries p690 in Switch-less stand-alone mode.

The pSeries or RS/6000 processors of your system are called processor nodes. If you are using a Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) system, it is important to know that, although an SMP node has more than one processing unit, it is still considered, and referred to as, a processor node.

A parallel program executes as a number of individual, but related, parallel tasks on a number of your system's processor nodes. The group of parallel tasks is called a partition (not to be confused with an LPAR partition). The processor nodes are connected on the same LAN, so the parallel tasks of your partition can communicate to exchange data or synchronize execution. If you are using an SP system:

  • Your system may have an optional high performance switch for communication. The switch increases the speed of communication between nodes. It supports a high volume of message passing with increased bandwidth and low latency.
  • Your system administrator can divide its nodes into separate pools. A LoadLeveler® system pool is a subset of processor nodes and is given an identifying pool name or number.

Parallel Environment supports the two basic parallel programming models — Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) and Multiple Program Multiple Data (MPMD). In the SPMD model, the programs running the parallel tasks of your partition are identical. The tasks, however, work on different sets of data. In the MPMD model, each task may be running a different program. A typical example of this is the master/worker MPMD program. In a master/worker program, one task, the master, coordinates the execution of all the others — the workers.

Note: While the remainder of this introduction describes each of the Parallel Environment components and tools in relation to a specific phase of an application's life cycle, this does not imply that they are limited to one phase. They are ordered this way for descriptive purposes only; you will find many of the tools useful across an application's entire life cycle. The application developer begins by creating a parallel program's source code. The application developer might create this program from scratch or could modify an existing serial program. In either case, the developer places calls to Message Passing Interface (MPI) or Low-level Application Programming Interface (LAPI) routines so that it can run as a number of parallel tasks. This is known as parallelizing the application.

The MPI has some similarity with the Message Passing Library (MPL) from an earlier version of Parallel Environment, but complies with an industry standard and is much more versatile. MPI provides message passing capabilities for the current version of Parallel Environment. There are two libraries for MPI:

  • Signal handling — which uses UNIX® signals and signal handlers, and supports 32-bit applications only
  • Threaded — which uses and supports POSIX user threads, and both 32-bit and 64-bit applications, but not for 64-bit kernel

All tasks of a program must use either the signal handling or the threaded library, but not a combination of each. MPL programs are still supported for 32-bit, non-threaded applications only. The message passing calls enable the parallel tasks of your partition to communicate data and coordinate their execution. The message passing routines, in turn, call communication subsystem library routines which handle communication among the tasks of a job. There are two separate implementations of the communication subsystem library — the Internet Protocol (IP) Communication Subsystem and the User Space (US) Communication Subsystem. While the message passing application interface remains the same, the communication subsystem libraries use different protocols for communication among tasks of a job. The IP communication subsystem uses Internet Protocol, while the US communication subsystem is designed for the SP system's high performance switch feature. The communication subsystem library implementations are dynamically loaded when you invoke the program. For more information on the message passing subroutine calls, refer to IBM Parallel Environment for AIX: MPI Subroutine Reference, IBM Parallel Environment for AIX: MPL Programming and Subroutine Reference, and IBM Parallel Environment for AIX: Hitchhiker's Guide.

In addition to MPI message passing communication, the Parallel Environment supports a separate communication protocol known as the Low-level Application Programming Interface. LAPI differs from MPI in that it is based on an "active message style" mechanism that provides a one-sided communications model. That is, one process initiates an operation and the completion of that operation does not require any other process to take a complementary action.

LAPI is designed and optimized to use the SP Switch or SP Switch2 communication fabric available with the Cluster 1600. However, it may also be used on a stand-alone (not clustered) pSeries server when all tasks (processes) are on the same server. In this case, it uses shared memory to communicate between tasks.

Although LAPI can be used for data communication in conjunction with Parallel Environment, it is actually part of the communication subsystem for IBM Parallel System Support Programs (PSSP). For more information on LAPI, refer to IBM Parallel System Support Programs for AIX: Administration Guide, and IBM Parallel System Support Programs for AIX: Command and Technical Reference on:

After writing the parallel program, the application developer then begins a cycle of modification and testing. The application developer now compiles and runs his program from his home node using the Parallel Operating Environment (POE). The home node is any workstation on the LAN. POE is an execution environment designed to hide, or at least smooth, the differences between serial and parallel execution.

To assist with node allocation for job management, LoadLeveler provides resource management function both on and off the SP system. You can run parallel programs on a cluster of processor nodes running LoadLeveler, or on a mixed system of LoadLeveler processor nodes that supplement an SP system. LoadLeveler not only provides SP node allocation for jobs using the US communication subsystem, but also provides management for non-SP nodes, or for SP nodes being used for jobs other than User Space. LoadLeveler can also be used for POE batch jobs. Refer to the IBM LoadLeveler documentation for more information on this job management system.

