IBM United States
Software Announcement 201-090
April 17, 2001

IBM AIX 5L Version 5.1 Advanced UNIX Operating System with Linux Affinity Delivers the Most Powerful and Flexible Choice for e-business and Enterprise Servers

 ENUS201-090.PDF (168KB)

(Corrected on April 24, 2001)

In Ordering Information add an entry for Hindi with a feature number of 6907.

At a Glance

AIX 5L offers:

  • Full 64-bit kernel, device drivers, and application environment
  • Support for 32-Way Scalability and 256 GB memory
  • New JFS2 1 Terabyte file system with 1 Terabyte file size support
  • Workload Manager GUI and functional upgrades
  • Increased network performance for e-business
  • Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology
  • Enhanced RAS and improved serviceability features
  • Web-based System Manager distributed framework
  • Linux-compatible program interface
  • AIX Developer Kit, Java™ 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0
  • Enhanced ease-of-use capabilities

For ordering, contact:

Your IBM representative, an IBM Business Partner, or IBM Americas Call Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: RE001).

Overview

AIX® is the IBM strategic UNIX® operating system for mission-critical, core business applications. The industrial-strength features and functions of AIX have been well proven over the years in a wide variety of server environments from relatively small, single-processor systems through the massively parallel RS/6000® Scalable POWERparallel® (SP™) servers.

The AIX features include:

  • State-of-the-art 32-bit and 64-bit kernels
  • 32-bit and 64-bit APIs support
  • Dynamic configuration and device attachments
  • Robust journaled file system and Logical Volume Manager (LVM) software
  • Simplified system management — System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) and Web System Management

AIX 5L Version 5.1 (AIX 5L) represents the next generation of AIX.

Fortified with open technologies from some of the world's top providers, AIX 5L builds on a solid heritage of supplying integrated, enterprise-class support for RS/6000 and IBM e(logo)server pSeries systems.

With AIX 5L, IBM:

  • Provides an industrial-strength UNIX operating system with increased levels of integration, flexibility, and performance for meeting the high demands of today's mission-critical e-business applications
  • Offers an advanced operating system with a strong affinity with Linux and built-in capabilities designed to accommodate future IBM POWER-based servers

Key Prerequisites

  • IBM Power systems
  • POWER2 systems
  • Personal Computer Power Series® 830 and 850 desktop systems
  • PowerPC® systems
  • POWER3 systems

Exceptions are listed in the Hardware Requirements section.

Planned Availability Date

  • May 4, 2001
  • May 11, 2001, Preinstall for POWER-based systems

Description

Scalability and Capacity

  • AIX 5.1 provides a scalable, 64-bit kernel capable of supporting increased system resources and much larger application workloads on 64-bit hardware. In addition, the 64-bit kernel offers scalable kernel extension interfaces, allowing kernel extensions and device drivers to make full use of the kernel's system resources and capabilities.
  • AIX 5.1 provides a more scalable application binary interface (ABI) for 64-bit applications. This scalability is provided by changing the sizes of some fundamental data types for 64-bit applications, and will allow these applications to take advantage of the expanded capabilities of the 64-bit kernel.
  • Workload Manager has been enhanced to provide functions to manage subsets of workload and control subsets of total system resources. Additional features include disk I/O bandwidth, application tag API, more application isolation and control, a fully dynamic configuration permitting changes while running, and an accounting subsystem performing resource usage accounting per WLM class.
  • JFS2 is a new file system type providing the capability to store 1 Terabyte files. It is the default file system for the 64-bit kernel.

Further information on the AIX 5.1 64-bit kernel is available from IBM at:

Networking Technology and Performance

  • Multi-path routing is added to allow users the ability to specify multiple routes to a destination.
    • Offers system administrators the option of either configuring multiple routes for load balancing or setting up alternative paths to direct network traffic when the best route can no longer perform its tasks
    • Allows a system administrator to define multiple default gateways
  • A set of APIs provided by Fast Response Cache Architecture (FRCA) enables e-business applications to cache data such as Web content in the Network Buffer Cache (NBC), significantly reducing the path length and increasing the performance of the application.
  • The Virtual IP Address (VIPA) function allows system administrators to define a virtual IP address for a host and, from a TCP connection standpoint, decouple the IP address associated with physical interfaces.
  • Dynamic Feedback Protocol (DFP) is a way to provide load statistics to a load manager so that load can be balanced by sending future connections to available servers.
  • Sendmail Version 8.11 improves performance by having multiple queues, memory-buffered pseudo-files, and more control over resolver time-outs.
  • TCP/IP performance over congested networks is improved through increased initial windows, explicit congestion notification, and limited transmit mechanism functions, which are configurable by a system administrator.
  • TCP splicing helps push the data-relaying function of a proxy application (from server-side socket to the client-side socket or vice versa) into the kernel.
  • Network Interface Takeover is a new option allowing the configuration of multiple adapters, including IBM 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter, Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI adapter, and 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI adapter, allowing one or more to be designated as a backup.
  • New libpcap APIs help enhance the robustness and ease of use in gathering network traffic data to improve problem determination for network applications.
  • Token-Ring emulation support for the AIX Multiple-protocol over ATM (MPOA) provides improved management and performance of an ATM LAN Emulation network by combining multiple edge routers into a single router image.
  • MPOA IP packet fragmentation support in AIX provides for cases where there is a heterogeneous network environment with varying Maximum Transmit Units (MTUs) and/or where there are network configurations where normal MTU Path Discovery is not available.
  • Enhancements to the ATM LANE and MPOA statistics and trace tools are included to gain better serviceability of these products in the field.
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN) provides the ability to create virtual LANs across multiple physical LANs or segments and/or divide physical LAN segments into virtual LANs.
  • AIX 5.1 adds Gigabit support to Cisco's EtherChannel technology, which builds upon 802.3 Fast Ethernet and standard Ethernet. This enhancement allows the aggregation of up to four Gigabit Ethernet ports.

Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS)

  • A SMIT-configurable mechanism can be used to detect system hangs and initiate preconfigured action.
  • Enhancements made to error logging include detection of consecutive duplicate errors, which is intended to help prevent the error log from being overloaded.
  • An automatic dump analysis tool enables accelerated customer support with reduced interaction time.
  • A new error log retrieval API can be used to retrieve error log data faster, as compared to the errpt raw mode.
  • System dump capability has been improved via compression and dump size estimation to ensure that large system dumps are consistent and reliable for easy problem determination.
  • New capability is available to generate a core file for an application without requiring application termination. This helps increase the application availability and serviceability.

System and Networking Security

  • System Security
    • Native Kerberos V5 KDC Server/Client support

      Network Authentication Service is the IBM implementation of the MIT Kerberos V5 Release 1.1

    • Trusted Computing Base available as an optional preinstall feature
    • AIX Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Security Audit plug-in
    • Pluggable Authentication Mechanism
    • SecureWay® Directory Version 3.2.1
  • Network Security
    • Support of API PKCS#11 Version 2.01.
    • Enhancement of the Internet Key Exchange protocol, providing Virtual Private Networking (VPN) support to enable the use of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) when authenticating remote users or devices.
    • Name resolver routines, which include resolving hostnames through a LDAP server.

Interoperability

  • Enhancements to increase affinity with Linux

    A set of Linux-compatible routines has been added to AIX 5.1 so that Linux applications using these routines do not have to supply their own libraries.

  • AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications, delivered on a supplemental CD, which contains a collection of open source and GNU software built for AIX and packaged in RPM format

    These tools provide the basis of a development environment for many Linux application developers. The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications is not supported by IBM and is provided by IBM "AS IS", under the terms of the licenses on the AIX Toolbox CD or Web site.

  • AIX Fast Connect Version 3.1.0 available as a licensed program providing file and print services for Windows™ and OS/2® clients on AIX 5.1

Base Operating System

  • NFS statd multithreading can be implemented as a daemon that runs on all NFS-configured machines, providing a simple protocol allowing applications to easily monitor the status of other machines.
  • Active paging spaces can be deactivated without rebooting when changing configurations, moving paging space to another drive, or dividing paging space up between drives.
  • An optional buckets-based extension of the default memory allocator helps improve performance for applications that issue large numbers of small allocation requests.
  • The UNIX System V file spooling subsystem is available as an option, which can be configured by an administrator.
  • System V Packaging Commands are available for customers to create and install a package in the System V format.
  • AutoFS is enhanced to support the multithreaded automounted daemon.
  • The /proc file system provides access to the state of each process and thread in the system.
  • The number of concurrent groups per process has been increased from 32 to 64.
  • The argument list limit has been increased from 24 K to 512 K.

Storage

  • AIX 5.1 includes the implementation of the Data Management Application Programming (DMAPI) as defined in the Open Group's Data Storage Management (XDSM) API specification.
  • Volume group logical track group size can be specified at volume group creation time and can be changed to different sizes including 128 K, 256 K, 512 K and 1024 K.
  • The mirror write consistency (MWC) helps ensure data consistency on logical volumes in the event of a system crash during mirrored writes. In addition to the existing Active MWC, AIX 5.1 also supports the Passive MWC, resulting in better random write performance on mirrored logical volumes when compared to the Active MWC.
  • Logical Volume Manager now has the option to provide hot spare disks within a volume group and automatically synchronize stale partitions to increase availability of mirrored data.
  • The Logical Volume Manager provides an ability to move physical partitions to any member disk of the volume group.

Development and Performance Tools

  • AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML) parser for Java, Version 3.1.1
  • New, enhanced Performance Analysis Tools
  • Performance Toolbox Version 3.0 available as a licensed program
  • The new Inventory Scout tool — used to determine the correct components to ship when a Miscellaneous Equipment Specification (MES) upgrade is ordered
  • Addition to the existing "pax" archive utility of a new archive format "pax," compatible with the proposed IEEE POSIX 1003.2b standard
  • Enhancements to dbx debugging tools, which include full-speed detection of random memory storage and enhancements to the POSIX threads debug library
  • Additional administrative tools for throughput statistics, maintenance of database file sparseness after restoration and logging of startup and shutdown utilities
  • Enhancements to compiler products, which include exploitation of the 64-bit large datatype model and execution on both 32-bit and 64-bit kernels

    The compiler products for AIX are available as licensed programs.

System Management

  • Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology (RSCT) provides the capability for an administrator to monitor system resources, including filesystems, programs, processors, adapters, and kernel information. These resources can be monitored around the clock and automatic responses run if resource values reach certain levels or thresholds.
  • Web-based System Manager
    • Presents a significant advance over previous releases by providing a new management console capable of managing multiple hosts
    • Allows applications to be accessed either locally or remotely without a Web browser on AIX 5.1 graphical workstations
    • Adds capability to run a Windows-PC client natively
  • A set of Web-based System Manager plug-ins
  • Accessibility enhancement to make Web-based System Manager easier to use for all users
  • Additional ISO8859-15 locales on the code set so that certain countries that are not part of the European Monetary Union (EMU) can still conduct business with EMU countries
  • Hindi character enablement, which permits entering, viewing, and printing
  • Additional locales
  • Enhancements to the Input Method Editor for the GBK locale
  • Korean 103 keyboard support

Graphics Enhancements

OpenGL on POWER GXT4000P and GXT6000P graphics adapters will now support 64-bit direct window access (DWA). This is intended to boost performance for 64-bit OpenGL applications by allowing them to render using the OpenGL protocol directly, rather than going through the Xserver and GLX Extension.

New System Support

  • pSeries 620 Model 6F1 Server
  • pSeries 660 Model 6H1 Server

AIX 5.1 has been enhanced to provide support for up to 32-way SMP scalability and 256 GB memory.

New I/O Support

  • POWER GXT4000P Entry, 3D 64-Bit PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT6000P Mid-Range, 3D 64-Bit PCI Graphics Accelerator with onboard geometry engine
  • 4.7 GB SCSI-2 DVD-RAM Drive, including mksysb function

Tivoli®-Ready

In support of developing systems management standards, Tivoli Management Agent is installed from the base operating system, making AIX Tivoli-ready.

Euro Currency

This program is EuroReady.

Statement of Direction

AIX 5.1 Support on SP System

AIX 5L Version 5.1 is not supported on the RS/6000 SP System at this time.