In general, with POE, you invoke a parallel program from your home node and run its parallel tasks on a number of remote nodes. When you invoke a program on your home node, POE starts your Partition Manager which allocates the nodes of your partition and initializes the local environment. Depending on your hardware and configuration, the Partition Manager uses a host list file, LoadLeveler, or both a host list file and LoadLeveler to allocate nodes. A host list file contains an explicit list of node requests, while LoadLeveler can allocate nodes from one or more system pools implicitly based on their availability.

When using LoadLeveler, POE provides an option to enable you to specify whether your program will use MPI, LAPI, or both. Using this option, POE checks that each API initializes properly and informs LoadLeveler which APIs are used so each node is set up completely.

For SPMD applications, the Partition Manager executes the same program for all tasks. For MPMD applications, the Partition Manager prompts you for the name of the program to load for each task. The Partition Manager also connects standard input/output (I/O) to each remote task so the parallel tasks can communicate with the home node. Although you are running tasks on remote nodes, POE allows you to continue using the standard UNIX and AIX execution techniques with which you are already familiar. For example, you can redirect input and output, pipe the output of programs, or use shell tools. The POE includes:

  • A number of parallel compiler scripts. These are shell scripts that call the C, C++, or Fortran compilers while also linking in an interface library to enable communication between your home node and the parallel tasks running on the remote nodes. You dynamically link in a communication subsystem implementation when you invoke the executable.
  • A number of POE environment variables you can use to set up your execution environment. These are AIX environment variables you can set to influence the operation of POE. These environment variables control such things as how processor nodes are allocated, what programming model you are using, and how standard I/O between the home node and the parallel tasks should be handled. Most of the POE environment variables also have associated command-line flags that enable you to temporarily override the environment variable value when invoking POE and your parallel program.
  • The Program Marker Array. This is a programmable array of small boxes, or lights, which are associated with parallel tasks. Under program control, these lights can change color to provide you with immediate visual feedback as your program executes.

The following tools are discussed in IBM Parallel Environment for AIX: Operation and Use, Volume 2 on:

and allow you to debug and tune parallel programs.

  • The parallel debugging facility is pdbx — a line-oriented debugger based on the dbx debugger.

    Once the parallel program is debugged, you now want to tune the program for optimal performance. To do this, you turn to the Parallel Environment parallel profiling capability to analyze the program.

  • The parallel profiling capability enables you to use the Parallel Environment Xprofiler GUI, as well as the AIX commands prof and gprof on parallel programs. Xprofiler is a tool that helps you analyze your parallel application's performance quickly and easily. It uses procedure profiling information to construct a graphical display of the functions within your application. Xprofiler enables quick access to the profiled data, which lets you identify the functions that are the most CPU-intensive. The GUI also enables you to manipulate the display in order to focus on the application's critical areas.

Details of Parallel Environment V3.2 enhancements and changes may be found in the Description section of this announcement.

Offering Information

Product information is available through Offering Information (OITOOL) at:

Publications

The following publications are on the media in HTML and PDF formats, and can also be printed from the Resource Center CD-ROM.

                                                  Publication
Title                                             Number
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 GA22-7418
 Installation Guide
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 GA22-7419
 Messages
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 SA22-7422
 MPI Programming Guide
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 SA22-7423
 MPI Subroutine Reference
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 SA22-7424
 Hitchhikers Guide
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 SA22-7425
 Operation and Use Vol. 1, Using
 the Parallel Operating Environment
 
IBM Parallel Environment for AIX:                 SA22-7426
 Operation and Use Vol. 2, Tools
 Reference

These publications may also be viewed at:

Copies may be ordered at:

(Specify country, then search on PARALLEL ENVIRONMENT.)

Displayable Softcopy Publications

On the same medium as the Parallel Environment product code, IBM ships Parallel Environment manual pages, HTML files, and PDF files. In order to use these publications, you must first install the appropriate fileset: ppe.html, ppe.pdf, or ppe.man.

To view the Parallel Environment HTML publications, you need access to an HTML document browser such as Netscape. The HTML files and an index that links to them are installed in the /usr/lpp/ppe.html directory. Once installed, you can also view the HTML files from the RS/6000 SP Resource Center.

To view the Parallel Environment PDF publications, you need access to the Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0.1. The Acrobat Reader is shipped with the AIX 5L V5.1 Bonus Pack and is also freely available for downloading from the Adobe Web site at:

Technical Information

Specified Operating Environment

Hardware Requirements

  • pSeries (including new p690 in Switch-less stand-alone mode only), Cluster 1600, RS/6000 servers, or RS/6000 SP systems supported by AIX 5L.
  • When used on the RS/6000 SP or Cluster 1600, one control workstation is required. The control workstation must be operational prior to the SP or cluster installation. It also must be operational before the customer service representative for the SP or cluster is called for maintenance.

Software Requirements

  • AIX 5L V5.1, (5765-E61), with APAR IY21957 (PTF U480124), or later.
  • PSSP V3.4 (5765-D51), when running on a Cluster 1600, including SP system. PSSP is not required when Parallel Environment is used on a stand-alone or independently managed cluster of RS/6000 servers.
  • XL Fortran, V7.1.0.2, or later, if Fortran programs are to be run.
  • If User Space batch or interactive jobs are to be submitted under Parallel Environment, then LoadLeveler V3.1 (5765-E69) is required. Minimal support for a customer-supplied scheduler is provided through sample code.
  • At least one concurrent use license of C for AIX compiler or C++ compiler installed on the SP/server complex that includes the control workstation. It should be the version supported by the operating system on the nodes. For compatibility with Parallel Environment V3.1, currently available versions include:
    • VisualAge® C++ Professional for AIX V5.0.2.0 (5765-D52), or later, which contains C for AIX, V5.

    Parallel Environment does not support the IBM VisualAge C++ Professional for AIX incremental compiler.

  • Parallel Environment Benchmarker requires Java™ Runtime Environment V1.3.
  • APAR IY25073 is required if Parallel Environment V3.2 Benchmarker hardware counters are to be used on a p690.

Compatibility: Parallel Environment V3.2 is a functional enhancement of Parallel Environment V3.1, with support for AIX 5L V5.1 only. Parallel Environment V3.1 will remain orderable for the AIX V4.3.3 operating system platform. The end of service date for Parallel Environment V3.1 is not affected by this announcement.

Programs compiled with prior versions of Parallel Environment using shared library support are binary compatible. That is, executables built using Parallel Environment V2.1, V2.2, V2.3, V2.4, and V3.1 will run correctly with Parallel Environment V3.2.

Applications compiled with XL High Performance Fortran for AIX, V1.3.1 (5765-612) will be supported by the Parallel Environment for AIX, V3.2 MPI Signals Library.

Parallel ESSL for AIX, V2.3 (5765-C41) supports the Parallel Environment for AIX, V3.2 MPI Signals Library and the MPI Threaded library.

Limitations: Support for the Checkpoint/Restart function will be available by PTF in the future. Refer to APARs IY24116 and IY24117 for information on availability and support of this function.

When Parallel Environment is used with the SP system, Parallel Environment jobs can only run in a PSSP system partition that has all of its nodes at the same PSSP level.

In a particular PSSP system partition, IBM Parallel Environment for AIX V3.2 requires PSSP V3.4.

LAPI programs cannot be run on RS/6000 clusters or on the High Performance Switch. LAPI only supports the SP Switch or the SP Switch2, or single stand-alone servers using shared memory. The following are the requirements and limitations for using LAPI shared memory on a stand-alone server:

  • The environment variable LAPI_USE_SHM must be set to "only" (it is case insensitive). LAPI only uses the shared memory mechanism and an error message is returned if all tasks are not on the same node or shared memory setup is not successful.
  • The maximum number of tasks supported on a node is 32.
  • The shared memory transport mechanism can only be used in the POE environment.
  • The User Space protocol is not supported in this environment, on a stand-alone RS/6000. If LoadLeveler is explicitly used (using MP_RESD/-resd set to "yes"), or implicitly specified (with MP_RMPOOL/-rmpool or MP_LLFILE/-llfile), MP_EUILIB/-euilib must be set to "IP" for interactive jobs, and the #@network statement in the LoadLeveler job command file must specify IP for batch jobs, or interactive jobs that use MP_LLFILE/-llfile.
  • The execution environment must be set up so that all tasks run on the same node.

The non-threaded MPI library was functionally stabilized with the general availability of Parallel Environment V3.1, and no new functionality in the non-threaded library beyond that provided in the initial general availability of Parallel Environment V3.1 is provided.

The following features are supported only in the threaded MPI library:

  • Checkpoint/Restart
  • 64-bit executables, but not for 64-bit kernel
  • MPI-2
  • LAPI

Because MPL is in only the non-threaded library, continued use of MPL is incompatible with exploiting MPI enhancements.

The following table summarizes the limits on the total number of tasks in a parallel job and the maximum number of tasks on a node (operating system image). If two limits are listed, the most restrictive limit applies.

                                        Total          Tasks
Protocol                                Task           per Node
Library        Switch/Adapter           Limit          Limit
 
IP             any                      1024           32
IP             any                      2048           16
 
User Space     SP Switch/any            1024           4
User Space     SP Switch2/Switch2       4096           16
User Space     SP Switch2/PCI           4096           32

Support on the IBM e(logo)server p690 is initially limited to non-PSSP clusters of servers with a maximum of 16 operating system images and an aggregate of 128 processors.