IBM intends to support AIX 5L Version 5.1 on the RS/6000 SP in the future with the next revision of its:

  • Parallel Systems Support Programs (PSSP)
  • General Parallel File System (GPFS)
  • High-Availability Cluster Multi-Processing (HACMP)
  • High-Availability Geographic Mirror (HAGEO/GeoRM)
  • LoadLeveler®
  • Engineering Scientific Subroutine Library (ESSL)
  • Parallel ESSL
  • Parallel Environment (PE) products

All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objective only.

Cluster System Management

IBM plans to make available a cluster systems management functional offering during 3Q2001 from the IBM alphaWorks Web site at http://alphaworks.ibm.com as an Initial Technology Release.

The planned offering will introduce a rich set of distributed systems management functionality on AIX that includes the ability to:

  • Form a domain of AIX machines into a cluster of "nodes" for management and monitoring. Node groups can be created from sets of machines inside this domain for managing at a more granular level. This domain of AIX machines can be managed from a single point of control (which is any AIX machine designated by the administrator to be the management server).

  • Run commands across nodes or node groups in this domain and gather output from these commands.

  • Monitor across the nodes in the domain for node status and monitor resources on each node such as programs, CPU, memory, filesystems, processors, and adapters.

    These resources can be monitored around the clock and automatic responses run if the values of resources reach certain levels or thresholds. The automated responses include running any command or script (for example a user-provided pager command or a recovery script), broadcasting a message, sending e-mail, or logging the event to a file. Different responses can be run based on time of day and whether a particular problem occurred or has been resolved.

  • Synchronize and replicate files across multiple nodes by editing files in one spot — on the management server.

  • For this Technology Release, IBM plans to test the systems management cluster software to scale up to 32 machines. The software is architected to scale well beyond 32 nodes. IBM plans to make this larger scalability available in subsequent releases.

This is a release of IBM software that has been tested but has not yet met IBM product criteria for customer production environments. IBM plans to provide this offering to customers to enable application development and testing in preproduction environments. IBM does not recommend use of this initial technology in customer production environments. IBM does not plan to provide support for the code and plans to provide it "AS IS," under the terms of the license provided with the code at the alphaWorks site.

These statements represent the current intentions of IBM. IBM development plans are subject to change or withdrawal without further notice. Any reliance on this Statement of General Direction is at the relying party's sole risk and will not create any liability or obligation for IBM.

Reference Information

Refer to Hardware Announcement 101-100 , dated April 17, 2001 (IBM e(logo)server pSeries 620 Model 6F1 Brings Faster 64-bit Computing to 6-Way Deskside Servers)

Refer to Hardware Announcement 101-101 , dated April 17, 2001 (IBM e(logo)server pSeries 660 Model 6H1 Brings Enhanced Performance to 64-bit, Mid-Range Rack SMP Servers)

Refer to Hardware Announcement 100-289 , dated October 3, 2000 (IBM RS/6000 POWER GXT6000P and GXT4000P Graphics Accelerators Designed To Deliver Improved Performance)

Refer to Software Announcement 201-093 , dated April 17, 2001 (IBM Performance Toolbox V3 — Obtain and Analyze System Data; IBM Fast Connect Version 3.1 — Enhanced Systems Management)

Refer to Software Announcement 201-092 , dated April 17, 2001 (IBM AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1 Expansion Pack and Bonus Pack Provide New Programs)

Trademarks

 
The e-business logo, pSeries, and SP are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
AIX, RS/6000, POWERparallel, Power Series, PowerPC, SecureWay, OS/2, and LoadLeveler are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
 
Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 
UNIX is a registered trademark is a registered trademark of the Open Company in the United States and other countries.
 
Tivoli is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation or Tivoli Systems Inc. in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

Additional Product Information

Scalability and Capacity

64-bit Kernel

In addition to providing a 32-bit kernel, AIX® 5.1 offers a scalable, 64-bit kernel capable of supporting increased system resources and much larger application workloads on 64-bit hardware. The 64-bit kernel offers scalable kernel extension interfaces, allowing kernel extensions and device drivers to make full use of the kernel's system resources and capabilities.

The expanded capabilities of the 64-bit kernel improve the ability to run an expanding application workload on a single system. This ability is important for a number of reasons.

  • First, data sharing and I/O device sharing are simplified if multiple applications can be run on the same system.
  • Second, using more powerful systems will reduce the number of systems needed by an organization, reducing the cost and complexity of system administration.

Server consolidation and workload scalability will continue to require higher capacity hardware systems that support more memory and additional I/O devices. The 64-bit kernel is designed to support these requirements for years to come.

Kernel extensions and device drivers must be compiled in 64-bit mode to be loaded into the 64-bit kernel. The 64-bit kernel, combined with header files and libraries, provides the environment for porting and developing kernel extensions.

64-bit Application Scalability

AIX 5.1 provides a scalable ABI for 64-bit applications. This scalability:

  • Is provided by changing the sizes of some fundamental data types for 64-bit applications
  • Will allow these applications to take advantage of the expanded capabilities of the 64-bit kernel

The scalable 64-bit ABI is supported by the 32-bit kernel and the 64-bit kernel.

For example, the 64-bit kernel is designed to support file sizes larger than 1 terabyte. By using the scalable 64-bit ABI, 64-bit applications will be able to use existing interfaces to process these large files. To take advantage of the scalability improvements to 64-bit programs, all 64-bit programs and libraries must be recompiled for AIX 5.1. In addition, existing 32-bit kernel extensions and device drivers used by 64-bit applications may have to be modified in order to support the new 64-bit ABI.

Workload Manager Enhancements

Workload Manager is enhanced to:

  • Provide the continuation of those functions required to manage subsets of workload
  • Control subsets of total system resources
  • Add more sophistication to the externals for categorization of work in the system and for the specification of policy
  • Use an alternative approach to divide up system resources and schedule a portion of the installation's total workload against a subset of the system resources

Additional capabilities which, Workload Manager offers are:

  • Disk I/O Bandwidth, a new resource type, is introduced in addition to existing resources such as CPU cycles and real memory.
  • An API enables external applications to modify system behaviors.
  • System administrators can manually reclassify processes independent of the classification rules.

    This function enables multiple instances of the same application to exist in different classes. Using Application Tag API, applications can enable automatic assignment of multiple instances of the same application in different classes.

  • More application isolation and control are offered.
    • New subclasses add ten times the granularity of control (from 27 classes to 270 controllable classes).
    • System administrators can delegate subclass management to users or groups.
  • Now fully dynamic, Workload Manager allows an entire configuration to be changed while it is running.
  • Application path name extends wild card flexibility to user name and group name.
  • The Accounting subsystem, a new feature, allows users to perform resource usage accounting per WLM class in addition to the standard accounting per user or group.
  • The AIX accounting system utility allows system administrators to collect and report the use of various system resources by user, group, or WLM class.
    • When process accounting is turned-on, AIX records statistics about the process resource usage in an accounting file when the process exits.

      (This accounting record now includes a 64-bit numeric key representing the name of the WLM class, and the process belonged to.)

    • The accounting command, acctcom, allows the display of process resource usage statistics per user, group, or WLM class.
  • System administrators can:
    • Use either acctcom or the WLM API to write their own reporting and billing applications
    • Have the CLASS name associated with CPU, memory, and disk I/O, consumption for any given user-defined time period

These capabilities can be easily managed through Web-based System Manager, SMIT, shell scripts, or command line interfaces. Monitoring is available using the new wlmmon and wlmperf tools.

Very Large Program Support

AIX 5.1 offers new flexibility for 32-bit "maxdata" programs by allowing the segments of the data heap (up to eight 256 MB segments) to be created dynamically.

The large program support previously available did not allow data heap segments to be used for any other purpose, even if the data heap never grew large enough to use all the reserved segments.

The Very Large Program Support will allow the data heap segments to be created dynamically. Until a segment is needed for the data heap, it may be used by shmat and mmap.

In addition, when Very Large Program Support is enabled for an application, segments allocated by shmat and mmap are allocated in descending order instead of ascending order.

Very Large File Support

Cachefs is enhanced to work under the 64-bit kernel and will support large file systems. It will handle files larger than 2 GB, although the cache file does not have to be larger than 2 GB. As a result, data can be accessed faster.

JFS2 Support

JFS2 is a new file system providing the capability to store much larger files than the existing Journaled File System (JFS). It is the default file system for the 64-bit kernel.

Customers have the choice of implementing JFS or taking advantage of the additional 64-bit functionality of JFS2. The following table provides a summary of the differences between JFS2 and JFS.

Functions                     JFS2                   JFS
 
Fragments/Block Size          512-4096 Block         512-4096
                               sizes                   Frags
Architectural Maximum         4 Petabytes            64 GBytes
  File Size
Maximum File                  1 Terabyte             64 GBytes
  Size Tested
Architectural Maximum         4 Petabytes            1 Terabyte
 
  File System Size
Maximum File                  1 Terabyte             1 Terabyte
  System Size
Number of Inodes              Dynamic, limited       Fixed, set at
                                by disk space          file system
                                                       creation
Directory Organization        B-tree                 Linear

Network Technology and Performance

IP Multi-path Routing and Multiple Gateways with Dead Gateway Detection

Multi-path routing is added to provide users the ability to specify multiple routes to a destination.

  • Allows system administrators to:
    • Choose the option of either configuring multiple routes for load balancing or setting up alternative paths to direct network traffic when the best route can no longer perform its tasks
    • Define multiple default gateways
  • Increases network availability by:
    • Detecting the failure of a "next-hop" gateway that is listed in its route cache
    • Routing data through alternative gateways that are specified

Web Serving Enhancements and Dynamic Content and Web Cache Enhancements

A set of APIs provided by Fast Response Cache Architecture (FRCA) enables e-business applications to cache data such as Web content in the Network Buffer Cache (NBC).

Through these APIs, Web serving can be done in the kernel via FRCA and NBC, significantly reducing the path length and increasing the performance of e-business applications for net commerce. FRCA and NBC are enhanced from managing static data to managing dynamically generated data.

FRCA will support the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) Version 1.1, a standard of IETF RFC, including the persistent connection aspect of that protocol.

Dynamic Feedback Protocol (DFP) Support for Load Balancing

DFP is a way to provide load statistics to a load manager (Cisco LocalDirector) so that load elements can be balanced by sending subsequent connections to servers that are more available.

DFP helps improve server response in a Multi-node Load Balanced (MNLB) environment.

TCP Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)

Enhancements were made to improve performance of TCP/IP over congested networks, especially, for Web serving. All of the following features are configurable:

  • Increased initial windows permit a larger initial window, especially for short connections as described in RFC 2414. The larger window is most noticeable on short connection transfers typical in the cellular phone operation space.
  • Explicit congestion notification provides benefits to high network traffic conditions through proactive data packet management. If a router detects congestion, and the explicit congestion notification feature is enabled, the sending host is notified to undertake appropriate action to reduce the data transmission rate.
  • Limited transmit provides a mechanism for TCP to recover more quickly when there is limited amount of data to send per connection.

TCP Splicing

TCP splicing helps push the data-relaying function of a proxy application (from server side socket to the client side socket or vice versa) into the kernel. Performance of proxy applications is improved by reducing the pathway length through which data must travel.

Software products that are expected to take advantage of this function include Network Dispatcher and, potentially, the Web Traffic Express caching proxy server.

Virtual IP Address (VIPA)

This capability allows system administrator to define a virtual IP address for a host and, from a TCP connection standpoint, decouple the IP address associated with physical interfaces. As a result, user connections should not be affected if some interfaces are lost.

Network Interface Takeover

This new feature allows the configuration of multiple adapters, including IBM 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter, Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI adapter, and 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI adapters and allows one or more to be designated as a backup. If any hardware failure (adapter or cable) occurs, the next alternate adapter immediately takes over. This gives has the appearance of "one network interface" to the user and continues to keep network traffic moving with minimal delay.

Network interface takeover is an additional option to EtherChannel, Cisco Systems Network Bandwidth Aggregation, and Load Balancing technology, which:

  • Builds upon standard and 802.3 Fast Ethernet
  • Provides the functionality to aggregate multiple Ethernet interfaces

Sendmail Version 8.11

This new version of sendmail improves performance by having:

  • Multiple queues
  • Memory-buffered pseudo-files
  • More control over resolver time-outs

Some of the other features include:

  • Support for IPv6
  • Berkeley DB (3.1.14)
  • Message submission agents
  • The capability to connect to servers running on named sockets
  • Improvements for anti-spam control
  • LDAP integration
  • Virtual hosting support
  • Addition of several new map classes

Libpcap APIs

This functionality helps enhance the robustness and ease-of-use in gathering network traffic data to improve problem determination for network applications.

The Packet Capture Library, libpcap, provides:

  • A high-level user interface to the Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF)
  • User-level subroutines that interface with the BPF to allow users access for reading unprocessed network traffic and writing customized applications that monitor and/or capture the network traffic that they need or want to examine

Quality of Service (QoS)

This function is enhanced to allow system administrators the ability to manage polices for the QoS Manager from the command line.

  • Policies can be added, removed, modified, and listed.
  • Priority can be specified for a policy.

This is important when two or more overlapping policies are installed, policies can then be enforced in order of highest priority.

AIX Multiple-protocol Over ATM (MPOA) — Token Ring Support

Token Ring emulation support for (MPOA) provides improved management and performance of an ATM LAN emulation network by combining multiple-edge routers into a single router image.

  • Device-specific configurations are minimized with auto-discovery and device discovery protocol.
  • Data paths are reduced from many hops between routers to a single hop between end clients.

This support provides better interoperability between an ATM network utilizing AIX MPOA support and token-ring networks.

MPOA IP Fragmentation

MPOA IP packet fragmentation support provides for instances where there is a heterogeneous network environment with varying Multiple Transmit Units (MTUs).

This capability extends to circumstances where there are network configurations and normal MTU path discovery is not available.

ATM LANE/MPOA RAS Enhancements

The following enhancements to the ATM LANE and MPOA statistics and trace tools gain improved serviceability of installed products.

  • Additional LAN Emulation Client (LEC) and Multiprotocol Client (MPC) statistics
  • A greater level trace granularity to allow more selective tracing

Virtual LAN (VLAN)

  • Provides the ability to create virtual LANs across multiple physical LANs or segment and/or divide physical LAN segments into virtual LANs.
  • Supports the IEEE 802.1.Q standard and specifically implements the multiple VLAN capability outlined in that standard for Ethernet.

Gigabit EtherChannel Support

The Cisco System Network Bandwidth Aggregation and Load Balancing technology, called EtherChannel, builds upon standard and 802.3 Fast Ethernet to provide the functionality to aggregate a bandwidth of multiple Ethernet interfaces.

AIX 5.1 adds Gigabit EtherChannel support, allowing the aggregation of up to four Gigabit Ethernet ports and an increase of bandwidth capabilities.

System Networking, Analysis, and Performance Pilot (SNAPP)

SNAPP provides a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) menu-driven interface for performing AIX administration tasks.

The primary purpose of SNAPP is to allow minimum IP address configuration on a newly preinstalled system that does not have a monitor or ASCII terminal and keyboard connected to it.

Once the AIX system is on the network, remote access can then be used to further configure the system. Users can add new, customized functionality to the SNAPP interface with minimal programming.

The SNAPP application consists of a server and a client.

  • The server part of the application runs on the AIX system and is automatically installed as part of the base AIX installation.
  • The client part of the application runs on the hand-held PDA.

The client portion may be obtained from the /usr/samples/snapp directory on an AIX system or it may be downloaded from the AlphaWorks™ Web site:

A README is included with the SNAPP client, which contains detailed information about how to install and use the application.

Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS)

Recover from System Hangs

This shdaemon command function aids system administrators by providing a SMIT-configurable mechanism to detect system hangs and initiate the configured action. When a system hang occurs, one of the following actions can take place:

  • Error messages are displayed to notify system administrators (default = off).
  • Error messages are logged in the error report (default = off).
  • A high priority login is created so that system administrator can login and perform problem determination (default = on).
  • Specific commands are executed according the configuration setup (default = off).
  • Systems are rebooted based on system configuration setup (default = off).

System administrators can set up these actions with appropriate priority and turn them on or off as needed.

An additional benefit of the tool is that it can be set with a threshold low enough that when that level occurs, a log entry is generated. The frequency of log entries can provide a measure of saturation and resource utilization.

Error Log Scalability Enhancements and Error Thresholding/Activity Counters

Enhancements are made to the error log to detect consecutive duplicate errors and help prevent the error log from being overloaded.

These enhancements provide a mechanism to keep track of the number of times an exactly identical error at the bit level occurs within a limited time period. An entry will be added to the error log along with the number of occurrences for this error.

Examples of this type of error include:

  • Floppy drive not ready
  • External drive off line
  • Ethernet card unplugged
  • Defective line

This function is automatically enabled.

Automatic Dump Analysis

This tool enables accelerated customer support with less customer interaction time. The Automatic Dump Analysis tool is capable of automatically examining a dump and pulling out (in text) relevant information for forwarding to support entities as an e-mail attachment. This will allow early diagnosis of dumps without having to send the entire dump file.

Error Log Retrieval API for Diagnostics

As part of the error log analysis performed by diagnostics, the errpt command with the -g flag is invoked to get raw data for each error log entry. This data is parsed and then put into a data structure for use by the calling application.

AIX 5.1 provides the calling application an API to get data directly from the error log. This new method for obtaining data from applications is much faster when compared to the errpt raw mode.

With this enhancement, error reports will contain both the error report and the diagnostics analysis. Previously, the error report only showed the error. A separate command was required to see the diagnostic analysis.

With this change the error report will include diagnostic analysis for errors that have been processed. This may include such errors as:

  • Disk errors
  • Network controller errors
  • Other hardware errors

Diagnostic analysis will give an indication of whether the hardware needs replacing or if the error may be safely ignored.

Dump Reliability Improvements

System dump capability has been improved to increase reliability.

These improvements will help ensure that system dumps are consistent and reliable for easy problem determination.

As dumps approach 3 GB in an uncompressed state, situations arise where dumps are incomplete or unavailable to technical support resources. This improvement adds compression as soon as possible, and adds a cron job to estimate dump size and send an error message recommending a larger dump device when it is appropriate.

Because paging space is the default dump device, this enhancement helps avoid the problem of insufficient paging space for dumps. The "snap" command is modified to eliminate an additional copy of the dump when it gathers files for its image. This reduces the space required to take a snap image.

In addition, a new command, snapcore, is available to assist in the problem determination of core dumps. This command can be used to automatically package not only a core dump but also executable files and shared libraries, and send the complete package to technical support personnel.

Generate Core Files Without Requiring Process Termination

AIX 5.1 provides a capability to generate a core file for an application without requiring application termination. This capability helps increase the application availability as well as serviceability.

Allowing the dd Command to Span Volumes

The dd command has been enhanced to allow the ability of writing data to multiple tapes. This new feature prompts users to insert another tape when the tape currently in the tape drive reaches its end.

ANSI Terminal

AIX 5.1 makes available an additional ANSI terminal. This addition helps ease the work of system administrators.

Enhancements to Cron Job Logging

The cron command has been enhanced to provide a more detailed log file, including logging tasks and processes with the crontab to launch them. The cron command can even log the completion time and exit status information.

New Coredump Naming

The coredump naming convention has been changed to keep as many coredumps saved as systems allow. The coredumps will be named "core.pid.time", where "pid" is the process id of the dump process, and "time" is a timestamp in the form of "ddhhmmss."

Kernel Debugger (KDB) Enhancements

KDB improvements include the following options:

  • Disable paging of long outputs
  • Print threads and processes in a long format when the entire table is printed
  • Use command aliases
  • Have multiple commands on a single line
  • Use a command to display linked lists

AIX System and Networking Security

System Security

  • Native Kerberos V5 KDC Server/Client Support

    Network Authentication Service is the IBM implementation of the MIT Kerberos V5 Release 1.1 Network Authentication Service. Network Authentication Service negotiates authentication and optionally encrypted communication between two points on the Internet or between components on a system.

    Services provided will include the Generic Security Service Application Programming Interfaces (GSS-API) Version 2 and the key distribution server, kadm5.

    A system can be configured to use Network Authentication Service for user password authentication, which will potentially make AIX 5.1 authentication interoperative with other systems that use the MIT Kerberos V5-based authentication.

    Services are provided to allow Kerberos to be configured as the systems default authentication mechanism. When AIX 5.1 is configured to use Kerberos as the default authentication mechanism, all services that use the authentic routine to gain system access will then go to the Kerberos server, key distribution center, to seek user authentication. The users successfully logged in will have a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT). There will also be a service provided to migrate existing users to Kerberos authenticated users.

  • Trusted Computing Base

    Trusted Computing Base allows maintaining an ongoing check on the "intact-ness" of a deployed AIX operating environment and following an initial installation or after applying an update. Installing AIX with, or selection of, the "Optional TCB for AIX 5.1" preinstall feature, enables the use of the AIX "tcbck" command for use in tracking the "state" of system files.

    The "tcbck" executable can be run as an interactive command, or set up as a "cron" job, to run overnight to check the consistency of the AIX system, as checked against the file definitions in the sysck database (the /etc/security/sysck.cfg file.)

    By specifying the ALL value to the command, all the files in the file system tree will be checked. The Nameparameter can be used to give the path names of individual files to be verified if users prefer to check specific files.

    The "tcbck" command cannot repair the AIX deployment, but can point out discrepancies in "owner", "group owner", mode bits, and checksum information of the current "state" of key AIX files.

    For more information on tcbck command, visit:

  • AIX LDAP Security Audit Plug-in

    In addition to the Security Audit function that SecureWay® Directory provides, AIX 5.1 offers an AIX LDAP Security Audit Plug-in. This server plug-in, located at /usr/ccs/lib/libsecldapaudit.a, is a parallel auditing service to the SecureWay Directory default audit plug-in.

    The purpose of AIX LDAP Security Audit Plug-in is to provide auditing service to the SecureWay Directory server within the AIX audit subsystem. The audit data is written into the AIX audit trails. With the AIX auditing commands, you can:

    • Turn on/off auditing of the server
    • Select the LDAP operations for auditing
    • Manipulate the audit trails with the AIX auditing commands

    The AIX LDAP Security Audit Plug-in provides administrators, who are familiar with the AIX system audit, a powerful tool to audit the SecureWay Directory server. The server auditing trails can be easily combined with other AIX audit trails to help administrators to analyze many events.

  • Pluggable Authentication Mechanism

    This feature is added to support the need for a native AIX implementation of the X Single Sign-On (XSSO)/Pluggable Authentication Mechanism (PAM). This stand-alone module library, libpam.a, is located in /usr/lib directory.

    The PAM specification defines an API to an XSSO Sign-on Service for use by sign-on applications. The XSSO Service API is independent of the specific authentication mechanisms used.

    There are two distinct aspects to a Single Sign-on service:

    • The Primary Sign-on operation in which a user signs onto the policy domain as a whole
    • The Secondary Sign-on operations in which a user signs onto a service within the domain.

    The principal objective of a Single Sign-on service is that Secondary Sign-on operations can be transparent to the user.

  • SecureWay Directory Version 3.2.1

    SecureWay Directory Version 3, is a 32-bit LDAP Version 3 function that leverages the mission-critical enterprise strength of DB2® database technology with the flexibility of the LDAP directory standard with the following properties:

    • Provides search capability; searches on individual attributes of the objects
    • Scales from the small to large networks by effectively distributing directory data to multiple servers
    • Automatically replicates data and supports replication to make your information system more resistant to failure
    • Provides extensible schema, which enables application developers and administrators to extend the native directory schema set and implements new and customized directory objects as needed
    • Integrates with Domain Name Server (DNS) and uses DNS lookup capability to locate the directory service information, for example, server hostname, service port, and protocol used

    Enhanced SecureWay Directory Version 3.2.1 supports the following enhancements:

    • Fine-grained Access Control

      In addition to the current support of grant or deny access to a specific directory object or an entire directory sub tree, enhancement includes:

      • Ability to set Access Control Information (ACI) for a specific attribute
      • Ability to allow/deny access to which subjects (using entryOwner) can define the ACIs
      • Support IETF draft-ietf-ldapext-acl-model-04.txt for acl model

    • Performance Enhancement

      Add a true backup/restore directory content, including schema definitions and server configuration, by using DB2 utilities to enhance the performance of Backup/Restore. Existing import/export data to/from LDIF format is still supported for heterogeneous directory interoperability.