Planning Information

Customer Responsibilities: When ordering Parallel Environment for an RS/6000 SP system, you may order copies for a sub-set of the total nodes of your SP system based on your requirements. In estimating your license requirements, you will want to take into consideration the number of jobs that may be concurrently running, and the number of nodes that those jobs will be collectively using. The number of copies to be ordered should be the predetermined number of total nodes to be enabled with Parallel Environment, and, thus, the maximum number of nodes on which the Parallel Environment could run.

For all processors and servers within or attached to an RS/6000 SP or any cluster of servers, the same release level of the Parallel Environment software is required.

On the RS/6000 SP system with SP Switch, a function of PSSP called system partitioning is available. When using PSSP system partitioning, sets of nodes within one partition are not able to communicate with nodes in other partitions across the SP Switch. Normally, nodes within a partition can be at different software levels. However, nodes running Parallel Environment must be at a consistent level of software within a system partition. In general, a single Parallel Environment application will not be able to communicate across system partitions (with the exception of an Internet Protocol job using a hostlist file and all partitions are at the same software level.)

Direct Customer Support: Direct customer support in the form of Software Maintenance is now included in the price of each product in this announcement, for one year from date of acquisition. Additional one-year and three-year renewal options are available under the new IBM Agreement for Acquisition of Support (Z125-6011), and The Addendum for Support (Software Maintenance) for Select iSeries and pSeries Programs (Z125-6495).

For information regarding Software Maintenance, call 800-IBM-4YOU (426-4968) or visit:

Eligible customers can obtain installation and usage assistance from the AIX Support Family line at 800-225-5249.

To obtain customer eligibility and registration procedures, contact the appropriate support center.

Packaging: Parallel Environment Program Package is distributed in one package with the following:

  • IBM International Program License Agreement (IPLA) in multilingual booklet and its License Information (LI)
  • Proof of Entitlement (PoE)
  • One CD-ROM containing the Parallel Environment product

Security, Auditability, and Control

The announced program uses the security features of the AIX 5L V5.1 operating system. No additional security enhancements are included in this announcement.

The customer is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.

Ordering Information

Parallel Environment is a product that has one charge unit: Authorizations. These are available in order quantities of 1 — 5, 6 — 10, 11 — 50, and greater than 50.

Note: Charge units for SP-based products are based on nodes; charge units for workstations and servers are based on the number of physical installations of the product (for example, installation on a system or LPAR partition). The number of authorizations desired should be based on each installation of the product.

Software Maintenance information

Description

IBM Software Maintenance (IBM Agreement for Acquisition of Support (Z125-6011), and The Addendum for Support (Software Maintenance) for Select iSeries and pSeries Programs (Z125-6495)), is a one-year or three-year contract offering that enables you to maintain software product version and release currency, with voice support during normal business hours included at no additional charge for the first year, for selected AIX and UNIX-based software products at a predetermined cost. One year of Software Maintenance is included in the price of the original license. For products participating in IBM Software Maintenance, you can receive all software product version and release upgrades and voice support, announced during the contract period. If you allow either the one-year or three-year software maintenance offering to expire without renewal, there will be a "Maintenance-After-License" option to enable reinstatement in the IBM Software Maintenance offering, on a product-by-product basis.

The following is general information regarding the Software Maintenance Offering being announced:

Structure

  • Each eligible licensed software program will include one year of Software Maintenance (Software Subscription and Technical Support) in the price of the license.
  • A one-year and three-year prepay option (represented by two separate machine type/models) associated with each eligible licensed program.
  • The Software Maintenance machine type/models will have the same pricing structure as the license machine type/models they are associated with.
  • Each one-year and three-year Software Maintenance PID will have three sets of feature numbers for each priced entity:
    • A no-charge registration feature for the one-year contracts and a two-year priced feature (since the first year is included in the price of that license) for the three-year contracts
    • A renewal feature of one or three years
    • A Software "Maintenance-After-License" charge for customers who want to renew, but have lapsed coverage
  • The Software Maintenance order generated for this product will be a new order and have a new starting/ending period, separate from the one for the license already in effect.

Definition of Software Upgrade

An upgrade is either a new version (3.x.x to 4.x.x) or a new release (x.3.x to x.4.x) of an IBM program announced as eligible for which you enrolled under the IBM Software Maintenance. Software Maintenance entitles you to future upgrades from only the latest announced version or release of an available eligible product.

Upgrades do not include programs sold separately from the enrolled program, but enhance the performance of that program, or are considered add-ons or utilities. Programs that perform the same functions as the enrolled program but are installed on a non-AIX platform are not considered upgrades.