      A new connection model has been implemented, which enhances the scalability with a pool of threads serving a large number of connections (configurable). Performance is also enhanced by reducing connection time as a list of active threads are maintained to service subsequent connection requests.

      Fast Server startup eliminates the first-time, slow-server startup (after it is configured), through the use of the "First Touch" mechanism in such a way that the attribute table is not created until an entry is added that uses that attribute.

    • Event Notification Support supports the application notification of directory events.

      It can be used either for client caching functions or for any other management applications that require a notification of directory event unfold.

      This is done by client registration to the directory event options such as "Add", "Delete", "Modify", and "ModifyRDN", or any other combinations. The Server will notify the client applications whenever an event of interest is at or below the applications DN.

    • Security Audit Support

      Support of Directory Audit service improves the security of directory server.

      System administrators can use this log facility to examine any suspicious pattern of activity in an attempt to detect a security violation. With time stamp and BindDN recorded in the audit log, the violator can be easily traced and detected.

      Audit plug-in support allows any application to receive the audit data and filter to incorporate with other audit information. This feature allows the directory audit data to be a part of the centralized audit facility where the enterprise application is based.

    • Transaction Support

      With LDAP extended support, a set of LDAP operations are performed as a unit of work for commit or rollback.

      This unit of work is committed to the database only when the EndTransaction-Commit is returned or it is rolled to the prior operation state. This transaction support is limited to a single connection to a single LDAP server. A list of LDAP operations that forms a unit of work should be limited to the moderation (less than 100) number.

    • Kerberos V5 Support

      Enhanced LDAP operation adds Kerberos V5 and additional authentication mechanisms along with existing Secure Socket Layer (SSL) V3-based authentication using x509v3 public key certificates.

      The Kerberos authentication option is used for not only user authentication, but also used for the authentication option for Server replication.

      Kerberos-based authentication enables LDAP applications and AIX 5.1 users to participate in a single-signon environment within the Kerberos realm. This enhancement will enforce network security by not transporting the password on the wire.

      Kerberos authentication is used for authenticated referrals. This helps to secure/validate the LDAP referral operation by using Kerberos-based authentication.

      By using Kerberos cross-realm authentication support, the LDAP application can establish a transient trust with already established Kerberos authentication.

Network Security

  • PKCS Support

    AIX 5.1 offers an implementation of the cryptographic API PKCS#11 Version 2.01. PKCS#11 is a de facto industry standard for accessing cryptographic hardware devices.

    In addition, AIX 5.1 offers support for IBM 4758 Model 2 cryptographic coprocessor under the operating system PKCS#11 shared object. The PKCS#11 implementation is enhanced to utilize future IBM cryptographic hardware devices through the same shared library.

    Applications available to utilize PKCS#11 include the iPlanet server suite. For additional information on PKCS11, refer to the RSA Laboratories Web site at:

  • IP Key Encryption Security

    The Internet Key Exchange protocol to provide VPN support is enhanced to enable the use of CRL when authenticating remote users or devices.

    This is an improvement to scalability of VPNs through the use of Digital Certificates for a large number of users. When CRLs are used, digital certificates provide credentials for authentication, and individual users may be revoked by specifying their certificate number to the CRL.

    This simplifies network management by allowing one policy to be defined at the server level, and verifies that the certificate is valid and not contained in the CRL. CRLs may be fetched through HTTP or LDAP using socks4 or socks5 protocol.

    The Web-based System Manager user interface for setting up tunnels has been streamlined and simplified. A full-function wizard guides the user through initial IKE tunnel definition. Policy information has been reorganized to make IP Security tunnel configuration more intuitive and require fewer steps.

    Other IKE enhancements include the use of the commit bit to synchronize the use of Security Associations, the definition of default policies to simplify the configuration for networks using dynamic IP addresses or DHCP.

    System administrators can define a Virtual Private network by one policy and a list of group members. They can also define default policies to specify the security parameters that are to be used when the addresses are dynamically assigned.

    IKE support has also been extended to include IP Version 6 protocols. The IP Security functions for AIX 5.1 now include the definition of static filters for IP Versions 4 and 6, manually and dynamically defined private tunnels using IP Security protocol over IP Version 4 and 6 networks.

    IKE enhancements include VPN functionality enabling users to import IKE tunnel configurations between Linux and AIX platforms. The ikeconvert script will process a Linux configuration file into an XML format suitable for loading into AIX.

    User group definition in IKE databases is optimized through the use of the new ikedb command. This command will take XML text as input to create a group definition in the IKE databases. The group name can then be used in a Key or Data Management tunnel definition.

    Maintenance and ease-of-use in configuring IKE groups are enhanced through the implementation of an IKE tunnel default policy. This policy, when configured, permits a system default to be invoked in the absence of a separate configuration.

  • Directory-based Resolvers

    Name resolver routines have been enhanced to include resolving hostnames through an LDAP server. The ordering of name resolution services can be specified in any of the following formats:

    • /etc/netsvc.conf file
    • /etc/irs.conf file
    • NSORDER environment variable, for example, NSORDER=bind,ldap

    Schema defines the rules for ordering data on a LDAP server. The IBM-HostTable object class, the proposed schema, was accepted by the SecureWay Directory product.

    A new command, hosts2ldif, was created to produce an LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) file from /etc/hosts. This LDIF file is used to populate the hosts database on the LDAP server. The LDAP client uses /etc/resolv.ldap to access the information from the LDAP server.

Interoperability

Enhancements to Increase Affinity with Linux

In conjunction with the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications packaged on separate media, new APIs are added to AIX so that Linux applications using these routines do not have to supply their own libraries.

The goal is to have "compile and go" operability for Linux applications. This does not extend to the kernel and device driver layers.

AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications

The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications provides the ability to build and execute applications commonly found in Linux distributions. It supports a wide variety of software, including:

  • Application development tools
  • Desktop environments
  • System utilities
  • Languages
  • Graphics applications
  • Text editors
  • Shells
  • Window managers

Featured software includes:

  • RPM
  • GNU tools
  • GNOME
  • KDE
  • Samba

Other features:

  • The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications is a collection of open source software commonly found with Linux distributions. There are over 160 different items available for installation.

    These are packaged using the open source RPM package manager, which reduces the time to produce a package for AIX since most open source applications have already been packaged with RPM. Source RPMs are available for customer use.

  • The Toolbox applications will be installed under /opt/freeware directory with symbolic links created where possible into standard directory paths to make the software immediately available for use.

  • If conflicts arise between identically named AIX and Toolbox commands or libraries, the Toolbox will generate links under /usr/linux rather than in the standard locations. Users can get Linux behavior for commands such as make, awk, and sed by placing /usr/linux/bin ahead of /usr/bin in their PATH.

  • The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications is packaged on separate media and distributed as a convenience at no charge. It is also available from the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications Web site at:

    Updates to the Web site are expected on a frequent basis.

  • The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications is not supported by IBM and is provided "as is," under the terms and conditions of the license on the AIX Toolbox CD or Web site.

Base Operating System

NFS Statd Multithreading

The status monitor provides a general framework for collecting network status information. Implemented as a daemon that runs on all NFS configured machines, the status monitor provides a simple protocol that allows applications to easily monitor the status of other machines.

Deactivating Active Paging Spaces

This function provides new flexibility without rebooting after:

  • Changing configurations
  • Moving paging space to another drive
  • Dividing paging space between drives

Until this release, allocated and activated paging space had to remain active until the next reboot. With this release, paging space can be deactivated without rebooting by using the new "swapoff" command. A new "shrinkps" command:

  • Creates a new, temporary space
  • Deactivates the original
  • Changes the original to be smaller and reactivates it
  • Deactivates the temporary space and returns it to logical volume status

The use of a shell script reduces the possibility of an unbootable state because users will not be allowed to run out of adequate paging space. The script checks paging space actually in use and adds a buffer for paging space warning threshold.

Malloc Enhancements

AIX 5.1 provides an optional buckets-based extension of the default memory allocator (the malloc subsystem) that improves performance for applications that issue large numbers of small allocation requests.

Each bucket consists of a block of memory that is subdivided into a predetermined number of smaller allocatable blocks of uniform size. Organizing allocatable memory in this fashion often provides faster access for allocation requests falling within the range of sizes defined by the buckets.

When this capability is enabled, allocation requests that fall within a predefined range of block sizes are processed by Malloc Buckets. All other requests (for example, those outside the defined range of sizes) are processed in the usual manner by the default allocator. Up to 128 buckets are available per heap (refer to the Malloc Multiheap documentation for details on this capability).

Number of buckets, bucket sizing factor, and other configuration values are specified via an environment variable prior to process startup. More information on configuring the MALLOCTYPE and MALLOCBUCKETS environment variables is available in the book "General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs."

SVR4 Printing Subsystem

AIX 5.1 provides the UNIX® System V style file spooling subsystem and makes it available as an administrator configurable option. Enabling this option allows users who are more comfortable with System V printer utilities to more easily use AIX 5.1.

System V Packaging Commands

System V Packaging Commands are available for customers to create and install a package in the System V packaging format. These commands are:

  • pkgmk: to create a package in System V packaging format
  • pkgadd: to install a System V packaging format package
  • pkgrm: to remove the package
  • pkginfo: to display information about the package
  • pkgtrans: translate package format to a datastream
  • pkgparam: display package parameter values
  • pkgask: store answers to a request script

Multithreaded AutoFS

AutoFS is enhanced to support the multithreaded automountd daemon. This allows automountd to provide more jobs than before.

In addition to fulfilling mount requests, the new automountd handles requests such as:

  • Lookup
  • Unmount requests
  • Autofs readdir

It is 64-bit enabled, which permits it to be run in either 32-bit or 64-bit kernel.

The /proc Filesystem

The /proc file system provides access to the state of each process and thread in the system.

The file system is mounted over /proc. Standard system call interfaces, such as open(), read(), write(), lseek(), are used to access /proc files. Programs such a debuggers can use /proc to control a process being debugged. /proc provides the ability to:

  • Stop and start threads in a process
  • Trace syscalls and signals
  • Read and write virtual memory in a process
  • Other capabilities

Increased Concurrent Group per Process Limit

The number of concurrent groups per process has been increased from 32 to 64. The concurrent group set is used to control access to files and programs. Increasing this value allows users greater flexibility in classifying and protecting system resources.

Administrators who require access to resources belonging to a large number of groups will be able to access those resources without having to change their concurrent group set.

Increased Argument List Limit

The argument list limit has been increased to 512 K from 24 K (24 K is the traditional AIX limit and system default).

Applications can specify the length of command line argument and the length of the environment (stream length) list in bytes. Users will be able to use the default or automatically specify an upper limit (512 K) for their application.

Storage

DMAPI — Data Management API

AIX 5.1 includes the implementation of the DMAPI, as defined in the XDSM API specification.

DMAPI is a technology, which enables the development of relatively portable data management applications, such as hierarchical storage management (HSM), by providing the underlying JFS support and programming interface for those applications. DMAPI is available on the 32-bit kernel only.

LVM Scalability — Variable Logical Track Group (LTG)

The LVM now has a constant max transfer size of 128 K, (which is known within LVM as the LTG). Enhancements are provided to allow a Volume Group (VG) LTG size to be specified at VG creation time and to change the LTG size of an existing volume group.

Different LTG sizes of 128 K, 256 K, 512 K, and 1024 K are now supported and verification for the sizes of 512 K and 1024 K are underway. The different LTG sizes pend on the max transfer size of the member disks of the volume group.

LVM Mirror Write Consistency

MWC helps ensure data integrity on logical volumes in the event of a system crash during mirrored writes.

The existing method achieves this by logging when a write operation occurs. The LVM makes an update to a log (MWC log) that identifies what areas of the disk are being updated prior to performing the write of the data. This results in a performance degradation during random writes.

There are now two ways of handling MWC: Active and Passive. The existing method is Active MWC and the new MWC is called "Passive."

The Active MWC method (existing MWC) is still supported and is the default mode when a mirrored logical volume is created.

Passive MWC reduces the instance of having to update the MWC log on the disk. This method logs that the logical volume has been opened but does not log the writes. If the volume group is not deactivated before reboot (crash), then the LVM starts a forced synchronization of the entire logical volume when the system restarts. Data consistency exists for reads that occur during the synchronization so that applications can start using data as soon as the volume group is varied on.

The new Passive MWC method is intended to provide better random write performance on mirrored logical volumes when compared to the Active MWC method.

Hot Spare Disk Support in Volume Group

The LVM previously shipped with AIX took no action when partitions went stale or disks went missing other than logging an error in the error log.

The new ability of LVM to optionally provide hot spare disks within a volume group and automatically synchronize stale partitions helps to increase the availability of mirrored data.

In addition, the Logical Volume Manager will attempt to reactivate a missing disk. If the disk cannot be restarted, then its mirror copy will be migrated to a hot spare disk if such disk with proper size exists.

Hot Spot Management in Logical Volume Group

LVM provides the ability to move physical partitions (smallest possible data unit in a volume group) to any member disk of the volume group. Sometimes it is necessary to migrate partitions to new disk for maintenance (for example, disk replacement). This migration may also achieve a performance gain for I/O if there happened to be high-traffic partitions all located on a single disk and some were migrated to other member disks.

Currently, there are no tools at LVM level that will identify the partitions by the number of I/O structures. There are tools that provide similar information like iostat and filemon, but they do not directly identify the partitions at the LVM level. Hot spot management provides two commands — one that will identify the hot spots and another that migrates the hot spot to a different location.

Development and Performance Tools

AIX Developer Kit, Java™ 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0

Java 2 Standard Edition Version 1.3 comes with a host of enhancements to Java classes and APIs, including:

  • User interface
  • Graphics
  • Sound
  • Networking
  • Math libraries

The IBM implementations, which are fully compliant with J2SE 1.3, include these enhancements too. AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3 has been engineered with the following features to deliver high performance and scalability to the most demanding e-business applications:

  • Fully compatible with the Sun Java 2 Version 1.3.0 language, enabling "Write Once Run Anywhere"
  • The latest version of the optimizing IBM Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler
  • Efficient exploitation of AIX native threads
  • "Handle-less" object model
  • Fast, lightweight monitors
  • Efficient management of large Java heaps through optimized object allocation and efficient garbage collection
  • Thread-local heap
  • Robust network support for a large number of concurrent connections
  • Better scaling support for large numbers of threads and large numbers of file handles
  • Tuned class libraries, which enhance performance in important areas — in particular, character codepage conversions, which are heavily used in many common types of Java applications

Other highlights of the AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0 include:

  • Remote Method Invocation-Internet Inter-Object Request Broker Protocol (RMI-IIOP) extends the base Java RMI to perform communication using the Common Object Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.
  • Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides a unified interface to enterprise directory services such as the CORBA Common Object Services Naming Service, the Java RMI Registry, and LDAP.
  • Tools to Build Secure Java Applications are on the AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1 Expansion Pack and are available worldwide. The tools include:
    • Java Cryptography Extension (JCE), Version 1.2.1

      JCE provides a framework and implementations for encryption, key generation and key agreement, and Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms. Support for encryption includes symmetric, asymmetric, block, and stream ciphers. The software also supports secure streams and sealed objects. For a general overview of JCE, visit:

      The IBM JCE implementation provides more cryptographic algorithms than the Sun implementation.

    • Certificate Management Protocol (CMP)

      CMP provides support to online interactions between Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) components.

      For example, a management protocol might be used between a Certificate Authority (CA) and a client system with which a key pair is associated, or between two CAs that issue cross-certificates for each other.

      For a full description of CMP, refer to RFC 2510 and 2511 for CRMF. These RFCs are available at:

    • Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS)

      As public-key cryptography begins to see wide application and acceptance, interoperability standards are necessary for smooth implementation. Even though vendors may agree on the basic public-key techniques, compatibility between implementations is by no means guaranteed.

      Interoperability requires strict adherence to an agreed-upon standard format for transferred data.

      IBM PKCS implementation supports the following RSA standards: PKCS #1, #3, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, and #12. For more information, visit:

    • Secure Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME)

      S/MIME provides the Java classes needed to encode and decode S/MIME messages. This implementation provides a limited S/MIME parser geared to understanding and extracting PKCS #7 ContentInfo and PKCS #10 CertificationRequest objects from a S/MIME messages.

      For more information on S/MIME, refer to RFC 2311 (S/MIME Version 2 Message Specification) at:

    • Java Secure Sockets Extension (JSSE), Version 1.0.2

      JSSE enables secure Internet communications and implements a Java version of SSL and TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocols. It includes functionality for data encryption, server authentication, message integrity, and optional client authentication.

      For more information, visit:

    • Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) Version 1.0

      JAAS provides a security model for the Java platform, which permits access to Java-controlled resources based on the identity of the user on whose behalf the Java program is running, rather than the source of the code.

  • Java Communications API Version 2.0 allows Java applications to access RS232 serial ports and IEEE 1284 parallel ports. For more information, visit:
  • IBM Big Decimal Extension adds decimal floating point extension to the Java Big Decimal class. For more information, visit:
  • JDBC/ODBC Bridge allows access to databases with ODBC drivers.
  • Java Plug-In allows applets running in AIX Netscape Communicator 4.7x Web browser to run using AIX Java Version 1.3.0.

Additional information about AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0 is available at:

AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0 is also available on the Web at:

Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) Parser for Java, Version 3.1.1

AIX 5.1 provides the XML Parser for Java, Version 3.1.1, which is packaged with AIX Developer Kit, Java 2 Technology Edition, Version 1.3.0.

The XML parser can be used to parse the XML data stream for processing applications. It contains classes and methods for parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating XML documents.

The XML parser for Java incorporates the following:

  • Public and stable support of the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1, and the Simple API for XML (SAX) Level 1 specification
  • DOM Level 2 and SAX Level 2 implementation
  • Partial implementation of World Wide Web consortium schema, which was available on April 7, 2000
  • Optimizations for performance improvement
  • Thread safety robustness

For more information on XML, visit:

Performance Analysis Tools Enhancements in AIX Base OS

Performance Analysis Tools include the following new tools:

  • truss allows the tracing of all system calls made and signals received by a command or an existing process.
  • alstat is a new tool, which reports alignment exception statistics. This tool can be used to detect performance degradations caused by misaligned data or code.
  • emstat is a new tool for reporting emulation exception statistics. It can be used to detect performance degradation caused by emulated code. For instance, code compiled for older systems and running on the latest PowerPC® processors.
  • locktrace permits dynamic enablement of kernel lock activity tracing. If the bosboot-L command was previously executed and the machine rebooted, activity tracing could be turned on at the class level to minimize the overhead of lock tracing.
  • wlmmon permits analysis of workload manager class activity by resource. It is a Java-based Graphical User Interface for generating trend report on the last 24-hours of WLM activity.
  • perfstat API is a new set of APIs, which provides easy access to kernel performance metrics.
  • PMAPI is a new set of APIs providing access to Performance Monitor data on selected processor type, including 604, 604e, POWER3, POWER3-II, RS64 II, and RS64 III.

In addition, the Performance Analysis Tools include the following enhancements:

  • filemon has been enhanced to process off-line trace files to allow reports from busiest systems to be processed as well.
  • gennames is a newly documented utility, which supports off-line analysis of trace files by the filemon, netpmon, pprof and tprof analysis tools.
  • iostat now provides adapter and system level throughput statistics.
  • netpmon now can process off-line trace files to improve usability and scalability on larger systems. This tool has also been enhanced to support all current adapters.
  • rmss is updated to support larger memory systems and the 64-bit kernel.
  • svmon has been enhanced to support Workload Management tier and superclass and subclass reports. Additionally, it has been updated to support the 64-bit kernel.
  • topas has been updated with NFS and SMP statistics, support for Workload Manager classes, and new full screens for process and WLM views.
  • vmstat has been enhanced with a new I/O view for displaying an alternative set of metrics focused on I/O activity.
  • tprof now supports the profiling of Java applications through the Java Virtual Machine Performance Interface (JVMPI).

The following tools have been withdrawn in AIX 5.1:

  • bf (bigfoot)
  • bfrpt
  • stem
  • syscalls
  • lockstat

Consult manual pages for svmon, truss, and locktrace for similar functionalities supported by those tools.

Inventory Scout

Inventory Scout searches the user's system for microcode levels and compares those levels with an IBM database of latest levels. When used with Web-based Microcode Discovery Service, an html report is generated for the user and includes links to the latest levels of microcode for the system (with the exception of SP™ systems).

Inventory Scout gathers Vital Product Information (VPD) from the user's machine and, when used with Web-based VPD Capture Service, uploads it to the IBM MRPD database. This VPD is useful in determining the correct components to ship when a Miscellaneous Equipment Specification (MES) upgrade is ordered.

Expanded tar/cpio Formats

A new archive format "pax," compatible with the proposed IEEE POSIX 1003.2b standard, is added to the existing "pax" archive utility. This format is 64-bit ready and fully extensible and customizable by users for their own additional file information. It supports:

  • Large files with greater than 2 GB file sizes
  • Meta-data for internationalization to customize handling of files written in different code sets and character sets
  • Customer-specified meta-data per file or per archive to customize handling of file access, specify file ownership, control information displayed in the archive's table of contents, suppress undesired information, and govern handling of symbolic links

In addition, this archive format can even be read by older pax and tar utilities.

Enhancements to dbx

  • Enhancements to the POSIX threads debug library
  • Locks owned by a particular thread or process
  • Resources a thread is waiting for
  • Information on fork and cleanup handlers registered to a user thread
  • Pthread signal contexts

Additional Administrative Tools

Several new enhancements for administrators have been added:

  • An additional option with the sar command: the -d option provides useful statistics such as throughput and average queue depth. Many of these statistics were previously provided with the AIX "iostat" command. The new -d option is added to AIX 5.1 for compatibility with other UNIX operating systems.
  • The "restore" command is enhanced to maintain the non-sparseness of the database files similar to the "tar" command. This command introduces a new flag "e" to maintain the sparseness of database files after they are restored. The new command option successfully generates the files as "non-sparse" on output if specified and "sparse" by default if not specified.
  • The startup and shutdown utilities have been expanded to now log their activities in much more detail when logging is enabled. This allows easier service and maintenance.

Enhancements to Compiler Products for AIX

Available as licensed programs, the C++, C, and FORTRAN compiler products have been updated to support AIX 5.1. In particular, the compilers will exploit the 64-bit large datatype (LDT) model and execution on both 32-bit and 64-bit kernels. Support for AIX 5.1 will be available through the following product releases:

  • VisualAge® C++ Professional for AIX, Version 5.0.2 and C for AIX, Version 5.0.2
  • Version 5.0.2 of both these products are manufacturing mod level refresh upgrades. Customers will be required to upgrade their C and C++ products to this level in order to obtain support for AIX 5.1. Equivalent PTFs will not be available for either products. The 64-bit LDT support in these products include:
    • C batch compiler
    • C++ batch and incremental compilers
    • C++, symmetric multi-processing (SMP), profile-directed feedback (PDF), and memory debug (MEMDBG) runtime libraries.
    • IBM OpenClass (IOC) core classes. IOC UI classes continue to be supported only in 32-bit user processes.
    • Distributed Debugger support for 64-bit LDT and 64-bit core file format.
  • XL FORTRAN for AIX, Version 7.1

    Support for the AIX 5.1 64-bit large datatype and execution on both 32-bit and 64-bit kernels will be available via APARs IY16228 and IY16948.

System Management

Web-based System Manager

Web-based System Manager for AIX 5.1 represents a significant advance over previous releases by providing a new management console capable of managing multiple hosts.

As in previous releases, Web-based System Manager applications can be accessed from PC-clients running Web-browsers such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft™ Internet Explorer that accept the Java plug-in. These applications can also be accessed either locally or remotely without a Web-browser on AIX 5.1 graphical workstations.

In addition, Web-based System Manager delivers a capability to run a Window PC-clients natively, significantly increasing the Web-based System Manager's performance.