Note: Software preventative maintenance releases x.x.1 to x.x.2 (modification level changes, updates, or refreshes) are released under the one-year or three-year maintenance program numbers, but only when a supply feature has been announced. Supply features are only announced under the one-year and three-year options when there is an announced version/release change against the original program product. No-charge preventative maintenance releases should be obtained by Software Maintenance customers in the same manner as non-Software Maintenance customers.

Example: Product A is offered under IBM Software Maintenance and three months later PTFs are incorporated into the program package. This is considered an update that would not be obtained under the one-year or three-year maintenance program numbers under the IBM Software Maintenance offering. Using the same example above, three months after the PTFs were incorporated into the program package, IBM announced a new version of product A. At that time, a supply feature is announced for product A under the one-year and three-year maintenance program numbers. This allows customers who are entitled either by purchase or when the first year of maintenance is included with the license, of either the one-year or three-year maintenance offering for product A, to order the upgrade under the one-year or three-year offering.

IBM may announce a product that can be substituted for an enrolled product. This product is neither a new version, a new release, nor a preventative maintenance release of that enrolled product. In most cases, this product has a different architecture, more function, and a higher license charge than the enrolled product. IBM may provide those customers enrolled in the IBM Software Maintenance offering access to this product at a discounted rate. The terms of this transaction will be included in the new product announcement.

Note: IBM will not offer stand-alone upgrades as a standard product offering. Stand-alone upgrades to this product/release, and its future versions and releases, will be considered only on a special request basis by IBM. Contract Duration

The IBM Software Maintenance contracts are on a product-by-product basis and are offered for one or three years. One year of Software Maintenance is included with the purchase of a new license for the product. The three-year prepay option covers two additional years of coverage since the first year is included in the product license. The three-year prepay option can be purchased at the same time a license for an eligible product is purchased. Refunds do not apply if cancellation occurs during the one- or three-year contract period. Customers are not required to renew under either the one- or three-year offering when the contract expires, but will need to use the Maintenance-After-License option should they let the contract expire and want to acquire a new version or release of an eligible product. If the one- or three-year contracts aren't renewed, the one- or three- year contracts will be removed from IBM administrative systems. Contract transfer within an enterprise are allowed.

Payment Options

Customers enroll in the plan at a reduced "Initial" price at the same time a new license for an eligible program product is purchased. Customers can also enroll in the plan after purchase of a new license for an eligible program product is purchased, but must purchase the "Maintenance-After-License" option.

Software Maintenance Prices

The IBM Software Maintenance program prices are based on the published price of the software program at the time of the contract preparation.

Minimum Contract Value: None

Notification of Upgrade Availability and Offering

Changes are currently underway to the Web server where customers will register for e-mail notifications when Software Maintenance products are upgraded. Availability of this service is expected first quarter 2002. The Software Maintenance component of the Web server will be found at:

Ordering Information

A customer ordering a new license for Parallel Environment licensed program (5765-D93) must include a one-year (5771-PAE) or a three-year (5773-PAE) maintenance order to be entitled to future version or release updates of the licensed program. Not only will customers be entitled to future version or release updates, this new offering includes a year of voice support at no additional costs. Customers entering a one-year or three-year Software Maintenance offering for Parallel Environment should specify machine type/model 5771-PAE or 5773-PAE. After selecting the one-year or three-year machine type/model, customers should add the applicable billing features with quantity equal to the number of licenses in the contract.

Program Name: Parallel Environment V3.2

New users of Parallel Environment for AIX V3 should specify machine type 5765, model D93, asset feature number 9001, the appropriate Parallel Environment V3.1 for AIX V4 or Parallel Environment V3.2 for AIX 5L Medium feature number, and the appropriate one-time charge (OTC) feature number in quantity equal to the total number of desired licenses to be installed times the quantity of authorizations.

For example:

  • If ordering Parallel Environment V3.2 for 12 AIX 5L nodes , order the feature number for Order-Type Description 11 to 50 Authorizations with a quantity of 12, and Medium feature number 5809.
  • If ordering Parallel Environment V3.1 for 12 AIX V4 nodes , order the feature number for Order-Type Description 11 to 50 Authorizations with a quantity of 12, and Medium feature number 5000.

                                            OTC       Medium
Order-Type                     Machine      Feature   Feature
Description                    Type/Model   Number    Number   Medium
 
Parallel Environment V3.1 for AIX V4
 
 1 to  5 Authorizations        5765-D93     0001      5000     CD-ROM
 6 to 10 Authorizations                     0002
11 to 50 Authorizations                     0003
51 or greater Authorizations                0004
 
Parallel Environment V3.2 for AIX V5
 
 1 to  5 Authorizations        5765-D93     0001      5809     CD-ROM
 6 to 10 Authorizations                     0002
11 to 50 Authorizations                     0003
51 or greater Authorizations                0004

Upgrades: Upgrades are no longer offered. Refer to the Software Maintenance section below.

Software Subscription for AIX 5692-SSO

Customers who purchased protection for Parallel Environment V3.1 for AIX, under Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) are entitled to receive Parallel Environment for AIX 5L V3.2 at no charge (NC). Eligible customers should add CD media supply feature number 0591 under their existing 5692-SSO record. Parallel Environment V3.2 for AIX is offered on CD-ROM media only.

Software Maintenance is NOT included with licenses or medium obtained via Software Subscription upgrade. Support Line contracts will be honored until their expiration. Customers who obtain Parallel Environment V3.2 under SSO upgrade from Parallel Environment V3.1 MAY optionally purchase One-Year or Three-Year Software Maintenance. Customers wishing to do so should place an order for 5771-PAE (One-Year) or 5773-PAE (Three-Year) and specify the desired Authorizations feature number from the RENEWAL column in the tables in the Software Maintenance section below.

                              5692-SSO
                              Eligible            Medium
                              Billing             Supply
Order-Type                    Feature             Feature
Description                   ASC(1)              CD-ROM
 
From 5765-D93 V3.1                                0591
 to 5765-D93 V3.2
 
 1 to 5 Authorizations        6466 6470 6471
 6 to 10 Authorizations       6467 6636 6637
11 to 50 Authorizations       6468 6638 6639
51 or More Authorizations     6469 6640 6641

1
ASC = Annual Support Charge, and denotes billing features that customer must have previously purchased in order to receive this upgrade at NC. The billing features must currently be on a customer's record as proof of eligibility.

Current Licensees

Current licensees of Parallel Environment V3.1 who do not have an active AIX Software Subscription or AIX/UNIX Upgrade Protection contract can order an upgrade to Parallel Environment V3.2 by contacting their IBM representative or IBM reseller and requesting an order be placed for either the one year (5771-PAE) or three year (5773-PAE) Maintenance and specifying the appropriate After-License feature and supply feature from the table below.

Software Maintenance (5771-PAE or 5773-PAE)

Software Subscription for AIX is no longer an offering. The replacement offering is called Software Maintenance.

General Information on Software Maintenance

The Software Maintenance Offering was previously announced (Refer to Software Announcement 201-201 , dated July 10, 2001). The following are some key points from the original announcement.

  • Software Maintenance (defined as Software Subscription and Technical Support) is included with all licenses for a period of one year from the date of acquisition providing a streamlined way to stay current and assure technical support coverage for all licenses. Customers can elect to extend coverage for a total of three years from the date of acquisition. Software maintenance also provides access to current and future software versions and releases, and technical support during the support period.
  • Each eligible licensed software program will include one year of Software Maintenance (Software Subscription and Technical Support) in the price of the license.
  • A one-year and three-year prepay (represented by two separate machine type/models) associated with each eligible licensed program.
  • The Software Maintenance machine type/models will have the same pricing structure as the license machine type/models they are associated with.
  • Each one-year and three-year Software Maintenance PID will have three sets of feature numbers for each priced entity:
    • A NC registration feature for the one-year contracts (The registration features for the three-year contracts are priced for the second and third years only.)
    • A renewal feature of one or three years
    • A Software "Maintenance-After-License" charge for customers who want to renew but have lapsed coverage
  • The Software Maintenance order generated for this will be a new order and have a new starting/ending period, separate from the one for the license already in effect.

The following term differs from the above Software Announcement: Stand-alone upgrades to this product/release, and its future versions and releases, will be considered only on a special request basis from IBM.

Ordering Information for Software Maintenance

Customers With Current Level Program Products

  • Customers with current level program products but without Software Subscription

    Customers with the current level of any of the program products in this announcement, who are interested in IBM Software Maintenance, and do not have an active Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) or Software Upgrade Protection Plan for AIX and UNIX Operating System Based Software (5692-ADV) contract, should select the appropriate feature from the table below.

    • Customers interested in the 1-year Software Maintenance offering for their current level should order the program number 5771-PAE, the appropriate feature number, and quantity under the Maintenance-After-License column to add Software Maintenance coverage for their software licenses.

    • Customers interested in the 3-year Software Maintenance offering for their current level should order the program number 5773-PAE, the appropriate feature number, and quantity under the Maintenance-After-License column to add Software Maintenance coverage for their software licenses.

  • Customers with current level program products and with Software Subscription

    Customers with the current level of any of the program products in this announcement, who are interested in IBM Software Maintenance, and have an active Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) or Software Upgrade Protection Plan for AIX and UNIX Operating System Based Software (5692-ADV) contract, should select the appropriate feature from the table below.