New functions include:

  • RSCT is the Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology offering that provides the capability for an administrator to monitor resources on the machine, including filesystems, programs, processors, adapters, and kernel information such as CPU statistics and memory allocation.

    These resources can be monitored around the clock and automatic responses run if the values of resources reach certain levels or thresholds.

    The automated responses include running any command or script (for example a user-provided pager command or a recovery script), broadcasting a message, sending e-mail, or logging the event to a file. Different responses can be run based on time of day and whether a particular problem occurred or has been resolved.

    There is a command line interface for this functionality and a GUI with the Web-based System Manager monitoring application.

  • A new unified management console for system administration: Web-based System Manager provides a single console and application suite.

  • Enhanced scalability of the GUI: Web-based System Manager includes a number of features to deal with large numbers of managed objects.

  • Enhanced ease of management and usability: Web-based System Manager further simplifies administrative tasks through improvements in task design, new user interface features, and enhanced user assistance technology. This version also improves the accessibility of the console to users with disabilities.

  • Simplified log on: The console and management infrastructure provides features to reduce the need to logon to multiple systems.

  • Persistent and more flexible user customization options: Administrator preferences such as the choice of managed resources that are presented can be customized and are persistent over management sessions.

Web-based System Manager Application Support

A set of Web-based System Manager plug-ins are available. All of the application function of prior releases is included with new functions and enhancements. The complete set of application functions will include:

  • Host Overview

    The Host Overview plug-in provides a central location for users to quickly gather information on the status and health of a machine.

    Information provided in the Host Overview contents includes static information such as operating system level, IP address, machine type and serial number, available processors, available memory and paging space, and size of the base JFS filesystems.

    In addition, dynamic information such as processors online, CPU cycles used, memory and paging space utilized, and percentage used of the base JFS file systems is provided and kept up-to-date.

  • Backups

    This task-oriented plug-in performs backup and restores. Supported tasks will include backup and restore operations for the system (mksysb), volume groups, logical volumes, file systems, and individual files.

  • Custom Tools

    The Custom Tools plug-in enables users to add new tools to the Web-based System Manager console.

    Two types of tools can be defined — Web-tools and command tools. Web-tools are defined by a URL and launch a browser when invoked. Command tools refer to any action that can be invoked by a command on the managed host. This could be a simple AIX command or an application program.

    Actions that generate their own user interface (for example, a Motif-based application) can be launched as a custom tool only when the client is running on the managed host. Once defined, tools appear as icons in the Custom Tools container. The user can define unique icons and descriptive text for each tool.

  • Devices

    The Devices plug-in displays the inventory of physical and logical devices and their status.

    Both physical (organized by system connections) and logical (categorical) views are provided. The Devices plug-in furthers error-free system management with significant design enhancements for RAID.

    New features include an easy-to-use PCI Hot Plug configuration wizard, which allows quick configuration of all PCI Hot Plug devices within your system.

  • File Systems

    This plug-in permits the management of the Journaled File System (JFS), JFS2, CD-ROM file systems, Network File System, and Cache File Systems.

  • Monitoring

    The Web-based System Manager monitoring application is the GUI to the RSCT subsystem and allows the administrator to set up monitoring for many resources on the managed system, including filesystems, programs, processors, adapters, and kernel information, such as CPU statistics and memory allocation.

    These resources can be monitored around the clock and automatic responses run if the values of resources reach certain levels or thresholds. The automated responses include running any command or script (for example, a user-provided pager command or a recovery script), broadcasting a message, sending e-mail, or logging the event to a file. Different responses can be run based on time of day and whether a particular problem occurred or has been resolved.

    A rich set of predefined conditions and responses are installed by default to allow the administrator to begin monitoring immediately. These predefined conditions and responses can also be adjusted or copied to fit the individual needs of the customer environment.

    In addition, the Events plug-in provides a convenient log of events that have occurred on the managed system while the Web-based System Manager graphical user interface is running.

    The system also maintains an audit log of events that have occurred on the managed system regardless of whether a Web-based System Manager is running. The audit log can be viewed from either the Web-based System Manager or the command line.

  • Network

    The Network plug-in provides user interfaces for configuring and managing network communications. It includes configuration and management of TCP/IP, PPP, NIS, NIS+, and VPN.

    The SNMP plug-in provides both SNMP configuration and monitoring capabilities.

  • Network Install Manager (NIM)

    The NIM plug-in performs network installations of the base operating system and applications. NIM includes the ability to define groups of machines for common install operations.

  • PC Services

    The PC services plug-in allows administrators to manage the IBM Fast Connect server, file and printer sharing, and user sessions.

  • Printers

    Two print subsystems are provided with AIX 5.1. With the traditional print subsystem, plug-ins are provided for managing printers, print servers, queues, and jobs. In addition, a limited set of functions are available for the new System V print subsystem.

  • Processes

    With the Processes plug-in, administrators can view details and kill and reprioritize executing processes. Processes may be displayed in a sortable and filterable table or in a tree that shows child-parent relationships.

  • Software

    The software plug-in allows the administrator to view installed software, reject or commit installed software, and install new software.

  • System Environments

    The System Environments plug-in provides access to basic operating system properties and utilities such as time and date, language utilities, and shutdown.

  • Users and Groups

    The Users and Groups plug-in provides management capabilities for users, groups, and administrative roles. The users and groups plug-ins can be used to define and manage disk quotas.

  • Volumes

    This release will include several significant enhancements, which will allow the administrator to designate disks as "hot spares" for volume groups.

    This will minimize the need to bring the system down due to a disk failure, manage and monitor disk I/O bottlenecks for increased system performance with "Hot Spot Management", and dynamically deallocate paging spaces, which will reduce system downtime.

    Additional enhancements are included in the volumes application for those working with "Big" Volume Groups.

  • Workload Manager

    The Workload Manager plug-in allows administrators to define and manage system workload configurations and classes of processes via Web-based System Manager.

    Workload Manager helps ensure that defined processes obtain the appropriate level of system resources such as memory, CPU, and disk I/O bandwidth. Current status of these system resources can be viewed via Web-based System Manager.

Accessibility Enhancement to Web-based System Manager Framework and Applications

Accessibility enhancement includes the following features:

  • Full keyboard accessibility support, including keyboard navigation, menu shortcuts keys, and mnemonics in menu and dialogs, allowing the user to use Web-based System Manager without a mouse
  • Available text descriptions for all icons and labels in Web-based System Manager
  • Enablement in Web-based System Manager for speech output, using IBM Self-Voicing Kit (SVK)

    This toolkit can be downloaded from the IBM AlphaWorks site:

These accessibility features can increase ease of use for all users. For example, keyboard shortcuts speed interaction for "power" users.

Non-European Monetary Union (EMC) Support

Additional ISO8859-15 locales are added into the code set so that certain countries which are not a part of the European Monetary Union (EMU) may still conduct business with EMU countries.

This limited set of locales includes el_GR (Greece), Et_EE (Estonia), Lv_LV (Latvia), Lt_LT (Lithuania), Ar_AA (Arabic), Vi_VN (Vietnam), and Zh_TW (Traditional Chinese).

Hindi Enablement

AIX 5.1 adds basic enablement and locale support for Hindi. Hindi characters can be entered, viewed, and printed from an AIX system. This enablement provides printing capability for the following printers:

  • 4332 Network Printer, also called as Info Print 32
  • 6400 Line Matrix Printer
  • 4247 Multi-Form Printer

Additional Locales

New locales are introduced in AIX 5.1.

Languages      Locales
 
Arabic         ar_AE, ar_BH, ar_EG, ar_JO, ar_KW, ar_LB,
                 ar_OM, ar_QA, ar_SA, ar_SY, and ar_TN
English        en_CA, en_IN, en_IE, en_IE EURO,
                 and en_NZ
French         fr_LU, and fr_LU EURO
German         de_AT(R), de_AT EURO, de_LU,
                 and de_LU EURO
Serbian        sr_YU, and sh_YU
Spanish        es_AR, es_CL, es_CO, es_MX, es_PE, es_US,
                 es_UY, and es_VE
Hindi          HI_IN

Enhancements to Input Method Editor for GBK Locale

AIX 5.1 supports additional popular input method editors such as Intelligent ABC, Pinyin, BiaoXing Ma, Internal Code, ZhengMa for GBK codes on AIX GBK locale.

Korean 103 Keyboard Support

This feature provides an alternate Korean keyboard with 103 keys. It includes the Korean / English switch key, which is called Hangul and located between the space bar and the right Alt key. There will also be a Chinese key, called Hanja, located between the left Alt key and the space bar.

Graphics Enhancements

OpenGL on POWER GXT4000P and POWER GXT6000P will now support 64-bit direct window access (DWA). This is intended to boost performance for 64-bit OpenGL applications by allowing them to render using the OpenGL protocol directly rather than going through the Xserver and GLX Extension

System Support

AIX 5.1 adds support for:

  • pSeries 620 Model 6F1 Server
  • pSeries 660 Model 6H1 Server

AIX 5.1 has been enhanced to provide support for up to 32-way SMP scalability and 256 GB memory.

I/O Support

AIX 5.1 supports the following I/O with both the 64-bit and 32-bit kernel, unless otherwise indicated:

Storage Interfaces

  • 4.7 GB SCSI-2 DVD-RAM Drive including mksysb function
  • Gigabit Fibre Channel
  • External Fibre disk and tape subsystems (2104-E10/E20/F10/F20, 2102-F10/D00, 2103-H07, 2108-G07/R03, 2109-S08/S16, 3590 tape)
  • Ultra SCSI SE and Ultra SCSI Differential
  • SCSI Disk drives
  • External SCSI Disk subsystems (2104-DL1/TL1, 2104-E10/E20/F10/F20, 7134, 7137, 7135, 7131-105, 7027, 7203, 7204)
  • External Ultra3 subsystem (DU3/TU3)
  • External SCSI Tape and Optical subsystems (too numerous to list)
  • SCSI Tape Drives (1/4-inch, 4-mm, and 8-mm)
  • SCSI CD-ROMs
  • Diskette Drive
  • PCI Dual Channel Ultra2 SCSI Adapter
  • PCI 3-Channel Ultra2 SCSI RAID Adapter
  • PCI 4-Channel Ultra3 SCSI RAID Adapter
  • Older Fast/Wide SCSI adapters (2408, 2409, 6208, 6209)
  • SCSI-2 Fast/Wide PCI RAID Adapter
  • SSA Advanced SerialRAID Adapter
  • SSA Advanced SerialRAID Plus Adapter
  • SSA Disk drives
  • Existing AIX Version 4.3.3 MCA adapters

Communications and Connectivity (PCI bus type)

  • EIA RS232D/EIA RS422A
  • Token-Ring PCI 4/16 Adapter
  • 4-port 10/100 Mbps Ethernet
  • IBM Ethernet 10/100 Mbps
  • 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI Adapter
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • FDDI 100 Mbps (32-bit kernel only)
  • ATM 155 Mbps
  • TURBOWAYS® 622 Mbps PCI MMF ATM Adapter
  • SP System Attachment
  • 2-port Multiprotocol PCI Adapter (32-bit kernel only when using X.25)
  • Artic960Hx 4-port Selectable PCI Adapter (32-bit kernel only)
  • Existing AIX Version 4.3.3 MCA adapters (except Artic960 adapters)
  • Digi 8/128 port Async Card IBM PCI 8/128 RAN boxes

Specialized Adapters

  • POWER GXT120P 2D PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT130P 2D PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT300P 2D PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT2000P Entry, 3D 32-bit PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT3000P Mid-range, 3D 64-bit PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT4000P Entry, 3D 64-Bit PCI Graphics Accelerator
  • POWER GXT6000P Mid-Range, 3D 64-Bit PCI Graphics Accelerator with onboard geometry engine
  • PCI Cryptographic Coprocessor (32-bit kernel only)

Offering Information

Product information is available through Offering Information (OITOOL) at:

Publications

Publications can be viewed using the Documentation Library Service, which offers easier access to online documentation with a single integrated graphical user interface. This user interface allows users to read, navigate, and search online HTML documentation. The Documentation Library Service also contains a Print Tool button. When you click this button, you see a list of books that can be downloaded in a single printable file for printing on your local printer. You have the option of customizing this list to include your own book for printing. This serves customers who want to view books online as well as read documents in hardcopy format.

Technical Information

Hardware Requirements

IBM Power, POWER2, Personal Computer Power Series® 830 and 850 desktop systems, IBM PowerPC systems, or POWER3 systems with the following exceptions:

  • RS/6000® 7016 POWERserver® Model 730
  • RS/6000 7007 Notebook Workstation Model N40
  • POWERnetwork Dataserver 7051
  • RS/6000 7249 Models 851 and 860
  • RS/6000 7247 Models 821, 822, and 823

AIX 5.1 supports system with at least 64 MB of physical memory, 128 MB of initial disk paging space, and requires 536 MB disk storage for the operating system for a total of 664 MB of disk storage.

All POWER graphics adapters supported on AIX 4.3.3 will also be supported on the AIX 5.1 32-bit kernel.

Additionally, the following POWER graphics adapters will be supported on both 32-bit and 64-bit kernels:

  • POWER GXT120P
  • POWER GXT130P
  • POWER GXT300P
  • POWER GXT2000P
  • POWER GXT3000P
  • POWER GXT4000P
  • POWER GXT6000P

AIX 5.1 will not support the following hardware features:

  • 3Com 10/100 Mbps PCI Fast Etherlink XL for Power PC Systems (#2986)
  • Eicon ISDN DIVA PRO 2.0 PCI S/T Adapter (#2708)

AIX 5.1 does not support the following Graphic Input Devices in 64-bit kernel; the devices are supported under 32-bit kernel:

  • 6094-010 Dials
  • 6094-020 LPFK
  • 6093-011 Tablet
  • 6093-012 Tablet
  • 6093-021 Tablet

Software Requirements

  • AIX

    AIX 5.1 supports system with at least 64 MB of physical memory, 128 MB of initial disk paging space, and requires 536 MB disk storage for the operating system for a total of 664 MB of disk storage.

  • OPENGL AND GL 3.2
    • Requires disk space between 5 MB and 50 MB
    • 32-bit kernel: a minimum of 64 MB of system memory
    • 64-bit kernel: a minimum of 64 MB of system memory

  • PHIGS
    • Requires disk space between 10 MB and 120 MB
    • 32-bit kernel: a minimum of 64 MB of system memory
    • 64-bit kernel: a minimum of 64 MB of system memory

  • SecureWay Directory Version 3.2.1

    To install the SecureWay Directory, your computer must meet the following minimum system requirements.

    • SecureWay Directory client:

      For the latest information on supported versions of AIX, refer to the client README file in /usr/ldap/readme/(lang)/readme/client.txt or using a Web browser, at:

        /usr/ldap/web/(lang)/readme/client.htm

      A minimum of 64 MB RAM is required (128 MB is strongly recommended).

    • SecureWay Directory server (including the client):

      For the latest information on supported versions of AIX, refer to the server README file in /usr/ldap/readme/(lang)/readme/server.txt or using a Web browser, at:

        /usr/ldap/web/(lang)/readme/server.htm

In addition to the client requirements, the server requires the following:

  • A minimum of 64 MB RAM (128 MB is strongly recommended)

  • One of the following Web servers (or a later version), installed and configured:
    • IBM HTTP Server 1.3.12
    • Lotus® Domino™ Go Webserver 4.6.2.6
    • Lotus Domino Enterprise 5.0.2b Webserver
    • Apache Server 1.3.12
    • Netscape FastTrack Server 3.01
    • Netscape Enterprise Server 3.6.3, 4.0

    ATTENTION: You must have a secure Web server to ensure that the transmission of your administration data is secure. For instructions, consult online documentation.

  • DB2 Version 6.1 is included with the SecureWay Directory. Higher versions of DB2 might also be supported. If you already have DB2 installed, you need approximately 45 MB of disk space. You need approximately 135 MB of disk space for both LDAP and DB2. Disk space required for data storage is dependent upon the number and size of database entries.

Program Specifications: AIX 5L Version 5.1 is a UNIX operating environment, designed to handle the needs and requirements of a wide variety of systems and applications. It is designed for use in technical and commercial environments, and to be scalable on a wide variety of hardware platforms.

AIX 5L Version 5.1 provides:

  • Support for uniprocessors (UP) and symmetric multiprocessors (SMP)
  • 32-bit and 64-bit kernel support
  • 32-bit and 64-bit application support
  • GUI based on the Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
  • X11R5 and X11R6 windowing system
  • Motif 2.1
  • Conforms to the following major industry standards:
    • IEEE POSIX
      • POSIX 1003.1-1996, System Interfaces (including Threads) and Header files
      • POSIX 1003.2-1993, System Commands and Utilities
    • X/OPEN
      • UNIX98 Server Brand
      • UNIX98 Base Brand
      • Internet Server Product Standard
  • Journaled file system (JFS)
  • Journaled file system 2 (JFS2)
  • LVM
  • Security and control facilities
  • Network File Systems (NFS)
  • License Use Manager (LUM)
  • Network Computing System (NCS)
  • System management facilities
  • Performance tools
  • Communications:
    • UUCP
    • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
    • Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
    • Common Data Link Interface (CDLI)
    • Data Link Protocol Interface (DLPI)
    • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Agent
    • ATM LAN emulation
    • IPX/SPX protocols
    • ATM Classical IP (C/IP)
    • Multi-Protocol Over ATM (MPOA)
    • Generic Data Link Control Interface (GDLC)
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  • Java support
  • International language support:
    • Unicode support
    • Single-Byte Character Set (SBCS) and Multi-Byte Character Set (MBCS) support
    • Euro currency symbol support
  • OpenGL and GL 3.2
  • PHIGS
  • HTML-based documentation
  • Network Install Manager (NIM)
  • Network Information Services Server Function (NIS)
  • SecureWay Directory

Compatibility

AIX 5L Version 5 Binary Compatibility — 32-bit Applications from AIX: Version 4 Releases

AIX Version 4.1, 4.2, or 4.3 applications written for RS/6000 POWER-, POWER2-, POWER3-, and PowerPC-based models can be executed on AIX 5L Version 5 without recompilation for same and newer models in that processor family (POWER, POWER2, POWER3 or PowerPC). The exceptions to this statement would be applications compiled using POWER2, POWER3, or PowerPC specific compiler options but executed on models other than POWER2, POWER3, or PowerPC, respectively, or applications using:

  • Non-shared compiles of AIX shared libraries
  • Features explicitly described as non-portable by IBM in the AIX Version 4 or 5 reference manuals
  • Undocumented AIX internal features
  • X11R5 Server Extensions

Applications compiled on AIX Version 5 will not operate properly on systems running any level of AIX Version 4.

Any program that must run in all environments — POWER, POWER2, POWER3, and PowerPC (601 and newer PowerPC processors) — must be compiled using the common mode option of the compiler. Programs compiled to exploit POWER2 or POWER3 technology must be run on the same processor type. Programs compiled to exploit PowerPC-based technology must be run on PowerPC-based processors. Existing binaries need not be recompiled to operate on the target processors.

AIX Version 5 Binary Compatibility — 64-bit Applications from AIX: Version 4 Releases

64-bit applications produced using AIX Version 4 will not execute on AIX Version 5. These applications will need to be recompiled from the source on AIX Version 5 to execute on this version of AIX. 64-bit applications produced using AIX Version 5 on any of the 32-bit or 64-bit processor models will execute without recompilation on the 64-bit processor models. 32-bit applications produced using AIX Version 5 on either 32-bit or 64-bit processor models will execute without recompilation on both models.

X11R5/X11R6 Compatibility Issues On AIX Version 5: The AIX Version 5 X-server uses the X-Consortium release 6 of X (commonly known as X11R6). The libraries shipped by IBM with XllR6 are backward compatible and the client applications which access these libraries work as on AIX Version 4. As on AIX Version 4, IBM will also ship X11R3, X11R4, X11R5 compatibility installation options for maximum customer flexibility.

The broad majority of applications using X fall into this category and will not see any difficulty. However, a small minority of X-applications use the loadable extension facility provided by the X-server.

The X-server allows for the addition of new functionality through its extension mechanism. For each extension, part of the extension is loaded into the X-server before it can be executed. X11R6 has modified how this mechanism works in the course of improvements to X, and it is this part of the extension that must be made compatible with X11R6 to execute properly. All extensions supplied by IBM have been made compatible. In some circumstances, a customer may have an extension which will not work with X11R6, for example, a customer:

  • Has a sample extension downloaded from the X-Consortium ftp site
  • Develops his own extension
  • Uses a third-party extension

In these cases, the extension will need to be made compatible with X11R6 before they will execute properly. Customer-developed extensions and sample X-consortium extensions will need to be recompiled with the X11R6 environment. For third-party extensions, the customer should contact the vendor for a X11R6 compatible update.

Customers using non-IBM display adapters may also be using vendor-supplied software specific to those devices that uses X11R6 Server capabilities. If so, this software must be compatible with X11R6 to operate properly. The customer should contact the particular vendor of the display adapter for this software.

IBM plans to provide a porting guide with AIX Version 5 to assist customers and vendors developing adapters or extensions for AIX.

Between AIX Versions 3 and 5: All AIX applications using AIX Version 3 Release 3.2 or greater, for POWER-, POWER2-, and PowerPC-based models, that are written in accordance with the guidelines in this announcement and other AIX announcements will run on AIX Version 5 without recompilation for those same models. The exceptions to this statement would be applications compiled using POWER2 or PowerPC specific compiler options but run on models other than POWER2 or PowerPC or applications using:

  • Their own loadable kernel extensions
  • Certain High Function Terminal control interfaces,
  • X11R3 Input Device interfaces
  • The CIO LAN device driver interface
  • SCSI Device configuration methods (IHVs)
  • The nlist() interface
  • DCE Threads

Applications created on a system using AIX Version 5 may not function properly on a system using AIX Version 3. Applications must have been created using the AIX shared libraries for these binary compatibility statements to apply.

Planning Information

Direct Customer Support: Direct customer support is provided by IBM Support Line. This fee service enhances customers' productivity by providing voice and electronic access into the IBM support organization. IBM Support Line will help answer questions pertaining to usage, and suspected software defects for eligible products.

Installation and technical support is provided by Global Services. For more information call 800-IBM-4YOU (426-4968).

Packaging: The AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1 package contains the following items:

  • IBM International Program License Agreement (IPLA) and License Information (LI) in multilanguage

    AIX 5L Version 5.1 delivers IPLA and LI documentation in electronic softcopy.

  • AIX 5L Installation Guide

  • One set of CD-ROMs for operating system and publications

Your Proof of Entitlement (PoE) for this program is a copy of a paid sales receipt, purchase order, invoice, or other sales record from IBM or its authorized reseller from whom you acquired the program, provided that it states the license charge unit (the characteristics of intended use of the program — for example, number of processors, number of users) and quantity acquired.

Information about how you may obtain program services will be provided by the party (either IBM or its authorized reseller) from whom you acquired the program.

Security, Auditability, and Control

AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1 uses the system and network security features for security and auditability. These features are:

  • System Security
    • Native Kerberos V5 KDC Server/Client Support
    • Trusted Computing Base available as an optional pre-install feature
    • AIX LDAP Security Audit plug-in
    • Pluggable Authentication Mechanism
    • SecureWay Directory Version 3.2.1
  • Network Security
    • PKCS Support
    • IP Key Encryption Security
    • Directory-based Resolvers

For a more detailed description of the security features, refer to the AIX System and Networking Security section of this announcement.

The customer is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.

Ordering Information

New Licensees

License entitlement for AIX 5L Version 5.1 is based on the maximum number of processors within a system, including SP systems that are based on the number of processors in each node. For example, a system ordered with a four-processor configuration will be licensed for use on four processors.

Upgrades

License upgrade charges for AIX 5L Version 5.1 are based on the number of processors to be used within a system, including SP systems that are based on the number of processors to be used in each node. For example, an SP system originally purchased/leased with four nodes, which has four processors on each node, with AIX Version 4 used on all four processors on the nodes, would require a quantity of 16 processors for the AIX 5L license upgrade.

AIX 5.1 is available at an upgrade price for those customers currently licensed for the following qualifying programs: AIX V3 or AIX V4.