    • Customers interested in the 1-year Software Maintenance offering for their current level should order the program number 5771-PAE, the appropriate feature number, and quantity under the Renewal column to add Software Maintenance coverage for their software licenses.

    • Customers interested in the 3-year Software Maintenance offering for their current level should order the program number 5773-PAE, the appropriate feature number, and quantity under the Renewal column to add Software Maintenance coverage for their software licenses.

    Software Maintenance is not included with licenses or media obtained via Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) upgrade. Current SupportLine contracts will be honored until their expiration. Customers who obtain a licensed program upgrade under Software Subscription (5692-SSO) may optionally purchase one-year or three-year Software Maintenance. Customers should place an order for 5771-PAE (one-year) or 5773-PAE (three-year) and specify the appropriate Renewal feature number from the table below.

Customers With Previous Level Program Products

  • Customers with previous level program products but without Software Subscription

    Customers interested in ordering an upgrade to any of the program products in this announcement that do not have an active Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) or Upgrade Protection Plan (5692-ADV) contract should either:

    • Contact their IBM representative or IBM reseller and request an order be placed for either the 1-year (5771-PAE) or 3-year (5773-PAE) Software Maintenance offering and specify the supply feature and appropriate Maintenance-After-License feature from the table below.

      or

    • Purchase current level program product upgrade feature between now and April 8, 2002.

  • Customers with previous level program products and with Software Subscription

    • Customers can use their program product software subscription to get a free upgrade.

    • Software Maintenance is not included with licenses or media obtained via Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) upgrade. Current SupportLine contracts will be honored until their expiration. Customers who obtain a licensed program upgrade under Software Subscription (5692-SSO) may optionally purchase one-year or three-year Software Maintenance. Customers should place an order for 5771-PAE (one-year) or 5773-PAE (three-year) and specify the appropriate Renewal feature number from the table below.

For additional information on the IBM Software Maintenance for Select pSeries Programs, visit:

New Licensees of Parallel Environment:

The software license for new customers of Parallel Environment (5765-D93) will include Software Maintenance, for one year. The three-year option is the configurator default and it configures the price for the second and third year of the contract only. Customers should select the one-year or three-year PID, the appropriate feature number and quantity to extend coverage for their software licenses.

Note the following for New Licensee:

  • The appropriate one-year registration feature (NC feature) will automatically transfer to the customer order record.
  • The appropriate three-year feature (priced for second and third year only) will automatically transfer to the customer order record.
  • Customers should select the "Renewal Billing Feature" for one- or three-year contract renewal.
  • Customers should select the "Maintenance-After-License" for one or three years to re-enter the program after a contract has lapsed.

OTC One-Year Software Maintenance Program 5771-PAE

                                                Maintenance-
                                                After-       Current
                          Registration Renewal  License      Licensee
                          NC           Billing  Billing      Supply
                          Feature      Feature  Feature      Feature
 Program Name             Number       Number   Number       Number
 
Parallel Environment
 (5765-D93)                                                  5809
 
 1 to  5 Authorizations   0014         0018     0022
 6 to 10 Authorizations   0015         0019     0023
11 to 50 Authorizations   0016         0020     0024
51 or more Authorizations 0017         0021     0025

OTC Three-Year Software Maintenance Program 5773-PAE

                                                Maintenance-
                                                After-       Current
                                       Renewal  License      Licensee
                          Registration Billing  Billing      Supply
                          Feature      Feature  Feature      Feature
 Program Name             Number(2)    Number   Number       Number
 
Parallel Environment
 (5765-D93)                                                  5809
 
 1 to  5 Authorizations   0013         0017     0021
 
 
 6 to 10 Authorizations   0014         0018     0022
11 to 50 Authorizations   0015         0019     0023
51 or more Authorizations 0016         0020     0024
2
The registration features for 5773-PAE are priced for the second and third years only of the three-year contract.

Withdrawal of Parallel Environment V3.1 Base License and Upgrade Feature Numbers

The following base license and upgrade feature numbers are withdrawn effective April 8, 2002.

Parallel Environment V3.1 is now ordered as a separate Medium Supply feature number (5000) under 5765-D93.

                                   Program        Feature
Description                        Number         Number
 
Parallel Environment V3.1          5765-D93       3001 3002
                                                  3003 3004
                                                  3005 3006
                                                  3007 3008

Withdrawal of Software Subscription for AIX Feature Numbers

The effective withdrawal date of the following feature numbers is April 8, 2002.

                                   Program        Feature
Description                        Number         Number
 
Software Subscription for          5692-SSO       6466 6470 6471
 for Parallel Environment                          6467 6636 6637
 V3.1                                              6468 6638 6639
                                                   6469 6640 6641

Customization Options: Select the appropriate feature numbers to customize your order with delivery options desired. These features can be specified on the initial or MES orders.