                                             OTC(1)
                              Program        Feature
Description                   Number         Number
 
AIX 5L Version 5.1            5765-E61       0001
  Upgrade Features                           0002
1
OTC is one-time charge per processor

Feature number 9001 is required for asset registration.

Software Subscription for AIX

Priced upgrades for AIX Version 4.x to AIX 5L Version 5.1 are available with this announcement. However, it is IBM's intent to only provide future upgrades through either the Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) offering currently available today or a similar subscription offering. In addition, IBM intends to enhance the future subscription offerings with enhancements including more streamlined order processing capabilities.

Customers, who purchased protection for AIX Version 4 (5765-C34) under Software Subscription for AIX (5692-SSO) or Software Protection Plan for AIX and UNIX Operating System Base Software (5692-ADV), are entitled to receive AIX 5L Version 5.1 (5765-E61) at no charge. Eligible customers should add the applicable CD media supply feature number from the table below to their existing 5692-SSO or 5692-ADV record.

                                                            Media
                                               Eligible     Supply
                                   Program     Feature      Feature
Description                        Number      Number(2)    Number
 
Media supply delivered on CD-ROM
 
From 5765-C34 AIX V4               5692-SSO                 0919
  to 5765-E61 AIX V5
 
AIX Base 1-2 User                  5692-ADV    4828
  License (times number            5692-SSO    4829
  of nodes)                                    6328
                                               6329
 
 
                                               Eligible
                                   Program     Feature
Description                        Number      Number(2)
 
AIX Designated                     5692-ADV    4830
  System Users                     5692-SSO    4831
                                               6330
                                               6331
 
AIX Network Users                  5692-ADV    4832
  in units of 1                    5692-SSO    4833
                                               6332
                                               6333
 
AIX Network Users                  5692-ADV    4834
  in units of 250                  5692-SSO    4835
                                               6334
                                               6335
2
Denotes billing features that customer must have previously purchased in order to receive this upgrade at no charge. The billing features must currently be on a customer's record as proof of eligibility.

New Licensees for Future Upgrades of 5692-SSO: To register for future upgrades of products from Software Subscription for AIX for programs described in this announcement, specify 5692-SSO and feature number 9001 for asset registration, and the applicable billing features with quantity equal to the number of licenses in the Software Subscription for AIX contract. Use the table below as reference to select the appropriate billing feature.

                                                       ASC
                                                       Support
                                   Program             Feature
Description                        Number              Number
 
AIX 5L Version 5.1                 5692-SSO            0001
  per processor

Customization Options: Select the appropriate feature numbers to customize your order with delivery options desired. These features can be specified on the initial or MES orders.

Example: If publications are not desired for the initial order, specify feature # 3470 to ship media only. For publications only to ship, specify feature number 3430.

                                                    Feature
Description                                         Number
 
Initial Shipments
 
Serial number only (suppresses shipment             3444
 of media and documentation)
 
Ship media only (suppresses initial                 3470
 shipment of documentation)
 
Ship documentation only (suppresses                 3430
 initial shipment of media)
 
Update Shipments
 
Ship Media updates only (suppresses                 3470
 update shipment of documentation)
 
Ship documentation only (suppresses                 3430
 update shipment of media)
 
Expedite Shipments
 
Local IBM office expedite                           3445
 (for IBM use only)

Expedite shipments will be processed to receive 72-hour delivery from the time IBM Software Delivery and Fulfillment (SDF) receives the order. SDF will then ship the order via overnight air transportation.

System Program Order (SPO) (5692-A5L): A 5692-A5L SPO is mandatory for shipments of program distribution and publications. The individual licensed program orders (for example, 5765-E61) are for registration and billing purposes only. No shipment occurs under these orders.

To receive shipment of machine-readable materials on a CD-ROM requires an SPO (5692-A5L). Billing for the media type selected is generated under the SPO. To prevent additional billing expenses, place only one SPO order per machine.

Select one of the following (5692-A5L) feature numbers for the licensed program hardcopy entitled publications, along with feature number 9001 for asset registration to be shipped on a given date

                                        Program             Feature
Program Name                            Number              Number
 
AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1            5765-E61            0919

The following list of licensed program products are supported under AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.1. The supply feature numbers that ship under 5692-A5L SPO are:

                                        Program             Feature
Program Name                            Number              Number
 
Distributed SMIT 2.2 for AIX            5696-902            0514
MQSeries(R) for AIX, V5.2               5765-B73            0719
Performance Toolbox V3.0                5765-E74            0922
Performance AIDE V3.0                   5765-E68            0917
Fast Connect V3.1 for Windows(TM)       5765-E72            0923
AIXLink/X.25 V1.1.5                     5696-926            0517
AIXLink/X.25 Light Capacity             5696-926            0521
DCE V3.1 for AIX                        5639-I35            0895
DCE V3.1 for AIX Base Services          5639-I37            0896

These programs can also be ordered on AIX Version 4 SPO (5692-AIX).

Basic Machine-Readable Material: Select one of the following priced feature numbers for media type under 5692-A5L. The media process charge is a one-time, non-discountable charge per SPO order when media is selected.

                                                  Media
                                                  Process
                              Media               Charges
 
                              Feature             Feature
Media Type                    Number              Number
 
CD-ROM                        3410                1004

Documentation: The amount of translation varies by language. Translated softcopy documentation planned availability varies by language and manufacturing geography. Translations will become available, over time, as translations released by language-specific country translation centers. Check with your IBM representative to determine availability of a specific translation in your area. The following features are only available under 5692-A5L.

                                             Translated
Language                                   Documentation
 
Brazilian Portuguese                            2980
Catalan                                         2997
Czech                                           2975
English                                         2924
French (Universal)                              2928
German (Universal)                              2929
Hungarian                                       2976
Italian                                         2932
Japanese-Kanji                                  2962
Korean                                          2986
Polish                                          2978
Russian                                         2979
Slovakian                                       2994
Spanish (Universal)                             2931
Traditional Chinese                             2987

Preinstall Cultural Convention Section: A matrix of logic is used at time of manufacture to select preinstall cultural convention (locale). System keyboard is used as primary selection criteria. In situations where a single keyboard is used across multiple locales, selection is refined by the country of origin for the hardware order. The following do not have unique pSeries keyboards and therefore must be explicitly ordered via software feature number:

                                              Feature
Cultural Convention                            Number
 
Albanian                                        6995
Byelorussian                                    6916
Estonian                                        6902
Hindi                                           6907
Latvian                                         6900
Lithuanian                                      6901
Macedonian                                      6913
Simplified Chinese                              6989
Ukrainian.6917
Vietnamese                                      6905

Preinstall PII Language Section (Language Dependent Screens, Panels, and Messages):

                                              Feature
Language                                       Number
 
Brazilian Portuguese                            5980
Czech                                           5975
French (Universal)                              5928
German (Universal)                              5929
Hungarian                                       5976
Italian (Universal)                             5932
Japanese-Kanji (Shift JIS)                      5962
Korean                                          5986
Polish                                          5978
Russian                                         5979
Spanish (Universal)                             5931
English                                         5924
Catalan                                         5997
Simplified Chinese                              5989
Traditional Chinese                             5987
Slovakian                                       5994
Install C-locale                                5999

Preinstall: The preinstall option is only valid if accompanied by a hardware system order for the preinstalled AIX 5L Version 5.1 operating system specifying the preinstall option.

It is recommended that backup media be chosen with preinstalled orders. Not all of the software offered under the licensed program will be preinstalled on the system disk. To take delivery of backup media, media feature 3410 must be specified. Software preinstalled on the hard disk does not include all of the function included on the media.

The 5765-E61 order and SPO 5692-A5L must be for the same system type/system number and must have the same scheduled shipment date.

Feature number 5005 must be specified under the individual licensed program 5765-E61 and the 5692-A5L SPO to facilitate preinstall of the licensed program on the system disk.

In addition to feature numbers 5005 and 0919 for preinstall of AIX under SPO (5692-A5L), you must select the appropriate "preinstall designation feature" from the table below.

For Authorized Assemblers, feature number 7305 must be specified under the individual licensed program 5765-E61 and the 5692-A5L SPO to facilitate preinstall of the licensed program on the system disk. In addition to feature number 7305 for preinstall of AIX under SPO (5692-A5L), you must select the appropriate "preinstall designation feature" from the table below.

                                                       Feature
Description                                            Number
 
Optional TCB for 5.1                                   0925
Optional Preinstall OpenGL for AIX 5.1                 0926
Optional Preinstall PHIGS for AIX 5.1                  0927
Optional Preinstall 64-Bit Kernel                      0932

The preinstall option is available at no additional charge.

Single Pallet Delivery: Single Pallet Delivery consolidates pSeries or RS/6000 hardware, AIX Version 5 or Version 4 and selected AIX licensed program orders into a single delivery. Effective with this announcement, LPPs that ship on AIX 5L Version 5.1 SPO will have their entitled publications and media consolidated with the pSeries or RS/6000 system unit into a single delivery. The software orders affected are those LPPs ordered with the AIX 5L Version 5.1 SPO "Built-to-Order" structure, designated as single pallet delivery, and tied to the same preinstalled pSeries or RS/6000 system order. To order "single pallet delivery," select feature number 3483 under 5692-A5L.

Under SPO 5692-A5L, feature number 3470 can be used to suppress hardcopy documentation. To order entitled hardcopy documentation only, order feature number 3430.

Terms and Conditions

Licensing: IPLA. PoE are required for all authorized use.

Limited Warranty Applies: Yes

Program Services: Available until April 30, 2004

Money-Back Guarantee: Two-month, money-back guarantee

Copy and Use on Home/Portable Computer: No

Volume Orders (IVO): Yes, contact your IBM representative.

Passport Advantage Applies: No

Passport Advantage Subscription Applies: No

Support Line: Yes

AIX/UNIX Upgrade Protection Applies: Yes

Entitled Upgrade for Current AIX/UNIX Upgrade Protection Licensees: Yes

AS/400® Software Subscription Applies: No

Variable Charges Apply: No

Educational Allowance Available: Yes, 15% education allowance applies to qualified education institution customers.

Prices

The prices provided in this announcement are suggested retail prices for the U.S. only and are provided for your information only. Dealer prices may vary, and prices may also vary by country. Prices are subject to change without notice. For additional information and current prices, contact your local IBM representative.

                                        OTC
                         Program        Feature
Description              Number         Number         OTC
 
AIX 5L Version 5.1       5765-E61       0001           $ 0
 
Media Process            5692-A5L       1004            50
  Charge CD-ROM
                                        OTC
                         Program        Feature        Upgrade
Description              Number         Number         OTC
 
Upgrade Features         5765-E61       0002          $325
  AIX V3/4 to V 5.1

New Licensees for Future Upgrades of 5692-SSO

 
                                        ASC
                         Program        Feature
Description              Number         Number         ASC
 
AIX 5L Version 5.1       5692-SSO       0001           $175
  per processor
 

Customer Financing: IBM Global Financing offers attractive financing to credit-qualified commercial and government customers and Business Partners in more than 40 countries. IBM Global Financing is provided by the IBM Credit Corporation in the United States. Offerings, rates, terms, and availability may vary by country. Contact your local IBM Global Financing organization. Country organizations are listed on the Web at:

Order Now

 Use Priority/Reference Code: RE001
 
 Phone:     800-IBM-CALL
 Fax:       800-2IBM-FAX
 Internet:  ibm_direct@us.ibm.com
 Mail:      IBM Atlanta Sales Center
            Dept. RE001
            P.O. Box 2690
            Atlanta, GA  30301-2690

You can also contact your local IBM Business Partner or IBM representative. To identify them, call 800-IBM-4YOU.

Note: Shipments will begin after the planned availability date.

Trademarks

 
AlphaWorks and SP are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
AIX, SecureWay, DB2, PowerPC, VisualAge, AT, TURBOWAYS, Power Series, POWERserver, RS/6000, MQSeries, and AS/400 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States or other countries or both.
 
Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
 
Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 
UNIX is a registered trademark is a registered trademark of the Open Company in the United States and other countries.
 
Domino is a trademark of Lotus Development Corporation.
 
Lotus is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation.
 
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.