                                                    Feature
Description                                         Number
 
Initial Shipments
 
Serial Number Only (suppresses shipment             3444
 of media and documentation)
 
Expedite Shipments
 
Local IBM Office Expedite                           3445
 (for IBM use only)
 
Customer Expedite Process Charge                    3446
 ($30 charge for each product)

Expedite shipments will be processed to receive 72-hour delivery from the time IBM Software Delivery and Fulfillment (SDF) receives the order. SDF will then ship the order via overnight air transportation.

Terms and Conditions

Licensing: IPLA. Proofs of Entitlement (PoE) are required for all authorized use.

Limited Warranty Applies: Yes

Program Services: Available until December 31, 2003

Money-Back Guarantee: 30-day, money-back guarantee, applicable to the first instance per customer enterprise. The money-back guarantee will commence on the Invoice Date.

Copy and Use on Home/Portable Computer: No

Volume Orders (IVO): Yes, contact your IBM representative.

Passport Advantage Applies: No

Usage Restriction: Yes.

The following agreements apply for maintenance and do not require customer signatures:

  • IBM Agreement for Acquisition of Support (Z125-6011)
  • Addendum for Support (Software Maintenance) for Selected iSeries and pSeries Programs (Z125-6495)

IBM Operational Support Services — Support Line: No

Other Support: pSeries Software Maintenance

AIX/UNIX Upgrade Protection Applies: No

Entitled Upgrade for Current AIX/UNIX Upgrade Protection Licensees: Yes

iSeries Software Subscription Applies: No

Variable Charges Apply: No

Educational Allowance Available: Yes, 15% education allowance applies to qualified education institution customers.

Prices

The prices provided in this announcement are suggested retail prices for the U.S. only and are provided for your information only. Dealer prices may vary, and prices may also vary by country. Prices are subject to change without notice. For additional information and current prices, contact your local IBM representative.

Program Name: Parallel Environment, V3.2

New users of Parallel Environment for AIX V3 should specify machine type 5765, model D93, asset feature number 9001, the appropriate Parallel Environment V3.1 for AIX V4 or Parallel Environment V3.2 for AIX 5L Medium feature number, and the appropriate OTC feature number in quantity equal to the total number of desired licenses to be installed times the quantity of Authorizations.

For example:

  • If ordering Parallel Environment V3.2 for 12 AIX 5L nodes , order the feature number for Order-Type Description 11 to 50 Authorizations with a quantity of 12, and Medium feature number 5809 .
  • If ordering Parallel Environment V3.1 for 12 AIX V4 nodes , order the feature number for Order-Type Description 11 to 50 Authorizations with a quantity of 12, and Medium feature number 5000 .

                                             OTC
Order-Type                    Machine        Feature
Description                   Type/Model     Number       OTC
 
 1 to  5 Authorizations       5765-D93       0001         $9,141
 6 to 10 Authorizations                      0002          7,102
11 to 50 Authorizations                      0003          5,024
51 or greater Authorizations                 0004          3,035

Software Maintenance

                                                        Main-
                                                        tenance-
                            Regis-                      After-
                            tration      Renewal        License
                            NC           Billing        Billing
                            Feature      Feature        Feature
LPP Program Name            Number  OTC  Number  OTC    Number OTC
 
Software Maintenance --
 One Year (5771-PAE)
 
 1 to 5 Authorizations      0014    NC   0018    $2,031 0022   $4,063
 6 to 10 Authorizations     0015    NC   0019     1,578 0023    3,175
11 to 50 Authorizations     0016    NC   0020     1,117 0024    2,233
51 or more Authorizations   0017    NC   0021       675 0025    1,349

NC = No Charge

                                                      Main-
                                                      tenance-
                                                      After-
                      Regis-          Renewal         License
                      tration         Billing         Billing
                      Feature         Feature         Feature
LPP Program Name      Number  OTC     Number  OTC     Number  OTC
 
Software Maintenance --
 Three Year (5773-PAE)
 
 1 to 5               0013    $4,063  0017    $6,049  0021    $10,156
  Authorizations
 6 to 10              0014     3,157  0018     4,735  0022      7,891
  Authorizations
11 to 50              0015     2,233  0019     3,350  0023      5,583
 Authorizations
51 or more            0016     1,349  0020     2,024  0024      3,373
 Authorizations

Contact your sales channel for Support Line pricing information.

Customer Financing: IBM Global Financing offers attractive financing to credit-qualified commercial and government customers and Business Partners in more than 40 countries around the world. IBM Global Financing is provided by the IBM Credit Corporation in the United States. Offerings, rates, terms, and availability may vary by country. Contact your local IBM Global Financing organization. Country organizations are listed on the Web at:

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